Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 841

Search results for: manipulation of sports competitions

841 Legal Study on the Construction of Olympic and Paralympic Soft Law about Manipulation of Sports Competition

Authors: Clemence Collon, Didier Poracchia

Abstract:

The manipulation of sports competitions is a new type of sports integrity problem. While doping has become an organized, institutionalized struggle, the manipulation of sports competitions is gradually building up. This study aims to describe and understand how the soft Olympic and Paralympic law was gradually built. It also summarizes the legal tools for prevention, detection, and sanction developed by the international Olympic movement. Then, it analyzes the impact of this soft law on the law of the States, in particular in French law. This study is mainly based on an analysis of existing legal literature and non-binding law in the International Olympic and Paralympic movement and on the French National Olympic Committee. Interviews were carried out with experts from the Olympic movement or experts working on combating the manipulation of sports competitions; the answers are also used in this article. The International Olympic Committee has created a supranational legal base to fight against the manipulation of sports competitions. This legal basis must be respected by sports organizations. The Olympic Charter, the Olympic Code of Ethics, the Olympic Movement Code on the prevention of the manipulation of sports competitions, the rules of standards, the basic universal principles, the manuals, the declarations have been published in this perspective. This sports soft law has influences or repercussions in each state. Many states take this new form of integrity problem into account by creating state laws or measures in favor of the fight against sports manipulations. France has so far only a legal basis for manipulation related to betting on sports competitions through the infraction of sports corruption included in the penal code and also created a national platform with various actors to combat this cheating. This legal study highlights the progressive construction of the sports law rules of the Olympic movement in the fight against the manipulation of sports competitions linked to sports betting and their impact on the law of the states.

Keywords: integrity, law and ethics, manipulation of sports competitions, olympic, sports law

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840 Influence of Facilities, Equipment and Nutrition on Athletes Performance at the West African Universities Games Competitions

Authors: Abdulai Afolabi Ahmed

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The research was undertaken to examine the influence of sports facilities, equipment, and nutrition on athletes' performance in West-Africa Universities Games (WAUG) with the objectives of finding the areas of success and failure. Relevant literatures were reviewed. The survey research design was adopted for the study. Availability of facilities, equipment and nutrition questionnaire (AFENQ) was administered on hundred (n-100) participants - athletes from five Nigerian Universities from South-West, Nigeria which included Federal University of Technology, Akure, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Lagos State University, Oyo, Olabisi Onabanjo University Ago-Awoye and Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti. Nigeria. The tests re-test reliability value obtained from the instrument using Pearson Product Moment Correlation co-efficient of 0.86 was used to analyze the result. While the questionnaire collected was subjected to influential descriptive statistics of multiple regression to analyse the data. The results of the data showed that facilities, equipment, and nutrition variables when taken together effectively predict the performance of the athletes during WAUG competitions. The implication is that sports organizers should provide sports resources for the improved performance of the athletes, and that, university managers should employ nutritionist to plan and prepare food for the university athletes before and after major competitions.

Keywords: athletes, equipment, extramural, influence, nutrition, performance

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839 Factors Contributing to Sports Injuries among Senior High Schools in Ghana

Authors: Mawuli M. Sedegah, Emmanuel O. Sarpong, Ernest Y. Acheampong

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Sports injuries among student-athletes in high schools have become prevalent in most developing countries. The study explores the risk factors influencing sports injuries and identify those sustained among high schools’ competitions in the Akuapem Municipality. Drawing on literature from sports injuries, 610 student-athletes were used to understand how they sustained various injuries during schools’ sports and games. Using a cross-sectional survey, the study reveals how wounds, knee injury, muscle cramps, and thigh injury are common injuries in the municipality. The physiological factor was rampant, resulting from the number of games played by student-athletes, which significantly influenced sprain, strain, dislocation, and nose bleeding injuries among them. Results recorded a low correlation accounting for 9% occurrence of sports injuries in the Akuapem Municipality. Further study can be done in the other districts to have a general approach to remedy some of these sports injuries.

Keywords: common injuries, physiological factors, sports injuries, student-athletes

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838 Sports Business Services Model: A Research Model Study in Reginal Sport Authority of Thailand

Authors: Siriraks Khawchaimaha, Sangwian Boonto

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Sport Authority of Thailand (SAT) is the state enterprise, promotes and supports all sports kind both professional and athletes for competitions, and administer under government policy and government officers and therefore, all financial supports whether cash inflows and cash outflows are strictly committed to government budget and limited to the planned projects at least 12 to 16 months ahead of reality, as results of ineffective in sport events, administration and competitions. In order to retain in the sports challenges around the world, SAT need to has its own sports business services model by each stadium, region and athletes’ competencies. Based on the HMK model of Khawchaimaha, S. (2007), this research study is formalized into each 10 regional stadiums to details into the characteristics root of fans, athletes, coaches, equipments and facilities, and stadiums. The research designed is firstly the evaluation of external factors: hardware whereby competition or practice of stadiums, playground, facilities, and equipments. Secondly, to understand the software of the organization structure, staffs and management, administrative model, rules and practices. In addition, budget allocation and budget administration with operating plan and expenditure plan. As results for the third step, issues and limitations which require action plan for further development and support, or to cease that unskilled sports kind. The final step, based on the HMK model and modeling canvas by Alexander O and Yves P (2010) are those of template generating Sports Business Services Model for each 10 SAT’s regional stadiums.

Keywords: HMK model, not for profit organization, sport business model, sport services model

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837 Passive Non-Prehensile Manipulation on Helix Path Based on Mechanical Intelligence

Authors: Abdullah Bajelan, Adel Akbarimajd

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Object manipulation techniques in robotics can be categorized in two major groups including manipulation with grasp and manipulation without grasp. The original aim of this paper is to develop an object manipulation method where in addition to being grasp-less, the manipulation task is done in a passive approach. In this method, linear and angular positions of the object are changed and its manipulation path is controlled. The manipulation path is a helix track with constant radius and incline. The method presented in this paper proposes a system which has not the actuator and the active controller. So this system requires a passive mechanical intelligence to convey the object from the status of the source along the specified path to the goal state. This intelligent is created based on utilizing the geometry of the system components. A general set up for the components of the system is considered to satisfy the required conditions. Then after kinematical analysis, detailed dimensions and geometry of the mechanism is obtained. The kinematical results are verified by simulation in ADAMS.

Keywords: mechanical intelligence, object manipulation, passive mechanism, passive non-prehensile manipulation

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836 Assessment on the Conduct of Arnis Competition in Pasuc National Olympics 2015: Basis for Improvement of Rules in Competition

Authors: Paulo O. Motita

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The Philippine Association of State Colleges and University (PASUC) is an association of State owned and operated higher learning institutions in the Philippines, it is the association that spearhead the conduct of the Annual National Athletic competitions for State Colleges and Universities and Arnis is one of the regular sports. In 2009, Republic Act 9850 also known as declared Arnis as the National Sports and Martial arts of the Philippines. Arnis an ancient Filipino Martial Arts is the major sports in the Annual Palarong Pambansa and other school based sports events. The researcher as a Filipino Martial Arts master and a former athlete desired to determine the extent of acceptability of the arnis rules in competition which serves as the basis for the development of arnis rules. The study aimed to assess the conduct of Arnis competition in PASUC Olympics 2015 in Tugegarao City, Cagayan, Philippines.the rules and conduct itself as perceived by Officiating officials, Coaches and Athletes during the competition last February 7-15, 2015. The descriptive method of research was used, the survey questionnaire as the data gathering instrument was validated. The respondents were composed of 12 Officiating officials, 19 coaches and 138 athletes representing the different regions. Their responses were treated using the Mean, Percentage and One-way Analysis of Variance. The study revealed that the conduct of Arnis competition in PASUC Olympics 2015 was at the low extent to moderate extent as perceived by the three groups of respondents in terms of officiating, scoring and giving violations. Furthermore there is no significant difference in the assessment of the three groups of respondents in the assessment of Anyo and Labanan. Considering the findings of the study, the following conclusions were drawn: 1). There is a need to identify the criteria for judging in Anyo and a tedious scrutiny on the rules of the game for labanan. 2) The three groups of respondents have similar views towards the assessment on the overall competitions for anyo that there were no clear technical guidelines for judging the performance of anyo event. 3). The three groups of respondents have similar views towards the assessment on the overall competitions for labanan that there were no clear technical guidelines for majority rule of giving scores in labanan. 4) The Anyo performance should be rated according to effectiveness of techniques and performance of weapon/s that are being used. 5) On other issues and concern towards the rules of competitions, labanan should be addressed in improving rules of competitions, focus on the applications of majority rules for scoring, players shall be given rest interval, a clear guidelines and set a standard qualifications for officiating officials.

Keywords: PASUC Olympics 2015, Arnis rules of competition, Anyo, Labanan, officiating

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835 Sports Development in Nigeria

Authors: Bakari Mohammed

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Sports performance and achievements have been the avenue through which great nations of the world exhibit their supremacy over others through sports development strategy. Effective sports development, therefore, requires variables like sports policy, sports funding, sports programme, sports facilities and sponsorship. The extent to what these variables are met shall no doubt affects the effectiveness of any sports development. Two distinguishing features of the Nigerian sports system are its central organization and its employment for specific socio-political objectives, it is against this backdrop that this paper will x-ray the politicization of sports which parallels sports development in the enhanced role of sports and in contrast with developed nations system and management.

Keywords: sport development, sport policy, personnel, program, facilities, funding, sponsorship

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834 A Player's Perspective of University Elite Netball Programmes in South Africa

Authors: Wim Hollander, Petrus Louis Nolte

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University sport in South Africa is not isolated from the complexity of globalization and professionalization of sport, as it forms an integral part of the sports development environment in South Africa. In order to align their sports programs with global and professional requirements, several universities opted to develop elite sports programs; recruit specialized personnel such as coaches, administrators, and athletes; provide expert coaching; scientific and medical services; sports testing; fitness, technical and tactical expertise; sport psychological and rehabilitation support; academic guidance and career assistance; and student-athlete accommodation. In addition, universities provide administrative support and high-quality physical resources (training facilities) for the benefit of the overall South African sport system. Although it is not compulsory for universities to develop elite sports programs to prepare their teams for competitions, elite competitions such as the annual Varsity Sport, University Sport South Africa (USSA) and local club competitions and leagues within international university competitions where universities not only compete but also deliver players for representative national netball teams. The aim of this study is, therefore, to describe the perceptions of players of the university elite netball programs they were participating in. This study adopted a descriptive design with a quantitative approach, utilizing a self-structured questionnaire as a research technique. As this research formed part of a national research project for NSA with a population of 172 national and provincial netball players, a sample of 92 university netball players from the population was selected. Content validity of the self-structured questionnaire was secured through a test-retest process, with construct validity through a member of the Statistical Consultation Services (STATCON) of the University of Johannesburg that provided feedback on the structural format of the questionnaire. Reliability was measured utilizing Cronbach Alpha on p < 0.005 level of significance. A reliability score of 0.87 was measured. The research was approved by the Board of Netball South Africa and ethical conduct implemented according to the processes and procedures approved by the Ethics Committees of the Faculty of Health Sciences, the University of Johannesburg with clearance number REC-01-30-2019. From the results, it is evident that university elite netball programs are professional, especially with regards to the employment of knowledgeable and competent coaches and technical officials such as team managers and sport sciences staff. These professionals have access to elite training facilities, support staff, and relatively large groups of elite players, all elements of an elite program that could enhance the national federation’s (Netball South Africa) system. Universities could serve the dual purpose of serving as university netball clubs, as well as providing elite training services and facilities as performance hubs for national players.

Keywords: elite sport programmes, university netball, player experiences, varsity sport netball

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833 A Design Research Methodology for Light and Stretchable Electrical Thermal Warm-Up Sportswear to Enhance the Performance of Athletes against Harsh Environment

Authors: Chenxiao Yang, Li Li

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In this decade, the sportswear market rapidly expanded while numerous sports brands are conducting fierce competitions to hold their market shares and trying to act as a leader in professional competition sports areas to set the trends. Thus, various advancing sports equipment is being deeply explored to improving athletes’ performance in fierce competitions. Although there is plenty protective equipment such as cuff, running legging, etc., on the market, there is still blank in the field of sportswear during prerace warm-up this important time gap, especially for those competitions host in cold environment. Because there is always time gaps between warm-up and race due to event logistics or unexpected weather factors. Athletes will be exposed to chilly condition for an unpredictable long period of time. As a consequence, the effects of warm-up will be negated, and the competition performance will be degraded. However, reviewing the current market, there is none effective sports equipment provided to help athletes against this harsh environment or the rare existing products are so blocky or heavy to restrict the actions. An ideal thermal-protective sportswear should be light, flexible, comfort and aesthetic at the same time. Therefore, this design research adopted the textile circular knitting methodology to integrate soft silver-coated conductive yarns (ab. SCCYs), elastic nylon yarn and polyester yarn to develop the proposed electrical, thermal sportswear, with the strengths aforementioned. Meanwhile, the relationship between heating performance, stretch load, and energy consumption were investigated. Further, a simulation model was established to ensure providing sufficient warm and flexibility at lower energy cost and with an optimized production, parameter determined. The proposed circular knitting technology and simulation model can be directly applied to instruct prototype developments to cater different target consumers’ needs and ensure prototypes’’ safety. On the other hand, high R&D investment and time consumption can be saved. Further, two prototypes: a kneecap and an elbow guard, were developed to facilitate the transformation of research technology into an industrial application and to give a hint on the blur future blueprint.

Keywords: cold environment, silver-coated conductive yarn, electrical thermal textile, stretchable

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832 Cybersecurity Awareness through Laboratories and Cyber Competitions in the Education System: Practices to Promote Student Success

Authors: Haydar Teymourlouei

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Cybersecurity is one of the greatest challenges society faces in an age revolving around technological development. With cyber-attacks on the continuous rise, the nation needs to understand and learn ways that can prevent such attacks. A major contribution that can change the education system is to implement laboratories and competitions into academia. This method can improve and educate students with more hands-on exercises in a highly motivating setting. Considering the fact that students are the next generation of the nation’s workforce, it is important for students to understand concepts not only through books, but also through actual hands-on experiences in order for them to be prepared for the workforce. An effective cybersecurity education system is critical for creating a strong cyber secure workforce today and for the future. This paper emphasizes the need for awareness and the need for competitions and cybersecurity laboratories to be implemented into the education system.

Keywords: awareness, competition, cybersecurity, laboratories, workforce

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831 The Knowledge and Attitude of Doping among Junior Athletes and Coaches in Sri Lanka

Authors: Mahadula I. P. Kumari, Kasturiratne A., De Silva AP

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Doping refers to an athlete's use of banned substances as a method to improve training and performance in sports. It is known that some young athletes use banned substances in Sri Lanka without knowing their side effects and associated health risks. The main objective of this study was to describe the level of knowledge and attitude among junior athletes and coaches on doping in sports. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Four individual sports and six team sports were taken into the study. Schools were selected considering the results of the all-island school sports competitions 2017. Two hundred sixty-two female athletes, 290 male athletes and 30 coaches representing all sports counted into this study. The data collection method was a self-administered questionnaire and SPSS Version 21 was used for the data analysis. According to the result, 79% of athletes have heard of the term "doping," and 21% have never heard of it. This means these children have not been educated on doping. A number of questions were asked to study the level of knowledge of the coaches and players. Those who answered the questions correctly were given a mark. According to the marks, it is evident that the level of knowledge of the players and coaches is very low. All athletes and coaches do not accept the use of banned substances. This shows that athletes and coaches have a good attitude about winning without cheating. It was evident that athletes in athletics, weightlifting, rugby, and badminton had some level of knowledge about banned substances. All coaches stated that school athletes and coaches do not have sufficient knowledge of banned substances. And they should be made aware of it. This study has revealed that school/Junior athletes and coaches have limited knowledge of banned substances. School children and coaches need to be educated about banned substances and their harmful effects.

Keywords: attitude, doping, knowledge, Sri Lanka

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830 Safety-Oriented Teleoperation of a Dual-Arm Mobile Manipulation Robot

Authors: Jiatai Guo, Linqi Ye, Houde Liu, Bin Liang

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Mobile manipulation robots can be deployed to handle various hazardous tasks such as fire fighting, disaster relief, and bomb disposal. Currently, the high-level control of mobile manipulation systems mostly relies on human teleoperation. This paper designs a novel dual-arm mobile manipulation robot and propose a safety-oriented teleoperation strategy for it. The system has two arms with 6 degrees of freedom. Unlike traditional dual-arm setup which mimics humans, a functional complementary design is adopted by using a longer arm and a shorter arm. The longer arm can achieve a 360° wide-range manipulation around the base, while the shorter arm is aimed at more dexterous manipulation in the front of the base. Then a teleoperation system is designed based on V-REP. Three aspects are taken into account to guarantee safety during operation, including the workspace protection based on virtual walls, the self-collision protection based on minimal distance calculation, and the configuration-switch protection based on open motion planning library (OMPL). The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified through V-REP simulations.

Keywords: mobile robot, dual-arm, teleoperation, safety-oriented

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829 A Study on Eliteathletes and Coaches' Attitude towards Sport Psychologyi the Areas of Sports

Authors: Mahdi PourAsghar, Abbas Mas'udzadeh, Abdulhakim Tirgari, Saeed Dabiri Roushan, Hooman Rashidi, Fariba Salehi

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Objective: One of the major objectives in sports areas is to achieve maximum athletic performance. Physical and psychological preparations are the basic factors for achieving maximum performance in athletes. Unfortunately, in the field of physical preparation, we can see maximum attention and planning of trainers and sports officials. But despite the importance of psychological preparation of athletes and its serious and profound effect on athletic performance, the results of sports competitions show that less attention is paid to this topic, and it is less under the control of counselors and psychologists in different areas of our sport. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the attitude of athletes and coaches to sport psychology. Materials and methods: A descriptive study with a sample size of 234 elite athletes and 216 skilled coaches was conducted in different areas of sports, in Sari, Mazandaran in 2015.The instrument was a questionnaire consisting of two parts of demographic data and Martin questionnaire, assessing the attitude to sport psychology. The data from this study were analyzed using Spss version 18, descriptive statistics tests, and Chi-square test. Results: In this study, positive attitudes of participants in need and confidence towards sport psychology consultation in athletes and coaches group were 55/1 and 56/5 percent, respectively. The positive attitude of female athletes in belief to psychology consultation was more than male athletes. Athletes with higher education had more positive attitude towards the presence of psychologists and psychiatrists in fields of sports. Conclusion: According to the findings based on the need to the psychology consultation in different areas of sports, it is recommended that through training of specialists in the field of sport psychology and review of sports programs in different fields of sports, the presence of these counselors to maintain the psychological preparation of athletes to achieve maximum athletic performance and reduce anxiety and stress be used.

Keywords: Keywords: Athletes, Eliteathletes, Coaches, Attitude, Sport psychology.

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828 New Approach in Sports Management of Great Sports Events

Authors: Taieb Kherafa Noureddine

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The paper presents a new approach regarding the management in sports that is based on the principles of reengineering. Applying that modern and pure management system, called reengineering, in sports activity, we hope to get better and better results, in order to increase both the health state and the performances of trained athletes. The paper also presents the similarities between BPR (Business Process Reengineering) and sports managements, as well as the proposed solution for a proper implementation of such model of management. The five components of the basic BPR model are presented, together with their features for sports management.

Keywords: business process reengineering, great sports events, sports management, training activities

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827 The Immediate Effects of Thrust Manipulation for Thoracic Hyperkyphosis

Authors: Betul Taspinar, Eda O. Okur, Ismail Saracoglu, Ismail Okur, Ferruh Taspinar

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Thoracic hyperkyphosis, is a well-known spinal phenomenon, refers to an excessive curvature (> 40 degrees) of the thoracic spine. The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of thrust manipulation on thoracic spine alignment. 31 young adults with hyperkyphosis diagnosed with Spinal Mouse® device were randomly assigned either thrust manipulation group (n=16, 11 female, 5 male) or sham manipulation group (n=15, 8 female, 7 male). Thrust and sham manipulations were performed by a blinded physiotherapist who is a certificated expert in musculoskeletal physiotherapy. Thoracic kyphosis degree was measured after the interventions via Spinal Mouse®. Wilcoxon test was used to analyse the data obtained before and after the manipulation for each group, whereas Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the groups. The mean of baseline thoracic kyphosis degrees in thrust and sham groups were 50.69 o ± 7.73 and 48.27o ± 6.43, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in terms of initial thoracic kyphosis degrees (p=0.51). After the interventions, the mean of thoracic kyphosis degree in thrust and sham groups were measured as 44.06o ± 6.99 and 48.93o ± 6.57 respectively (p=0.03). There was no statistically significant difference between before and after interventions in sham group (p=0.33), while the mean of thoracic kyphosis degree in thrust group decreased significantly (p=0.00). Thrust manipulation can attenuate thoracic hyperkyphosis immediately in young adults by not using placebo effect. Manipulation might provide accurate proprioceptive (sensory) input to the spine joints and reduce kyphosis by restoring normal segment mobility. Therefore thoracic manipulation might be included in the physiotherapy programs to treat hyperkyphosis.

Keywords: hyperkyphosis, manual therapy, spinal mouse, physiotherapy

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826 Sports for the Children with Autism

Authors: Mohamed A. Abdelnaby

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Relevance of the research: A few people known about Autism and also about Sports for Autism. Children with Autism have difficult experience with sport that makes many problems during the sports activities. There are several areas of motor skills development essential for participating daily life and several sports activities. The object of the research is describe the program for the sports activities for children with Autism, and the aim is to improving their movement skills, motor skills and social skills. Research methods and organization: Twenty-five children with Autism perceived barriers to sports activities participation, and functioning. All the program inside the Pegasus Dreamland Sports Club and all the facilities available for the research. Results and discussion: Standard, children were reported to meet or exceeded general PA occurrence guidelines, belonged to active participated in a variety of sports activities. We identified several barriers to optimal sports activities for their children. Conclusions: Children with Autism can achieve optimal sports activities. Exposure to a variety of sports activities opportunities and experiences aids in identifying the model activity for each individual child.

Keywords: autism, sports activates, movement skills, motor skills

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825 Manipulation of Ideological Items in the Audiovisual Translation of Voiced-Over Documentaries in the Arab World

Authors: S. Chabbak

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In a widely globalized world, the influence of audiovisual translation on the culture and identity of audiences is unmistakable. However, in the Arab World, there is a noticeable disproportion between this growing influence and the research carried out in the field. As a matter of fact, the voiced-over documentary is one of the most abundantly translated genres in the Arab World that carries lots of ideological elements which are in many cases rendered by manipulation. However, voiced-over documentaries have hardly received any focused attention from researchers in the Arab World. This paper attempts to scrutinize the process of translation of voiced-over documentaries in the Arab World, from French into Arabic in the present case study, by sub-categorizing the ideological items subject to manipulation, identifying the techniques utilized in their translation and exploring the potential extra-linguistic factors that prompt translation agents to opt for manipulative translation. The investigation is based on a corpus of 94 episodes taken from a series entitled 360° GEO Reports, produced by the French German network ARTE in French, and acquired, translated and aired by Al Jazeera Documentary Channel for Arab audiences. The results yielded 124 cases of manipulation in four sub-categories of ideological items, and the use of 10 different oblique procedures in the process of manipulative translation. The study also revealed that manipulation is in most of the instances dictated by the editorial line of the broadcasting channel, in addition to the religious, geopolitical and socio-cultural peculiarities of the target culture.

Keywords: audiovisual translation, ideological items, manipulation, voiced-over documentaries

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824 Creative Accounting as a Financial Numbers Game

Authors: Feddaoui Amina

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Through this study we will try to shed light on the theoretical framework proposed for understanding creative accounting as a financial numbers game and one of the most important techniques of accounts manipulation, its main actors and its practices. We will discover the role of the modified Jones model (1995) in detecting creative accounting practices using discretionary accruals. Finally we will try to confirm the importance and the need to address this type of practices using corporate governance as a main control system and an important defense line to reduce these dangerous accounts manipulation.

Keywords: financial numbers game, creative accounting, modified Jones model, accounts manipulation

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823 Influence of Branding and Consultancy Services on the Performance of Coaches, Athletes and Sports Managers in Nigeria

Authors: Yakubu Nkom Bityong, A. I. Kabido, K. Venkateswarlu

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The influence of branding and consultancy services on sports development and marketing mix has been a matter of interest among coaches athletes and sports managers in Nigeria. Marketers use sports as a promotional vehicle towards attracting customers to their products and services. The use of images, names, and photographs of sports personalities to advertise beverages, cars, and a whole range of other products and services as it is clearly noticed all over the television, radio and print media has generated a lot of argument among consumers who have vested interest and are more drawn to their favorite teams and sports personalities than they are to many company products This paper examines the influence of branding and consultancy services on sports Performance of coaches, athletes and sports managers in Nigeria. From a population of 7,441 made up of coaches, athletes and sports managers, 372 respondents were sampled for the study. A self developed and standardized questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection. One-tailed t-test was used to test the hypothesis. Results revealed that branding and consultancy services influence the performances of coaches, athletes and sports managers in Nigeria. It was concluded that the establishment of the National Institute of Sports (NIS) in Lagos with affiliated sports training programmes in Nigerian Universities is responsible for boosting the performance of sports personalities in Nigeria. It was recommended that National Policy on Sports should be reviewed in order to inculcate new methods and strategies towards enhancing sports development initiatives in the country while stakeholders should intensify regular training and retraining programmes for coaches, athletes and sports managers to update their knowledge and skills.

Keywords: branding, consultancy, sports performance, sports development

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822 Political Discourse and Linguistic Manipulation in Nigerian Politics

Authors: Kunle Oparinde, Ernestina Maleshoane Rapeane-Mathonsi, Gift Mheta

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Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) and Multimodal Discourse Analysis (MDA), the research seeks to deconstruct politically-motivated discourse as observed from Nigerian politics. This is intended to be achieved by analysing linguistic (mis)representation and manipulation in Nigerian political settings, drawing from instances of language use as observed from different political campaigns. Since language in itself is generally meaningless without context, it is therefore paramount to analyse the (mis)representation and manipulation in Nigerian political sceneries within their contextual basis. The study focuses on political language used by Nigerian politicians emanating from printed and social media forms such as posters, pamphlets, speeches, billboards, and internet sources purposely selected across Nigeria. The research further aims at investigating the discursive strategies used by politicians to gain more audience, and, as a result, shape opinions that result in votes. The study employs a qualitative approach. Two parties are intentionally selected because they have been essentially strong at the national level namely: All Progressive Congress (APC) and the People’s Democratic Party (PDP). The study finds out that politicians in Nigeria, as in many parts of the world, use language to manipulate the electorate. Comprehensive discussion of these instances of political manipulation remains the thrust of this paper.

Keywords: communication, discourse, manipulation, misrepresentation

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821 Athlete Burnout and Moral Disengagement in Sports

Authors: Min Pan, An-Hsu Chen

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Burnout has been proved to be one of the factors that hinder the development and sport performances of athletes while moral disengagement is the psychological mechanism used by athletes to elevate the guilt caused by conducting the anti-social behaviors to gain competitive advantages and in sports which have both been discussed extensively. The sports devaluation in burnout may undermine the sportsmanship of athletes therefore may serve as one of factors of moral disengagement in sports. Nonetheless, the connection between athlete burnout and moral disengagement in sports is yet established. Hence, the study aims to investigate whether there is the correlation between athlete burnout and moral disengagement in sports. Participants of this study are 120 collegiate athletes who specialize in seven different sports (e.g., fence, boxing, taekwondo, and etc.) with average training hours of 3.7 per day and 4.5 days per week. Athlete Burnout Questionnaire and Moral Disengagement in Sports – Short were administrated as the research instruments. Data collected were analyzed with descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way ANOVA, and step-wise regression. The results show, participants demonstrate mild to moderate burnout and moral disengagement in their perspective sports disciplines. Moreover, athletes specialize in different sports experience distinct burnout situations while there is no significant variation of moral disengagement in different sports. It is also found, moral disengagement in sports has significant and positive correlations with emotional and physical exhaustion as well as sports devaluation in athlete burnout. Furthermore, athlete burnout can positively predict moral disengagement in sports while sports devaluation plays an important role within. It can be concluded that, athlete burnout may contribute to their tendency of moral disengagement in sport. By relieving the burnout level may help improve their moral disengagement inclination in sports. The finding may contribute to the current literature regarding athlete burnout and moral disengagement in sports.

Keywords: athlete burnout, dehumanization, moral disengagement, reduced sense of accomplishment

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820 Sports Fans and Non-Interested Public Recognition of the Problems of Sports in Egypt through Caricature

Authors: Alaaeldin Hamdy Ahmed Mohammed

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Introduction: This study examines sports’ fans and non-interested public perception and recognition of the problems that have negative impacts upon the Egyptian sports, particularly football, through caricatures. Eight caricature paintings were designed to express eight problems affecting the Egyptian sports and its development. These paintings were distributed on two groups of the fans and the non-interested public. Methods: The study was limited to eight caricatures representing the eight issues which are: the impact of stopping the sports activity on athletes, the effect of clubs’ disagreement, fanaticism between the members of the ultras of different clubs, the negative impact of the mingling of politics into sports, the negative role of the clubs affects the professionalism of the promising players, the conflict between the national organization responsible for sports, the breaking in of the fans to the playgrounds, the impact of the lack of planning on the national team. The Results: The results showed that both sports fans and those who are not interested in sports recognized the problems that the caricatures refer to and criticizes exaggeration although the rate was higher for the fans. These caricatures contributed also in their recognition of the danger of the negative impact of these problems on the Egyptian sports, particularly football which is the most common at the Egyptian sports fans. Discussion: This finding echoes the conclusion that caricatures are distinctive in the adults’ facial stimuli that are either systematically exaggerated recognition of them.

Keywords: caricature, fans, football, sports

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819 Multidimensional Sports Spectators Segmentation and Social Media Marketing

Authors: B. Schmid, C. Kexel, E. Djafarova

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Understanding consumers is elementary for practitioners in marketing. Consumers of sports events, the sports spectators, are a particularly complex consumer crowd. In order to identify and define their profiles different segmentation approaches can be found in literature, one of them being multidimensional segmentation. Multidimensional segmentation models correspond to the broad range of attitudes, behaviours, motivations and beliefs of sports spectators, other than earlier models. Moreover, in sports there are some well-researched disciplines (e.g. football or North American sports) where consumer profiles and marketing strategies are elaborate and others where no research at all can be found. For example, there is almost no research on athletics spectators. This paper explores the current state of research on sports spectators segmentation. An in-depth literature review provides the framework for a spectators segmentation in athletics. On this basis, additional potential consumer groups and implications for social media marketing will be explored. The findings are the basis for further research.

Keywords: multidimensional segmentation, social media, sports marketing, sports spectators segmentation

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818 Language and Political Manipulation: A Critical Analysis of Okediran's Tenants of the House

Authors: Moses Joseph

Abstract:

Language is a veritable tool in the hands of politicians. They use it to shape social realities; create new meanings and ultimately to acquire, exercise and sustain power in the society. Language and politics both share a symbiotic relationship. The former is the medium through which members of the society communicate and cohabitate while the later is used to gain and exercise power in the society. Language therefore is the epicenter of every human activity and politicians explore, deploy and manipulate it to advance their personal interests. This paper examines the ideological use of language in Okediran’s Tenants of the House. The study further shows that language is used as an instrument of political domination and manipulation through the display of emotiveness. The study concludes that politicians do not innocently use language but deliberately employ them to foreground their ideological position.

Keywords: language, ideology, political domination, manipulation

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817 Mediation as an Effective Tool for Resolving Sports Disputes

Authors: Mohd Akram Shair Mohamad

Abstract:

The relation to the infinite variety issues sprouting in sports or lex sportiva, like lex mercatoria in the early centuries, has now come of age and even begun a maturing process in the past thirty-five years or so. Lex sportiva now straddles sports management, sports medicine, tort, criminal law, employment contract, competition law and a host of multifarious activities related to sports. This has catapulted a host of legal issue and problems, demanding urgent legal solutions to actual or potential disputes. This paper discusses the nature and development of lex sportiva, and how it is able to resolve sports disputes. Resolving sports dispute via the tiresome, dilatory and expensive process of litigation is most unsuitable. Arbitration may not be equally a satisfactory solution. The paper strongly advocates the far the most effective and resolution friendly mode of settling sports disputes namely, mediation. In support it highlights numerous advantages mediation has to offer and with reference to many significant sports disputes which had been successfully resolved via mediation.

Keywords: alternative dispute resolution, mediation, arbitration, litigation

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816 Parallels between Training Parameters of High-Performance Athletes Determining the Long-Term Adaptation of the Body in Various Sports: Case Study on Different Types of Training and Their Gender Conditioning

Authors: Gheorghe Braniste

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Gender gap has always been in dispute when comparing records and has been a major factor influencing best performances in various sports. Consequently, our study registers the evolution of the difference between men's and women’s best performances within either cyclic or acyclic sports, considering the fact that the training sessions of high performance athletes prove both similarities and differences in long-term adaptation of their body to stress and effort in breaking limits and records. Firstly, for a correct interpretation of the data and tables included in this paper, we must point out that the intense muscular activity has a considerable impact on the structural organization of the organs and systems of the performer's body through the mechanism of motor-visceral reflexes, forming a high working capacity suitable for intense muscular activity. The opportunity to obtaine high sports results during the official competitions is due, on the one hand, to the genetic characteristics of the athlete's body, and on the other hand, to the fact that playing professional sports leaves its mark on the vital morphological and functional parameters. The aim of our research is to study the landmarking differences between male and female athletes and their physical development, together with their growing capacity to stand up to the functional training during the competitive period of their annual training cycle. In order to evaluate the physical development of the athletes, the data of the anthropometric screenings obtained at the Olympic Training Center of the selected teams of the Republic of Moldova were interpreted and rated. During the study of physical development in terms of body height and weight, vital capacity, thoracic excursion, maximum force (Fmax), dynamometry of the hand and back, a further evaluation of the physical development indices that allow an evaluation of complex physical development were registered. The interdependence of the results obtained in performance sports with the morphological and functional particularities of the athletes' body is firmly determined and cannot be disputed. Nevertheless, registered data proved that with the increase of the training capacity, the morphological and functional abilities of the female body increase and, in some respects, approach and even slightly surpass the men in certain sports.

Keywords: physical development, indices, parameters, active body weight, morphological maturity, physical performance

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815 Study on the Effect of Sports Academic Journals in the Construction of Strong Sporting Nation in China

Authors: Qinghui Li, Lei Zhang

Abstract:

In China, sport will play a more important role in the future development of the national economy, are facing greater challenges. Sports industry development in this background,innovative technology and cultural forces which will play an important role. Therefore, as a guide of sports culture, the development of science and technology, display the sports scientific and technological achievements, culture showed important - Sports Academic Journals sports technology platform of talent, but also innovation and value-added will through its value function,play an important role in the development of China's sports development and sports industry. At the same time, in the Chinese academic journals of social environment has undergone great changes,one aspect is the national news publishing system reform, change, development group of scientific publishing market has become the mainstream trend of development; on the other hand, digitalization, internationalization development speed of academic journal soon, in such a social background, how sports academic journal of development? How to serve for the development of sports? This research will be based on the sports academic journals in the past, the development status and characteristics and now plays in the history and context of modern academic value and social value, to explore the new era background, especially the development of the reform of the cultural system, marketization and the digital innovation situation of sports academic periodical show in sports, sports industry development and play a more important role in study.

Keywords: sports academin journals, strong sporting nation, innovation, China

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814 The Survey of Sports Injuries in Ten Sports

Authors: Najmeh Arabnejad, Mohammad Hossein Yousefi

Abstract:

The risk of injuring is possible in most sports. These injuries are inevitable in contact sports. Since sports injuries result in financial, physical, physiological and social problems for most athletes and endanger their professional future, studying the happening of sports injuries in sports changes to an important issue. This study can be conducted through different aspects including psychological, pathological, social, managerial, etc. Therefore, the present study was designed and conducted with the aim Survey of Sports Injuries In Ten Sports from 2006 to 2011.This descriptive study was carried out in a documentary form. Thus, data related to sports insurance and sport injuries happened in soccer, volleyball, basketball, handball, badminton, karate, track and field, taekwondo, gymnastics and wrestling was collected from Sports Medical Board of Kerman Province, as the largest province in Iran, and then was analyzed. Data collection method was library one. Furthermore, information related to 210406 insured athletes was analyzed using Descriptive Statistical Indexes in the level mean and SPSS20 Software. The research findings showed that the number of male athletes who injured was higher than female athletes in most sports within various years. Soccer, karate, volleyball, wrestling, handball, taekwondo, gymnastics, basketball, track and field, and badminton had the most injuries, respectively. Moreover, the number of injured athletes and their ratio to insured ones during six years were studied; in general, an increase in ratio of sports injuries was observed. Thus, upward movement of sports injuries in different sports, as the results of this study confirm it, is a warning which results in losing young forces and wasting of sports potential in Iran.

Keywords: sports, sports injuries, survey, Kerman

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813 On the Perceived Awareness of Physical Education Teachers on Adoptable ICTs for PE

Authors: Tholokuhle T. Ntshakala, Seraphin D. Eyono Obono

Abstract:

Nations are still finding it quite difficult to win mega sport competitions despite the major contribution of sport to society in terms of social and economic development, personal health, and in education. Even though the world of sports has been transformed into a huge global economy, it is important to note that the first step of sport is usually its introduction to children at school through physical education or PE. In other words, nations who do not win mega sport competitions also suffer from a weak and neglected PE system. This problem of the neglect of PE systems is the main motivation of this research aimed at examining the factors affecting the perceived awareness of physical education teachers on the ICT's that are adoptable for the teaching and learning of physical education. Two types of research objectives will materialize this aim: relevant theories will be identified in relation to the analysis of the perceived ICT awareness of PE teachers and subsequent models will be compiled and designed from existing literature; the empirical testing of such theories and models will also be achieved through the survey of PE teachers from the Camperdown magisterial district of the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The main hypothesis at the heart of this study is the relationship between the demographics of PE teachers, their behavior both as individuals and as social entities, and their perceived awareness of the ICTs that are adoptable for PE, as postulated by existing literature; except that this study categorizes human behavior under performance expectancy, computer attitude, and social influence. This hypothesis was partially confirmed by the survey conducted by this research in the sense that performance expectancy and teachers’ age, gender, computer usage, and class size were found to be the only factors affecting their awareness of ICT's for physical education.

Keywords: human behavior, ICT Awareness, physical education, teachers

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812 Analysis of Selected Hematological Variables during Three Different Menstrual Phases between Sedentary and Sports Women

Authors: G. Vasanthi

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The purpose of the study was to analyse the red blood cells and white blood cells during three different menstrual phases between sedentary and sports women. To achieve this purpose, fifteen female sedentary post graduate students (M.A., M.Sc.) and fifteen students of Master of Physical Education and Sports (M.P.Ed.) women who regularly involved in vigouous sports training and participated in sports competition on different games were selected by adopting random sampling method. All the students were hostelers and their age group was between 20 to 22 years. The blood sample were collected during the mid-period of the three different phases to calculate the red blood cells and white blood cells. The data collected were treated statistically by using analysis of variance. The results reveal that the RBC and WBC is found to be significant between sedentary and sports women during the three different menstrual phases.

Keywords: RBC, WBC, menstrual, proliferative, secretary, sedentary women, sports women

Procedia PDF Downloads 440