Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: Elaine Y. L. Ng

21 Network User Rules in Universities

Authors: Michel Berthiaume, Daniel Chamberland-Tremblay, Elaine Paiva Mosconi, Jérôme Blanchet-Brisson


This presentation documents the overall failure of North-American universities to build an effective IT Policies communication with their primary users: the students. A sample of 12 universities was selected. A set of indicators based on usability principles to assess the content of IT Policies vas devised. Then, IT Policies were rated according to the indicators and the results analyzed to build an overall picture of the potential of communication problems in policy communication. The initial finding is that network security professionals in Universities have to reach a delicate balance between asset protection, asset valorization and user security awareness.

Keywords: computer security, IT policy, security awareness, network user rules

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20 Bowen Ratio in Western São Paulo State, Brazil

Authors: Elaine Cristina Barboza, Antonio Jaschke Machado


This paper discusses micrometeorological aspects of the urban climate in three cities in Western São Paulo State: Presidente Prudente, Assis, and Iepê. Particular attention is paid to the method used to estimate the components of the energy balance at the surface. Estimates of convective fluxes showed that the Bowen ratio was an indicator of the local climate and that its magnitude varied between 0.3 and 0.7. Maximum values for the Bowen ratio occurred earlier in Iepê (11:00 am) than in Presidente Prudente (4:00 pm). The results indicate that the Bowen ratio is modulated by the radiation balance at the surface and by different clusters of vegetation.

Keywords: Bowen ratio, medium-sized cities, surface energy balance, urban climate

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19 Assessment of Aminopolyether on 18F-FDG Samples

Authors: Renata L. C. Leão, João E. Nascimento, Natalia C. E. S. Nascimento, Elaine S. Vasconcelos, Mércia L. Oliveira


The quality control procedures of a radiopharmaceutical include the assessment of its chemical purity. The method suggested by international pharmacopeias consists of a thin layer chromatographic run. In this paper, the method proposed by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) is compared to a direct method to determine the final concentration of aminopolyether in Fludeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) preparations. The approach (no chromatographic run) was achieved by placing the thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plate directly on an iodine vapor chamber. Both methods were validated and they showed adequate results to determine the concentration of aminopolyether in 18F-FDG preparations. However, the direct method is more sensitive, faster and simpler when compared to the reference method (with chromatographic run), and it may be chosen for use in routine quality control of 18F-FDG.

Keywords: chemical purity, Kryptofix 222, thin layer chromatography, validation

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18 Dynamic Process Monitoring of an Ammonia Synthesis Fixed-Bed Reactor

Authors: Bothinah Altaf, Gary Montague, Elaine B. Martin


This study involves the modeling and monitoring of an ammonia synthesis fixed-bed reactor using partial least squares (PLS) and its variants. The process exhibits complex dynamic behavior due to the presence of heat recycling and feed quench. One limitation of static PLS model in this situation is that it does not take account of the process dynamics and hence dynamic PLS was used. Although it showed, superior performance to static PLS in terms of prediction, the monitoring scheme was inappropriate hence adaptive PLS was considered. A limitation of adaptive PLS is that non-conforming observations also contribute to the model, therefore, a new adaptive approach was developed, robust adaptive dynamic PLS. This approach updates a dynamic PLS model and is robust to non-representative data. The developed methodology showed a clear improvement over existing approaches in terms of the modeling of the reactor and the detection of faults.

Keywords: ammonia synthesis fixed-bed reactor, dynamic partial least squares modeling, recursive partial least squares, robust modeling

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17 Biosorption of Manganese Mine Effluents Using Crude Chitin from Philippine Bivalves

Authors: Randy Molejona Jr., Elaine Nicole Saquin


The area around the Ajuy river in Iloilo, Philippines, is currently being mined for manganese ore, and river water samples exceed the maximum manganese contaminant level set by US-EPA. At the same time, the surplus of local bivalve waste is another environmental concern. Synthetic chemical treatment compromises water quality, leaving toxic residues. Therefore, an alternative treatment process is biosorption or using the physical and chemical properties of biomass to adsorb heavy metals in contaminated water. The study aims to extract crude chitin from shell wastes of Bractechlamys vexillum, Perna viridis, and Placuna placenta and determine its adsorption capacity on manganese in simulated and actual mine water. Crude chitin was obtained by pulverization, deproteinization, demineralization, and decolorization of shells. Biosorption by flocculation followed 5 g: 50 mL chitin-to-water ratio. Filtrates were analyzed using MP-AES after 24 hours. In both actual and simulated mine water, respectively, B. vexillum yielded the highest adsorption percentage of 91.43% and 99.58%, comparable to P. placenta of 91.43% and 99.37%, while significantly different to P. viridis of -57.14% and 31.53%, (p < 0.05). FT-IR validated the presence of chitin in shells based on carbonyl-containing functional groups at peaks 1530-1560 cm⁻¹ and 1660-1680 cm⁻¹. SEM micrographs showed the amorphous and non-homogenous structure of chitin. Thus, crude chitin from B. vexillum and P. placenta can be bio-sorbents for water treatment of manganese-impacted effluents, and promote appropriate waste management of local bivalves.

Keywords: biosorption, chitin, FT-IR, mine effluents, SEM

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16 Roles Currently Played by Educational Middle Leaders

Authors: Elaine Marta Pereira Aaltonen


Effective school leadership materialised in educational settings through the high standard professional performance of senior and middle leaders, has increasingly become an education policy priority around the world due to a wide recognition that schools need knowledgeable, skilled, and committed leaders, along with great teachers, in order to ensure outstanding education at all levels of schooling. The scope of this paper is the work of middle leaders, whose direct influence on teachers and classroom teaching, thus, on student learning outcomes, is a key component for successful school systems. It particularly aims at sharing some of the findings obtained through an academic study recently carried out by the same researcher, which was focused on enhancing understanding about aspects related to the professional performance of educational middle leaders, applied to the context of the lower elementary school division of a private mainstream school located in Brazil. The master´s dissertation findings included identifying the roles performed by a team of educational middle leaders throughout the year of 2021, as well as gaining insights on their perceptions about the roles performed, both through an electronic questionnaire and individual face-to-face interviews. Not only the roles of the middle leaders who participated in the research have been identified through the qualitative case study undertaken, but additional research finding lying within the sphere of the categorisation of such roles, based upon coherent domains of practice, has possibly been made. Hence, the main purpose of this paper is to outline the findings concerning the current roles played by educational middle leaders.

Keywords: roles, middle leaders, educational leadership, school leadership, and management

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15 Impact of a Home-Based Health Intervention on Older Adults at Risk of Chronic Diseases: A Study Protocol

Authors: Elaine Wong Yee-Sing


Older adults are at high risk of chronic health conditions in Singapore. A closer examination at all facets of their aging process has revealed that they may not be necessary aging well. This demands for an increasing healthcare services brought to their home environment due to limited mobility and in the interest of time management. The home environment is an ideal setting to implement self-directed health promoting activities at their convenience and enable family’s support and motivation. This research protocol aims to explore their healthcare concerns, and creation of age appropriate interventions targeted to improve their chronic disease biomarkers. Convenience sampling of 130 families residing in private housing within five major districts in Singapore will be selected to participate in the health intervention. Statistical Package for Social Science 25 will be used to examine the pre and post screening results of their lipid, glycaemia and anthropometric outcomes. Using focus interviews, data results will be translated and transcribed to investigate on enablers, barriers and improvement on these services. Both qualitative and quantitative research outcomes are crucial to examine the impact of these services for these older adults living in private housing as they are not exposed to government subsidized community health programs. It is hypothesized that provision of relevant yet engaging health programs at their homes may mitigate the rising burden of chronic health conditions and result in successful aging outcomes among older Singaporeans.

Keywords: chronic diseases, health program, older adults, residential homes

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14 Customised Wellness Solutions Using Health Technological Platforms: An Exploratory Research Protocol

Authors: Elaine Wong Yee-Sing, Liaw Wee Tong


Rapid transformations in demographic and socioeconomic shifts are leading to a growing global demand for health and beauty products and services that demands holistic concepts of well-being. In addition, technological breakthroughs such as internet of things make it convenient and offer innovative solutions for well-being and engage consumers to track their own health conditions and fitness goals. This 'new health economy' encompasses three key concepts: well-being, well-conditioned and well-shaped; which are shaped by wellness segments and goals that influence purchasing decisions of consumers. The research protocol aims to examine the feasibility, challenges, and capabilities in provision for each customer with an ecosystem, or platform, that organizes data and insights to create an individual health and fitness, nutrition, and beauty profile. Convenience sampling of 100 consumers residing in private housing within five major districts in Singapore will be selected to participate in the study. Statistical Package for Social Science 25 will be used to conduct descriptive statistics for quantitative data while qualitative data results using focus interviews, will be translated and transcribed to identify improvements in provision of these services. Rising income in emerging global markets is fuelling the demand for these general wellbeing products and services. Combined with technological advances, it is imperative to understand how these highly personalized services with integrated technology can be designed better to support consumer preferences; provide greater flexibility and high-quality service, and generate better health awareness among consumers.

Keywords: beauty, consumers, health, technology, wellness

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13 Uptake and Determinants of Rabies Pre-exposure Prophylaxis among At-Risk Travelers

Authors: Florian Lienert, Peter Costa, Caroline Aurensan, Elaine Melander


Introduction: Rabies pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can be given before travel and simplifies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). We studied the knowledge about rabies, the uptake of PrEP, and reasons for deciding for or against PrEP in at-risk travelers. We also examined how healthcare professionals (HCPs) counsel on rabies prevention. Methods: On behalf of Bavarian Nordic, Ipsos MORI conducted two online surveys in the USA. Fieldwork from February 24th to April 23rd, 2021, 689 participants aged 18-85 years, visited one of 91 endemic rabies countries in the past 3 years for at least one week, involved in at least 1 of 7 at-risk activities, heard of rabies, positive towards vaccination and chose to take part (surveyed travelers). Secondly, 76 HCPs, with responsibility for advising/ making decisions about vaccination requirements for their patients, personally recommend or prescribe vaccines for rabies, positive towards vaccination and chose to take part (surveyed HCPs). Results: A minority (36%) of surveyed travelers classified rabies as a life-threatening disease. A third of surveyed HCPs (37%) did not discuss rabies vaccination with at-risk travelers, 18% discussed only PEP, 23% only PrEP and 22% both. A minority (21%) of surveyed travelers reported having received rabies vaccination since they were 18. Among those participants (n=145), the most common reasons for deciding to get PrEP were for their own peace of mind (35%) and following an HCP recommendation (32%). Of those who decided not to receive the rabies vaccine (n=319), the most common reasons were that they did not think their risk of rabies was sufficient (23%) and that the HCP did not suggest it (23%). Conclusions: The survey demonstrated knowledge gaps around rabies and low PrEP coverage among surveyed travelers. It also highlighted the role of HCP recommendations and showed that most HCPs did not discuss PrEP with at-risk travelers.

Keywords: rabies, pre-exposure prophylaxis, travel, travel health, post-travel care, rabies treatment, vaccine, post-exposure, prophylaxis, at-risk, education, PrEP, PEP

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12 A Comparison of Outcomes of Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography vs. Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage in the Management of Obstructive Jaundice from Hepatobiliary Tuberculosis: The Philippine General Hospital Experience

Authors: Margaret Elaine J. Villamayor, Lobert A. Padua, Neil S. Bacaltos, Virgilio P. Bañez


Significance: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Hepatobiliary Tuberculosis (HBTB) with biliary obstruction and to compare the outcomes of ERCP versus PTBD in these patients. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study involving patients from PGH who underwent biliary drainage from HBTB from January 2009 to June 2014. HBTB was defined as having evidence of TB (culture, smear, PCR, histology) or clinical diagnosis with the triad of jaundice, fever, and calcifications on imaging with other causes of jaundice excluded. The primary outcome was successful drainage and secondary outcomes were mean hospital stay and complications. Simple logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with success of drainage, z-test for two proportions to compare outcomes of ERCP versus PTBD and t-test to compare mean hospital stay post-procedure. Results: There were 441 patients who underwent ERCP and PTBD, 19 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. 11 underwent ERCP while 8 had PTBD. There were more successful cases in PTBD versus ERCP but this was not statistically significant (p-value 0.3615). Factors such as age, gender, location and nature of obstruction, vices, coexisting pulmonary or other extrapulmonary TB and presence of portal hypertension did not affect success rates in these patients. The PTBD group had longer mean hospital stay but this was not significant (p-value 0.1880). There were no complications reported in both groups. Conclusion: HBTB comprises 4.3% of the patients undergoing biliary drainage in PGH. Both ERCP and PTBD are equally safe and effective in the management of biliary obstruction from HBTB.

Keywords: cross-sectional, hepatobiliary tuberculosis, obstructive jaundice, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

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11 Slave Museums and a Site of Democratic Pedagogy: Engagement, Healing and Tolerance

Authors: Elaine Stavro


In our present world where acts of incivility, intolerance and anger towards minority communities is on the rise, the ways museum practices cultivate ethical generosity is of interest. Democratic theorists differ as to how they believe respect can be generated through active participation. Allowing minority communities a role in determining what artifacts will be displayed and how they will be displayed has been an important step in generating respect. In addition, the rise of indigenous museums, slave museums and curators who represent these communities, contribute to the communication of their history of oppression. These institutional practices have been supplemented by the handling of objects, recognition stories and multisensory exhibitions. Psychoanalysis, object relations theorists believe that the handling of objects: amenable objects and responsive listeners will trigger the expression of anomie, alienation and traumatizing experiences. Not only memorializing but engaging with one’s lose in a very personal way can facilitate the process of mourning. Manchester Museum (UK) gathered together Somalian refugees, who in the process of handling their own objects and those offered at the museum, began to tell their stories. Democratic theorists (especially affect theorists or vital materialists or Actor Network theorists) believe that things can be social actants- material objects have agentic capacities that humans should align with. In doing so, they challenge social constructivism that attributes power to interpreted things, but like them they assume an openness or responsiveness to Otherness can be cultivated. Rich sensory experiences, corporeal engagement (devices that involve bodily movement or objects that involve handling) auditory experiences (songs) all contribute to improve one’s responsiveness and openness to Others. This paper will focus specifically on slave museums/ and exhibits in the U.K, the USA., South Africa to explore and evaluate their democratic strategies in cultivating tolerant practices via the various democratic avenues outlined above.

Keywords: democratic pedagogy, slave exhibitions, affect/emotion, object handling

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10 Nutrition and Physical Activity Intervention on Health Screening Outcomes for Singaporean Employees: A Worksite Based Randomised Controlled Trial

Authors: Elaine Wong


This research protocol aims to explore and justify the need for nutrition and physical activity intervention to improve health outcomes among SME (Small Medium Enterprise) employees. It was found that the worksite is an ideal and convenient setting for employees to take charge of their health thru active participation in health programmes since they spent a great deal of time at their workplace. This study will examine the impact of both general or/and targeted health interventions in both SME and non-SME companies utilizing the Workplace Health Promotion (WHP) grant over a 12 months period and assessed the improvement in chronic health disease outcomes in Singapore. Random sampling of both non-SME and SME companies will be conducted to undergo health intervention and statistical packages such as Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) 25 will be used to examine the impact of both general and targeted interventions on employees who participate and those who do not participate in the intervention and their effects on blood glucose (BG), blood lipid, blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage. Using focus groups and interviews, the data results will be transcribed to investigate enablers and barriers to workplace health intervention revealed by employees and WHP coordinators that could explain the variation in the health screening results across the organisations. Dietary habits and physical activity levels of the employees participating and not participating in the intervention will be collected before and after intervention to assess any changes in their lifestyle practices. It makes economic sense to study the impact of these interventions on health screening outcomes across various organizations that are existing grant recipients to justify the sustainability of these programmes by the local government. Healthcare policy makers and employers can then tailor appropriate and relevant programmes to manage these escalating chronic health disease conditions which is integral to the competitiveness and productivity of the nation’s workforce.

Keywords: chronic diseases, health screening, nutrition and fitness intervention , workplace health

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9 Evaluating the Characteristics of Paediatric Accidental Poisonings

Authors: Grace Fangmin Tan, Elaine Yiling Tay, Elizabeth Huiwen Tham, Andrea Wei Ching Yeo


Background: While accidental poisonings in children may seem unavoidable, knowledge of circumstances surrounding such incidents and identification of risk factors is important in the development of secondary prevention strategies. Some risk factors include age of the child, lack of adequate supervision and improper storage of substances. The aim of this study is to assess risk factors and circumstances influencing outcomes in these children. Methodology: A retrospective medical record review of all accidental poisoning cases presenting to the Children’s Emergency at National University Hospital (NUH), Singapore between January 2014 and December 2015 was conducted. Information on demographics, poisoning circumstances and clinical outcomes were collected. Results: Ninety-nine of a total of 186 poisoning cases were accidental ingestions, with a mean age of 4.7 (range 0.4 to 18.3 years). The gender distribution is rather equal with 52(52.5%) females and 47(47.5%) males. Seventy-nine (79.8%) were self-administered by the child and in 20 cases (20.2%), the substance was administered erroneously by caregivers 12/20 (60.0%) of whom were given the wrong drug dose while 8/20 (40.0%) were given the wrong substance. Self-administration was associated with presentation to the ED within 12 hours (p=0.027, OR 6.65, 95% CI 1.24-35.72). Notably, 94.9% of the cases involved substances kept within reach of the child. Sixty-nine (82.1%) had the substance kept in the original container, 3(3.6%) in food containers, 8(9.5%) in other containers and 4(4.8%) without a container. Of the 50 cases with information on labelling, 40/50(80.0%) were accurately labelled, 2/50 (4.0%) wrongly labelled, and 8/50 (16.0%) were unlabelled. Implicated substances included personal care products (11.1%), household cleaning products (3.0%), and different classes of drugs such as paracetamol (22.2%), antihistamines (17.2%) and sympathomimetics (8.1%). Children < 3 years of age were 4.8 times more likely to be poisoned by household substances than children >3 years of age (p=0.009, 95% CI 1.48-15.77). Prehospital interventions were more likely to have been done in poisoning with household substances (p=0.005, OR 6.12 95% CI 1.73-21.68). Fifty-nine (59.6%) were asymptomatic, 34 (34.3%) had a Poisoning Severity Score (PSS) grade of 1 (minor) and 6 (6.1%) grade 2 (moderate). Older children were 9.3 times more likely to be symptomatic (p<0.001, 95% CI 3.15-27.25). Thirty (32%) required admission. Conclusion: A significant proportion of accidental poisoning cases were due to medication administration errors by caregivers, which should be preventable. Risk factors for accidental poisoning included lack of adequate caregiver supervision, improper labelling and young age of the child. There is an urgent need to improve caregiver counselling during medication dispensing as well as to educate caregivers on basic child safety measures in the home to prevent future accidental poisonings.

Keywords: accidental, caregiver, paediatrics, poisoning

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8 Findings: Impact of a Sustained Health Promoting Workplace on Stock Price Performance and Beta; A Singapore Case

Authors: Wee Tong Liaw, Elaine Wong Yee Sing


The main objective and focus of this study are to establish the significance of a sustained health promoting workplace on stock and portfolio returns focusing on companies listed on the Singapore stock exchange, using a two-factor model comprising of the single factor CAPM and a 'health promoting workplace' factor. The 'health promoting workplace' factor represents the excess returns derived between two portfolios of component stocks that, when combined, would represent a top tier stock market index in Singapore, namely the STI index. The first portfolio represents companies that are independently assessed by the Singapore’s Health Award, SHA, to have a sustained and comprehensive health promoting workplace (SHA-STI portfolio) and the second portfolio represents companies that had not been independently assessed (Non-SHA STI portfolio). Since 2001, many companies in Singapore have voluntarily participated in the bi-annual Singapore HEALTH Award initiated by the Health Promotion Board of Singapore (HPB). The Singapore HEALTH Award (SHA), is an industry-wide award and assessment process. SHA assesses and recognizes employers in Singapore for implementing a comprehensive and sustainable health promotion programme at their workplaces. When using a ten year holding period instead of a one year holding period, excess returns in the SHA-STI portfolio over Non-SHA STI portfolio were consistently being observed over all test periods, during 2001 to 2013. In addition, when applied to the SHA-STI portfolio, results from the Two Factor Model consistently revealed higher explanatory powers across all test periods for the portfolio as well as all the individual component stocks in SHA-STI portfolio, than the single factor CAPM model. However, with respect to attaining higher level of achievement in the Singapore Health Award, this study did not show any incentive for selecting listed companies that have achieved a higher level of award. Results from this study would give further insights to investors and fund managers alike who intend to consider health promoting workplace as a risk factor in their stock or portfolio selection process, in particular for investors who have a preference for STI’s component stocks and with a longer investment horizon. Key micro factors like management abilities, business development strategies and production capabilities that meet the needs of market would create the demand for a company’s product(s) or service(s) and consequently contribute to its top line and profitability. Thereafter, the existence of a sustainable health promoting workplace would be a key catalytic factor in sustaining a productive workforce needed to support the continued success of a profitable business.

Keywords: asset pricing model, company's performance, stock returns, financial risk factor, sustained health promoting workplace

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7 Implementation Research on the Singapore Physical Activity and Nutrition Program: A Mixed-Method Evaluation

Authors: Elaine Wong


Introduction: The Singapore Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (SPANS) aimed to assess the effects of a community-based intervention on physical activity (PA) and nutrition behaviours as well as chronic disease risk factors for Singaporean women aged above 50 years. This article examines the participation, dose, fidelity, reach, satisfaction and reasons for completion and non-completion of the SPANS. Methods: The SPANS program integrated constructs of Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) and is composed of PA activities; nutrition workshops; dietary counselling coupled with motivational interviewing (MI) through phone calls; and text messages promoting healthy behaviours. Printed educational resources and health incentives were provided to participants. Data were collected via a mixed-method design strategy from a sample of 295 intervention participants. Quantitative data were collected using self-completed survey (n = 209); qualitative data were collected via research assistants’ notes, post feedback sessions and exit interviews with program completers (n = 13) and non-completers (n = 12). Results: Majority of participants reported high ‘satisfactory to excellent’ ratings for the program pace, suitability of interest and overall program (96.2-99.5%). Likewise, similar ratings for clarity of presentation; presentation skills, approachability, knowledge; and overall rating of trainers and program ambassadors were achieved (98.6-100%). Phone dietary counselling had the highest level of participation (72%) at less than or equal to 75% attendance rate followed by nutrition workshops (65%) and PA classes (60%). Attrition rate of the program was 19%; major reasons for withdrawal were personal commitments, relocation and health issues. All participants found the program resources to be colourful, informative and practical for their own reference. Reasons for program completion and maintenance were: desired health benefits; social bonding opportunities and to learn more about PA and nutrition. Conclusions: Process evaluation serves as an appropriate tool to identify recruitment challenges, effective intervention strategies and to ensure program fidelity. Program participants were satisfied with the educational resources, program components and delivery strategies implemented by the trainers and program ambassadors. The combination of printed materials and intervention components, when guided by the SCT and MI, were supportive in encouraging and reinforcing lifestyle behavioural changes. Mixed method evaluation approaches are integral processes to pinpoint barriers, motivators, improvements and effective program components in optimising the health status of Singaporean women.

Keywords: process evaluation, Singapore, older adults, lifestyle changes, program challenges

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6 Study Protocol: Impact of a Sustained Health Promoting Workplace on Stock Price Performance and Beta - A Singapore Case

Authors: Wee Tong Liaw, Elaine Wong Yee Sing


Since 2001, many companies in Singapore have voluntarily participated in the bi-annual Singapore HEALTH Award initiated by the Health Promotion Board of Singapore (HPB). The Singapore HEALTH Award (SHA), is an industry wide award and assessment process. SHA assesses and recognizes employers in Singapore for implementing a comprehensive and sustainable health promotion programme at their workplaces. The rationale for implementing a sustained health promoting workplace and participating in SHA is obvious when company management is convinced that healthier employees, business productivity, and profitability are positively correlated. However, performing research or empirical studies on the impact of a sustained health promoting workplace on stock returns are not likely to yield any interests in the absence of a systematic and independent assessment on the comprehensiveness and sustainability of a health promoting workplace in most developed economies. The principles of diversification and mean-variance efficient portfolio in Modern Portfolio Theory developed by Markowitz (1952) laid the foundation for the works of many financial economists and researchers, and among others, the development of the Capital Asset Pricing Model from the work of Sharpe (1964), Lintner (1965) and Mossin (1966), and the Fama-French Three-Factor Model of Fama and French (1992). This research seeks to support the rationale by studying whether there is a significant relationship or impact of a sustained health promoting workplace on the performance of companies listed on the SGX. The research shall form and test hypotheses pertaining to the impact of a sustained health promoting workplace on company’s performances, including stock returns, of companies that participated in the SHA and companies that did not participate in the SHA. In doing so, the research would be able to determine whether corporate and fund manager should consider the significance of a sustained health promoting workplace as a risk factor to explain the stock returns of companies listed on the SGX. With respect to Singapore’s stock market, this research will test the significance and relevance of a health promoting workplace using the Singapore Health Award as a proxy for non-diversifiable risk factor to explain stock returns. This study will examine the significance of a health promoting workplace on a company’s performance and study its impact on stock price performance and beta and examine if it has higher explanatory power than the traditional single factor asset pricing model CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model). To study the significance there are three key questions pertinent to the research study. I) Given a choice, would an investor be better off investing in a listed company with a sustained health promoting workplace i.e. a Singapore Health Award’s recipient? II) The Singapore Health Award has four levels of award starting from Bronze, Silver, Gold to Platinum. Would an investor be indifferent to the level of award when investing in a listed company who is a Singapore Health Award’s recipient? III) Would an asset pricing model combining FAMA-French Three Factor Model and ‘Singapore Health Award’ factor be more accurate than single factor Capital Asset Pricing Model and the Three Factor Model itself?

Keywords: asset pricing model, company's performance, stock prices, sustained health promoting workplace

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5 Validation of an Educative Manual for Patients with Breast Cancer Submitted to Radiation Therapy

Authors: Flavia Oliveira de A. M. Cruz, Edison Tostes Faria, Paula Elaine D. Reis


When the breast is submitted to radiation therapy (RT), the most common effects are pain, skin changes, mobility restrictions, local sensory alteration, and fatigue. These effects, if not managed properly, may reduce the quality of life of cancer patients and may lead to the treatment discontinuation. Therefore, promoting knowledge and guidelines for symptom management remain a high priority for patients and a challenge for health professionals, due to the need to handle side effects in a population with a life-threatening disease. Printed materials are important strategies for supporting educative activities since they help the individual to assimilate and understand the amount of information transmitted. Nurses' behavior can be systematized through the use of an educative manual, which may be effective in promoting information regarding the treatment, self-care and how to control the effects of RT at home. In view of the importance of guaranteeing the validity of the material before its use, the objective of this research was to validate the content and appearance of an educative manual for breast cancer patients undergoing RT. The Theory of Psychometrics was used for the validation process in this descriptive methodological research. A minimum agreement rate (AR) of 80% was considered to guarantee the validity of the material. The data were collected from October to December 2017, by means of two assessments tools, constructed in the form of a Likert scale, with five levels of understanding. These instruments addressed different aspects of the evaluation, in view of two different groups of participants; 17 experts in the theme area of the educative manual, and 12 women that received RT previously to treat breast cancer. The manual was titled 'Orientation Manual: radiation therapy in breast', and was focused on breast cancer patients attended at the Department of Oncology of the Brasília University Hospital (UNACON/HUB). The research project was submitted to the Research Ethics Committee at the School of Health Sciences of the University of Brasília (CAAE: 24592213.1.0000.0030). Only two items of the assessment tool for the experts, one related to the manual's ability to promote behavioral and attitude changes and the other related to the extent of its use for other health services, obtained AR < 80% and were reformulated based on the participants' suggestions and in the literature. All other items were considered appropriate and/or complete appropriate in the three blocks proposed for the experts: objectives - 89%, structure and form - 93%, and relevance - 93%; and good and/or very good in the five blocks of analysis proposed for patients: objectives - 100%, organization - 100%, writing style - 100%, appearance - 100%, and motivation. The appearance and content validation of the educative manual proposed were attended to. The educative manual was considered relevant and pertinent and may contribute to the understanding of the therapeutic process by breast cancer patients during RT, as well as support clinical practice through the nursing consultation.

Keywords: oncology nursing, nursing care, validation studies, educational technology

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4 An Interdisciplinary Approach to Investigating Style: A Case Study of a Chinese Translation of Gilbert’s (2006) Eat Pray Love

Authors: Elaine Y. L. Ng


Elizabeth Gilbert’s (2006) biography Eat, Pray, Love describes her travels to Italy, India, and Indonesia after a painful divorce. The author’s experiences with love, loss, search for happiness, and meaning have resonated with a huge readership. As regards the translation of Gilbert’s (2006) Eat, Pray, Love into Chinese, it was first translated by a Taiwanese translator He Pei-Hua and published in Taiwan in 2007 by Make Boluo Wenhua Chubanshe with the fairly catching title “Enjoy! Traveling Alone.” The same translation was translocated to China, republished in simplified Chinese characters by Shanxi Shifan Daxue Chubanshe in 2008 and renamed in China, entitled “To Be a Girl for the Whole Life.” Later on, the same translation in simplified Chinese characters was reprinted by Hunan Wenyi Chubanshe in 2013. This study employs Munday’s (2002) systemic model for descriptive translation studies to investigate the translation of Gilbert’s (2006) Eat, Pray, Love into Chinese by the Taiwanese translator Hu Pei-Hua. It employs an interdisciplinary approach, combining systemic functional linguistics and corpus stylistics with sociohistorical research within a descriptive framework to study the translator’s discursive presence in the text. The research consists of three phases. The first phase is to locate the target text within its socio-cultural context. The target-text context concerning the para-texts, readers’ responses, and the publishers’ orientation will be explored. The second phase is to compare the source text and the target text for the categorization of translation shifts by using the methodological tools of systemic functional linguistics and corpus stylistics. The investigation concerns the rendering of mental clauses and speech and thought presentation. The final phase is an explanation of the causes of translation shifts. The linguistic findings are related to the extra-textual information collected in an effort to ascertain the motivations behind the translator’s choices. There exist sets of possible factors that may have contributed to shaping the textual features of the given translation within a specific socio-cultural context. The study finds that the translator generally reproduces the mental clauses and speech and thought presentation closely according to the original. Nevertheless, the language of the translation has been widely criticized to be unidiomatic and stiff, losing the elegance of the original. In addition, the several Chinese translations of the given text produced by one Taiwanese and two Chinese publishers are basically the same. They are repackaged slightly differently, mainly with the change of the book cover and its captions for each version. By relating the textual findings to the extra-textual data of the study, it is argued that the popularity of the Chinese translation of Gilbert’s (2006) Eat, Pray, Love may not be attributed to the quality of the translation. Instead, it may have to do with the way the work is promoted strategically by the social media manipulated by the four e-bookstores promoting and selling the book online in China.

Keywords: chinese translation of eat pray love, corpus stylistics, motivations for translation shifts, systemic approach to translation studies

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3 Designing Short-Term Study Abroad Programs for Graduate Students: The Case of Morocco

Authors: Elaine Crable, Amit Sen


Short-term study abroad programs have become a mainstay of MBA programs. The benefits of international business experiences, along with its exposure to global cultures, are well documented. However, developing a rewarding study, abroad program at the graduate level can be challenging for Faculty, especially when devising such a program for a group of part-time MBA students who come with a wide range of experiences and demographic characteristics. Each student has individual expectations for the study abroad experience. This study provides suggestions and considerations for Faculty that are planning to design a short-term study abroad program, especially for part-time MBA students. Insights are based on a recent experience leading a group of twenty-one students on a ten-day program to Morocco. The trip was designed and facilitated by two faculty members and a local Moroccan facilitator. This experience led to a number of insights and recommendations. First, the choice of location is critical. The choice of Morocco was very deliberate, owing to its multi-faceted cultural landscape and international business interest. It is an Islamic State with close ties to Europe both culturally and geographically and Morocco is a multi-lingual country with some combination of three languages spoken by most – English, Arabic, and French. Second, collaboration with a local ‘academic’ partner allowed the level of instruction to be both rigorous and significantly more engaging. Third, allowing students to participate in the planning of the trip enabled the trip participants to collaborate, negotiate, and share their own experiences and strengths. The pre-trip engagement was structured by creating four sub-groups, each responsible for an assigned city. Each student sub-group had to provide a historical background of the assigned city, plan the itinerary including sites to visit, cuisine to experience, industries to explore, markets to visit, plus provide a budget for that city’s expenses. The pre-planning segment of the course was critical for the success of the program as students were able to contribute to the design of the program through collaboration and negotiation with their peers. Fourth, each student sub-group was assigned industry to study within Morocco. The student sub-group prepared a presentation and a group paper with their analysis of the chosen industries. The pre-planning activities created strong bonds among the trip participants, which was evident when faced with on-ground challenges, especially when it was necessary to quickly evacuate due to a surprise USA COVID evacuation notice. The entire group supported each other when quickly making their way back to the United States. Unfortunately, the trip was cut short by two days due to this emergency exit, but the feedback regarding the program was very positive all around. While the program design put pressure on the Faculty leads regarding planning and coordination upfront, the outcome in terms of student engagement, student learning, collaboration and negotiation were all favorable and worth the effort. Finally, an added value, the cost of the program for the student was significantly lower compared to running a program with a professional provider.

Keywords: business education, experiential learning, international education, study abroad

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2 Physical Activity and Nutrition Intervention for Singaporean Women Aged 50 Years and Above: A Study Protocol for a Community Based Randomised Controlled Trial

Authors: Elaine Yee Sing Wong, Jonine Jancey, Andy H. Lee, Anthony P. James


Singapore has a rapidly aging population, where the majority of older women aged 50 years and above, are physically inactive and have unhealthy dietary habits, placing them at ‘high risk’ of non-communicable diseases. Given the multiplicity of less than optimal dietary habits and high levels of physical inactivity among Singaporean women, it is imperative to develop appropriate lifestyle interventions at recreational centres to enhance both their physical and nutritional knowledge, as well as provide them with the opportunity to develop skills to support behaviour change. To the best of our knowledge, this proposed study is the first physical activity and nutrition cluster randomised controlled trial conducted in Singapore for older women. Findings from this study may provide insights and recommendations for policy makers and key stakeholders to create new healthy living, recreational centres with supportive environments. This 6-month community-based cluster randomised controlled trial will involve the implementation and evaluation of physical activity and nutrition program for community dwelling Singaporean women, who currently attend recreational centres to promote social leisure activities in their local neighbourhood. The intervention will include dietary education and counselling sessions, physical activity classes, and telephone contact by certified fitness instructors and qualified nutritionists. Social Cognitive Theory with Motivational Interviewing will inform the development of strategies to support health behaviour change. Sixty recreational centres located in Singapore will be randomly selected from five major geographical districts and randomly allocated to the intervention (n=30) or control (n=30) cluster. A sample of 600 (intervention n=300; control n=300) women aged 50 years and above will then be recruited from these recreational centres. The control clusters will only undergo pre and post data collection and will not receive the intervention. It is hypothesised that by the end of the intervention, the intervention group participants (n = 300) compared to the control group (n = 300), will show significant improvements in the following variables: lipid profile, body mass index, physical activity and dietary behaviour, anthropometry, mental and physical health. Data collection will be examined and compared via the Statistical Package for the Social Science version 23. Descriptive and summary statistics will be used to quantify participants’ characteristics and outcome variables. Multi-variable mixed regression analyses will be used to confirm the effects of the proposed health intervention, taking into account the repeated measures and the clustering of the observations. The research protocol was approved by the Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee (approval number: HRE2016-0366). The study has been registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (12617001022358).

Keywords: community based, healthy aging, intervention, nutrition, older women, physical activity

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1 A Model to Assess Sustainability Using Multi-Criteria Analysis and Geographic Information Systems: A Case Study

Authors: Antonio Boggia, Luisa Paolotti, Gianluca Massei, Lucia Rocchi, Elaine Pace, Maria Attard


The aim of this paper is to present a methodology and a computer model for sustainability assessment based on the integration of Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) with a Geographic Information System (GIS). It presents the result of a study for the implementation of a model for measuring sustainability to address the policy actions for the improvement of sustainability at territory level. The aim is to rank areas in order to understand the specific technical and/or financial support that is required to develop sustainable growth. Assessing sustainable development is a multidimensional problem: economic, social and environmental aspects have to be taken into account at the same time. The tool for a multidimensional representation is a proper set of indicators. The set of indicators must be integrated into a model, that is an assessment methodology, to be used for measuring sustainability. The model, developed by the Environmental Laboratory of the University of Perugia, is called GeoUmbriaSUIT. It is a calculation procedure developed as a plugin working in the open-source GIS software QuantumGIS. The multi-criteria method used within GeoUmbriaSUIT is the algorithm TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Design), which defines a ranking based on the distance from the worst point and the closeness to an ideal point, for each of the criteria used. For the sustainability assessment procedure, GeoUmbriaSUIT uses a geographic vector file where the graphic data represent the study area and the single evaluation units within it (the alternatives, e.g. the regions of a country, or the municipalities of a region), while the alphanumeric data (attribute table), describe the environmental, economic and social aspects related to the evaluation units by means of a set of indicators (criteria). The use of the algorithm available in the plugin allows to treat individually the indicators representing the three dimensions of sustainability, and to compute three different indices: environmental index, economic index and social index. The graphic output of the model allows for an integrated assessment of the three dimensions, avoiding aggregation. The presence of separate indices and graphic output make GeoUmbriaSUIT a readable and transparent tool, since it doesn’t produce an aggregate index of sustainability as final result of the calculations, which is often cryptic and difficult to interpret. In addition, it is possible to develop a “back analysis”, able to explain the positions obtained by the alternatives in the ranking, based on the criteria used. The case study presented is an assessment of the level of sustainability in the six regions of Malta, an island state in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea and the southernmost member of the European Union. The results show that the integration of MCDA-GIS is an adequate approach for sustainability assessment. In particular, the implemented model is able to provide easy to understand results. This is a very important condition for a sound decision support tool, since most of the time decision makers are not experts and need understandable output. In addition, the evaluation path is traceable and transparent.

Keywords: GIS, multi-criteria analysis, sustainability assessment, sustainable development

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