Search results for: chile
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 117

Search results for: chile

117 Effects of Polyvictimization in Suicidal Ideation among Children and Adolescents in Chile

Authors: Oscar E. Cariceo

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In Chile, there is a lack of evidence about the impact of polyvictimization on the emergence of suicidal thoughts among children and young people. Thus, this study aims to explore the association between the episodes of polyvictimization suffered by Chilean children and young people and the manifestation of signs related to suicidal tendencies. To achieve this purpose, secondary data from the First Polyvictimization Survey on Children and Adolescents of 2017 were analyzed, and a binomial logistic regression model was applied to establish the probability that young people are experiencing suicidal ideation episodes. The main findings show that women between the ages of 13 and 15 years, who are in seventh grade and second in subsidized schools, are more likely to express suicidal ideas, which increases if they have suffered different types of victimization, particularly physical violence, psychological aggression, and sexual abuse.

Keywords: Chile, polyvictimization, suicidal ideation, youth

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116 Indigenous Understandings of Climate Vulnerability in Chile: A Qualitative Approach

Authors: Rosario Carmona

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This article aims to discuss the importance of indigenous people participation in climate change mitigation and adaptation. Specifically, it analyses different understandings of climate vulnerability among diverse actors involved in climate change policies in Chile: indigenous people, state officials, and academics. These data were collected through participant observation and interviews conducted during October 2017 and January 2019 in Chile. Following Karen O’Brien, there are two types of vulnerability, outcome vulnerability and contextual vulnerability. How vulnerability to climate change is understood determines the approach, which actors are involved and which knowledge is considered to address it. Because climate change is a very complex phenomenon, it is necessary to transform the institutions and their responses. To do so, it is fundamental to consider these two perspectives and different types of knowledge, particularly those of the most vulnerable, such as indigenous people. For centuries and thanks to a long coexistence with the environment, indigenous societies have elaborated coping strategies, and some of them are already adapting to climate change. Indigenous people from Chile are not an exception. But, indigenous people tend to be excluded from decision-making processes. And indigenous knowledge is frequently seen as subjective and arbitrary in relation to science. Nevertheless, last years indigenous knowledge has gained particular relevance in the academic world, and indigenous actors are getting prominence in international negotiations. There are some mechanisms that promote their participation (e.g., Cancun safeguards, World Bank operational policies, REDD+), which are not absent from difficulties. And since 2016 parties are working on a Local Communities and Indigenous Peoples Platform. This paper also explores the incidence of this process in Chile. Although there is progress in the participation of indigenous people, this participation responds to the operational policies of the funding agencies and not to a real commitment of the state with this sector. The State of Chile omits a review of the structure that promotes inequality and the exclusion of indigenous people. In this way, climate change policies could be configured as a new mechanism of coloniality that validates a single type of knowledge and leads to new territorial control strategies, which increases vulnerability.

Keywords: indigenous knowledge, climate change, vulnerability, Chile

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115 Creation of Greenhouses by Students, Using the Own Installations of the University and Increasing the Growth of Plants

Authors: Espinosa-Garza G., Loera-Hernandez I., Antonyan N.

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To innovate, it is necessary to perform projects directed towards the search of improvement. The agricultural technique and the design of greenhouses have been studied by undergraduate engineering students from the Tecnológico de Monterrey using the campus areas. The purpose of this project was to incite students to create innovations and help rural populations of the state to solve one of the problems that they are dealing with nowadays. The main objective of the project was to search for an alternative technique that will allow the planting of the “chile piquín” plant, also known as Capsicum annuum, to grow quicker as it germinates. The “chile piquín” is one of the original crops of Mexico and forms the basis of the Mesoamerican cultures’ diet since the pre-hispanic era. To fulfill with today’s demand, it is required to implement new alternative methods to increase the “chile piquín’s” growth. The project lasted one semester with the participation of engineering students from multiple majors. The most important results from this academic experience were that, from the proposed goal, the students could analyze the needs of their town and were capable of introducing new and innovative ideas with the aim of resolving them. In the present article the pedagogic methodologies that allowed to carry out this project will be discussed.

Keywords: academic experience, chile piquín, engineering education, greenhouse design, innovation

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114 Socioterritorial Inequalities in a Region of Chile. Beyond the Geography

Authors: Javier Donoso-Bravo, Camila Cortés-Zambrano

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In this paper, we analyze socioterritorial inequalities in the region of Valparaiso (Chile) using secondary data to account for these inequalities drawing on economic, social, educational, and environmental dimensions regarding the thirty-six municipalities of the region. We looked over a wide-ranging set of secondary data from public sources regarding economic activities, poverty, employment, income, years of education, post-secondary education access, green areas, access to potable water, and others. We found sharp socioterritorial inequalities especially based on the economic performance in each territory. Analysis show, on the one hand, the existence of a dual and unorganized development model in some territories with a strong economic activity -especially in the areas of finance, real estate, mining, and vineyards- but, at the same time, with poor social indicators. On the other hand, most of the territories show a dispersed model with very little dynamic economic activities and very poor social development. Finally, we discuss how socioterritorial inequalities in the region of Valparaiso reflect the level of globalization of the economic activities carried on in every territory.

Keywords: socioterritorial inequalities, development model, Chile, secondary data, Region of Valparaiso

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113 The Competence of Solving Mathematical Problems in the Formation of Ethical Values

Authors: Veronica Diaz Quezada

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A study and its preliminary results are presented. The research is descriptive and exploratory and it is still in process. Its objective is to develop an assessment method in the field of fostering values using competence mathematics problem solving. This is part of a more extensive research that aims at contributing to educational integration in Latin America, particularly to the development of proposals to link education for citizenship and the mathematics lessons. This is being carried out by research teams of University of Barcelona-España; University Nacional of Costa Rica; University Autónoma of Querétaro-México; Pontificia University Católica of Perú, University Nacional of Villa María- Argentina and University of Los Lagos-Chile, in the context of Andrés Bello Chair for the Association of Latin American Universities. This research was developed and implemented in Chile in 2016, using mixed research methods. It included interviews and a problem-solving math test with ethical values that was administered to students of the secondary education of the regions of Los Ríos and of the Lakes of Chile. The results show the lack of integration between the teaching of values and science discipline.

Keywords: citizenchip, ethical values, mathematics, secondary school, solving problem

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112 Three Visions of a Conflict: The Case of La Araucania, Chile

Authors: Maria Barriga

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The article focuses on the analysis of three images of the last five years that represent different visions of social groups in the context of the so call “Conflicto Mapuche” in la Araucanía, Chile. Using a multimodal social semiotic approach, we analyze the meaning making of these images and the social groups strategies to achieve visibility and recognition in political contexts. We explore the making and appropriation of symbols and concepts and analyze the different strategies that groups use to built hegemonic views. Among these strategies, we compare the use of digital technologies in design these images and the influence of Chilean Estate's vision on the Mapuche political conflict. Finally, we propose visual strategies to improve basic conditions for dialogue and recognition among these groups.

Keywords: visual culture, power, conflict, indigenous people

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111 Performance Management in Public Administration on Chile and Portugal

Authors: Lilian Bambirra De Assis, Patricia Albuquerque Gomes, Kamila Pagel De Oliveira, Deborah Oliveira Santos, Marcelo Esteves Chaves Campos

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This paper aimed to analyze how performance management occurs in the context of the modernization of the federal public sector in Chile and Portugal. To do so, the study was based on a theoretical framework that covers the modernization of public administration to performance management, passing on people management. The work consisted of qualitative-descriptive research in which 16 semi-structured interviews were applied in the countries of study and documents and legislation were used referring to the subject. Performance management, as well as other people management subsystems, is criticized for using private sector management tools, based on a results-driven logic. From this point of view, it is understood that certain practices of the private sector, regarding the measurement of performance, can not be simply inserted in the scenario of the public administration. Beyond this criticism, performance management can contribute to the achievement of the strategic objectives of the countries and its focus is upward, a trend that can be verified through the manuals produced; by the interest of consultants and professional organizations, both public and private; and OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) evaluations. In Portugal, public administration reform was implemented during the Constitutional Government (2005-2009) and had as its objective the restructuring of human resources management, with an emphasis on its integration with budget management, which is an inclination of the OECD, while in Chile HRM (Human Resource Management) practices are directed to ministries to a lesser extent than the OECD average. The central human resources management sector, for the most part, coordinates policy but is also responsible for other issues, including payment and classification systems. Chile makes less use of strategic Human Resource Management practices than the average of OECD countries, and its prominence lies in the decentralization of public bodies, which may grant autonomy, but fragments the implementation of policies and practices in that country since they are not adopted by all organs. Through the analysis, it was possible to identify that Chile and Portugal have practices and personnel management policies that make reference to performance management, which is similar to other OECD countries. The study countries also have limitations to implement performance management and the results indicate that there are still processes to be perfected, such as performance appraisal and compensation.

Keywords: management of people in the public sector, modernization of public administration, performance management in the public sector, HRM, OECD

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110 Exploring Health-Related Inequalities between Private, Public and Active Transport Users, Using Relative Importance Index: Case Study on Santiago de Chile

Authors: Beatriz Mella Lira, Karla Yohannessen, Robin Hickman

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The aim of the paper is recognising inequalities through the self-assessment of health-related factors, in the context of daily mobilities in Santiago de Chile. Human capabilities will be used as the theoretical basis for the recognition and assessment of these factors regarding the functioning (what people are currently able to do) and capabilities (what people want to achieve and what is valuable for them), reflecting differences across social groups and among types of transport users. The self-assessment of health-related factors considers perceptions of stress, physical effort, proximity to other transport users, pollution, safety, and comfort. The types of transport users are classified as: private (cars, taxis, colectivos, motos), public (buses and metro) and active (bicycles and walking). The methodology follows a capability-based questionnaire, which was applied in different areas of Santiago de Chile, considering concepts extracted from the human capabilities list. The self-assessment of these health-related factors examines the context of peoples’ mobilities for performing their daily activities, considering socioeconomic differences as income, age, gender, disabilities, residence location and primary mode choice. The paper uses Relative Importance Index (RII) for weighting the relative influence or valuation of the factors. The respondents were asked to rate the importance of each factor on a scale from 1 to 5, in an ascending order of importance. The results suggest that these health-related factors impact not just the perceptions of users, but their well-being and their propensity for achieving their capabilities and the things they value in life. The paper is focused on the development of an applicable approach, measuring factors that should be included in transport project appraisal, as a more comprehensive and complementary method.

Keywords: active transport, health, human capabilities, Santiago de Chile, transport inequalities, transportation planning, urban planning

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109 Attitude to Cultural Diversity and Inclusive Pedagogical Practices in the Classroom: A Correlational Study

Authors: Laura M. Espinoza, Karen A. Hernández, Diana B. Ledezma

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Currently, in Chile, migratory movements are generated, where the country receives constantly people from Latin America such as Colombia, Peru, Venezuela, Haiti, among others. This phenomenon has reached the schools of Chile, where immigrant children and adolescents are educated in a context of cultural diversity. However, education professionals face this recent phenomenon without prior preparation to carry out their pedagogical practices in the classroom. On the other hand, research on how to understand and guide the processes of cultural diversity especially within the school is even scarce and recent in Latin America and specifically in Chile. The general purpose of the study is to analyze the relationships between teaching efforts towards multiculturalism and inclusive pedagogical practices in the schools of the city of La Serena and Coquimbo, in Chile. The study refers to a quantitative approach, with a correlational design. The selection of the participants was not intentional probabilistic. It comprises 88 teachers of preschool, primary, secondary and special education, who work in two schools with similar characteristics. For the collection of information on the independent variable, the attitude scale towards Immigration and the attitude scale towards Multiculturalism in the school are applied. To obtain information on the independent variable, the guide for the evaluation of inclusive practices in the classroom is applied. Both instruments have statistical validation. A Spearman correlation analysis was made to achieve the objective of the study. Among the main findings, we will find the relationships between the positive perceptions of multiculturalism at school and inclusive practices such as the physical conditions of the classroom, planning, methodology, use of time and evaluation. These findings are relevant to the teaching and learning processes of students in Chilean classrooms and contribute to literature for the understanding of educational processes in contexts of cultural diversity.

Keywords: cultural diversity, immigration, inclusive pedagogical practices, multiculturalism

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108 The Impact of the Global Financial Crises on MILA Stock Markets

Authors: Miriam Sosa, Edgar Ortiz, Alejandra Cabello

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This paper examines the volatility changes and leverage effects of the MILA stock markets and their changes since the 2007 global financial crisis. This group integrates the stock markets from Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. Volatility changes and leverage effects are tested with a symmetric GARCH (1,1) and asymmetric TARCH (1,1) models with a dummy variable in the variance equation. Daily closing prices of the stock indexes of Chile (IPSA), Colombia (COLCAP), Mexico (IPC) and Peru (IGBVL) are examined for the period 2003:01 to 2015:02. The evidence confirms the presence of an overall increase in asymmetric market volatility in the Peruvian share market since the 2007 crisis.

Keywords: financial crisis, Latin American Integrated Market, TARCH, GARCH

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107 An Exploratory Approach of the Latin American Migrants’ Urban Space Transformation of Antofagasta City, Chile

Authors: Carolina Arriagada, Yasna Contreras

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Since mid-2000, the migratory flows of Latin American migrants to Chile have been increasing constantly. There are two reasons that would explain why Chile is presented as an attractive country for the migrants. On the one hand, traditional centres of migrants’ attraction such as the United States and Europe have begun to close their borders. On the other hand, Chile exhibits relative economic and political stability, which offers greater job opportunities and better standard of living when compared to the migrants’ origin country. At the same time, the neoliberal economic model of Chile, developed under an extractive production of the natural resources, has privatized the urban space. The market regulates the growth of the fragmented and segregated cities. Then, the vulnerable population, most of the time, is located in the periphery and in the marginal areas of the urban space. In this aspect, the migrants have begun to occupy those degraded and depressed areas of the city. The problem raised is that the increase of the social spatial segregation could be also attributed to the migrants´ occupation of the marginal urban places of the city. The aim of this investigation is to carry out an analysis of the migrants’ housing strategies, which are transforming the marginal areas of the city. The methodology focused on the urban experience of the migrants, through the observation of spatial practices, ways of living and networks configuration in order to transform the marginal territory. The techniques applied in this study are semi–structured interviews in-depth interviews. The study reveals that the migrants housing strategies for living in the marginal areas of the city are built on a paradox way. On the one hand, the migrants choose proximity to their place of origin, maintaining their identity and customs. On the other hand, the migrants choose proximity to their social and familiar places, generating sense of belonging. In conclusion, the migration as international displacements under a globalized economic model increasing socio spatial segregation in cities is evidenced, but the transformation of the marginal areas is a fundamental resource of their integration migratory process. The importance of this research is that it is everybody´s responsibility not only the right to live in a city without any discrimination but also to integrate the citizens within the social urban space of a city.

Keywords: migrations, marginal space, resignification, visibility

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106 Chilean Business Orientalism: The Role of Non-State Actors in the Frame of Asymmetric Bilateral Relations

Authors: Pablo Ampuero, Claudia Labarca

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The current research paper assesses how the narrative of Chilean businesspeople about China shapes a new Orientalism Analyses on the role of non-state actors in foreign policy that have hitherto theorized about Orientalism as a narrative of hegemonic power. Hence, it has been instrumental to the efforts of imperialist powers to justify their mission civilisatrice. However, such conceptualization can seldom explain new complexities of international interactions at the height of globalization. Hence, we assessed the case of Chile, a small Latin American country, and its relationship with China, its largest trading partner. Through a discourse analysis of interviews with Chilean businesspeople engaged in the Chinese market, we could determine that Chile is building an Orientalist image of China. This new business Orientalism reinforces a relation of alterity based on commercial opportunities, traditional values, and natural dispositions. Hence, the perception of the Chinese Other amongst Chilean business people frames a new set of representations as part of the essentially commercial nature of current bilateral relations. It differs from previous frames, such as the racial bias frame of the early 20th century, or the anti-communist frame in reaction to Mao’s leadership. As in every narrative of alterity, there is not only a construction of the Other but also a definition of the Self. Consequently, this analysis constitutes a relevant case of the role of non-state actors in asymmetrical bilateral relations, where the non-state actors of the minor power build and act upon an Orientalist frame, which is not representative of its national status in the relation. This study emerges as a contribution on the relation amongst non-state actors in asymmetrical relations, where the smaller power’s business class acts on a negative prejudice of its interactions with its counterpart. The research builds upon the constructivist approach to international relations, linking the idea of Nation Branding with Orientalism in the case of Chile-China relations.

Keywords: new business Orientalism, small power, framing, Chile-China relations

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105 Water Self Sufficient: Creating a Sustainable Water System Based on Urban Harvest Approach in La Serena, Chile

Authors: Zulfikar Dinar Wahidayat Putra

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Water scarcity become a major challenge in an arid area. One of the arid areas is La Serena city in the Northern Chile which become a case study of this paper. Based on that, this paper tries to identify a sustainable water system by using urban harvest approach as a method to achieve water self-sufficiency for a neighborhood area in the La Serena city. By using the method, it is possible to create sustainable water system in the neighborhood area by reducing up to 38% of water demand and 94% of wastewater production even though water self-sufficient cannot be fully achieved, because of its dependency to the drinking water supply from water treatment plant of La Serena city.

Keywords: arid area, sustainable water system, urban harvest approach, self-sufficiency

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104 How Do L1 Teachers Assess Haitian Immigrant High School Students in Chile?

Authors: Gloria Toledo, Andrea Lizasoain, Leonardo Mena

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Immigration has largely increased in Chile in the last 20 years. About 6.6% of our population is foreign, from which 14.3% is Haitian. Haitians are between 15 and 29 years old and have come to Chile escaping from a social crisis. They believe that education and work will help them do better in life. Therefore, rates of Haitian students in the Chilean school system have also increased: there were 3,121 Haitian students enrolled in 2017. This is a challenge for the public school, which takes in young people who must face schooling, social immersion and learning of a second language simultaneously. The linguistic barrier affects both students’ and teachers’ adaptation process, which has an impact on the students’ academic performance and consequent acquisition of Spanish. In order to explore students’ academic performance and interlanguage development, we examined how L1 teachers assess Haitian high school students’ written production in Spanish. With this purpose, teachers were asked to use a specially designed grid to assess correction, accommodation, lexical and analytical complexity, organization and fluency of both Haitian and Chilean students. Parallelly, texts were approached from an error analysis perspective. Results from grids and error analysis were then compared. On the one hand, it has been found that teachers give very little feedback to students apart from scores and grades, which does not contribute to the development of the second language. On the other hand, error analysis has yielded that Haitian students are in a dynamic process of the acquisition of Spanish, which could be enhanced if L1 teacher were aware of the process of interlanguage developmen.

Keywords: assessment, error analysis, grid, immigration, Spanish aquisition, writing

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103 Hidden Populations and Women: New Political, Methodological and Ethical Challenges

Authors: Renée Fregosi

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The contribution presently proposed will report on the beginnings of a Franco-Chilean study to be launched in 2015 by a multidisciplinary team of Renée Fregosi Political Science University Paris 3 / CECIEC, Norma Muñoz Public Policies University of Santiago of Chile, Jean-Daniel Lelievre, Medicine Paris 11 University, Marcelo WOLFF Medicine University of Chile, Cecilia Blatrix Political Science University Paris-Tech, Ernesto OTTONE, Political Science University of Chile, Paul DENY Medicine Paris 13 University, Rafael Bugueno Medicine Hospital Urgencia Pública of Santiago, Eduardo CARRASCO Political Science Paris 3 University. The problem of hidden populations challenges some criteria and concepts to re-examine: in particular the concept of target population, sampling methods to "snowball" and the cost-effectiveness criterion that shows the connection of political and scientific fields. Furthermore, if the pattern of homosexual transmission still makes up the highest percentage of the modes of infection with HIV, there is a continuous increase in the number of people infected through heterosexual sex, including women and persons aged 50 years and older. This group can be described as " unknown risk people." Access to these populations is a major challenge and raises methodological, ethical and political issues of prevention, particularly on the issue of screening. This paper proposes an inventory of these types of problems and their articulation, to define a new phase in the prevention against HIV refocused on women.

Keywords: HIV testing, hidden populations, difficult to reach PLWHA, women, unknown risk people

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102 Decision Support System for a Pilot Flash Flood Early Warning System in Central Chile

Authors: D. Pinto, L. Castro, M. L. Cruzat, S. Barros, J. Gironás, C. Oberli, M. Torres, C. Escauriaza, A. Cipriano

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Flash floods, together with landslides, are a common natural threat for people living in mountainous regions and foothills. One way to deal with this constant menace is the use of Early Warning Systems, which have become a very important mitigation strategy for natural disasters. In this work, we present our proposal for a pilot Flash Flood Early Warning System for Santiago, Chile, the first stage of a more ambitious project that in a future stage shall also include early warning of landslides. To give a context for our approach, we first analyze three existing Flash Flood Early Warning Systems, focusing on their general architectures. We then present our proposed system, with main focus on the decision support system, a system that integrates empirical models and fuzzy expert systems to achieve reliable risk estimations.

Keywords: decision support systems, early warning systems, flash flood, natural hazard

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101 Structural Health Monitoring of the 9-Story Torre Central Building Using Recorded Data and Wave Method

Authors: Tzong-Ying Hao, Mohammad T. Rahmani

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The Torre Central building is a 9-story shear wall structure located in Santiago, Chile, and has been instrumented since 2009. Events of different intensity (ambient vibrations, weak and strong earthquake motions) have been recorded, and thus the building can serve as a full-scale benchmark to evaluate the structural health monitoring method developed. The first part of this article presents an analysis of inter-story drifts, and of changes in the first system frequencies (estimated from the relative displacement response of the 8th-floor with respect to the basement from recorded data) as baseline indicators of the occurrence of damage. During 2010 Chile earthquake the system frequencies were detected decreasing approximately 24% in the EW and 27% in NS motions. Near the end of shaking, an increase of about 17% in the EW motion was detected. The structural health monitoring (SHM) method based on changes in wave traveling time (wave method) within a layered shear beam model of structure is presented in the second part of this article. If structural damage occurs the velocity of wave propagated through the structure changes. The wave method measures the velocities of shear wave propagation from the impulse responses generated by recorded data at various locations inside the building. Our analysis and results show that the detected changes in wave velocities are consistent with the observed damages. On this basis, the wave method is proven for actual implementation in structural health monitoring systems.

Keywords: Chile earthquake, damage detection, earthquake response, impulse response, layered shear beam, structural health monitoring, Torre Central building, wave method, wave travel time

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100 Alkaloid Levels in Experimental Lines of Ryegrass in Southtern Chile

Authors: Leonardo Parra, Manuel Chacón-Fuentes, Andrés Quiroz

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One of the most important factors in beef and dairy production in the world as well as also in Chile, is related to the correct choice of cultivars or mixtures of forage grasses and legumes to ensure high yields and quality of grassland. However, a great problem is the persistence of the grasses as a result of the action of different hypogeous as epigean pests. The complex insect pests associated with grassland include white grubs (Hylamorpha elegans, Phytoloema herrmanni), blackworm (Dalaca pallens) and Argentine stem weevil (Listronotus bonariensis). In Chile, the principal strategy utilized for controlling this pest is chemical control, through the use of synthetic insecticides, however, underground feeding habits of larval and flight activity of adults makes this uneconomic method. Furthermore, due to problems including environmental degradation, development of resistance and chemical residues, there is a worldwide interest in the use of alternative environmentally friendly pest control methods. In this sense, in recent years there has been an increasing interest in determining the role of endophyte fungi in controlling epigean and hypogeous pest. Endophytes from ryegrass (Lolium perenne), establish a biotrophic relationship with the host, defined as mutualistic symbiosis. The plant-fungi association produces a “cocktail of alkaloids” where peramine is the main toxic substance present in endophyte of ryegrass and responsible for damage reduction of L. bonariensis. In the last decade, few studies have been developed on the effectiveness of new ryegrass cultivars carriers of endophyte in controlling insect pests. Therefore, the aim of this research is to provide knowledge concerning to evaluate the alkaloid content, such as peramine and Lolitrem B, present in new experimental lines of ryegrass and feasible to be used in grasslands of southern Chile. For this, during 2016, ryegrass plants of six experimental lines and two commercial cultivars sown at the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias Carrillanca (Vilcún, Chile) were collected and subjected to a process of chemical extraction to identify and quantify the presence of peramine and lolitrem B by the technique of liquid chromatography of high resolution (HPLC). The results indicated that the experimental lines EL-1 and EL-3 had high content of peramine (0.25 and 0.43 ppm, respectively) than with lolitrem B (0.061 and 0.19 ppm, respectively). Furthermore, the higher contents of lolitrem B were detected in the EL-4 and commercial cultivar Alto (positive control) with 0.08 and 0.17 ppm, respectively. Peramine and lolitrem B were not detected in the cultivar Jumbo (negative control). These results suggest that EL-3 would have potential as future cultivate because it has high content of peramine, alkaloid responsible for controlling insect pest. However, their current role on the complex insects attacking ryegrass grasslands should be evaluated. The information obtained in this research could be used to improve control strategies against hypogeous and epigean pests of grassland in southern Chile and also to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides.

Keywords: HPLC, Lolitrem B, peramine, pest

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99 Neuropsychological Disabilities in Executive Functions and Visuospatial Skills of Juvenile Offenders in a Half-Open Program in Santiago De Chile

Authors: Gabriel Sepulveda Navarro

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Traditional interventions for young offenders are necessary but not sufficient to tackle the multiple causes of juvenile crime. For instance, interventions offered to young offenders often are verbally mediated and dialogue based, requiring important metacognitive abilities as well as abstract thinking, assuming average performance in a wide variety of skills. It seems necessary to assess a broader set of abilities and functions in order to increase the efficiency of interventions while addressing offending. In order to clarify these assumptions, Stroop Test, as well as Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test were applied to juvenile offenders tried and sentenced for violent crimes in Santiago de Chile. A random sample was drawn from La Cisterna Half-Open Program, consisting of 50 young males between 18 and 24 years old, residing in different districts of Santiago de Chile. The analysis of results suggests a disproportionately elevated incidence of impairments in executive functions and visuospatial skills. As an outcome, over 40% of the sample shows a significant low performance in both assessments, exceeding four times the same prevalence rates among young people in the general population. While executive functions entail working memory (being able to keep information and use it in some way), cognitive flexibility (to think about something in more than one way) and inhibitory control (being able to self-control, ignore distractions and delay immediate gratification), visuospatial skills permit to orientate and organize a planned conduct. All of these abilities are fundamental to the skill of avoiding violent behaviour and abiding by social rules. Understanding the relevance of neurodevelopmental impairments in the onset of violent and criminal behaviour, as well as recidivism, eventually may guide the deployment of a more comprehensive assessment and treatment for juvenile offenders.

Keywords: executive functions, half-open program, juvenile offenders, neurodisabilities, visuospatial skills

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98 Economic Growth After an Earthquake: A Synthetic Control Approach

Authors: Diego Diaz H., Cristian Larroulet

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Although a large earthquake has clear and immediate consequences such as deaths, destruction of infrastructure and displacement (at least temporary) of part of the population, scientific research about the impact of a geological disaster in economic activity is inconclusive, especially when looking beyond the very short term. Estimating the economic impact years after a disaster strike is non-trivial since there is an unavoidable difficulty in attributing the observed effect to the disaster and not to other economic shocks. Case studies are performed that determine the impact of earthquakes in Chile, Japan, and New Zealand at a regional level by applying the synthetic control method, using the natural disaster as treatment. This consisted in constructing a counterfactual from every region in the same country that is not affected (or is slightly affected) by the earthquake. The results show that the economies of Canterbury and Tohoku achieved greater levels of GDP per capita in the years after the disaster than they would have in the absence of the disaster. For the case of Chile, however, the region of Maule experiences a decline in GDP per capita because of the earthquake. All the results are robust according to the placebo tests. Also, the results suggest that national institutional quality improve the growth process after the disaster.

Keywords: earthquake, economic growth, institutional quality, synthetic control

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97 Non-Violent Perspectives in Teacher Training Programs: Challenging Inequality Through Empathy and Compassion

Authors: Gaston Bacquet

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In light of existing social and structural violence in Chilean higher education which has resulted in instances of inequality, exclusion and discrimination, this research study attempted to provide trainee teachers in Chile with non-violent tools to deal with the tensions arising from these issues. Through a participatory action research design framed within a series of non-violent, non-Western perspectives, this study provided co-participants with opportunities to discuss current problems affecting HE in Chile stemming from the aforementioned violence, to think about strategies to address these and the challenges they might encounter. The study, which involved two different groups of trainee teachers from Chilean universities, consisted of two iterations of the action research cycle (planning – acting – observing – reflecting) carried out over two 3-months periods. Findings reveal instances of forced cultural assimilation, bullying, and direct and structural violence as key issues to address, and a strong individualistic mindset trumping collective well-being as the main challenge to bring non-violent strategies into their classrooms.

Keywords: non-violence education, contemplative pedagogy, participatory action research, dialogical education

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96 Multidisciplinary Approach for a Tsunami Reconstruction Plan in Coquimbo, Chile

Authors: Ileen Van den Berg, Reinier J. Daals, Chris E. M. Heuberger, Sven P. Hildering, Bob E. Van Maris, Carla M. Smulders, Rafael Aránguiz

Abstract:

Chile is located along the subduction zone of the Nazca plate beneath the South American plate, where large earthquakes and tsunamis have taken place throughout history. The last significant earthquake (Mw 8.2) occurred in September 2015 and generated a destructive tsunami, which mainly affected the city of Coquimbo (71.33°W, 29.96°S). The inundation area consisted of a beach, damaged seawall, damaged railway, wetland and old neighborhood; therefore, local authorities started a reconstruction process immediately after the event. Moreover, a seismic gap has been identified in the same area, and another large event could take place in the near future. The present work proposed an integrated tsunami reconstruction plan for the city of Coquimbo that considered several variables such as safety, nature & recreation, neighborhood welfare, visual obstruction, infrastructure, construction process, and durability & maintenance. Possible future tsunami scenarios are simulated by means of the Non-hydrostatic Evolution of Ocean WAVEs (NEOWAVE) model with 5 nested grids and a higher grid resolution of ~10 m. Based on the score from a multi-criteria analysis, the costs of the alternatives and a preference for a multifunctional solution, the alternative that includes an elevated coastal road with floodgates to reduce tsunami overtopping and control the return flow of a tsunami was selected as the best solution. It was also observed that the wetlands are significantly restored to their former configuration; moreover, the dynamic behavior of the wetlands is stimulated. The numerical simulation showed that the new coastal protection decreases damage and the probability of loss of life by delaying tsunami arrival time. In addition, new evacuation routes and a smaller inundation zone in the city increase safety for the area.

Keywords: tsunami, Coquimbo, Chile, reconstruction, numerical simulation

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95 Spatial Variability of Environmental Parameters and Its Relationship with an Environmental Injustice on the Bike Paths of Santiago, Chile

Authors: Alicia Muñoz, Pedro Oyola, Cristian Henriquez

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Pollution in Santiago de Chile has a spatial variability due to different factors, including meteorological parameters and emission sources. Socioenvironmental aspects are also significant for pollution in the canopy layer since it influences the type of edification, vegetal mass proportion and other environmental conditions. This study analyzes spatially urban pollution in Santiago, specifically, from the bike path perspective. Bike paths are located in high traffic zones, as consequence, users are constantly exposed to urban pollution. Measurements were made at the higher polluted hour, three days a week, including three transit regimes, on the most polluted month of the year. The environmental parameters are fine particulate matter (Model 8520, DustTrak Aerosol Monitor, TSI), temperature and relative humidity; it was also considerate urban parameters as sky view factor and vegetal mass. Identification of an environmental injustice will be achieved with a spatial modeling, including all urban factors and environmental mediations with an economic index of population.

Keywords: canopy layer, environmental injustice, spatial modeling, urban pollution

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94 Urban Sustainability and Sustainable Mobility, Lessons Learned from the Case of Chile

Authors: Jorge Urrutia-Mosquera, Luz Flórez-Calderón, Yasna Cortés

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We assessed the state of progress in terms of urban sustainability indicators and studied the impact of current land use conditions and the level of spatial accessibility to basic urban amenities on travel patterns and sustainable mobility in Santiago de Chile. We determined the spatial impact of urban facilities on sustainable travel patterns through the statistical analysis, data visualisation, and weighted regression models. The results show a need to diversify land use in more than 60% of the communes, although in 85% of the communes, accessibility to public spaces is guaranteed. The findings also suggest improving access to early education facilities, as only 26% of the communes meet the sustainability standard, negatively impacting travel in sustainable modes. It is also observed that the level of access to urban facilities generates spatial heterogeneity in the city, which negatively affects travel patterns in terms of time over 60 minutes and modes of travel in private vehicles. The results obtained allow us to identify opportunities for public policy intervention to promote and adopt sustainable mobility.

Keywords: land use, urban sustainability, travel patterns, spatial heterogeneity, GWR model, sustainable mobility

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93 Structural Health Monitoring of Buildings–Recorded Data and Wave Method

Authors: Tzong-Ying Hao, Mohammad T. Rahmani

Abstract:

This article presents the structural health monitoring (SHM) method based on changes in wave traveling times (wave method) within a layered 1-D shear beam model of structure. The wave method measures the velocity of shear wave propagating in a building from the impulse response functions (IRF) obtained from recorded data at different locations inside the building. If structural damage occurs in a structure, the velocity of wave propagation through it changes. The wave method analysis is performed on the responses of Torre Central building, a 9-story shear wall structure located in Santiago, Chile. Because events of different intensity (ambient vibrations, weak and strong earthquake motions) have been recorded at this building, therefore it can serve as a full-scale benchmark to validate the structural health monitoring method utilized. The analysis of inter-story drifts and the Fourier spectra for the EW and NS motions during 2010 Chile earthquake are presented. The results for the NS motions suggest the coupling of translation and torsion responses. The system frequencies (estimated from the relative displacement response of the 8th-floor with respect to the basement from recorded data) were detected initially decreasing approximately 24% in the EW motion. Near the end of shaking, an increase of about 17% was detected. These analysis and results serve as baseline indicators of the occurrence of structural damage. The detected changes in wave velocities of the shear beam model are consistent with the observed damage. However, the 1-D shear beam model is not sufficient to simulate the coupling of translation and torsion responses in the NS motion. The wave method is proven for actual implementation in structural health monitoring systems based on carefully assessing the resolution and accuracy of the model for its effectiveness on post-earthquake damage detection in buildings.

Keywords: Chile earthquake, damage detection, earthquake response, impulse response function, shear beam model, shear wave velocity, structural health monitoring, torre central building, wave method

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92 Tsunami Vulnerability of Critical Infrastructure: Development and Application of Functions for Infrastructure Impact Assessment

Authors: James Hilton Williams

Abstract:

Recent tsunami events, including the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami, Japan, and the 2015 Illapel Tsunami, Chile, have highlighted the potential for tsunami impacts on the built environment. International research in the tsunami impacts domain has been largely focused toward impacts on buildings and casualty estimations, while only limited attention has been placed on the impacts on infrastructure which is critical for the recovery of impacted communities. New Zealand, with 75% of the population within 10 km of the coast, has a large amount of coastal infrastructure exposed to local, regional and distant tsunami sources. To effectively manage tsunami risk for New Zealand critical infrastructure, including energy, transportation, and communications, the vulnerability of infrastructure networks and components must first be determined. This research develops infrastructure asset vulnerability, functionality and repair- cost functions based on international post-event tsunami impact assessment data from technologically similar countries, including Japan and Chile, and adapts these to New Zealand. These functions are then utilized within a New Zealand based impact framework, allowing for cost benefit analyses, effective tsunami risk management strategies and mitigation options for exposed critical infrastructure to be determined, which can also be applied internationally.

Keywords: impact assessment, infrastructure, tsunami impacts, vulnerability functions

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91 Recovering Copper From Tailing and E-Waste to Create Copper Nanoparticles with Antimicrobial Properties

Authors: Erico R. Carmona, Lucas Hernandez-Saravia, Aliro Villacorta, Felipe Carevic

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Tailings and electronic waste (e-waste) are an important source of global contamination. Chile is one of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries that least recycled this kind of industrial waste, reaching only 3% of the total. Tailings and e-waste recycling offers a valuable tool to minimize the increasing accumulation of waste, supplement the scarcity of some raw materials and to obtain economic benefits through the commercialization of these. It should be noted that this type of industrial waste is an important source of valuable metals, such as copper, which allow generating new business and added value through its transformation into new materials with advanced physical and biological properties. In this sense, the development of nanotechnology has led to the creation of nanomaterials with multiple applications given their unique physicochemical properties. Among others, copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) have gained great interest due to their optical, catalytic, conductive properties, and particularly because of their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. There are different synthesis methods of copper nanoparticles; however, green synthesis is one of the most promising methodologies, since it is simple, low-cost, ecological, and generates stable nanoparticles, which makes it a promising methodology for scaling up. Currently, there are few initiatives that involve the development of methods for the recovery and transformation of copper from waste to produce nanoparticles with new properties and better technological benefits. Thus, the objective of this work is to show preliminary data about the develop a sustainable transformation process of tailings and e-waste that allows obtaining a copper-based nanotechnological product with potential antimicrobial applications. For this, samples of tailings and e-waste collected from Tarapacá and Antofagasta region of northern Chile were used to recover copper through efficient, ecological, and low-cost alkaline hydrometallurgical treatments, which to allow obtaining copper with a high degree of purity. On the other hand, the transformation process from recycled copper to a nanomaterial was carried out through a green synthesis approach by using vegetal organic residue extracts that allows obtaining CuNPs following methodologies previously reported by authors. Initial physical characterization with UV-Vis, FTIR, AFM, and TEM methodologies will be reported for CuNPs synthesized.

Keywords: nanomaterials, industrial waste, chile, recycling

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90 Routing Medical Images with Tabu Search and Simulated Annealing: A Study on Quality of Service

Authors: Mejía M. Paula, Ramírez L. Leonardo, Puerta A. Gabriel

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In telemedicine, the image repository service is important to increase the accuracy of diagnostic support of medical personnel. This study makes comparison between two routing algorithms regarding the quality of service (QoS), to be able to analyze the optimal performance at the time of loading and/or downloading of medical images. This study focused on comparing the performance of Tabu Search with other heuristic and metaheuristic algorithms that improve QoS in telemedicine services in Colombia. For this, Tabu Search and Simulated Annealing heuristic algorithms are chosen for their high usability in this type of applications; the QoS is measured taking into account the following metrics: Delay, Throughput, Jitter and Latency. In addition, routing tests were carried out on ten images in digital image and communication in medicine (DICOM) format of 40 MB. These tests were carried out for ten minutes with different traffic conditions, reaching a total of 25 tests, from a server of Universidad Militar Nueva Granada (UMNG) in Bogotá-Colombia to a remote user in Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH) - Chile. The results show that Tabu search presents a better QoS performance compared to Simulated Annealing, managing to optimize the routing of medical images, a basic requirement to offer diagnostic images services in telemedicine.

Keywords: medical image, QoS, simulated annealing, Tabu search, telemedicine

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89 Fulfillment of Models of Prenatal Care in Adolescents from Mexico and Chile

Authors: Alejandra Sierra, Gloria Valadez, Adriana Dávalos, Mirliana Ramírez

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For years, the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization and other organizations have made efforts to the improve access and the quality of prenatal care as part of comprehensive programs for maternal and neonatal health, the standards of care have been renewed in order to migrate from a medical perspective to a holistic perspective. However, despite the efforts currently antenatal care models have not been verified by a scientific evaluation in order to determine their effectiveness. The teenage pregnancy is considered as a very important phenomenon since it has been strongly associated with inequalities, poverty and the lack of gender quality; therefore it is important to analyze the antenatal care that’s been given, including not only the clinical intervention but also the activities surrounding the advertising and the health education. In this study, the objective was to describe if the previously established activities (on the prenatal care models) are being performed in the care of pregnant teenagers attending prenatal care in health institutions in two cities in México and Chile during 2013. Methods: Observational and descriptive study, of a transversal cohort. 170 pregnant women (13-19 years) were included in prenatal care in two health institutions (100 women from León-Mexico and 70 from Chile-Coquimbo). Data collection: direct survey, perinatal clinical record card which was used as checklists: WHO antenatal care model WHO-2003, Official Mexican Standard NOM-007-SSA2-1993 and Personalized Service Manual on Reproductive Process- Chile Crece Contigo; for data analysis descriptive statistics were used. The project was approved by the relevant ethics committees. Results: Regarding the fulfillment of interventions focused on physical, gynecological exam, immunizations, monitoring signs and biochemical parameters in both groups was met by more than 84%; the activities of guidance and counseling pregnant teenagers in Leon compliance rates were below 50%, on the other hand, although pregnant women in Coquimbo had a higher percentage of compliance, no one reached 100%. The topics that less was oriented were: family planning, signs and symptoms of complications and labor. Conclusions: Although the coverage of the interventions indicated in the prenatal care models was high, there were still shortcomings in the fulfillment of activities to orientation, education and health promotion. Deficiencies in adherence to prenatal care guidelines could be due to different circumstances such as lack of registration or incomplete filling of medical records, lack of medical supplies or health personnel, absences of people at prenatal check-up appointments, among many others. Therefore, studies are required to evaluate the quality of prenatal care and the effectiveness of existing models, considering the role of the different actors (pregnant women, professionals and health institutions) involved in the functionality and quality of prenatal care models, in order to create strategies to design or improve the application of a complete process of promotion and prevention of maternal and child health as well as sexual and reproductive health in general.

Keywords: adolescent health, health systems, maternal health, primary health care

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88 Simulation and Thermal Evaluation of Containers Using PCM in Different Weather Conditions of Chile: Energy Savings in Lightweight Constructions

Authors: Paula Marín, Mohammad Saffari, Alvaro de Gracia, Luisa F. Cabeza, Svetlana Ushak

Abstract:

Climate control represents an important issue when referring to energy consumption of buildings and associated expenses, both in installation or operation periods. The climate control of a building relies on several factors. Among them, localization, orientation, architectural elements, sources of energy used, are considered. In order to study the thermal behaviour of a building set up, the present study proposes the use of energy simulation program Energy Plus. In recent years, energy simulation programs have become important tools for evaluation of thermal/energy performance of buildings and facilities. Besides, the need to find new forms of passive conditioning in buildings for energy saving is a critical component. The use of phase change materials (PCMs) for heat storage applications has grown in importance due to its high efficiency. Therefore, the climatic conditions of Northern Chile: high solar radiation and extreme temperature fluctuations ranging from -10°C to 30°C (Calama city), low index of cloudy days during the year are appropriate to take advantage of solar energy and use passive systems in buildings. Also, the extensive mining activities in northern Chile encourage the use of large numbers of containers to harbour workers during shifts. These containers are constructed with lightweight construction systems, requiring heating during night and cooling during day, increasing the HVAC electricity consumption. The use of PCM can improve thermal comfort and reduce the energy consumption. The objective of this study was to evaluate the thermal and energy performance of containers of 2.5×2.5×2.5 m3, located in four cities of Chile: Antofagasta, Calama, Santiago, and Concepción. Lightweight envelopes, typically used in these building prototypes, were evaluated considering a container without PCM inclusion as the reference building and another container with PCM-enhanced envelopes as a test case, both of which have a door and a window in the same wall, orientated in two directions: North and South. To see the thermal response of these containers in different seasons, the simulations were performed considering a period of one year. The results show that higher energy savings for the four cities studied are obtained when the distribution of door and window in the container is in the north direction because of higher solar radiation incidence. The comparison of HVAC consumption and energy savings in % for north direction of door and window are summarised. Simulation results show that in the city of Antofagasta 47% of heating energy could be saved and in the cities of Calama and Concepción the biggest savings in terms of cooling could be achieved since PCM reduces almost all the cooling demand. Currently, based on simulation results, four containers have been constructed and sized with the same structural characteristics carried out in simulations, that are, containers with/without PCM, with door and window in one wall. Two of these containers will be placed in Antofagasta and two containers in a copper mine near to Calama, all of them will be monitored for a period of one year. The simulation results will be validated with experimental measurements and will be reported in the future.

Keywords: energy saving, lightweight construction, PCM, simulation

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