Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 455

Search results for: Hernandez Castillo Daniel

65 Malaria Outbreak Facilitated by Appearance of Vector-Breeding Sites after Heavy Rainfall and Inadequate Preventive Measures: Nwoya District, Uganda, March–May 2018

Authors: Godfrey Nsereko, Daniel Kadobera, Alex Riolexus Ario, Denis Okethwangu, Joyce Nguna

Abstract:

Background: Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda. In April 2018, malaria cases surged in Nwoya District, northern Uganda, exceeding the action thresholds. We investigated to assess the outbreak’s magnitude, identify transmission risk factors, and recommend evidence-based control measures. Methods: We defined a malaria case as onset of fever in a resident of Nwoya District with a positive Rapid Diagnostic Test or microscopy for malaria P. falciparum from 1 February to 22 May 2018. We reviewed medical records in all health facilities of affected sub-counties to find cases. In a case-control study, we compared exposure risk factors between 107 case-persons and 107 asymptomatic controls matched by age and village. We conducted entomological assessment on vector-density and behavior. Results: We identified 3,879 case-persons (attack rate [AR]=6.5%) and 2 deaths (case-fatality rate=5.2/10,000). Females (AR=8.1%) were more affected than males (AR=4.7%). Of all age groups, the 5-18 year age group (AR=8.4%) was most affected. Heavy rain started on 4 March; a propagated outbreak began during the week of 2 April. In the case-control study, 55% (59/107) of case-patients and 18% (19/107) of controls had stagnant water around households for several days following rainfall (ORM-H=5.6, 95%CI=3.0-11); 25% (27/107) of case-patients and 51% (55/107) of controls wore long-sleeve cloths during evening hours (ORM-H=0.30, 95%CI=0.20-0.60); 29% (31/107) of case-patients and 15% (16/107) of controls did not sleep under a long-lasting insecticide-treated net (LLIN) (ORM-H=2.3, 95%CI=1.1-4.9); 37% (40/107) of case-patients and 52% (56/107) of controls had ≥1 LLIN per 2 household members (ORM-H=0.54, 95%CI=0.30-0.97). Entomological assessment indicated active breeding sites; Anopheles gambiae sensu lato species were the predominant vector. Conclusion: Increased vector breeding sites after heavy rainfall, together with inadequate malaria preventive measures caused this outbreak. We recommended increasing coverage for LLINs and larviciding breeding sites.

Keywords: Uganda, plasmodium falciparum, global health security, malaria outbreak

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64 The Evolution of Traditional Rhythms in Redefining the West African Country of Guinea

Authors: Janice Haworth, Karamoko Camara, Marie-Therèse Dramou, Kokoly Haba, Daniel Léno, Augustin Mara, Adama Noël Oulari, Silafa Tolno, Noël Zoumanigui

Abstract:

The traditional rhythms of the West African country of Guinea have played a centuries-long role in defining the different people groups that make up the country. Throughout their history, before and since colonization by the French, the different ethnicities have used their traditional music as a distinct part of their historical identities. That is starting to change. Guinea is an impoverished nation created in the early twentieth-century with little regard for the history and cultures of the people who were included. The traditional rhythms of the different people groups and their heritages have remained. Fifteen individual traditional Guinean rhythms were chosen to represent popular rhythms from the four geographical regions of Guinea. Each rhythm was traced back to its native village and video recorded on-site by as many different local performing groups as could be located. The cyclical patterns rhythms were transcribed via a circular, spatial design and then copied into a box notation system where sounds happening at the same time could be studied. These rhythms were analyzed for their consistency-over-performance in a Fundamental Rhythm Pattern analysis so rhythms could be compared for how they are changing through different performances. The analysis showed that the traditional rhythm performances of the Middle and Forest Guinea regions were the most cohesive and showed the least evidence of change between performances. The role of music in each of these regions is both limited and focused. The Coastal and High Guinea regions have much in common historically through their ethnic history and modern-day trade connections, but the rhythm performances seem to be less consistent and demonstrate more changes in how they are performed today. In each of these regions the role and usage of music is much freer and wide-spread. In spite of advances being made as a country, different ethnic groups still frequently only respond and participate (dance and sing) to the music of their native ethnicity. There is some evidence that this self-imposed musical barrier is beginning to change and evolve, partially through the development of better roads, more access to electricity and technology, the nation-wide Ebola health crisis, and a growing self-identification as a unified nation.

Keywords: Cultural identity, West Africa, guinea, traditional rhythms

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63 The Influence of Applying Mechanical Chest Compression Systems on the Effectiveness of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

Authors: Slawomir Pilip, Michal Wasilewski, Daniel Celinski, Leszek Szpakowski, Grzegorz Michalak

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The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation taken by Medical Emergency Teams (MET) at the place of an accident including the usage of mechanical chest compression systems. In the period of January-May 2017, there were 137 cases of a sudden cardiac arrest in a chosen region of Eastern Poland with 360.000 inhabitants. Medical records and questionnaires filled by METs were analysed to prove the effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitations that were considered to be effective when an early indication of spontaneous circulation was provided and the patient was taken to hospital. A chest compression system used by METs was applied in 60 cases (Lucas3 - 34 patients; Auto Pulse - 24 patients). The effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation among patients who were employed a chest compression system was much higher (43,3%) than the manual cardiac massage (36,4%). Thus, the usage of Lucas3 chest compression system resulted in 47% while Auto Pulse was 33,3%. The average ambulance arrival time could have had a significant impact on the subsequent effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in these cases. Ambulances equipped with Lucas3 reached the destination within 8 minutes, and those with Auto Pulse needed 12,1 minutes. Moreover, taking effective basic life support (BLS) by bystanders before the ambulance arrival was much more frequent for ambulances with Lucas3 than Auto Pulse. Therefore, the percentage of BLS among the group of patients who were employed Lucas3 by METs was 26,5%, and 20,8% for Auto Pulse. The total percentage of taking BLS by bystanders before the ambulance arrival resulted in 25% of patients who were later applied a chest compression system by METs. Not only was shockable cardiac rhythm obtained in 47% of these cases, but an early indication of spontaneous circulation was also provided in all these patients. Both Lucas3 and Auto Pulse were evaluated to be significantly useful in improving the effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation by 97% of Medical Emergency Teams. Therefore, implementation of chest compression systems essentially makes the cardiopulmonary resuscitation even more effective. The ambulance arrival time, taking successful BLS by bystanders before the ambulance arrival and the presence of shockable cardiac rhythm determine an early indication of spontaneous circulation among patients after a sudden cardiac arrest.

Keywords: Resuscitation, Effectiveness, Cardiac Arrest, mechanical chest compression systems

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62 Reverse Engineering of a Secondary Structure of a Helicopter: A Study Case

Authors: Jose Daniel Giraldo Arias, Camilo Rojas Gomez, David Villegas Delgado, Gullermo Idarraga Alarcon, Juan Meza Meza

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The reverse engineering processes are widely used in the industry with the main goal to determine the materials and the manufacture used to produce a component. There are a lot of characterization techniques and computational tools that are used in order to get this information. A study case of a reverse engineering applied to a secondary sandwich- hybrid type structure used in a helicopter is presented. The methodology used consists of five main steps, which can be applied to any other similar component: Collect information about the service conditions of the part, disassembly and dimensional characterization, functional characterization, material properties characterization and manufacturing processes characterization, allowing to obtain all the supports of the traceability of the materials and processes of the aeronautical products that ensure their airworthiness. A detailed explanation of each step is covered. Criticality and comprehend the functionalities of each part, information of the state of the art and information obtained from interviews with the technical groups of the helicopter’s operators were analyzed,3D optical scanning technique, standard and advanced materials characterization techniques and finite element simulation allow to obtain all the characteristics of the materials used in the manufacture of the component. It was found that most of the materials are quite common in the aeronautical industry, including Kevlar, carbon, and glass fibers, aluminum honeycomb core, epoxy resin and epoxy adhesive. The stacking sequence and volumetric fiber fraction are a critical issue for the mechanical behavior; a digestion acid method was used for this purpose. This also helps in the determination of the manufacture technique which for this case was Vacuum Bagging. Samples of the material were manufactured and submitted to mechanical and environmental tests. These results were compared with those obtained during reverse engineering, which allows concluding that the materials and manufacture were correctly determined. Tooling for the manufacture was designed and manufactured according to the geometry and manufacture process requisites. The part was manufactured and the mechanical, and environmental tests required were also performed. Finally, a geometric characterization and non-destructive techniques allow verifying the quality of the part.

Keywords: Reverse Engineering, Helicopter, Mechanical Properties, prototype, sandwich-structured composite parts

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61 Stability of Porous SiC Based Materials under Relevant Conditions of Radiation and Temperature

Authors: Marta Malo, Carlota Soto, Carmen García-Rosales, Teresa Hernández

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SiC based composites are candidates for possible use as structural and functional materials in the future fusion reactors, the main role is intended for the blanket modules. In the blanket, the neutrons produced in the fusion reaction slow down and their energy is transformed into heat in order to finally generate electrical power. In the blanket design named Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL), a PbLi alloy for power conversion and tritium breeding circulates inside hollow channels called Flow Channel Inserts (FCIs). These FCI must protect the steel structures against the highly corrosive PbLi liquid and the high temperatures, but also provide electrical insulation in order to minimize magnetohydrodynamic interactions of the flowing liquid metal with the high magnetic field present in a magnetically confined fusion environment. Due to their nominally high temperature and radiation stability as well as corrosion resistance, SiC is the main choice for the flow channel inserts. The significantly lower manufacturing cost presents porous SiC (dense coating is required in order to assure protection against corrosion and as a tritium barrier) as a firm alternative to SiC/SiC composites for this purpose. This application requires the materials to be exposed to high radiation levels and extreme temperatures, conditions for which previous studies have shown noticeable changes in both the microstructure and the electrical properties of different types of silicon carbide. Both initial properties and radiation/temperature induced damage strongly depend on the crystal structure, polytype, impurities/additives that are determined by the fabrication process, so the development of a suitable material requires full control of these variables. For this work, several SiC samples with different percentage of porosity and sintering additives have been manufactured by the so-called sacrificial template method at the Ceit-IK4 Technology Center (San Sebastián, Spain), and characterized at Ciemat (Madrid, Spain). Electrical conductivity was measured as a function of temperature before and after irradiation with 1.8 MeV electrons in the Ciemat HVEC Van de Graaff accelerator up to 140 MGy (~ 2·10 -5 dpa). Radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) was also examined during irradiation at 550 ºC for different dose rates (from 0.5 to 5 kGy/s). Although no significant RIC was found in general for any of the samples, electrical conductivity increase with irradiation dose was observed to occur for some compositions with a linear tendency. However, first results indicate enhanced radiation resistance for coated samples. Preliminary thermogravimetric tests of selected samples, together with posterior XRD analysis allowed interpret radiation-induced modification of the electrical conductivity in terms of changes in the SiC crystalline structure. Further analysis is needed in order to confirm this.

Keywords: Radiation Damage, Electrical Conductivity, Thermal Stability, flow channel insert, DCLL blanket, porous SiC

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60 Evidence-Based in Telemonitoring of Users with Pacemakers at Five Years after Implant: The Poniente Study

Authors: Antonio Lopez-Villegas, Daniel Catalan-Matamoros, Remedios Lopez-Liria

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Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze clinical data, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and functional capacity of patients using a telemonitoring follow-up system (TM) compared to patients followed-up through standard outpatient visits (HM) 5 years after the implantation of a pacemaker. Methods: This is a controlled, non-randomised, nonblinded clinical trial, with data collection carried out at 5 years after the pacemakers implant. The study was developed at Hospital de Poniente (Almeria, Spain), between October 2012 and November 2013. The same clinical outcomes were analyzed in both follow-up groups. Health-Related Quality of Life and Functional Capacity was assessed through EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) questionnaire and Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) respectively. Sociodemographic characteristics and clinical data were also analyzed. Results: 5 years after pacemaker implant, 55 of 82 initial patients finished the study. Users with pacemakers were assigned to either a conventional follow-up group at hospital (HM=34, 50 initials) or a telemonitoring system group (TM=21, 32 initials). No significant differences were found between both groups according to sociodemographic characteristics, clinical data, Health-Related Quality of Life and Functional Capacity according to medical record and EQ5D and DASI questionnaires. In addition, conventional follow-up visits to hospital were reduced in 44,84% (p < 0,001) in the telemonitoring group in relation to hospital monitoring group. Conclusion: Results obtained in this study suggest that the telemonitoring of users with pacemakers is an equivalent option to conventional follow-up at hospital, in terms of Health-Related Quality of Life and Functional Capacity. Furthermore, it allows for the early detection of cardiovascular and pacemakers-related problem events and significantly reduces the number of in-hospital visits. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02234245. The PONIENTE study has been funded by the General Secretariat for Research, Development and Innovation, Regional Government of Andalusia (Spain), project reference number PI/0256/2017, under the research call 'Development and Innovation Projects in the Field of Biomedicine and Health Sciences', 2017.

Keywords: Telemedicine, Cardiovascular Diseases, Health-related quality of life, Remote Monitoring, pacemakers follow-up

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59 Genetic Differentiation between Members of a Species Complex (Retropinna spp.)

Authors: Md. Rakeb-Ul Islam, Daniel J. Schmidt, Jane M. Hughes

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Population connectivity plays an important role in the conservation and recovery of declining species. It affects genetic diversity, adaptive potential and resilience of species in nature. Loss of genetic variation can affect populations by limiting their ability to persist in stressful environmental conditions. Generally, freshwater fishes show higher levels of genetic structuring and subdivision among populations than those inhabiting estuarine or marine environments due to the presence of artificial (e.g. dams) and natural (e.g. mountain ranges) barriers to dispersal in freshwater ecosystems. The Australian smelt (Retropinnidae: Retropinna spp.) is a common freshwater fish species which is widely distributed throughout coastal and inland drainages in South - eastern Australia. These fish are found in a number of habitats from headwaters to lowland sites. They form large shoals in the mid to upper water column and inhabit deep slow – flowing pools as well as shallow fast flowing riffle-runs. Previously, Australian smelt consisted of two described taxa (Retropinna semoni and Retropinna tasmanica), but recently a complex of five or more species has been recognized based on an analysis of allozyme variation. In many area, they spend their entire life cycle within freshwater. Although most populations of the species are thought to be non-diadromous, it is still unclear whether individuals within coastal populations of Australian Retropinna exhibit diadromous migrations or whether fish collected from marine/estuarine environments are vagrants that have strayed out of the freshwater reaches. In this current study, the population structure and genetic differentiation of Australian smelt fish were investigated among eight rivers of South-East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. 11 microsatellite loci were used to examine genetic variation within and among populations. Genetic diversity was very high. Number of alleles ranged from three to twenty. Expected heterozygosity averaged across loci ranged from 0.572 to 0.852. There was a high degree of genetic differentiation among rivers (FST = 0.23), although low levels of genetic differentiation among populations within rivers. These extremely high levels of genetic differentiation suggest that the all smelt in SEQ complete their life history within freshwater, or, if they go to the estuary, they do not migrate to sea. This hypothesis is being tested further with a micro-chemical analysis of their otoliths.

Keywords: Genetic Diversity, otolith, microsatellite, diadromous

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58 Status Quo Bias: A Paradigm Shift in Policy Making

Authors: Divyansh Goel, Varun Jain

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Classical economics works on the principle that people are rational and analytical in their decision making and their choices fall in line with the most suitable option according to the dominant strategy in a standard game theory model. This model has failed at many occasions in estimating the behavior and dealings of rational people, giving proof of some other underlying heuristics and cognitive biases at work. This paper probes into the study of these factors, which fall under the umbrella of behavioral economics and through their medium explore the solution to a problem which a lot of nations presently face. There has long been a wide disparity in the number of people holding favorable views on organ donation and the actual number of people signing up for the same. This paper, in its entirety, is an attempt to shape the public policy which leads to an increase the number of organ donations that take place and close the gap in the statistics of the people who believe in signing up for organ donation and the ones who actually do. The key assumption here is that in cases of cognitive dissonance, where people have an inconsistency due to conflicting views, people have a tendency to go with the default choice. This tendency is a well-documented cognitive bias known as the status quo bias. The research in this project involves an assay of mandated choice models of organ donation with two case studies. The first of an opt-in system of Germany (where people have to explicitly sign up for organ donation) and the second of an opt-out system of Austria (every citizen at the time of their birth is an organ donor and has to explicitly sign up for refusal). Additionally, there has also been presented a detailed analysis of the experiment performed by Eric J. Johnson and Daniel G. Goldstein. Their research as well as many other independent experiments such as that by Tsvetelina Yordanova of the University of Sofia, both of which yield similar results. The conclusion being that the general population has by and large no rigid stand on organ donation and are gullible to status quo bias, which in turn can determine whether a large majority of people will consent to organ donation or not. Thus, in our paper, we throw light on how governments can use status quo bias to drive positive social change by making policies in which everyone by default is marked an organ donor, which will, in turn, save the lives of people who succumb on organ transplantation waitlists and save the economy countless hours of economic productivity.

Keywords: Game theory, Behavioral Economics, Organ Donation, status quo bias

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57 The Impact of Research Anxiety on Research Orientation and Interest in Research Courses in Social Work Students

Authors: Daniel Gredig, Annabelle Bartelsen-Raemy

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Social work professionals should underpin their decisions with scientific knowledge and research findings. Hence, research is used as a framework for social work education and research courses have become a taken-for-granted component of study programmes. However, it has been acknowledged that social work students have negative beliefs and attitudes as well as frequently feelings of fear of research courses. Against this background, the present study aimed to establish the relationship between student’s fear of research courses, their research orientation and interest in research courses. We hypothesized that fear predicts the interest in research courses. Further, we hypothesized that research orientation (perceived importance and attributed usefulness for research for social work practice and perceived unbiased nature of research) was a mediating variable. In the years 2014, 2015 and 2016, we invited students enrolled for a bachelor programme in social work in Switzerland to participate in the study during their introduction day to the school taking place two weeks before their programme started. For data collection, we used an anonymous self-administered on-line questionnaire filled in on site. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and structural equation modelling (generalized least squares estimates method). The sample included 708 students enrolled in a social work bachelor-programme, 501 being female, 184 male, and 5 intersexual, aged 19–56, having various entitlements to study, and registered for three different types of programme modes (full time programme; part time study with field placements in blocks; part time study involving concurrent field placement). Analysis showed that the interest in research courses was predicted by fear of research courses (β = -0.29) as well as by the perceived importance (β = 0.27), attributed usefulness of research (β = 0.15) and perceived unbiased nature of research (β = 0.08). These variables were predicted, in turn, by fear of research courses (β = -0.10, β = -0.23, and β = -0.13). Moreover, interest was predicted by age (β = 0.13). Fear of research courses was predicted by age (β = -0.10) female gender (β = 0.28) and having completed a general baccalaureate (β = -0.09). (GFI = 0.997, AGFI = 0.988, SRMR = 0.016, CMIN/df = 0.946, adj. R2 = 0.312). Findings evidence a direct as well as a mediated impact of fear on the interest in research courses in entering first-year students in a social work bachelor-programme. It highlights one of the challenges social work education in a research framework has to meet with. It seems, there have been considerable efforts to address the research orientation of students. However, these findings point out that, additionally, research anxiety in terms of fear of research courses should be considered and addressed by teachers when conceptualizing research courses.

Keywords: Teaching, research anxiety, research courses, research interest, research orientation, social work students

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56 Binder-Free Porous Photocathode Based on Cuprous Oxide for High-Performing P-Type Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

Authors: Marinela Miclau, Melinda Vajda, Nicolae Miclau, Daniel Ursu

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Characterized by a simple structure, easy and low cost fabrication, the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) attracted the interest of the scientific community as an attractive alternative of conventional Si-based solar cells and thin-film solar cells. Over the past 20 years, the main efforts have attempted to enhance the efficiency of n-type DSSCs, the highest efficiency record of 14.30% was achieved using the co-sensitization of two metal-free organic dyes and Co (II/III) tris(phenanthroline)-based redox electrolyte. In the last years, the development of the efficient p-type DSSC has become a research focus owing to the fact that the concept of tandem solar cell was proposed as the solution to increase the power conversion efficiency. A promising alternative for the photocathodes of p-type DSSC, cuprous (Cu2O) and cupric (CuO) oxides have been investigated because of its nontoxic nature, low cost, high natural abundance, a good absorption coefficient for visible light and a higher dielectric constant than NiO. In case of p-type DSSC based on copper oxides with I3-/I- as redox mediator, the highest conversion efficiency of 0.42% (Cu2O) and 0.03% (CuO) has achieved. Towards the increase in the performance, we have fabricated and analyzed the performance of p-type DSSC prepared with the binder-free porous Cu2O photocathodes. Porous thin film could be an attractive alternative for DSSC because of their large surface areas which enable the efficient absorption of the dyes and light. We propose a simple and one-step hydrothermal method for the preparation of porous Cu2O thin film using copper substrate, cupric acetate and ethyl cellulose. The cubic structure of Cu2O has been determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and porous morphology of thin film was emphasized by Scanning Electron Microscope Inspect S (SEM). Optical and Mott-Schottky measurements attest of the high quality of the Cu2O thin film. The binder-free porous Cu2O photocathode has confirmed the excellent photovoltaic properties, the best value reported for p-type DSSC (1%) in similar conditions being reached.

Keywords: dye-sensitized solar cell, hydrothermal method, cuprous oxide, porous photocathode

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55 Estimation of Scour Using a Coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics and Discrete Element Model

Authors: S. Setunge, Zeinab Yazdanfar, Dilan Robert, Daniel Lester

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Scour has been identified as the most common threat to bridge stability worldwide. Traditionally, scour around bridge piers is calculated using the empirical approaches that have considerable limitations and are difficult to generalize. The multi-physic nature of scouring which involves turbulent flow, soil mechanics and solid-fluid interactions cannot be captured by simple empirical equations developed based on limited laboratory data. These limitations can be overcome by direct numerical modeling of coupled hydro-mechanical scour process that provides a robust prediction of bridge scour and valuable insights into the scour process. Several numerical models have been proposed in the literature for bridge scour estimation including Eulerian flow models and coupled Euler-Lagrange models incorporating an empirical sediment transport description. However, the contact forces between particles and the flow-particle interaction haven’t been taken into consideration. Incorporating collisional and frictional forces between soil particles as well as the effect of flow-driven forces on particles will facilitate accurate modeling of the complex nature of scour. In this study, a coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics and Discrete Element Model (CFD-DEM) has been developed to simulate the scour process that directly models the hydro-mechanical interactions between the sediment particles and the flowing water. This approach obviates the need for an empirical description as the fundamental fluid-particle, and particle-particle interactions are fully resolved. The sediment bed is simulated as a dense pack of particles and the frictional and collisional forces between particles are calculated, whilst the turbulent fluid flow is modeled using a Reynolds Averaged Navier Stocks (RANS) approach. The CFD-DEM model is validated against experimental data in order to assess the reliability of the CFD-DEM model. The modeling results reveal the criticality of particle impact on the assessment of scour depth which, to the authors’ best knowledge, hasn’t been considered in previous studies. The results of this study open new perspectives to the scour depth and time assessment which is the key to manage the failure risk of bridge infrastructures.

Keywords: discrete element method, bridge scour, CFD-DEM model, multi-phase model

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54 Synthesis and Characterization of Highly Oriented Bismuth Oxyiodide Thin Films for the Photocatalytical Degradation of Pharmaceuticals Compounds in Water

Authors: Juan C. Duran-Alvarez, Daniel Mejia, Rodolfo Zanella

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Heterogeneous photocatalysis is a promising method to achieve the complete degradation and mineralization of organic pollutants in water via their exhaustive oxidation. In order to take this advanced oxidation process towards sustainability, it is necessary to reduce the energy consumption, referred as the light sources and the post-treatment operations. For this, the synthesis of new nanostructures of low band gap semiconductors in the form of thin films is in continuous development. In this work, thin films of the low band gap semiconductor bismuth oxyiodide (BiOI) were synthesized via the Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method. For this, Bi(NO3)3 and KI solutions were prepared, and glass supports were immersed in each solution under strict rate and time immersion conditions. Synthesis was performed at room temperature and a washing step was set prior to each immersion. Thin films with an average thickness below 100 nm were obtained upon a cycle of 30 immersions, as determined by AFM and profilometry measurements. Cubic BiOI nanocrystals with average size of 17 nm and a high orientation to the 001 plane were observed by XRD. In order to optimize the synthesis method, several Bi/I ratios were tested, namely 1/1, 1/5, 1/10, 1/20 and 1/50. The highest crystallinity of the BiOI films was observed when the 1/5 ratio was used in the synthesis. Non-stoichiometric conditions also resulted in the highest uniformity of the thin layers. PVP was used as an additive to improve the adherence of the BiOI thin films to the support. The addition of 0.1 mg/mL of PVP during the washing step resulted in the highest adherence of the thin films. In photocatalysis tests, degradation rate of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin as high as 75% was achieved using visible light (380 to 700 nm) irradiation for 5 h in batch tests. Mineralization of the antibiotic was also observed, although in a lower extent; ~ 30% of the total organic carbon was removed upon 5 h of visible light irradiation. Some ciprofloxacin by-products were identified throughout the reaction; and some of these molecules displayed residual antibiotic activity. In conclusion, it is possible to obtain highly oriented BiOI thin films under ambient conditions via the SILAR method. Non-stoichiometric conditions using PVP additive are necessary to increase the crystallinity and adherence of the films, which are photocatalytically active to remove recalcitrant organic pollutants under visible light irradiation.

Keywords: Thin Films, Water Treatment, photocatalysis, bismuth oxyhalides

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53 The Influence of Morphology and Interface Treatment on Organic 6,13-bis (triisopropylsilylethynyl)-Pentacene Field-Effect Transistors

Authors: Daniel Bülz, Franziska Lüttich, Sreetama Banerjee, Georgeta Salvan, Dietrich R. T. Zahn

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For the development of electronics, organic semiconductors are of great interest due to their adjustable optical and electrical properties. Especially for spintronic applications they are interesting because of their weak spin scattering, which leads to longer spin life times compared to inorganic semiconductors. It was shown that some organic materials change their resistance if an external magnetic field is applied. Pentacene is one of the materials which exhibit the so called photoinduced magnetoresistance which results in a modulation of photocurrent when varying the external magnetic field. Also the soluble derivate of pentacene, the 6,13-bis (triisopropylsilylethynyl)-pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) exhibits the same negative magnetoresistance. Aiming for simpler fabrication processes, in this work, we compare TIPS-pentacene organic field effect transistors (OFETs) made from solution with those fabricated by thermal evaporation. Because of the different processing, the TIPS-pentacene thin films exhibit different morphologies in terms of crystal size and homogeneity of the substrate coverage. On the other hand, the interface treatment is known to have a high influence on the threshold voltage, eliminating trap states of silicon oxide at the gate electrode and thereby changing the electrical switching response of the transistors. Therefore, we investigate the influence of interface treatment using octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) or using a simple cleaning procedure with acetone, ethanol, and deionized water. The transistors consist of a prestructured OFET substrates including gate, source, and drain electrodes, on top of which TIPS-pentacene dissolved in a mixture of tetralin and toluene is deposited by drop-, spray-, and spin-coating. Thereafter we keep the sample for one hour at a temperature of 60 °C. For the transistor fabrication by thermal evaporation the prestructured OFET substrates are also kept at a temperature of 60 °C during deposition with a rate of 0.3 nm/min and at a pressure below 10-6 mbar. The OFETs are characterized by means of optical microscopy in order to determine the overall quality of the sample, i.e. crystal size and coverage of the channel region. The output and transfer characteristics are measured in the dark and under illumination provided by a white light LED in the spectral range from 450 nm to 650 nm with a power density of (8±2) mW/cm2.

Keywords: Surface treatment, organic field effect transistors, solution processed, TIPS-pentacene

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52 Diet and Exercise Intervention and Bio–Atherogenic Markers for Obesity Classes of Black South Africans with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Using Discriminant Analysis

Authors: Daniel T. Goon, Oladele V. Adeniyi, B. Longo-Mbenza

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Background: Lipids are often low or in the normal ranges and controversial in the atherogenesis among Black Africans. The effect of the severity of obesity on some traditional and novel cardiovascular disease risk factors is unclear before and after a diet and exercise maintenance programme among obese black South Africans with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, this study aimed to identify the risk factors to discriminate obesity classes among patients with T2DM before and after a diet and exercise programme. Methods: This interventional cohort of Black South Africans with T2DM was followed by a very – low calorie diet and exercise programme in Mthatha, between August and November 2013. Gender, age, and the levels of body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, monthly income, daily frequency of meals, blood random plasma glucose (RPG), serum creatinine, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDL –C, HDL – C, Non-HDL, ratios of TC/HDL, TG/HDL, and LDL/HDL were recorded. Univariate analysis (ANOVA) and multivariate discriminant analysis were performed to separate obesity classes: normal weight (BMI = 18.5 – 24.9 kg/m2), overweight (BMI = 25 – 29.9 kg/m2), obesity Class 1 (BMI = 30 – 34.9 kg/m2), obesity Class 2 (BMI = 35 – 39.9 kg/m2), and obesity Class 3 (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2). Results: At the baseline (1st Month September), all 327 patients were overweight/obese: 19.6% overweight, 42.8% obese class 1, 22.3% obese class 2, and 15.3% obese class 3. In discriminant analysis, only systolic blood pressure (SBP with positive association) and LDL/HDL ratio (negative association) significantly separated increasing obesity classes. At the post – evaluation (3rd Month November), out of all 327 patients, 19.9%, 19.3%, 37.6%, 15%, and 8.3% had normal weight, overweight, obesity class 1, obesity class 2, and obesity class 3, respectively. There was a significant negative association between serum creatinine and increase in BMI. In discriminant analysis, only age (positive association), SBP (U – shaped relationship), monthly income (inverted U – shaped association), daily frequency of meals (positive association), and LDL/HDL ratio (positive association) classified significantly increasing obesity classes. Conclusion: There is an epidemic of diabesity (Obesity + T2DM) in this Black South Africans with some weight loss. Further studies are needed to understand positive or negative linear correlations and paradoxical curvilinear correlations between these markers and increase in BMI among black South African T2DM patients.

Keywords: Obesity, Dietary Interventions, atherogenic dyslipidaemia, south africans

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51 Equity, Bonds, Institutional Debt and Economic Growth: Evidence from South Africa

Authors: Ashenafi Beyene Fanta and Daniel Makina

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Economic theory predicts that finance promotes economic growth. Although the finance-growth link is among the most researched areas in financial economics, our understanding of the link between the two is still incomplete. This is caused by, among others, wrong econometric specifications, using weak proxies of financial development, and inability to address the endogeneity problem. Studies on the finance growth link in South Africa consistently report economic growth driving financial development. Early studies found that economic growth drives financial development in South Africa, and recent studies have confirmed this using different econometric models. However, the monetary aggregate (i.e. M2) utilized used in these studies is considered a weak proxy for financial development. Furthermore, the fact that the models employed do not address the endogeneity problem in the finance-growth link casts doubt on the validity of the conclusions. For this reason, the current study examines the finance growth link in South Africa using data for the period 1990 to 2011 by employing a generalized method of moments (GMM) technique that is capable of addressing endogeneity, simultaneity and omitted variable bias problems. Unlike previous cross country and country case studies that have also used the same technique, our contribution is that we account for the development of bond markets and non-bank financial institutions rather than being limited to stock market and banking sector development. We find that bond market development affects economic growth in South Africa, and no similar effect is observed for the bank and non-bank financial intermediaries and the stock market. Our findings show that examination of individual elements of the financial system is important in understanding the unique effect of each on growth. The observation that bond markets rather than private credit and stock market development promotes economic growth in South Africa induces an intriguing question as to what unique roles bond markets play that the intermediaries and equity markets are unable to play. Crucially, our results support observations in the literature that using appropriate measures of financial development is critical for policy advice. They also support the suggestion that individual elements of the financial system need to be studied separately to consider their unique roles in advancing economic growth. We believe that our understanding of the channels through which bond market contribute to growth would be a fertile ground for future research.

Keywords: Finance, Growth, bond market, financial sector

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50 Cancer Survivor’s Adherence to Healthy Lifestyle Behaviours; Meeting the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research Recommendations, a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Daniel Nigusse Tollosa, Erica James, Alexis Hurre, Meredith Tavener

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Introduction: Lifestyle behaviours such as healthy diet, regular physical activity and maintaining a healthy weight are essential for cancer survivors to improve the quality of life and longevity. However, there is no study that synthesis cancer survivor’s adherence to healthy lifestyle recommendations. The purpose of this review was to collate existing data on the prevalence of adherence to healthy behaviours and produce the pooled estimate among adult cancer survivors. Method: Multiple databases (Embase, Medline, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar) were searched for relevant articles published since 2007, reporting cancer survivors adherence to more than two lifestyle behaviours based on the WCRF/AICR recommendations. The pooled prevalence of adherence to single and multiple behaviours (operationalized as adherence to more than 75% (3/4) of health behaviours included in a particular study) was calculated using a random effects model. Subgroup analysis adherence to multiple behaviours was undertaken corresponding to the mean survival years and year of publication. Results: A total of 3322 articles were generated through our search strategies. Of these, 51 studies matched our inclusion criteria, which presenting data from 2,620,586 adult cancer survivors. The highest prevalence of adherence was observed for smoking (pooled estimate: 87%, 95% CI: 85%, 88%) and alcohol intake (pooled estimate 83%, 95% CI: 81%, 86%), and the lowest was for fiber intake (pooled estimate: 31%, 95% CI: 21%, 40%). Thirteen studies were reported the proportion of cancer survivors (all used a simple summative index method) to multiple healthy behaviours, whereby the prevalence of adherence was ranged from 7% to 40% (pooled estimate 23%, 95% CI: 17% to 30%). Subgroup analysis suggest that short-term survivors ( < 5 years survival time) had relatively a better adherence to multiple behaviours (pooled estimate: 31%, 95% CI: 27%, 35%) than long-term ( > 5 years survival time) cancer survivors (pooled estimate: 25%, 95% CI: 14%, 36%). Pooling of estimates according to the year of publication (since 2007) also suggests an increasing trend of adherence to multiple behaviours over time. Conclusion: Overall, the adherence to multiple lifestyle behaviors was poor (not satisfactory), and relatively, it is a major concern for long-term than the short-term cancer survivor. Cancer survivors need to obey with healthy lifestyle recommendations related to physical activity, fruit and vegetable, fiber, red/processed meat and sodium intake.

Keywords: Adherence, cancer survivors, lifestyle behaviours, WCRF/AICR

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49 OASIS: An Alternative Access to Potable Water, Renewable Energy and Organic Food

Authors: Julien G. Chenet, Mario A. Hernandez, U. Leonardo Rodriguez

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The tropical areas are places where there is scarcity of access to potable water and where renewable energies need further development. They also display high undernourishment levels, even though they are one of the resources-richest areas in the world. In these areas, it is common to count on great extension of soils, high solar radiation and raw water from rain, groundwater, surface water or even saltwater. Even though resources are available, access to them is limited, and the low-density habitat makes central solutions expensive and investments not worthy. In response to this lack of investment, rural inhabitants use fossil fuels and timber as an energy source and import agrochemical for soils fertilization, which increase GHG emissions. The OASIS project brings an answer to this situation. It supplies renewable energy, potable water and organic food. The first step is the determination of the needs of the communities in terms of energy, water quantity and quality, food requirements and soil characteristics. Second step is the determination of the available resources, such as solar energy, raw water and organic residues on site. The pilot OASIS project is located in the Vichada department, Colombia, and ensures the sustainable use of natural resources to meet the community needs. The department has roughly 70% of indigenous people. They live in a very scattered landscape, with no access to clean water and energy. They use polluted surface water for direct consumption and diesel for energy purposes. OASIS pilot will ensure basic needs for a 400-students education center. In this case, OASIS will provide 20 kW of solar energy potential and 40 liters per student per day. Water will be treated form groundwater, with two qualities. A conventional one with chlorine, and as the indigenous people are not used to chlorine for direct consumption, second train is with reverse osmosis to bring conservable safe water without taste. OASIS offers a solution to supply basic needs, shifting from fossil fuels, timber, to a no-GHG-emission solution. This solution is part of the mitigation strategy against Climate Change for the communities in low-density areas of the tropics. OASIS is a learning center to teach how to convert natural resources into utilizable ones. It is also a meeting point for the community with high pedagogic impact that promotes the efficient and sustainable use of resources. OASIS system is adaptable to any tropical area and competes technically and economically with any conventional solution, that needs transport of energy, treated water and food. It is a fully automatic, replicable and sustainable solution to sort out the issue of access to basic needs in rural areas. OASIS is also a solution to undernourishment, ensuring a responsible use of resources, to prevent long-term pollution of soils and groundwater. It promotes the closure of the nutrient cycle, and the optimal use of the land whilst ensuring food security in depressed low-density regions of the tropics. OASIS is under optimization to Vichada conditions, and will be available to any other tropical area in the following months.

Keywords: Rural development, Social Inclusion, climate change adaptation and mitigation, sustainable access to clean and renewable resources

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48 Exploring the Influence of Normative, Financial and Environmental Decision Frames in Nudging 'Green' Behaviour, and Increasing Uptake of Energy-Efficient Technologies

Authors: Daniel Read, David Elmes, Rebecca Hafner

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The persuasive potential of normative and feedback (financial vs. environmental) information in ‘nudging’ people towards making environmentally sound decisions was explored in a hypothetical choice experiment. The research was specifically focused on determining how subtle variations in the decision frame could be used to increase the selection of energy efficient vs. standard technologies, using the context of home heating choice. Participants were given a choice of a standard heating system (a gas boiler) and a relatively more-energy efficient option (a heat pump). The experiment had a 2 (normative vs. no normative information) by 3 feedback type (financial, environmental, none) design. The last group constituted the control. Half of the participants were given normative information about what the majority of others in their neighbourhood had opted to do when faced with the same choice set, prior to making their decision. The other half received no such information. Varying feedback frames were incorporated by providing participants with information on either financial or environmental savings that could be achieved by choosing the heat pump. No such information was provided in the control group. A significant interaction was found between normative information and feedback frame type. Specifically, the impact of feedback frames was found to be reduced when normative information was provided; illustrating the overriding influence of normative information on option preference. Participants were significantly more likely to select the heat pump if they were vs. were not given normative information. Yet when no normative information was provided, the persuasive influence of the financial frame was increased – highlighting this as an effective means of encouraging uptake of new technologies in this instance. Conversely, the environmental frame was not found to differ significantly from the control. Marginal carryover effects were also found for stated future real-life decision-making behaviour, with participants who were versus were not given normative information being marginally more likely to state they would consider installing a heat pump when they next need to replace their heating system in real life. We conclude that normative and financial feedback framing techniques are highly effective in increasing uptake of new, energy efficient heating technologies involving significant upfront financial outlay. The implications for researchers looking to promote ‘green’ choice in the context of new technology adoption are discussed.

Keywords: Social Norms, energy-efficient technology adoption, environmental decision making, financial vs. environmental feedback framing techniques

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47 The Role of EDTA and EDDS in Reducing Metal Toxicity for Aquaculture Shellfish Perna canaliculus

Authors: Daniel R. McDougall, Martin D. de Jonge, Gordon M. Miskelly, Duncan J. McGillivray, Andrew G. Jeffs

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The chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is commonly added as a cure-all to seawater in aquaculture hatcheries around the world to reduce heavy metal toxicity, significantly improve the survival of larval shellfish, and to therefore improve the overall production efficiency of the aquaculture industry. However, EDTA is not a biodegradable chemical and is considered to be a persistent organic pollutant, which will accumulate in the environment over time. This makes the use of EDTA unsustainable environmentally, and therefore alternatives should be considered. Ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) is a biodegradable alternative to EDTA with very similar metal chelation properties. This study investigates the effect of EDTA and EDDS at two different concentrations, on metal concentrations found within developing New Zealand green-lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus) larvae. P. canaliculus is New Zealand’s main shellfish aquaculture species, providing a major export for New Zealand’s economy, with excellent potential for increased production in the near future. It is well known that the early stages of bivalve development are the most vulnerable to metal toxicity and P. canaliculus is no exception. The commercially used concentration (12 µmol L⁻¹) of EDTA added to P. canaliculus larval rearing tanks often increases the yield of D-larvae by over 80%. This concentration of EDTA and EDDS will be tested in this study, along with a lower concentration (3 µmol L⁻¹). After 48 hours of larval development, the D-larvae will be analyzed for heavy metal content with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and heavy metal distribution with synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy (XFM). In this study, we found that EDDS also improves the yield of P. canaliculus larvae and could be a viable alternative to EDTA in aquaculture. Furthermore, results suggest a higher concentration of chelating agent is more effective for improving the yield of developing P. canaliculus larvae. Metals with significant differences in concentration with the addition of EDTA were Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb (P < 0.05). We observed for the first time to the author’s best knowledge, metal distribution within 100 µm P. canaliculus D-larvae using synchrotron XFM and found changes in the distribution of metals with the addition of EDTA. XFM also has the potential to provide information about the chemical state of the metals within mussel larvae. This research provides greater insight into the reasons for the effectiveness of adding the chelating agent to aquaculture culture water, and a more environmentally conscious alternative to the currently used EDTA, which could be extremely valuable for the aquaculture industry.

Keywords: Toxicity, Water Treatment, Heavy Metals, EDTA, EDDS, P. canaliculus

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46 Extraction and Quantification of Peramine Present in Dalaca pallens, a Pest of Grassland in Southtern Chile

Authors: Daniel Martinez, Leonardo Parra, Manuel Chacón-Fuentes, Andrés Quiroz, Fernando Ortega, Jorge Pizarro

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Control of Dalaca pallens or blackworms, one of the most important hypogeous pest in grassland in southern Chile, is based on the use of broad-spectrum insecticides such as organophosphates and pyrethroids. However, the rapid development of insecticide resistance in field populations of this insect and public concern over the environmental impact of these insecticides has resulted in the search for other control methods. Specifically, the use of endophyte fungi for controlling pest has emerged as an interesting and promising strategy. Endophytes from ryegrass (Lolium perenne), establish a biotrophic relationship with the host, defined as mutualistic symbiosis. The plant-fungi association produces alkaloids where peramine is the main toxic substance against Listronotus bonariensis, the most important epigean pest of ryegrass. Nevertheless, the effect of peramina on others pest insects, such as D. pallens, to our knowledge has not been studied, and also its possible metabolization in the body of the larvae. Therefore, we addressed the following research question: Do larvae of D. pallens store peramine after consumption of ryegrass endophyte infected (E+)? For this, specimens of blackworms were fed with ryegrass plant of seven experimental lines and one commercial cultivar endophyte free (E-) sown at the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias Carillanca (Vilcún, Chile). Once the feeding period was over, ten larvae of each treatment were examined. Individuals were dissected, and their gut was removed to exclude any influence of remaining material. The rest of the larva's body was dried at 60°C by 24-48 h and ground into a fine powder using a mortar. 25 mg of dry powder was transferred to a microcentrifuge tube and extracted in 1 mL of a mixture of methanol:water:formic acid. Then, the samples were centrifuged at 16,000 rpm for 3 min, and the supernatant was colected and injected in the liquid chromatography of high resolution (HPLC). The results confirmed the presence of peramine in the larva's body of D. pallens. The insects that fed the experimental lines LQE-2 and LQE-6 were those where peramine was present in high proportion (0.205 and 0.199 ppm, respectively); while LQE-7 and LQE-3 obtained the lowest concentrations of the alkaloid (0.047 and 0.053 ppm, respectively). Peramine was not detected in the insects when the control cultivar Jumbo (E-) was tested. These results evidenced the storage and metabolism of peramine during consumption of the larvae. However, the effect of this alkaloid present in 'future ryegrass cultivars' (LQE-2 and LQE-6) on the performance and survival of blackworms must be studied and confirmed experimentally.

Keywords: Pest, HPLC, alkaloid, blackworms

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45 Investigation of Clusters of MRSA Cases in a Hospital in Western Kenya

Authors: Lillian Musila, Valerie Oundo, Daniel Erwin, Willie Sang

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Staphylococcus aureus infections are a major cause of nosocomial infections in Kenya. Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections are a significant burden to public health and are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. At a hospital in Western Kenya two clusters of MRSA cases emerged within short periods of time. In this study we explored whether these clusters represented a nosocomial outbreak by characterizing the isolates using phenotypic and molecular assays and examining epidemiological data to identify possible transmission patterns. Specimens from the site of infection of the subjects were collected, cultured and S. aureus isolates identified phenotypically and confirmed by APIStaph™. MRSA were identified by cefoxitin disk screening per CLSI guidelines. MRSA were further characterized based on their antibiotic susceptibility patterns and spa gene typing. Characteristics of cases with MRSA isolates were compared with those with MSSA isolated around the same time period. Two cases of MRSA infection were identified in the two week period between 21 April and 4 May 2015. A further 2 MRSA isolates were identified on the same day on 7 September 2015. The antibiotic resistance patterns of the two MRSA isolates in the 1st cluster of cases were different suggesting that these were distinct isolates. One isolate had spa type t2029 and the other had a novel spa type. The 2 isolates were obtained from urine and an open skin wound. In the 2nd cluster of MRSA isolates, the antibiotic susceptibility patterns were similar but isolates had different spa types: one was t037 and the other a novel spa type different from the novel MRSA spa type in the first cluster. Both cases in the second cluster were admitted into the hospital but one infection was community- and the other hospital-acquired. Only one of the four MRSA cases was classified as an HAI from an infection acquired post-operatively. When compared to other S. aureus strains isolated within the same time period from the same hospital only one spa type t2029 was found in both MRSA and non-MRSA strains. None of the cases infected with MRSA in the two clusters shared any common epidemiological characteristic such as age, sex or known risk factors for MRSA such as prolonged hospitalization or institutionalization. These data suggest that the observed MRSA clusters were multi strain clusters and not an outbreak of a single strain. There was no clear relationship between the isolates by spa type suggesting that no transmission was occurring within the hospital between these cluster cases but rather that the majority of the MRSA strains were circulating in the community. There was high diversity of spa types among the MRSA strains with none of the isolates sharing spa types. Identification of disease clusters in space and time is critical for immediate infection control action and patient management. Spa gene typing is a rapid way of confirming or ruling out MRSA outbreaks so that costly interventions are applied only when necessary.

Keywords: Cluster, Kenya, MRSA, spa typing

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44 Absorptive Capabilities in the Development of Biopharmaceutical Industry: The Case of Bioprocess Development and Research Unit, National Polytechnic Institute

Authors: Ana L. Sánchez Regla, Igor A. Rivera González, María del Pilar Monserrat Pérez Hernández

Abstract:

The ability of an organization to identify and get useful information from external sources, assimilate it, transform and apply to generate products or services with added value is called absorptive capacity. Absorptive capabilities contribute to have market opportunities to firms and get a leader position with respect to others competitors. The Bioprocess Development and Research Unit (UDIBI) is a Research and Development (R&D) laboratory that belongs to the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN), which is a higher education institute in Mexico. The UDIBI was created with the purpose of carrying out R and D activities for the Transferon®, a biopharmaceutical product developed and patented by IPN. The evolution of competence and scientific and technological platform made UDIBI expand its scope by providing technological services (preclínical studies and bio-compatibility evaluation) to the national pharmaceutical industry and biopharmaceutical industry. The relevance of this study is that those industries are classified as high scientific and technological intensity, and yet, after a review of the state of the art, there is only one study of absorption capabilities in biopharmaceutical industry with a similar scope to this research; in the case of Mexico, there is none. In addition to this, UDIBI belongs to a public university and its operation does not depend on the federal budget, but on the income generated by its external technological services. This fact represents a highly remarkable case in Mexico's public higher education context. This current doctoral research (2015-2019) is contextualized within a case study, its main objective is to identify and analyze the absorptive capabilities that characterise the UDIBI that allows it had become in a one of two third authorized laboratory by the sanitary authority in Mexico for developed bio-comparability studies to bio-pharmaceutical products. The development of this work in the field is divided into two phases. In a first phase, 15 interviews were conducted with the UDIBI personnel, covering management levels, heads of services, project leaders and laboratory personnel. These interviews were structured under a questionnaire, which was designed to integrate open questions and to a lesser extent, others, whose answers would be answered on a Likert-type rating scale. From the information obtained in this phase, a scientific article was made (in review and a proposal of presentation was submitted in different academic forums. A second stage will be made from the conduct of an ethnographic study within this organization under study that will last about 3 months. On the other hand, it is intended to carry out interviews with external actors around the UDIBI (suppliers, advisors, IPN officials, including contact with an academic specialized in absorption capacities to express their comments on this thesis. The inicial findings had shown two lines: i) exist institutional, technological and organizational management elements that encourage and/or limit the creation of absorption capacities in this scientific and technological laboratory and, ii) UDIBI has had created a set of multiple transfer technology of knowledge mechanisms which have had permitted to build a huge base of prior knowledge.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, absorptive capabilities, biopharmaceutical industry, high research and development intensity industries, transfer of knowledge

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43 Identification, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of the Major Human Metabolite of NLRP3 Inflammasome Inhibitor MCC950

Authors: Matthew A. Cooper, Manohar Salla, Mark S. Butler, Ruby Pelingon, Geraldine Kaeslin, Daniel E. Croker, Janet C. Reid, Jong Min Baek, Paul V. Bernhardt, Elizabeth M. J. Gillam, Avril A. B. Robertson

Abstract:

MCC950 is a potent and selective inhibitor of the NOD-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome that shows early promise for treatment of inflammatory diseases. The identification of major metabolites of lead molecule is an important step during drug development process. It provides an information about the metabolically labile sites in the molecule and thereby helping medicinal chemists to design metabolically stable molecules. To identify major metabolites of MCC950, the compound was incubated with human liver microsomes and subsequent analysis by (+)- and (−)-QTOF-ESI-MS/MS revealed a major metabolite formed due to hydroxylation on 1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-s-indacene moiety of MCC950. This major metabolite can lose two water molecules and three possible regioisomers were synthesized. Co-elution of major metabolite with each of the synthesized compounds using HPLC-ESI-SRM-MS/MS revealed the structure of the metabolite (±) N-((1-hydroxy-1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-s-indacen-4-yl)carbamoyl)-4-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)furan-2-sulfonamide. Subsequent synthesis of individual enantiomers and coelution in HPLC-ESI-SRM-MS/MS using a chiral column revealed the metabolite was R-(+)- N-((1-hydroxy-1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-s-indacen-4-yl)carbamoyl)-4-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)furan-2-sulfonamide. To study the possible cytochrome P450 enzyme(s) responsible for the formation of major metabolite, MCC950 was incubated with a panel of cytochrome P450 enzymes. The result indicated that CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C18, CYP2C19, CYP2J2 and CYP3A4 are most likely responsible for the formation of the major metabolite. The biological activity of the major metabolite and the other synthesized regioisomers was also investigated by screening for for NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitory activity and cytotoxicity. The major metabolite had 170-fold less inhibitory activity (IC50-1238 nM) than MCC950 (IC50-7.5 nM). Interestingly, one regioisomer had shown nanomolar inhibitory activity (IC50-232 nM). However, no evidence of cytotoxicity was observed with any of these synthesized compounds when tested in human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK293) and human liver hepatocellular carcinoma G2 cells (HepG2). These key findings give an insight into the SAR of the hexahydroindacene moiety of MCC950 and reveal a metabolic soft spot which could be blocked by chemical modification.

Keywords: NLRP3, inflammasome, Cytochrome P450, MCC950, metabolite, microsome

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42 Additional Pathological Findings Using MRI on Patients with First Time Traumatic Lateral Patella Dislocation: A Study of 150 Patients

Authors: Ophir Segal, Daniel Weltsch, Shay Tenenbaum, Ran Thein

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Purpose: Patients with lateral patellar dislocation (LPD) are not always referred to perform an MRI. This might be the case in first time LPD patients without surgical indications or in patients with recurrent LPD who had MRI in previous episodes. Unfortunately, in some cases, there are additional knee pathological findings, which include tearing of the collateral or cruciate ligaments and injury to the tendons or menisci. These findings might be overlooked during the physical examination or masked by nonspecific clinical findings like knee pain, effusion, or hemarthrosis. The prevalence of these findings, which can be revealed by MRI, is misreported in literature and is considered rare. In our practice, all patients with LPD are sent for MRI after LPD. Therefore, we have designed a retrospective comparative study to evaluate the prevalence of additional pathological findings in patients with acute traumatic LPD that had performed MRI, comparing different groups of patients according to age, sex, and Tibial Tuberosity-Trochlear Groove(TT-TG) distance. Methods: MRI of the knee in patients after traumatic LPD were evaluated for the presence of additional pathological findings such as injuries to ligaments: Anterior/Posterior cruciate ligament(ACL, PCL), Medial/Lateral collateral ligament(MCL, LCL), injuries to tendons(QUADICEPS, PATELLAR), menisci(Medial/Lateral meniscus(MM, LM)) and tibial plateau, by a fellowship-trained, senior musculoskeletal radiologist. A comparison between different groups of patients was performed according to age (age group < 25 years, age group > 25 years), sex (Male/Female group), and TT-TG distance (TT-TG<15 groups, TT-TG>15 groups). A descriptive and comparative statistical analysis was performed. Results: 150 patients were included in this study. All suffered from LPD between the years 2012-2017 (mean age 21.3( ± SD 8.9), 86 males). ACL, PCL, MCL, and LCL complete or partial tears were found in 17(11.3%), 3(2%), 22(14.6%), and 4(2.7%) of the patients, respectively. MM and LM tears were found in 10(6.7%) and 3(2%) of the patients, respectively. A higher prevalence of PCL injury, MM tear, and LM tear were found in the older age group compared to the younger group of patients (10.5% vs. 1.8%, 18.4% vs. 2.7%, and 7.9% vs. 0%, respectively, p<0.05). A higher prevalence of non-displaced MM tear and LCL injury was found in the male group compared to the female group (8.1% vs. 0% and 8.1% vs. 0% respectively, p<0.05). A higher prevalence of ACL injury was found in the normal TT-TG group compared to the pathologic TT-TG group (17.5% vs. 2.3%, p= 0.0184). Conclusions: Overall, 43 out of 150 (28.7%) of the patient's MRI’s were positive for additional pathological radiological findings. Interestingly, a higher prevalence of additional pathologies was found in the groups of patients with a lower risk for recurrent LPD, including males, patients older than 25, and patients with TT-TG lower than 15mm, and therefore might not be referred for an MRI scan. Thus, we recommend a strict physical examination, awareness to the high prevalence of additional pathological findings, and to consider performing an MRI in all patients after LPD.

Keywords: additional findings, lateral patellar dislocation (LPD), MRI scan, traumatic patellar dislocation, cruciate ligaments injuries, menisci injuries, collateral ligaments injuries

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41 Designing Metal Organic Frameworks for Sustainable CO₂ Utilization

Authors: Matthew E. Potter, Daniel J. Stewart, Lindsay M. Armstrong, Pier J. A. Sazio, Robert R. Raja

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Rising CO₂ levels in the atmosphere means that CO₂ is a highly desirable feedstock. This requires specific catalysts to be designed to activate this inert molecule, combining a catalytic site tailored for CO₂ transformations with a support that can readily adsorb CO₂. Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are regularly used as CO₂ sorbents. The organic nature of the linker molecules, connecting the metal nodes, offers many post-synthesis modifications to introduce catalytic active sites into the frameworks. However, the metal nodes may be coordinatively unsaturated, allowing them to bind to organic moieties. Imidazoles have shown promise catalyzing the formation of cyclic carbonates from epoxides with CO₂. Typically, this synthesis route employs toxic reagents such as phosgene, liberating HCl. Therefore an alternative route with CO₂ is highly appealing. In this work we design active sites for CO₂ activation, by tethering substituted-imidazole organocatalytic species to the available Cr3+ metal nodes of a Cr-MIL-101 MOF, for the first time, to create a tailored species for carbon capture utilization applications. Our tailored design strategy combining a CO₂ sorbent, Cr-MIL-101, with an anchored imidazole results in a highly active and selective multifunctional catalyst, achieving turnover frequencies of over 750 hr-1. These findings demonstrate the synergy between the MOF framework and imidazoles for CO₂ utilization applications. Further, the effect of substrate variation has been explored yielding mechanistic insights into this process. Through characterization, we show that the structural and compositional integrity of the Cr-MIL-101 has been preserved on functionalizing the imidazoles. Further, we show the binding of the imidazoles to the Cr3+ metal nodes. This can be seen through our EPR study, where the distortion of the Cr3+ on binding to the imidazole shows the CO₂ binding site is close to the active imidazole. This has a synergistic effect, improving catalytic performance. We believe the combination of MOF support and organocatalyst allows many possibilities to generate new multifunctional catalysts for CO₂ utilisation. In conclusion, we have validated our design procedure, combining a known CO₂ sorbent, with an active imidazole species to create a unique tailored multifunctional catalyst for CO₂ utilization. This species achieves high activity and selectivity for the formation of cyclic carbonates and offers a sustainable alternative to traditional synthesis methods. This work represents a unique design strategy for CO₂ utilization while offering exciting possibilities for further work in characterization, computational modelling, and post-synthesis modification.

Keywords: Catalysis, Utilisation, MOF, carbonate

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40 Comparison of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Lean Versus Overweight/Obese Peri-Urban Female Adolescent School Learners in Mthatha, South Africa: A Pilot Case Control Study

Authors: Benedicta N. Nkeh-Chungag, Constance R. Sewani-Rusike, Isaac M. Malema, Daniel T. Goon, Oladele V. Adeniyi, Idowu A. Ajayi

Abstract:

Background: Childhood and adolescent obesity is an important predictor of adult cardiometabolic diseases. Current data on age- and gender-specific cardiometabolic risk factors are lacking in the peri-urban Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. However, such information is important in designing innovative strategies to promote healthy living among children and adolescents. The purpose of this pilot study was to compare and determine the extent of cardiometabolic risk factors between samples of lean and overweight/obese adolescent population in a peri-urban township of South Africa. Methods: In this case-control study, age-matched, non-pregnant and non-lactating female adolescents consisting of equal number of cases (50 overweight/obese) and control (50 lean) participated in the study. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained for total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (Trig), highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and blood sugar. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, waist and hip circumferences. Body mass index was calculated. Blood pressure was measured; and metabolic syndrome was assessed using appropriate diagnostic criteria for children and adolescents. Results: Of the 76 participants with complete data, 12/38 of the overweight/obese and 1/38 of the lean group met the criteria for adolescent metabolic syndrome. All cardiometabolic risk factors were elevated in the overweight/obese group compared with the lean group: low HDL-C (RR = 2.21), elevated TC (RR = 1.23), elevated LDL-C (RR = 1.42), elevated Trig (RR = 1.73), and elevated hsCRP (RR = 1.9). There were significant atherosclerotic indices among the overweight/obese group compared with the lean group: TC/HDL and LDL/HDL (2.99±0.91 vs 2.63±0.48; p=0.016 and 1.73±0.61 vs 1.41±0.46; p= 0.014, respectively). Conclusion: There are multiple cardiometabolic risk factors among the overweight/obese female adolescent group compared with lean adolescent group in the study. Female adolescent who are overweight and obese have higher relative risks of developing cardiometabolic diseases compared with their lean counterparts in the peri-urban Mthatha, South Africa. School health programme focusing on promoting physical exercise, healthy eating and keeping appropriate weight are needed in the country.

Keywords: Obesity, Adolescents, cardiometabolic risk factors, peri-urban South Africa

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39 Literature Review on the Controversies and Changes in the Insanity Defense since the Wild Beast Standard in 1723 until the Federal Insanity Defense Reform Act of 1984

Authors: Jane E. Hill

Abstract:

Many variables led to the changes in the insanity defense since the Wild Beast Standard of 1723 until the Federal Insanity Defense Reform Act of 1984. The insanity defense is used in criminal trials and argued that the defendant is ‘not guilty by reason of insanity’ because the individual was unable to distinguish right from wrong during the time they were breaking the law. The issue that surrounds whether or not to use the insanity defense in the criminal court depends on the mental state of the defendant at the time the criminal act was committed. This leads us to the question of did the defendant know right from wrong when they broke the law? In 1723, The Wild Beast Test stated that to be exempted from punishment the individual is totally deprived of their understanding and memory and doth not know what they are doing. The Wild Beast Test became the standard in England for over seventy-five years. In 1800, James Hadfield attempted to assassinate King George III. He only made the attempt because he was having delusional beliefs. The jury and the judge gave a verdict of not guilty. However, to legal confine him; the Criminal Lunatics Act was enacted. Individuals that were deemed as ‘criminal lunatics’ and were given a verdict of not guilty would be taken into custody and not be freed into society. In 1843, the M'Naghten test required that the individual did not know the quality or the wrongfulness of the offense at the time they committed the criminal act(s). Daniel M'Naghten was acquitted on grounds of insanity. The M'Naghten Test is still a modern concept of the insanity defense used in many courts today. The Irresistible Impulse Test was enacted in the United States in 1887. The Irresistible Impulse Test suggested that offenders that could not control their behavior while they were committing a criminal act were not deterrable by the criminal sanctions in place; therefore no purpose would be served by convicting the offender. Due to the criticisms of the latter two contentions, the federal District of Columbia Court of Appeals ruled in 1954 to adopt the ‘product test’ by Sir Isaac Ray for insanity. The Durham Rule also known as the ‘product test’, stated an individual is not criminally responsible if the unlawful act was the product of mental disease or defect. Therefore, the two questions that need to be asked and answered are (1) did the individual have a mental disease or defect at the time they broke the law? and (2) was the criminal act the product of their disease or defect? The Durham courts failed to clearly define ‘mental disease’ or ‘product.’ Therefore, trial courts had difficulty defining the meaning of the terms and the controversy continued until 1972 when the Durham rule was overturned in most places. Therefore, the American Law Institute combined the M'Naghten test with the irresistible impulse test and The United States Congress adopted an insanity test for the federal courts in 1984.

Keywords: insanity defense, psychology law, The Federal Insanity Defense Reform Act of 1984, The Wild Beast Standard in 1723

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38 Consumption of Animal and Vegetable Protein on Muscle Power in Road Cyclists from 18 to 20 Years in Bogota, Colombia

Authors: Daniel Botero, Oscar Rubiano, Oscar Ortiz, Natalia Morales, Lida Alfonso, Johana Alvarado, Adriana Gutierrez

Abstract:

Athletes who usually use protein supplements, are those who practice strength and power sports, whose goal is to achieve a large muscle mass. However, it has also been explored in sports or endurance activities such as cycling, and where despite requiring high power, prominent muscle development can impede good competitive performance due to the determinant of body mass for good performance of the athlete body. This research shows, the effect with protein supplements establishes a protein - muscle mass ratio, although in a lesser proportion the relationship between protein types and muscle power. Thus, we intend to explore as a first approximation, the behavior of muscle power in lower limbs after the intake of two protein supplements from different sources. The aim of the study was to describe the behavior of muscle power in lower limbs after the consumption of animal protein (AP) and vegetable protein (VP) in four route cyclists from 18 to 20 years of the Bogota cycling league. The methodological design of this study is quantitative, with a non-probabilistic sampling, based on a pre-experimental model. The jumping power was evaluated before and after the intervention by means of the squat jump test (SJ), Counter movement jump (CMJ) and Abalacov (AB). Cyclists consumed a drink with whey protein and a soy isolate after training four times a week for three months. The amount of protein in each cyclist, was calculated according to body weight (0.5 g / kg of muscle mass). The results show that subjects who consumed PV improved muscle strength and landing strength. In contrast, the power and landing force decreased for subjects who consumed PA. For the group that consumed PV, the increase was positive at 164.26 watts, 135.70 watts and 33.96 watts for the AB, SJ and CMJ jumps respectively. While for PA, the differences of the medians were negative at -32.29 watts, -82.79 watts and -143.86 watts for the AB, SJ and CMJ jumps respectively. The differences of the medians in the AB jump were positive for both the PV (121.61 Newton) and PA (454.34 Newton) cases, however, the difference was greater for PA. For the SJ jump, the difference for the PA cases was 371.52 Newton, while for the PV cases the difference was negative -448.56 Newton, so the difference was greater in the SJ jump for PA. In jump CMJ, the differences of the medians were negative for the cases of PA and PV, being -7.05 for PA and - 958.2 for PV. So the difference was greater for PA. The conclusion of this study shows that serum protein supplementation showed no improvement in muscle power in the lower limbs of the cyclists studied, which could suggest that whey protein does not have a beneficial effect on performance in terms of power, either, showed an impact on body composition. In contrast, supplementation with soy isolate showed positive effects on muscle power, body.

Keywords: Supplements, animal protein (AP), muscle power, vegetable protein (VP)

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37 Medicinal Plants: An Antiviral Depository with Complex Mode of Action

Authors: Daniel Todorov, Anton Hinkov, Petya Angelova, Kalina Shishkova, Venelin Tsvetkov, Stoyan Shishkov

Abstract:

Human herpes viruses (HHV) are ubiquitous pathogens with a pandemic spread across the globe. HHV type 1 is the main causative agent of cold sores and fever blisters around the mouth and on the face, whereas HHV type 2 is generally responsible for genital herpes outbreaks. The treatment of both viruses is more or less successful with antivirals from the nucleoside analogues group. Their wide application increasingly leads to the emergence of resistant mutants In the past, medicinal plants have been used to treat a number of infectious and non-infectious diseases. Their diversity and ability to produce the vast variety of secondary metabolites according to the characteristics of the environment give them the potential to help us in our warfare with viral infections. The variable chemical characteristics and complex composition is an advantage in the treatment of herpes since the emergence of resistant mutants is significantly complicated. The screening process is difficult due to the lack of standardization. That is why it is especially important to follow the mechanism of antiviral action of plants. On the one hand, it may be expected to interact with its compounds, resulting in enhanced antiviral effects, and the most appropriate environmental conditions can be chosen to maximize the amount of active secondary metabolites. During our study, we followed the activity of various plant extracts on the viral replication cycle as well as their effect on the extracellular virion. We obtained our results following the logical sequence of the experimental settings - determining the cytotoxicity of the extracts, evaluating the overall effect on viral replication and extracellular virion.During our research, we have screened a variety of plant extracts for their antiviral activity against both virus replication and the virion itself. We investigated the effect of the extracts on the individual stages of the viral replication cycle - viral adsorption, penetration and the effect on replication depending on the time of addition. If there are positive results in the later experiments, we had studied the activity over viral adsorption, penetration and the effect of replication according to the time of addition. Our results indicate that some of the extracts from the Lamium album have several targets. The first stages of the viral life cycle are most affected. Several of our active antiviral agents have shown an effect on extracellular virion and adsorption and penetration processes. Our research over the last decade has shown several curative antiviral plants - some of which are from the Lamiacea family. The rich set of active ingredients of the plants in this family makes them a good source of antiviral preparation.

Keywords: antiviral activity, human herpes virus, Lamium album, Nepeta nuda

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36 Road Accidents to School Children’s in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

Authors: Kabuga Daniel

Abstract:

Road accidents resulting to deaths and injuries have become a new public health challenge especially in developing countries including Tanzania. Reports from Tanzania Traffic Police Force shows that last year 2016 accidents increased compare to previous year 2015, accident happened from 3710 up to 5219, accidents and safety data indicate that children are the most vulnerable to road crashes where 78 pupils died and 182 others were seriously injured in separate roads accident last year. A survey done by Amend indicates that Pupil mode of transport in Dar es salaam schools are by walk 87%, bus 9.21%, car 1.32%, motorcycle 0.88%, 3-wheeler 0.24%, train 0.14%, bicycle 0.10%, ferry 0.07%, and combined mode 0.44%. According to this study, majority of school children’s uses walking mode, most of school children’s agreed to continue using walking mode and request to have signs for traffic control during crossing road like STOP sign and CHILD CROSSING sign for safe crossing. Because children not only sit inside this buses (Daladala) but also they walk in a group to/from school, and few (33.2%) parents or adults are willing to supervise their children’s during working to school while 50% of parents agree to let their children walking alone to school if the public transport started from nearby street. The study used both qualitative and quantitative methods of research by conducting physical surveying on sample districts. The main objectives of this research are to carries out all factors affecting school children’s when they use public road, to promote and encourage the safe use of public road by all classes especially pupil or student through the circulation of advice, information and knowledge gain from research and to recommends future direction for the developments for road design or plan to vulnerable users. The research also critically analyze the problems causing death and injuries to school children’s in Dar es Salaam Region. This study determines the relationship between road traffic accidents and factors, such as socio-economic, status, and distance from school, number of sibling, behavioral problems, knowledge and attitudes of public and their parents towards road safety and parent educational study traffic. The study comes up with some of recommendations including Infrastructure Improvements like, safe footpaths, Safe crossings, Speed humps, Speed limits, Road signs. However, Planners and policymakers wishing to increase walking and cycling among children need to consider options that address distance constraints, the land use planners and transport professionals use better understanding of the various factors that affect children’s choices of school travel mode, results suggest that all school travel attributes should be considered during school location.

Keywords: accidents, School, Tanzania, childrens

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