Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 49

Search results for: olympic

49 Integration of Ukrainian Refugee Athletes Into the Olympic Channel of Their Neighboring Countries

Authors: Gheorghe Braniste


It is a matter of common knowledge the fact that the International Olympic Movement is characterized by dynamism and adaptability to the challenges of modern society. A significant proof of this is the establishment of the IOC Refugee Olympic Team in 2016, at the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, a practice continued in Tokyo in 2020 and with a great chance to be successfully repeated in subsequent editions: Paris 2024 and Dakar 2026. This phenomenon is all the more welcome as, after the global refugee crisis of 2015, when the whole world has seen millions of people in the world displaced, we are now experiencing the negative effects of the war that started in February 2022 in Ukraine; which caused the exodus of the population to neighboring countries. Therefore, the international Olympic community must decide how to integrate Ukrainian athletes with refugee status into the Olympic system. Until the establishment of an internationally agreed policy, Romania and the Republic of Moldova, as countries directly involved in this process, must find urgent solutions to allow athletes to continue their Olympic careers. This article proposes a description of the strategies adopted both at the national level and at the level of sports clubs and an analysis of their impact on the performance of athletes.

Keywords: olympic movement, olympic games, refugees, performance, integration

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48 The Research of the Relationship between Triathlon Competition Results with Physical Fitness Performance

Authors: Chen Chan Wei


The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of swim 1500m, 10000m run, VO2 max, and body fat on Olympic distance triathlon competition performance. The subjects were thirteen college triathletes with endurance training, with an average age, height and weight of 20.61±1.04 years (mean ± SD), 171.76±8.54 cm and 65.32±8.14 kg respectively. All subjects were required to take the tests of swim 1500m, run 10000m, VO2 max, body fat, and participate in the Olympic distance triathlon competition. First, the swim 1500m test was taken in the standardized 50m pool, with a depth of 2m, and the 10000m run test on the standardized 400m track. After three days, VO2 max was tested with the MetaMax 3B and body fat was measured with the DEXA machine. After two weeks, all 13 subjects joined the Olympic distance triathlon competition at the 2016 New Taipei City Asian Cup. The relationships between swim 1500m, 10000m run, VO2 max, body fat test, and Olympic distance triathlon competition performance were evaluated using Pearson's product-moment correlation. The results show that 10000m run and body fat had a significant positive correlation with Olympic distance triathlon performance (r=.830, .768), but VO2 max has a significant negative correlation with Olympic distance triathlon performance (r=-.735). In conclusion, for improved non-draft Olympic distance triathlon performance, triathletes should focus on running than swimming training and can be measure VO2 max to prediction triathlon performance. Also, managing body fat can improve Olympic distance triathlon performance. In addition, swimming performance was not significantly correlated to Olympic distance triathlon performance, possibly because the 2016 New Taipei City Asian Cup age group was not a drafting competition. The swimming race is the shortest component of Olympic distance triathlons. Therefore, in a non-draft competition, swimming ability is not significantly correlated with overall performance.

Keywords: triathletes, olympic, non-drafting, correlation

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47 Legal Study on the Construction of Olympic and Paralympic Soft Law about Manipulation of Sports Competition

Authors: Clemence Collon, Didier Poracchia


The manipulation of sports competitions is a new type of sports integrity problem. While doping has become an organized, institutionalized struggle, the manipulation of sports competitions is gradually building up. This study aims to describe and understand how the soft Olympic and Paralympic law was gradually built. It also summarizes the legal tools for prevention, detection, and sanction developed by the international Olympic movement. Then, it analyzes the impact of this soft law on the law of the States, in particular in French law. This study is mainly based on an analysis of existing legal literature and non-binding law in the International Olympic and Paralympic movement and on the French National Olympic Committee. Interviews were carried out with experts from the Olympic movement or experts working on combating the manipulation of sports competitions; the answers are also used in this article. The International Olympic Committee has created a supranational legal base to fight against the manipulation of sports competitions. This legal basis must be respected by sports organizations. The Olympic Charter, the Olympic Code of Ethics, the Olympic Movement Code on the prevention of the manipulation of sports competitions, the rules of standards, the basic universal principles, the manuals, the declarations have been published in this perspective. This sports soft law has influences or repercussions in each state. Many states take this new form of integrity problem into account by creating state laws or measures in favor of the fight against sports manipulations. France has so far only a legal basis for manipulation related to betting on sports competitions through the infraction of sports corruption included in the penal code and also created a national platform with various actors to combat this cheating. This legal study highlights the progressive construction of the sports law rules of the Olympic movement in the fight against the manipulation of sports competitions linked to sports betting and their impact on the law of the states.

Keywords: integrity, law and ethics, manipulation of sports competitions, olympic, sports law

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46 A Quantitative and Exploratory Study of the Changing Ideals and Challenges Involving the Modern Olympic Movement

Authors: Ram Dayal


Since inception of the modern Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens, Greece, it has undergone a paradigm shift over a period of more than a century. It originated with the purpose of inculcating physical and moral qualities, sense of aesthetics, ethical and spiritual value and educating young people, through the spread of the philosophy of amateurism, which is free from the vices of racial discrimination, any country’s domination, corruption, doping menace and political interference. Now, it has metamorphosed into the arena where only professionalism matters and has been reduced to the show of strength for countries analogous to the cold war. Rather than spirit of sports, the economics of sports is the more relevant underpinning. Changes in medal tally over a period of time and its correlation with the changing geo-political structure have been evaluated quantitatively using regression analyses, which have yielded statistically significant relationship among variables. The present study also tries to explore this shift in Olympic spirit through historical approach, using books, thesis, dissertations, articles, related documents. The present study will help evaluate the Olympic ideals with modern perspective and the need to replace or reinstall the same in order to nurture and rejuvenate the modern Olympic movement.

Keywords: challenges, games, olympic, sports

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45 Analysis of Career Support Programs for Olympic Athletes in Japan with Fifteen Conceptual Categories

Authors: Miyako Oulevey, Kaori Tsutsui, David Lavallee, Naohiko Kohtake


The Japan Sports Agency has made efforts to unify several career support programs for Olympic athletes prior to the 2020 Tokyo Olympics. One of the programs, the Japan Olympic Committee Career Academy (JCA) was established in 2008 for Olympic athletes at their retirement. Research focusing on the service content of sport career support programs can help athletes experience a more positive transition. This study was designed to investigate the service content of the JCA program in relation to athletes’ career transition needs, including any differences of the reasons for retirement between Summer/Winter and Male/Female Olympic athletes, and to suggest the directions of how to unify the career support programs in Japan after hosting the Olympic Games using sport career transition models. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and analyzed the JCA director who started and managed the program since its inception, and a total of 15 conceptual categories were generated by the analysis. Four conceptual categories were in the result of “JCA situation”, 4 conceptual categories were in the result of “Athletes using JCA”, and 7 conceptual categories were in the result of “JCA current difficulties”. Through the analysis it was revealed that: the JCA had occupational supports for both current and retired Olympic athletes; other supports such as psychological support were unclear due to the lack of psychological professionals in JCA and the difficulties collaborating with other sports organizations; and there are differences in tendencies of visiting JCA, financial situations, and career choices depending on Summer/Winter and Male/Female athletes.

Keywords: career support programs, causes of career termination, Olympic athlete, Olympic committee

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44 The Olympic Games’ Effect on National Company Growth

Authors: Simon Strande Henriksen


When a city and country decide to undertake an Olympic Games, they do so with the notion that hosting the Olympics will provide direct financial benefits to the city, country, and national companies. Like many activities, the Olympic Games tend to be more popular when it is warm, and the athletes are known, and therefore this paper will only focus on the two latest Olympic Summer Games. Cities and countries continue to invest billions of dollars in infrastructure to secure the role of being Olympic hosts. The multiple investments expect to provide both economic growth and a lasting legacy for the citizens. This study aims to determine whether host country companies experience superior economic impact from the Olympics. Building on existing work within the Olympic field of research, it asks: Do companies in host countries of the Olympic Summer Games experience a superior increase in operating revenue and return on assets compared to other comparable countries? In this context, comparable countries are the two candidates following the host city in the bidding procedure. Based on methods used by scholars, a panel data regression was conducted on revenue growth rate and return on assets, to determine if host country companies see a positive relation with hosting the Olympic Games. Combined with an analysis of motivation behind hosting the Olympics, the regression showed no significant positive relations across all analyses, besides in one instance. Indications of a relationship between company performance and economic motivation were found to be present. With the results indicating a limited effect on company growth, it is recommended that prospective host cities and countries carefully consider possible implications the role of being an Olympic host might have on national companies.

Keywords: cross-country analysis, mega-event, multiple regression, quantitative analysis

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43 Sportomics Analysis of Metabolic Responses in Olympic Sprint Canoeists

Authors: A. Magno-França, A. M. Magalhães-Neto, F. Bachini, E. Cataldi, A. Bassini, L. C. Cameron


Sprint canoeing (SC) is part of the Olympic Games since 1936. Athletes compete in solo or double races of 200m and 1000m (40 sec and 240 sec, respectively). Due to its high intensity and duration, SC is extremely useful to study the blood kinetics of some metabolites in high energetic demand. Sportomics is a field of study combining “-omics” sciences with classical biochemical analyses in order to understand sports induced systemic changes. Here, we compare Sportomics findings during SC training sessions to describe metabolic responses of five top-level canoeists. Five Olympic world-class male athletes were evaluated during two days of training.

Keywords: biochemistry of exercise, metabolomics, injury markers, sportomics

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42 Striving towards an Ambush Free Olympics: Effective Strategies and Intellectual Property Legislations

Authors: Mahit T. Anand


The modern Olympic Games present an unparalleled platform for companies to gain worldwide visibility. The increasing popularity of such an event supplemented by large sums of money paid by sponsors for the privilege of being associated with the Olympic Games has spawned its own particular brand of unfair competition, called ‘ambush marketing’. This research examines the practice of ambush marketing which has long been troubling the International Olympic Committee (I.O.C.) and its corporate sponsors. It emphasizes on implementing stringent legislative reforms by the host nations and to carry out effective ‘Brand Protection Programs’ for the upcoming Winter Olympics due to begin in February 2014 at Sochi, Russia and the Summer Olympics at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 2016. The research is carried out in the backdrop of out-standing legislative enactments made by the previous host nations and effective ‘Brand Protection Program’ formulated by their respective organizing committees.

Keywords: ambush marketing, international olympic committee (IOC), official sponsors, trademark

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41 Sponsorship Strategy, Its Visibility, and Return: A Case Study on Brazilian Olympic Games

Authors: Elizabeth F. Rodrigues, Julia da R. Mattos, Naira Q. Leitão, Roberta T. da Cunha


The business strategy of many companies has two factors in common: the search for the competitive edge and its long term maintenance. The thing that differentiates the companies’ performance in their abilities to set the right strategy, which depends on their capacity to analyze and apply all sort of management support tools. In this context, the sponsorship of events stands out as an important way to increase brand awareness, especially when it is a worldwide event, such as Rio 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games. This paper will present the case of a car maker company, which chose to invest on sponsorship as a way to reach its goals and grow in the brazilian market.

Keywords: strategy, sponsorship, events, management

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40 Use of a Business Intelligence Software for Interactive Visualization of Data on the Swiss Elite Sports System

Authors: Corinne Zurmuehle, Andreas Christoph Weber


In 2019, the Swiss Federal Institute of Sport Magglingen (SFISM) conducted a mixed-methods study on the Swiss elite sports system, which yielded a large quantity of research data. In a quantitative online survey, 1151 elite sports athletes, 542 coaches, and 102 Performance Directors of national sports federations (NF) have submitted their perceptions of the national support measures of the Swiss elite sports system. These data provide an essential database for the further development of the Swiss elite sports system. The results were published in a report presenting the results divided into 40 Olympic summer and 14 winter sports (Olympic classification). The authors of this paper assume that, in practice, this division is too unspecific to assess where further measures would be needed. The aim of this paper is to find appropriate parameters for data visualization in order to identify disparities in sports promotion that allow an assessment of where further interventions by Swiss Olympic (NF umbrella organization) are required. Method: First, the variable 'salary earned from sport' was defined as a variable to measure the impact of elite sports promotion. This variable was chosen as a measure as it represents an important indicator for the professionalization of elite athletes and therefore reflects national level sports promotion measures applied by Swiss Olympic. Afterwards, the variable salary was tested with regard to the correlation between Olympic classification [a], calculating the Eta coefficient. To estimate the appropriate parameters for data visualization, the correlation between salary and four further parameters was analyzed by calculating the Eta coefficient: [a] sport; [b] prioritization (from 1 to 5) of the sports by Swiss Olympic; [c] gender; [d] employment level in sports. Results & Discussion: The analyses reveal a very small correlation between salary and Olympic classification (ɳ² = .011, p = .005). Gender demonstrates an even small correlation (ɳ² = .006, p = .014). The parameter prioritization was correlating with small effect (ɳ² = .017, p = .001) as did employment level (ɳ² = .028, p < .001). The highest correlation was identified by the parameter sport with a moderate effect (ɳ² = .075, p = .047). The analyses show that the disparities in sports promotion cannot be determined by a particular parameter but presumably explained by a combination of several parameters. We argue that the possibility of combining parameters for data visualization should be enabled when the analysis is provided to Swiss Olympic for further strategic decision-making. However, the inclusion of multiple parameters massively multiplies the number of graphs and is therefore not suitable for practical use. Therefore, we suggest to apply interactive dashboards for data visualization using Business Intelligence Software. Practical & Theoretical Contribution: This contribution provides the first attempt to use Business Intelligence Software for strategic decision-making in national level sports regarding the prioritization of national resources for sports and athletes. This allows to set specific parameters with a significant effect as filters. By using filters, parameters can be combined and compared against each other and set individually for each strategic decision.

Keywords: data visualization, business intelligence, Swiss elite sports system, strategic decision-making

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39 City Image of Rio De Janeiro as the Host City of 2016 Olympic Games

Authors: Luciana Brandao Ferreira, Janaina de Moura Engracia Giraldi, Fabiana Gondim Mariutti, Marina Toledo de Arruda Lourencao


Developing countries, such as BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) are hosting sports mega-events to promote socio-economic development and image enhancement. Thus, this paper aims to verify the image of Rio de Janeiro, in Brazil, as the host city of 2016 Olympic Games, considering the main cognitive and affective image dimensions. The research design uses exploratory factorial analysis to find the most important factors highlighted in the city image dimensions. The data were collected by structured questionnaires with an international respondents sample (n=274) with high international travel experience. The results show that Rio’s image as a sport mega-event host city has two main factors in each dimension: Cognitive ('General Infrastructure'; 'Services and Attractions') and Affective ('Positive Feelings'; 'Negative Feelings'). The most important factor related to cognitive dimension was 'Services and Attractions' which is more related to tourism activities. In the affective dimension 'Positive Feelings' was the most important factor, which means a good result considering that is a city in an emerging country with many unmet social demands.

Keywords: Rio de Janeiro, 2016 olympic games, host city image, cognitive image dimension, affective image dimension

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38 The Bully in the Boat: Discovering Co-Destructive Transformative Value in Olympic and Elite Rowers

Authors: Edwina Luck, Rory Mulcahy


This paper explores a distinctive perspective of resources which are integrated to co-destroy transformative value in sport. Combining previously published transformative service research and sports literature with data from twenty in-depth interviews with elite and Olympic rowers, our study uncovers the co-destructive resources of ‘interpersonal misbehavior’ and ‘sport misbehavior’. We also identified transformative value in sport is multi-dimensional, encompassing important benefits that support well-being. This research has important implications for transformative sport service research, recommending the need to embrace a transformative service lens to value, a more holistic understanding of co-destruction, and the need to utilise multi-dimensional frameworks to ensure greater insights into sport and sports services and their impact on sportsperson’s well-being. Gaining this understanding will encourage sport managers, sporting bodies to justify resources that they integrate based upon their impact on co-destruction of value.

Keywords: elite sports, sport misbehavior, transformative sport service research, value co-destruction

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37 Influence of Non-Formal Physical Education Curriculum, Based on Olympic Pedagogy, for 11-13 Years Old Children Physical Development

Authors: Asta Sarkauskiene


The pedagogy of Olympic education is based upon the main idea of P. de Coubertin, that physical education can and has to support the education of the perfect person, the one who was an aspiration in archaic Greece, when it was looking towards human as a one whole, which is composed of three interconnected functions: physical, psychical and spiritual. The following research question was formulated in the present study: What curriculum of non-formal physical education in school can positively influence physical development of 11-13 years old children? The aim of this study was to formulate and implement curriculum of non-formal physical education, based on Olympic pedagogy, and assess its effectiveness for physical development of 11-13 years old children. The research was conducted in two stages. In the first stage 51 fifth grade children (Mage = 11.3 years) participated in a quasi-experiment for two years. Children were organized into 2 groups: E and C. Both groups shared the duration (1 hour) and frequency (twice a week) but were different in their education curriculum. Experimental group (E) worked under the program developed by us. Priorities of the E group were: training of physical powers in unity with psychical and spiritual powers; integral growth of physical development, physical activity, physical health, and physical fitness; integration of children with lower health and physical fitness level; content that corresponds children needs, abilities, physical and functional powers. Control group (C) worked according to NFPE programs prepared by teachers and approved by school principal and school methodical group. Priorities of the C group were: motion actions teaching and development; physical qualities training; training of the most physically capable children. In the second stage (after four years) 72 sixth graders (Mage = 13.00) attended in the research from the same comprehensive schools. Children were organized into first and second groups. The curriculum of the first group was modified and the second - the same as group C. The focus groups conducted anthropometric (height, weight, BMI) and physiometric (VC, right and left handgrip strength) measurements. Dependent t test indicated that over two years E and C group girls and boys height, weight, right and left handgrip strength indices increased significantly, p < 0.05. E group girls and boys BMI indices did not change significantly, p > 0.05, i.e. height and weight ratio of girls, who participated in NFPE in school, became more proportional. C group girls VC indices did not differ significantly, p > 0.05. Independent t test indicated that in the first and second research stage differences of anthropometric and physiometric measurements of the groups are not significant, p > 0.05. Formulated and implemented curriculum of non-formal education in school, based on olympic pedagogy, had the biggest positive influence on decreasing 11-13 years old children level of BMI and increasing level of VC.

Keywords: non – formal physical education, olympic pedagogy, physical development, health sciences

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36 Brazil's Olympian Tragedy: Searching for Citizenship in Vila Autodromo

Authors: Rachel K. Cremona


Forty years ago, Vila Autodromo was a small fishing settlement in southwest Rio de Janeiro. By 2012, Vila Autodromo had established itself into a working class neighborhood – certainly not a slum, but nonetheless designated as a ‘favela’ as a consequence of its history as an illegal settlement that was thus never provided with public services. Vila Autodromo sits on a large lagoon, adjacent to the Olympic Park being constructed for the 2016 Olympic Games to be held in Rio, and looks out over the expensive high rise condominiums that have sprouted across the water. In 2009, when Rio submitted their bid for the Olympic games, there were approximately 900 families that called Vila Autodromo home, and the original plans for the games clearly show their homes remaining in place. Today, only a handful of these homes remain. This paper will utilize the case study of Vila Autodromo to examine the broader issue of Favelas in 21st century Rio de Janeiro. While race and poverty have become synonymous with Brazil’s inegalitarian social order – and personified by the thousands of favelas scattered in and around large cities like Rio and Sao Paulo – much less attention has been given to the political status of the nation’s invisible majority. In particular, this research will examine the question of citizenship and argue that the most fundamental problem of inequality in Brazil is not simply a product of history, race and social order, but more specifically a problem of ‘personhood’. The political marginalization of Brazil’s poor does not simply reinforce their social marginalization, it institutionalizes it in a way that makes it almost impossible to escape. The story of Vila Autodromo captures this problem in a way that not only illustrates the clear (though ambiguous) role of the state in the perpetuation of Brazil’s underclass, but also the human resilience that it has fostered.

Keywords: citizenship, poverty, displacement, favela

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35 Matching Coping Strategies to Athletic Retirement Stressors among Japanese Female Athletes

Authors: Miyako Oulevey, David Lavallee, Naohiko Kohtake


Retirement from sport can be stressful to athletes for many reasons. Accordingly, it is necessary to match coping strategies depending on the stressors. One of the athlete career assistance programs for Japanese top athletes in Japan, the Japan Olympic Committee Career Academy (JCA), has focused on the service contents regarding occupational supports which can be said to cope with financial and occupational stress; however, other supports such as psychological support were unclear due to the lack of psychological professionals in the JCA. Tailoring the program, it is important to match the needs of the athletes at athletic retirement with the service contents. Japanese Olympic athletes have been found to retire for different reasons. Especially female athletes who competed in the Summer Olympic Games were found to retire with psychological reasons. The purpose of this research was to investigate the types of stressors Japanese female athletes experience as a result of athletic retirement. As part of the study, 44 female retired athletes from 13 competitive sports completed an open-ended questionnaire. The KJ method was used to analyze stress experienced as a result of retirement. As a result, nine conceptualized stressors were aggregated such as “Conflict with athletic identity”, “Desire to live as an athlete”, and “Career plan after retirement”. In order to match the coping strategies according to the stressors, each stressor was classified with the four types of adjustments; psychological, social, financial, and occupational changes. As a result, the stressor relating to psychological adjustment accounted for 69.0% of coping-related needs, the financial and occupational adjustment was 21.8%, and social adjustment was 9.2%. In conclusion, coping strategies according to the stressors are suggested.

Keywords: athletic retirement, coping, female athlete, stress

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34 Longitudinal Assessment on the Economic Impacts of Hosting Major Sports Events

Authors: Huei-Fu Lu


Hosting international major sports events (MSEs) has become a globalized strategy for many countries. Most modern countries believe that MSEs can bring the hosting countries with substantial and considerable economic and non-economic benefits; so many cities also input a huge of resources to bid for hosting MSEs. Despite the growing importance of MSEs, limited longitudinal analysis has been carried out to understand and explain the long term economic effects of such events. This paper is to continue the focus of previous literature on the economic effects of hosting MSEs. The study periods are from 1950 to 2014 and the secondary macro-economic data are selected from the countries that have hosted the Asian Games and the Olympic Games (including summer and winter) to precede a longitudinal analysis. A comparison of the real economic growth rate, investment, employment and international trade of hosting countries and the duration of these economic effects are also explored and discussed. Based on the countries’ attributes and locating area, aiming to ascertain whether hosting MSEs is economically worthwhile and whether the economic effects from MSEs are realized as anticipated. The results indicate that hosting MSEs to create positive economic effects like GDP growth or long-term employment may be a myth even for developing countries. However, the empirical findings can provide the sport management or authority with longitudinal and comprehensive elaboration for biding or hosting MSEs in the future.

Keywords: Asian Games, economic effects, major sports events (MSEs), olympic games

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33 Contrastive Analysis of Parameters Registered in Training Rowers and the Impact on the Olympic Performance

Authors: Gheorghe Braniste


The management of the training process in sports is closely related to the awareness of the close connection between performance and the morphological, functional and psychological characteristics of the athlete's body. Achieving high results in Olympic sports is influenced, on the one hand, by the genetically determined characteristics of the body and, on the other hand, by the morphological, functional and motor abilities of the athlete. Taking into account the importance of properly understanding the evolutionary specificity of athletes to assess their competitive potential, this study provides a comparative analysis of the parameters that characterize the growth and development of the level of adaptation of sweeping rowers, considering the growth interval between 12 and 20 years. The study established that, in the multi-annual training process, the bodies of the targeted athletes register significant adaptive changes while analyzing parameters of the morphological, functional, psychomotor and sports-technical spheres. As a result of the influence of physical efforts, both specific and non-specific, there is an increase in the adaptability of the body, its transfer to a much higher level of functionality within the parameters, useful and economical adaptive reactions influenced by environmental factors, be they internal or external. The research was carried out for 7 years, on a group of 28 athletes, following their evolution and recording the specific parameters of each age stage. In order to determine the level of physical, morpho-functional, psychomotor development and technical training of rowers, the screening data were applied at the State University of Physical Education and Sports in the Republic of Moldova. During the research, measurements were made on the waist, in the standing and sitting position, arm span, weight, circumference and chest perimeter, vital capacity of the lungs, with the subsequent determination of the vital index (tolerance level to oxygen deficiency in venous blood in Stange and Genchi breath-taking tests that characterize the level of oxygen saturation, absolute and relative strength of the hand and back, calculation of body mass and morphological maturity indices (Kettle index), body surface area (body gait), psychomotor tests (Romberg test), test-tepping 10 s., reaction to a moving object, visual and auditory-motor reaction, recording of technical parameters of rowing on a competitive distance of 200 m. At the end of the study it was found that highly performance is sports is to be associated on the one hand with the genetically determined characteristics of the body and, on the other hand, with favorable adaptive reactions and energy saving, as well as morphofunctional changes influenced by internal and external environmental factors. The importance of the results obtained at the end of the study was positively reflected in obtaining the maximum level of training of athletes in order to demonstrate performance in large-scale competitions and mostly in the Olympic Games.

Keywords: olympics, parameters, performance, peak

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32 Vibrations of Springboards: Mode Shape and Time Domain Analysis

Authors: Stefano Frassinelli, Alessandro Niccolai, Riccardo E. Zich


Diving is an important Olympic sport. In this sport, the effective performance of the athlete is related to his capability to interact correctly with the springboard. In fact, the elevation of the jump and the correctness of the dive are influenced by the vibrations of the board. In this paper, the vibrations of the springboard will be analyzed by means of typical tools for vibration analysis: Firstly, a modal analysis will be done on two different models of the springboard, then, these two model and another one will be analyzed with a time analysis, done integrating the equations of motion od deformable bodies. All these analyses will be compared with experimental data measured on a real springboard by means of a 6-axis accelerometer; these measurements are aimed to assess the models proposed. The acquired data will be analyzed both in frequency domain and in time domain.

Keywords: springboard analysis, modal analysis, time domain analysis, vibrations

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31 Sport-Related Hand and Wrist Injuries Treatment

Authors: Sergei Kosarev


Wrong treatment tactics for hand and wrist sport-related injuries can lead to the inability to play sports in the future. It is especially important for professional athletes. The members of the Russian Olympic Team are treated in our hospital -Federal Clinical Research Center (Moscow). For their treatment, we use minimally invasive methods such as wrist arthroscopy and also orthobiologics procedures. In 2022 we had cases with scaphoid fracture and TFCC injuries. In all the cases, we were using the arthroscopy technic for treatment. The scaphoid fracture was fixed by K-wires with free bone grafting. For TFCC injures we used transossal sutures. Rehabilitation started the next day after surgery. Rehabilitation included hand therapy and physiotherapy. All athletes returned to the sport after 8-12 weeks after surgery. One of them had pain in the wrist after 12 weeks after surgery, not more than 4 point VAS. Pain syndrome was blocked after 2 PRP injections in the ulnar side of the wrist.

Keywords: sport trauma, wrist arthroscopy, wrist pain, scaphoid fracture

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30 The Effects of Different Doses of Caffeine on Young Futsal Players

Authors: Saead Rostami, Seyyed Hadi Hosseini Alavije, Aliakbar Torabi, Mohammad Bekhradi


This study is about The effects of different doses of caffeine on young Futsal players. Young futsal players of selected ShahinShahr(a city in Esfahan province, Iran) team are sampled (24 people of 18.3±1.9 year- old). All players are members of youth team playing in Esfahan counties league. Having at least 5 years of experience, 2 practices and 1 match per week and lacking any limitation in the past 6 months are the most important requirements for sampling the players. Next, the study topic, its method, its uses, as ell possible risks are explained to the players. They signed a consent letter to take part in the study. Interest in the use of caffeine as an ergogenic aid has increased since the International Olympic Committee lifted the partial ban on its use. Caffeine has beneficial effects on various aspects of athletic performance, but its effects on training have been neglected. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effect of caffeine on testosterone and cortisole in young futsal players.

Keywords: anabolic, catabolic, performance, testosterone cortisol ratio, RAST test

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29 Crustal Scale Seismic Surveys in Search for Gawler Craton Iron Oxide Cu-Au (IOCG) under Very Deep Cover

Authors: E. O. Okan, A. Kepic, P. Williams


Iron oxide copper gold (IOCG) deposits constitute important sources of copper and gold in Australia especially since the discovery of the supergiant Olympic Dam deposits in 1975. They are considered to be metasomatic expressions of large crustal-scale alteration events occasioned by intrusive actions and are associated with felsic igneous rocks in most cases, commonly potassic igneous magmatism, with the deposits ranging from ~2.2 –1.5 Ga in age. For the past two decades, geological, geochemical and potential methods have been used to identify the structures hosting these deposits follow up by drilling. Though these methods have largely been successful for shallow targets, at deeper depth due to low resolution they are limited to mapping only very large to gigantic deposits with sufficient contrast. As the search for ore-bodies under regolith cover continues due to depletion of the near surface deposits, there is a compelling need to develop new exploration technology to explore these deep seated ore-bodies within 1-4km which is the current mining depth range. Seismic reflection method represents this new technology as it offers a distinct advantage over all other geophysical techniques because of its great depth of penetration and superior spatial resolution maintained with depth. Further, in many different geological scenarios, it offers a greater ‘3D mapability’ of units within the stratigraphic boundary. Despite these superior attributes, no arguments for crustal scale seismic surveys have been proposed because there has not been a compelling argument of economic benefit to proceed with such work. For the seismic reflection method to be used at these scales (100’s to 1000’s of square km covered) the technical risks or the survey costs have to be reduced. In addition, as most IOCG deposits have large footprint due to its association with intrusions and large fault zones; we hypothesized that these deposits can be found by mainly looking for the seismic signatures of intrusions along prospective structures. In this study, we present two of such cases: - Olympic Dam and Vulcan iron-oxide copper-gold (IOCG) deposits all located in the Gawler craton, South Australia. Results from our 2D modelling experiments revealed that seismic reflection surveys using 20m geophones and 40m shot spacing as an exploration tool for locating IOCG deposit is possible even when hosted in very complex structures. The migrated sections were not only able to identify and trace various layers plus the complex structures but also show reflections around the edges of intrusive packages. The presences of such intrusions were clearly detected from 100m to 1000m depth range without losing its resolution. The modelled seismic images match the available real seismic data and have the hypothesized characteristics; thus, the seismic method seems to be a valid exploration tool to find IOCG deposits. We therefore propose that 2D seismic survey is viable for IOCG exploration as it can detect mineralised intrusive structures along known favourable corridors. This would help in reducing the exploration risk associated with locating undiscovered resources as well as conducting a life-of-mine study which will enable better development decisions at the very beginning.

Keywords: crustal scale, exploration, IOCG deposit, modelling, seismic surveys

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28 The Effects of 2016 Rio Olympics as Nation's Soft Power Strategy

Authors: Keunsu Han


Sports has been used as a valuable tool for countries to enhance brand image and to pursue higher political interests. Olympic games are one of the best examples as a mega sport event to achieve such nations’ purposes. The term, “soft power,” coined by Nye, refers to country’s ability to persuade and attract foreign audiences through non-coercive ways such as cultural, diplomatic, and economic means. This concept of soft power provides significant answers about why countries are willing to host a mega sport event such as Olympics. This paper reviews the concept of soft power by Nye as a theoretical framework of this study to understand critical motivation for countries to host Olympics and examines the effects of 2016 Rio Olympics as the state’s soft power strategy. Thorough data analysis including media, government and private-sector documents, this research analyzes both negative and positive aspects of the nation’s image created during Rio Olympics and discusses the effects of Rio Olympics as Brazil’s chance to showcase its soft power by highlighting the best the state has to present.

Keywords: country brand, olympics, soft power, sport diplomacy, mega sport event

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27 The Use of Actoprotectors by Professional Athletes

Authors: Kalin Ivanov, Stanislava Ivanova


Actoprotectors are substances with hight performance enchasing potential and hight antioxidant activity. Most of these drugs have been developed in USSR for military medicine purposes. Based on their chemical composition actoprotectors could be classified into three categories: benzimidazole derivatives (ethomersol, bemitil); adamantane derivatives (bromantane), other chemical classes. First data for intake of actoprotectors from professional athletes is from 1980. The daily intake of actoprotectors demonstrate many benefits for athletes like: positive effect on the efficiency of physical work, antihypoxic effects, antioxidant effects, nootropic effects, rapid recovery. Since 1997, bromantane is considered as doping. This is a result of Summer Olympic Games in Athlanta (1996) when several Russian athletes tested positive for bramantane. Even the drug is safe for athletes health its use is considered as violation of anti- doping rules. More than 37 years bemetil has been used by professional athletes with no risk but currently it is included in WADA monitoring programme for 2018. Current perspectives are that most used actoprotectors would be considered as doping. Many clinical studies have confirmed that intake of bemitil and bromantan demonstrate positive influence on the physical work capacity but data for other actoprotectors like chlodantane, ademol, ethomersol is limited.

Keywords: actoprotector, sport, doping, bemitil

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26 Heart Rate Variability Responses Pre-, during, and Post-Exercise among Special Olympics Athletes

Authors: Kearney Dover, Viviene Temple, Lynneth Stuart-Hill


Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is the beat-to-beat variation in adjacent heartbeats. HRV is a non-invasive measure of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and provides information about the sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic (PNS) nervous systems. The HRV of a well-conditioned heart is generally high at rest, whereas low HRV has been associated with adverse outcomes/conditions, including congestive heart failure, diabetic neuropathy, depression, and hospital admissions. HRV has received very little research attention among individuals with intellectual disabilities in general or Special Olympic athletes. Purpose: 1) Having a longer post-exercise rest and recovery time to establish how long it takes for the athletes’ HRV components to return to pre-exercise levels, 2) To determine if greater familiarization with the testing processes influences HRV. Participants: Two separate samples of 10 adult Special Olympics athletes will be recruited for 2 separate studies. Athletes will be between 18 and 50 years of age and will be members of Special Olympics BC. Anticipated Findings: To answer why the Special Olympics athletes display poor cardiac responsiveness to changes in autonomic modulation during exercise. By testing the cortisol levels in the athletes, we can determine their stress levels which will then explain their measured HRV.

Keywords: 6MWT, autonomic modulation, cortisol levels, intellectual disability

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25 Psychopedagogical Service for the Promotion of Cognitive Abilities in Competitive Athletes

Authors: T. Esteves, S. Mesquita, A. Santos, A. Campina, C. Costa-Lobo


The theme regarding the differentiation of high-performance athletes has always aroused curiosity and fascination, becoming a target for study, especially in the social and human sciences. It was from the 60's and 70's that the concern for the study of the excellence of athletes that showed indices of high performance in sports began to arise. From the 1990s, it became possible to specify the mental competencies and psychological characteristics associated with Olympic athletes with high levels of success. Several studies considered that well-structured pre-competitive and competitive routines and plans were predictors of sports success. Likewise, the high levels of motivation, commitment and concentration; the high levels of self-confidence and optimism; the presence of effective coping strategies to deal with distractions and unexpected situations or events; adequate regulation of activation and anxiety; the establishment and formulation of objectives; and mental visualization and practice were determinants in the manifestation of excellence in these athletes. As such, the promotion of these cognitive abilities has been emphasized in the good performance of the athletes. With the objective of implementing cognitive stimulation programs to meet the specific needs of talented athletes, together with pedagogical activities to promote educational strategies and promote interpersonal relationships, this communication systematizes a proposal for a psychopedagogical service to promote cognitive abilities in competitive athletes, SPAC, to implement in a Portuguese soccer team. This service will be based on a holistic vision in order to promote talent.

Keywords: athletes, cognitive abilities, high competition, psycho-pedagogical service

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24 Grit and Psychological Well-Being Among Elite Wushu Players

Authors: Guneet Inder Jit Kaur, Kuldeep Singh, Sunil G. Purohit


Being a collective phrase for Martial arts that originated from China, Wushu is a form of self-defense and an international (Olympic) sport. Having emerged as a competitive sport, the competitions are generally in two disciplines in Wushu, namely ‘taolu,’ which refers to the forms, and ‘sanda’, which refers to the sparring. Indeed, the competition at the elite level is challenging more mentally than physically. Being masters of their games, excellence at that level is immensely defined by the mental strength characterized by perseverance and passion (grit) along with the psychological wellbeing. Thus, research attempting to understand this relationship is important. The present study was aimed to investigate the relationship between grit and psychological wellbeing among elite Wushu players. The sample of the present study comprised of 35 elite wushu players from India. Out of the 35 players, 16 were females (45.7%), and 19 were males (54.3%), and all had represented at the National and International level. 14 players were from the event of Taolu, and 21 players were from the event of Sanda. The questionnaires used were the short grit scale (Duckworth & Quinn, 2009) and the flourishing scale for psychological wellbeing (Diener et. al., 2009). The statistics included Descriptive (Mean, Standard deviation) and Inferential analysis (correlation). The results highlighted the relationship between the two variables. The insights gained from this study indeed seem immensely helpful in adding to the research of the psychological profile of Elite wushu players and has implications for psychological interventions and mental training for the players.

Keywords: wushu, elite athletes, grit, psychological wellbeing, excellence

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23 The acute effects caffeine on testosterone and cortisol in young football players after One Session Anaerobic exercise

Authors: S. Rostami, S. H. Hosseini, A. A. Torabi, M. Bekhradi


Introduction: Interest in the use of caffeine as an ergogenic aid has increased since the International Olympic Committee lifted the partial ban on its use. Caffeine has beneficial effects on various aspects of athletic performance, but its effects on training have been neglected. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effect of caffeine on testosterone and cortisole in young futsal players. Methods: Twenty-four professional futsal players with 18.3± 1.9 years ingested caffeine doses of 0, 200 and 800 mg in random order 1 hr before an anaerobic-exercise session (RAST test). Samples were taken at the time of caffeine ingestion and 30 min after the session. Data were log-transformed to estimate percent effects with mixed modeling, and effects were standardized to assess magnitudes. fects on training have been neglected. Results: Testosterone concentration showed a small increase of 15% (90% confidence limits, ± 19%) during exercise. Caffeine raised this concentration in a dose-dependent manner by a further small 21% (± 24%) at the highest dose. The 800-mg dose also produced a moderate 52% (± 44%) increase in cortisol. The effect of caffeine on the testosterone: cortisol ratio was a small decline (14%; ± 21%). Discussion and Conclusion: Caffeine has some potential to benefit training outcomes via the anabolic effects of the increase in testosterone concentration, but this benefit might be counteracted by the opposing catabolic effects of the increase in cortisol and resultant decline in the testosterone: cortisol ratio.

Keywords: anabolic, catabolic, performance, testosterone, cortisol ratio, RAST test

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22 There Is a Reversal Effect of Relative Age in Elite Senior Athletics: Successful Young Men Are «Early-Born Athletes», While in Adults There Are More «Late-Born» Athletes

Authors: Bezuglov Eduard, Achkasov Evgeniy, Emanov Anton, Shagiakhmetova Larisa, Pirmakhanov Bekzhan, Morgans Ryland


Background: Previous studies have found that there is a wide range of the relative age effect (RAE) in young athletes, which is dependent on age and gender. However, there is currently scant data comparing the prevalence of the RAE in successful athletes across different age groups from the same sport during the same time period. We aimed to compare the prevalence of the RAE in different age groups of successful athletes. Materials and methods: The date of birth of all youth (under 18 years old) and senior (20 years and above) male and female track and field athletes were analyzed. All athletes had entered the World Top 20 rankings in disciplines where performance rules were the same at youth and adult levels. Data were collected from the website www. between 1999 and 2006. Results: A significant prevalence of RAE in successful youth track and field athletes were reported. Early-born (61,1%) and late-born (38,9%) athletes were represented respectively (χ2 = 131,1, p < 0,001, ϖ = 0,24). The RAE is not significant in successful senior track and field athletes. Athletes born in the first half of the year are only 0.4% more prevalent than athletes born in the second half of the year (50,2% and 49,8%, respectively). Olympic Games and World Championship medalists are more often late-born athletes (44,1% and 55,9%, respectively) (p = 0,014, χ2 = 6,1, ϖ = 0,20). Conclusion: The RAE is only prevalent in successful young track and field athletes. The RAE was not observed in successful senior track and field athletes, regardless of gender, in any of the analyzed discipline groups. The RAE reverse was observed in successful senior track and field athletes.

Keywords: relative age effect, track, and field, talent identification, underdog effect

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21 The Impact of Music on Social Identity Formation and Intergroup Relations in American-Born Korean Skaters in 2018 Winter Olympics

Authors: Sehwan Kim, Jepkorir Rose Chepyator Thomson


Music provides opportunities to affirm social identities and facilitate the internalization of one’s identity. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of music in breaking down boundaries between the in-group and out-of-group sport participants. Social identity theory was used to guide an understanding of two American-born South Korean skaters—Yura Min and Alexander Gamelin—who used a Korean representative traditional folk song, Arirang, at the 2018 Winter Olympics. This was an interpretive case study that focused on 2018 Winter Olympic participants whose performance and use of music was understood through the lenses of Koreans. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 Korean audiences who watched two American-born South Korean skaters’ performances. Data analysis involved the determination of themes in the data collected. The findings of this study are as follows: First Koreans viewed the skaters as the out-group based on ethnic appearances and stereotypes. Second, Koreans’ inter-group bias against the skaters was meditated after Koreans watched the skaters as they used Arirang song in performance. Implications for this study include the importance of music as an instrument of unity across diverse populations, including intergroup relations. Music can also offer ways to understand people’s cultures and bridge gaps between age and gender across categories of naturalization.

Keywords: impact of music, intergroup relations, naturalized athletes, social identity theory

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20 Sports as a Powerful Tool in Building Peace among Countries of the World

Authors: Mohammed Usman Sani


Worldwide it is observed that sport plays an important role in our communities and is capable of bringing about the need for peaceful coexistence within and among nations which include tolerating one another, building team spirit, showing loyalty and fair play. In addition, sport builds character and the development of skills, which are necessary in fulfilling a desirable and happy life among nations. Sport builds discipline, endurance, courage and self-motivation among nations. Sports for Peace was set up to answer the question of whether sport can foster common ideals. In sports as a powerful tool in building peace, athletes all over the world come together to promote the core values of sport, such as fair play, tolerance, the Olympic ideal of freedom and intercultural understanding. Sport as a powerful tool is used to address varieties of social issues that is widely accepted in countries mostly affected by poverty, violence and conflict. In building peace through sports among nations, a wide range of individuals and nonprofit organizations which includes the United Nations (UN) and international development agencies have accepted sport as an important social catalyst. This paper therefore seeks to define sports, sports and its fundamental rights, sports as a powerful tool, and ways in which sport may bring about peace building among countries and finally the status of Sport Development and Peace initiatives in Nigeria. It concluded that the international community has acknowledged the importance of sport in peace building efforts among nations. It further recommended that countries should engage in the design and delivery of sports, adhering to generally accepted principles of openness and sustainability through sports collaboration, sports partnerships and coordinated effort.

Keywords: building, peace, powerful tool, sports

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