Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

Search results for: Elabed Saud

45 Emotional Intelligence and Its Relation to the Stressors of Life among King Saud University Students

Authors: Abdullah Ahmed Alzahrani

Abstract:

The aim of current study is to identify more life stressors, and the dimensions of emotional intelligence prevalent from the point of view of male and female students at King Saud University. Also, it comes to identify the relationship between emotional intelligence and the nature of life stressors faced by students at King Saud University. The Study tries to identify the differences in emotional intelligence and life stressors for students of King Saud University, which attributed to sex, age, grade point average, and the type of study scientific, literary The study sample consisted of 426 male and female students at King Saud University. The results shows that there are significant differences between emotional intelligence and life stressors faced by students at King Saud University. It turns out that there are differences in emotional intelligence between males and females in favor of females; While there are no differences in both the type of study and age. Finally, the study shows that there are differences of stressors in a lifetime for the age group between 19-25; While there are no differences in both type the type of study.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, life stressors, gender, students

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44 Artificial Neural Network Speed Controller for Excited DC Motor

Authors: Elabed Saud

Abstract:

This paper introduces the new ability of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in estimating speed and controlling the separately excited DC motor. The neural control scheme consists of two parts. One is the neural estimator which is used to estimate the motor speed. The other is the neural controller which is used to generate a control signal for a converter. These two neutrals are training by Levenberg-Marquardt back-propagation algorithm. ANNs are the standard three layers feed-forward neural network with sigmoid activation functions in the input and hidden layers and purelin in the output layer. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of this neural and advantage of the control system DC motor with ANNs in comparison with the conventional scheme without ANNs.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network (ANNs), excited DC motor, convenional controller, speed Controller

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43 The Effective of Training Program Using Neuro- Linguistic Programming (NLP) to Reduce the Test Anxiety through the Use of Biological Feedback

Authors: Mohammed Fakehy, Mohammed Haggag

Abstract:

The problem of test anxiety considered as one of the most important and most complex psychological problems faced by students of King Saud University, where university students in a need to bring their reassurance and psychological comfort, relieves feeling pain and difficulties of the study. Recently, there are programs and science that help human to change, including the science Linguistic Programming this neural science stems from not just the tips of the need to make the effort or continue to work, but provides the keys in which one can be controlled in the internal environment. Even human potential energy is extracted seeking to achieve success and happiness and excellence. Through the work of the researchers as members of the teaching staff at King Saud University and specialists in the field of psychology noticed the suffering of some students of King Saud University, test anxiety. In an attempt by the researchers to mitigate as much as possible of the unity of this concern, students will have a training program in Neuro Linguistic Programming. The main Question of this study is What is the effectiveness of the impact of a training program using NLP to reduce test anxiety by using a biological feedback. Therefore, the results of this study might serve as a good announcement about the usefulness of NLP programs which influence future research to significant effect of NLP on test anxiety.

Keywords: neuro linguistic programming, test anxiety, biological feedback, king saud

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
42 Using Focus Group Method to Identify Citizen Requirements to Saudi Mobile Government Services

Authors: S. Alotaibi, D. Roussinov

Abstract:

Mobile government services implementation faces several challenges in developing countries. This paper studies some of those challenges in the context of Saudi Arabia. The study aims to investigate factors affecting m-government acceptance in Saudi Arabia, including ease of use, usefulness, service quality, trust, intention to use and users’ satisfaction. Our investigation will help in integrating the m-government services in citizens’ everyday life. We collected and analyzed our data from focus groups. These focus groups are from King Saud University and Imam Muhammed Bin Saud University, so the samples size are five and seven participants, respectively. We found that there are some factors to identifying citizen requirements to Saudi mobile government services. These services should be easy to use and not require too much effort. Also, these services must be fully trusted.

Keywords: e-government, m-government, focus group, Saudi mobile government services

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
41 A Study to Assess the Employment Ambitions of Graduating Students from College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Authors: J. George, M. Al Mutairi, W. Aljuryyad, A. Alhussanan, A. Alkashan, T. Aldoghiri, Z. Alamari, A. Albakr

Abstract:

Introduction: Students make plans for their career and are keen in exploring options of employment in those carriers. They make their employment choice based on their desires and preferences. This study aims to identify if students of King Saud Bin Abdulaziz for Health Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences after obtaining appropriate education prefer to work as clinicians, university faculty, or full-time researchers. There are limited studies in Saudi Arabia exploring the university student’s employment choices and preferences. This study would help employers to build the required job positions and prevent misleading employers from opening undesired positions in the job market. Methodology: The study included 394 students from third and fourth years both male and female among the eighth programs of college of applied medical sciences, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS), Riyadh campus. A prospective quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted; data were collected by distributing a seven item questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS. Results: Among the participants, 358 (90.9%) of them chose one of the three listed career choices, 263 (66.8%) decided to work as hospital staff after their education, 75 students (19.0%) chose to work as a faculty member in a university after obtaining appropriate degree, 20 students (5.1%) preferred to work as full-time researcher after obtaining appropriate degree, the remaining 36 students (9.1%) had different career goals, such as obtaining a master degree after graduating, to obtain a bachelor of medicine and bachelor in surgery degree, and working in the private sector. The most recurrent reason behind the participants' choice was "career goal", where 276 (70.1%) chose it as a reason. Conclusion: The findings of the study showed that most student’s preferred to work in hospitals as clinicians, followed by choice of working as a faculty in a university, the least choice was to be working as full-time researchers.

Keywords: College of Applied Medical Sciences, employment ambitions, graduating students, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences

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40 The Attitude of Education College Students Towards Using the Web Portal of the Academic System

Authors: Ibrahim Alhumaidan

Abstract:

As King Saud University believes in the critical role played by technology and its effectiveness in achieving quality, speed of achievement, facilitating follow-up and enhancing responsibility undertaking; the university is keen on activating its e-services for the purpose of attaining the primary requirements of achievement and perfection. The web portal of the student's academic system comes as one of the most important practices in technological and e-transaction aspects. It enables students to carry out their processes–registration, addition, evaluation, viewing their results, and scholastic accomplishments, etc.– through the relevant web portal. The aim of this study is to recognize Education College students' attitude -as one of King's University Colleges- regarding the usage of the academic system web portal, its effectiveness in saving time and effort, and, efficiency in enhancing student's planning skills. The study society is all students of college of education in King Saud University and the sample has been chosen randomly from them. The study tool is a questionnaire designed to learn about students' views about using the web portal; as the researcher used the surveying methodology to achieve the aim of the study.

Keywords: web portal, academic system, education faculty, students, planning skills

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
39 The Current Use of Cell Phone in Education

Authors: Elham A. Alsadoon, Hamadah B. Alsadoon

Abstract:

Educators try to design learning environments that are preferred by their students. With the wide-spread adoption of cell phones surpassing any other technology, educators should not fail to invest in the power of such technology. This study aimed to explore the current use of cell phones in education among Saudi students in Saudi universities and how students perceive such use. Data was collected from 237 students at King Saud University. Descriptive analysis was used to analyze the data. A T-test for independent groups was used to examine whether there was a significant difference between males and females in their perception of using cell phones in education. Findings suggested that students have a positive attitude toward the use of cell phones in education. The most accepted use was for sending notification to students, which has already been experienced through the Twasel system provided by King Saud University. This electronic system allows instructors to easily send any SMS or email to their students. The use of cell phone applications came in the second rank of using cell phones in education. Students have already experienced the benefits of having these applications handy wherever they go. On the other hand, they did not perceive using cell phones for assessment as practical educational usage. No gender difference was detected in terms of students’ perceptions toward using cell phones in education.

Keywords: cell phone, mobile learning, educational sciences, education

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38 Sequential Mixed Methods Study to Examine the Potentiality of Blackboard-Based Collaborative Writing as a Solution Tool for Saudi Undergraduate EFL Students’ Writing Difficulties

Authors: Norah Alosayl

Abstract:

English is considered the most important foreign language in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) because of the usefulness of English as a global language compared to Arabic. As students’ desire to improve their English language skills has grown, English writing has been identified as the most difficult problem for Saudi students in their language learning. Although the English language in Saudi Arabia is taught beginning in the seventh grade, many students have problems at the university level, especially in writing, due to a gap between what is taught in secondary and high schools and university expectations- pupils generally study English at school, based on one book with few exercises in vocabulary and grammar exercises, and there are no specific writing lessons. Moreover, from personal teaching experience at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University, students face real problems with their writing. This paper revolves around the blackboard-based collaborative writing to help the undergraduate Saudi EFL students, in their first year enrolled in two sections of ENGL 101 in the first semester of 2021 at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University, practice the most difficult skill they found in their writing through a small group. Therefore, a sequential mixed methods design will be suited. The first phase of the study aims to highlight the most difficult skill experienced by students from an official writing exam that is evaluated by their teachers through an official rubric used in King Saud bin Abdulaziz University. In the second phase, this study will intend to investigate the benefits of social interaction on the process of learning writing. Students will be provided with five collaborative writing tasks via discussion feature on Blackboard to practice a skill that they found difficult in writing. the tasks will be formed based on social constructivist theory and pedagogic frameworks. The interaction will take place between peers and their teachers. The frequencies of students’ participation and the quality of their interaction will be observed through manual counting, screenshotting. This will help the researcher understand how students actively work on the task through the amount of their participation and will also distinguish the type of interaction (on task, about task, or off-task). Semi-structured interviews will be conducted with students to understand their perceptions about the blackboard-based collaborative writing tasks, and questionnaires will be distributed to identify students’ attitudes with the tasks.

Keywords: writing difficulties, blackboard-based collaborative writing, process of learning writing, interaction, participations

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37 The Availability Degree of Transformational Leadership Dimensions among Heads of Scientific Departments in the Education Faculty at King Saud University

Authors: Yahya Al-Gabri

Abstract:

This study aimed to identify the availability degree of transformational leadership dimensions among heads of scientific departments in the Education Faculty at King Saud University. It also aimed to identify the degree of opinions divergence of the study sample on the availability degree of transformational leadership dimensions among the department heads according to the variable of scientific rank. The researcher used the descriptive approach. The study sample consisted of (34) members of education faculty which chosen randomly. To collect the data, the researcher developed a questionnaire consisting of (47) items distributed on four areas after ensuring validity and reliability. Results showed that the degree of practicing the dimensions of transformational leadership by the heads of scientific departments was medium and the mean was (3.21). The dimension of Individualized consideration came first and had a high degree of availability with a mean of (3.31) and the dimension of idealized influence came secondly and had a medium degree (near of high) of availability with a mean of (3.25), also and the dimension of inspirational motivation came thirdly and had a medium degree of availability with a mean of (3.16), whereas the dimension of intellectual stimulation came finally and had a medium degree of availability with a mean of (3.13). The study also showed that there are no statistically significant differences at the level of significance (0.05) in the availability degree of transformational leadership dimensions among the heads of scientific departments at the Faculty of Education according to the scientific rank variable. Finally, the researcher made a number of recommendations and suggestions.

Keywords: transformational leadership, heads of scientific departments, individualized consideration, idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation

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36 The Attitude of Students towards the Use of the Social Networks in Education

Authors: Abdulmjeid Aljerawi

Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate the students' attitudes towards the use of social networking in education. Due to the nature of the study, and on the basis of its problem, objectives, and questions, the researcher used the descriptive approach. An appropriate questionnaire was prepared and validity and reliability were ensured. The questionnaire was then applied to the study sample of 434 students from King Saud University.

Keywords: social networks, education, learning, students

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35 Diabetes Prevalence and Quality of Life of Female Nursing Students in Riyadh

Authors: Alyaa Farouk AbdelFattah Ibrahim, Agnes Monica, Dolores I. Cabansag

Abstract:

The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is reaching epidemic proportions in many parts of the world causing an increasing public health concern. Cases of Type 2 diabetes are rapidly increasing in the Middle East region. Deprived of lifestyle deviations, a section of the Middle East’s inhabitants will be pretentious by 2035. As all sociocultural factors have created unhealthy lifestyles, which have become part of the social norms within Saudi society, thereby increased the prevalence of sedentary lifestyle and obesity in women living in Saudi Arabia. So, this study aimed to assess the impact of diabetes mellitus on quality of life of female nursing students in King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh. In a crossectional study design, 151 nursing students at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for health sciences in Riyadh were included in the study. Biosociodemographic questionnaire and Short-Form 36 (SF-36) Health Related Quality of life Survey Arabic version were used for data collection, and all included students were screened for random blood glucose level. Results depicted that among 151 subjects included in the study 17 (11.3%) had diagnosed medical problems, and 29.4% of those participants with medical problems were diabetics. Univariate regression model for the relation between diabetes mellitus and overall percent score of SF-36 health survey domains showed no statistically significant difference between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects 0.990(0.931-1.053). In conclusion, although the diabetes prevalence was high among the study subjects it did not affect their quality of life may be due to age of the study population.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, diabetes prevalence, quality of life, university students' health

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
34 Industrial Engineering Higher Education in Saudi Arabia: Assessing the Current Status

Authors: Mohammed Alkahtani, Ahmed El-Sherbeeny

Abstract:

Industrial engineering is among engineering disciplines that have been introduced relatively recently to higher education in Saudi Arabian engineering colleges. The objective of this paper is to shed light on the history and status of IE higher education in different Saudi universities, including statistics comparing student enrollment and graduation in different Saudi public and private universities. This paper then proposes how industrial engineering programs could participate successfully in the Saudi Vision 2030. Finally, the authors show the results of a survey conducted on a number of IE students evaluating various academic and administrative aspects of the IE program at King Saud University.

Keywords: higher education, history, industrial engineering, Vision 2030

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33 Comparison of Finite-Element and IEC Methods for Cable Thermal Analysis under Various Operating Environments

Authors: M. S. Baazzim, M. S. Al-Saud, M. A. El-Kady

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In this paper, steady-state ampacity (current carrying capacity) evaluation of underground power cable system by using analytical and numerical methods for different conditions (depth of cable, spacing between phases, soil thermal resistivity, ambient temperature, wind speed), for two system voltage level were used 132 and 380 kV. The analytical method or traditional method that was used is based on the thermal analysis method developed by Neher-McGrath and further enhanced by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and published in standard IEC 60287. The numerical method that was used is finite element method and it was recourse commercial software based on finite element method.

Keywords: cable ampacity, finite element method, underground cable, thermal rating

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32 Exergy Analyses of Wind Turbine

Authors: Muhammad Abid

Abstract:

Utilization of renewable energy resources for energy conservation, pollution prevention, resource efficiency and systems integration is very important for sustainable development. In this study, we perform energy and exergy analyses of a wind turbine, located on the roof of Mechanical Engineering Department, King Saud University, and Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The turbine is part of a hybrid photovoltaic (PV)-wind system with hydrogen storage. The power output from this turbine varies between 1.5 and 5.5 kW with a rated wind speed of 12 m/s and a cut-in wind speed of 2.4 m/s. We utilize a wide range of experimental data in the analysis and assessment. We determine energy and exergy efficiencies. The energy efficiency changes between 0% to 45% while the exergy efficiency varies between 0% and 31.3%. We also determined some of the exergoeconomic parameters that are the ratios of energy and exergy loss rates to the capital cost (R en and R ex), respectively. (R en) changes between 0.96% and 59.03% for different values of velocity while R ex has a maximum value of 53.62% for the highest wind speed.

Keywords: exergy, efficiency, performance evaluation, wind energy

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31 Antifungal Activity of Commiphora myrrha L. against Some Air Fungi

Authors: Ahmed E. Al-Sabri, Mohamed A. Moslem, Sarfaraz Hadi

Abstract:

To avoid the harmful effects of the chemical fungicides on the human and minimize the environmental pollution, an alternative eco-friendly control strategies should be developed. The extract of Commiphora myhrra L. was tested against twenty fungal genera isolated from the indoor air collected from different rooms in King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Disc diffusion test was modified for use in this study and the collected data was statistically analyzed. Variable antifungal efficacy of different myrrh extract was recorded against the investigated fungal genera. The efficacy of the extract was increased as the concentration increased. The highest growth inhibition (74.6%) was against Acremonium strictum followed by Trichoderma psuedokoningii (70.6%). On contrast, the lowest efficacy (12.7%) was against Ulocladium consortiale. It could be concluded that myrrh extract is promised as a source of substances from which of safer and eco-friendly could be used as antimicrobial agents against a number of pathogenic fungi.

Keywords: antifungal, myrrh, antimicrobial, medicinal plant

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30 Stochastic Control of Decentralized Singularly Perturbed Systems

Authors: Walid S. Alfuhaid, Saud A. Alghamdi, John M. Watkins, M. Edwin Sawan

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Designing a controller for stochastic decentralized interconnected large scale systems usually involves a high degree of complexity and computation ability. Noise, observability, and controllability of all system states, connectivity, and channel bandwidth are other constraints to design procedures for distributed large scale systems. The quasi-steady state model investigated in this paper is a reduced order model of the original system using singular perturbation techniques. This paper results in an optimal control synthesis to design an observer based feedback controller by standard stochastic control theory techniques using Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) approach and Kalman filter design with less complexity and computation requirements. Numerical example is given at the end to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

Keywords: decentralized, optimal control, output, singular perturb

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29 Experimental Set-Up for Investigation of Fault Diagnosis of a Centrifugal Pump

Authors: Maamar Ali Saud Al Tobi, Geraint Bevan, K. P. Ramachandran, Peter Wallace, David Harrison

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Centrifugal pumps are complex machines which can experience different types of fault. Condition monitoring can be used in centrifugal pump fault detection through vibration analysis for mechanical and hydraulic forces. Vibration analysis methods have the potential to be combined with artificial intelligence systems where an automatic diagnostic method can be approached. An automatic fault diagnosis approach could be a good option to minimize human error and to provide a precise machine fault classification. This work aims to introduce an approach to centrifugal pump fault diagnosis based on artificial intelligence and genetic algorithm systems. An overview of the future works, research methodology and proposed experimental setup is presented and discussed. The expected results and outcomes based on the experimental work are illustrated.

Keywords: centrifugal pump setup, vibration analysis, artificial intelligence, genetic algorithm

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28 Evaluation of Groundwater Suitability for Irrigation Purposes: A Case Study for an Arid Region

Authors: Mustafa M. Bob, Norhan Rahman, Abdalla Elamin, Saud Taher

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The objective of this study was to assess the suitability of Madinah city groundwater for irrigation purposes. Of the twenty three wells that were drilled in different locations in the city for the purposes of this study, twenty wells were sampled for water quality analyses. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) classification of irrigation water that is based on Sodium hazard (SAR) and salinity hazard was used for suitability assessment. In addition, the residual sodium carbonate (RSC) was calculated for all samples and also used for irrigation suitability assessment. Results showed that all groundwater samples are in the acceptable quality range for irrigation based on RSC values. When SAR and salinity hazard were assessed, results showed that while all groundwater samples (except one) fell in the acceptable range of SAR, they were either in the high or very high salinity zone which indicates that care should be taken regarding the type of soil and crops in the study area.

Keywords: irrigation suitability, TDS, salinity, SAR

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
27 Meteorological Effect on Exergetic and Exergoeconomics Parameters of a Wind Turbine

Authors: Muhammad Abid

Abstract:

In this study, we performed the comparative exergetic and exergoeconomic analyses of a wind turbine over a period of twelve months from 1st January to 30th December 2011. The turbine is part of a wind-PV hybrid system with hydrogen storage, located on the roof of Mechanical Engineering Department, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The rated power output from this turbine is 1.7 W with a rated wind speed of 12 m/s and cut-in/cut-out wind speeds of 3/14 m/s. We utilize a wide range of experimental data in the analysis and assessment. We determine exergy efficiencies and their relation with meteorological variables, such as temperature and density. We also calculate exergoeconomic parameter R ̇_ex and its dependence on the temperature, using the average values for twelve months of the year considered for comparison purposes. The exergy efficiency changes from 0.12 to 0.31 while the density varies between 1.31 and 1.2 kg/m3 for different temperature values. The R ̇_ex has minimum and maximum values of 0.02 and 0.81, respectively, while the temperature is in the range of 8-24°C for various wind velocity values.

Keywords: exergy, efficiency, renewable energy, wind energy, meteorological variables

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26 The Obstacles of Applying Electronic Administration at the University of Tabuk from Its Academic Leaders' Perspectives

Authors: Saud Eid Alanazi

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The study aimed at recognizing the obstacles of applying of Electronic Administration (e-administration), which refers to any of a number of mechanisms which convert what in a traditional office are paper processes into electronic processes, with the goal being to create a paperless office and improve productivity and performance at the University of Tabuk from its Academic Leaders' Perspectives. The sample of the study consisted of (98) members from deans, vice deans and head of departments from different specialization, gender and position. For achieving the aim of the study, a questionnaire was developed including (45) items distributed into three domains (administrative, human and technical obstacles) . By using appropriate statistical methods to analyze the information, the results indicated that the administrative obstacles domain came in the first rank with a high degree, and the human and technical obstacles came at the second rank with a moderate degree. The study also showed that there were no statistically significant differences attributed to the variables of the members (specialization, gender and position).

Keywords: administration, electronic administration, obstacles, technology, universities

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
25 Aerodynamic Investigation of Rear Vehicle by Geometry Variations on the Backlight Angle

Authors: Saud Hassan

Abstract:

This paper shows simulation for the prediction of the flow around the backlight angle of the passenger vehicle. The CFD simulations are carried out on different car models. The Ahmed model “bluff body” used as the stander model to study aerodynamics of the backlight angle. This paper described the airflow over the different car models with different backlight angles and also on the Ahmed model to determine the trailing vortices with the varying backlight angle of a passenger vehicle body. The CFD simulation is carried out with the Ahmed body which has simplified car model mainly used in automotive industry to investigate the flow over the car body surface. The main goal of the simulation is to study the behavior of trailing vortices of these models. In this paper the air flow over the slant angle of 0,5o, 12.5o, 20o, 30o, 40o are considered. As investigating on the rear backlight angle two dimensional flows occurred at the rear slant, on the other hand when the slant angle is 30o the flow become three dimensional. Above this angle sudden drop occurred in drag.

Keywords: aerodynamics, Ahemd vehicle , backlight angle, finite element method

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24 The Results of the Archaeological Excavations at the Site of Qurh in Al Ula Region

Authors: Ahmad Al Aboudi

Abstract:

The Department of Archaeology at King Saud University conduct a long Term excavations since 2004 at the archaeological site of (Qurh) in Al-Ula area. The history of the site goes back to the eighth century AD. The main aim of the excavations is the training of the students on the archaeological field work associated with the scientific skills of exploring, surveying, classifying, documentations and other necessary in the field archaeology. During the 12th Season of Excavations, an area of 20 × 40 m2 of the site was excavated. The depth of the excavating the site was reached to 2-3 m. Many of the architectural features of a residential area in the northern part of the site were excavated this season. Circular walls made of mud-brick and a brick column drums and tiles made of clay were revealed this season. Additionally, lots of findings such as Gemstones, jars, ceramic plates, metal, glass, and fabric, as well as some jewelers and coins were discovered. This paper will deal with the main results of this field project including the architectural features and phenomena and their interpretations, the classification of excavated material culture remains and stratigraphy.

Keywords: Islamic architecture, Islamic art, excavations, early Islamic city

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
23 Dialogue Journals as an EFL Learning Strategy in the Preparatory Year Program: Learners' Attitudes and Perceptions

Authors: Asma Alyahya

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This study attempts to elicit the perceptions and attitudes of EFL learners of the Preparatory Year Program at KSU towards dialogue journal writing as an EFL learning strategy. The descriptive research design used incorporated both qualitative and quantitative instruments to accomplish the objectives of the study. A learners’ attitude questionnaire and follow-up interviews with learners from a randomly selected representative sample of the participants were employed. The participants were 55 female Saudi university students in the Preparatory Year Program at King Saud University. The analysis of the results indicated that the PYP learners had highly positive attitudes towards dialogue journal writing in their EFL classes and positive perceptions of the benefits of the use of dialogue journal writing as an EFL learning strategy. The results also revealed that dialogue journals are considered an effective EFL learning strategy since they fulfill various needs for both learners and instructors. Interestingly, the analysis of the results also revealed that Saudi university level students tend to write about personal topics in their dialogue journals more than academic ones.

Keywords: dialogue journals, EFL, learning strategy, writing

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22 Smart Beta Portfolio Optimization

Authors: Saud Al Mahdi

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Traditionally,portfolio managers have been discouraged from timing the market. This means, for example, that equity managers have been forced to adhere strictly to a benchmark with static or relatively stable components, such as the SP 500 or the Russell 3000. This means that the portfolio’s exposures to all risk factors should mimic as closely as possible the corresponding exposures of the benchmark. The main risk factor, of course, is the market itself. Effectively, a long-only portfolio would be constrained to have a beta 1. More recently, however, managers have been given greater discretion to adjust their portfolio’s risk exposures (in particular, the beta of their portfolio) dynamically to match the manager’s beliefs about future performance of the risk factors themselves. This freedom translates into the manager’s ability to adjust the portfolio’s beta dynamically. These strategies have come to be known as smart beta strategies. Adjusting beta dynamically amounts to attempting to "time" the market; that is, to increase exposure when one anticipates that the market will rise, and to decrease it when one anticipates that the market will fall. Traditionally, market timing has been believed to be impossible to perform effectively and consistently. Moreover, if a majority of market participants do it, their combined actions could destabilize the market. The aim of this project is to investigate so-called smart beta strategies to determine if they really can add value, or if they are merely marketing gimmicks used to sell dubious investment strategies.

Keywords: beta, alpha, active portfolio management, trading strategies

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21 Analyzing the Effect of Remittances Transfer on the Socio-Economic Well-Being of Left behind Parents: A Study of Pakistan and Azad Jammu and Kashmir

Authors: Asia Ashfaq, Muhammad Saud

Abstract:

The present study aims to highlight the socio-economic aspect of international migration by analyzing the effect of remittances sent by adult male children on the well-being of left behind parents. Well-being of left behind parents was operationalized through two indicators as financial security and health-care facilities. For this purpose, quantitative research design was employed and a survey was conducted in three cities i.e. Gujrat, Jhelum and Mirpur. The data was collected from 94 respondents chosen--purposively--on the basis of certain characteristics including demographic profile of the respondents and their male children who must be living abroad. The findings of the study revealed that parents were getting money from their sons regularly. Parents were getting financial assistance from their children for managing their household expenditures, visiting good hospitals and the specialist doctors in case of illness. Lastly, the study concluded that the economic aspect of migration of male children has a significant impact on the health status of left behind parents with the value of correlation (r) =0.241 and level of significance as 0.019. The research study also gives some suggestions and provides future directions for research.

Keywords: international migration, left behind parents, Pakistan, remittances, well-being

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20 Active Learning Role on Strategic I-Map Thinking in Developing Reasoning Thinking and the Intrinsic-Motivation Orientation

Authors: Khaled Alotaibi

Abstract:

This paper deals with developing reasoning thinking and the intrinsic-extrinsic motivation for learning, and enhancing the academic achievement of a sample of students at Teachers' College in King Saud University. The study sample included 58 students who were divided randomly into two groups; one was an experimental group with 20 students and the other was a control group with 22 students. The following tools were used: e-courses by using I-map, Reasoning Thinking Tes, questionnaire to measure the intrinsic-extrinsic motivation for learning and an academic achievement test. Experimental group was taught using e-courses by using I-map, while the control group was taught by using traditional education. The results showed that: - There were no statistically significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in Reasoning thinking skills. - There were statistically significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in the intrinsic-extrinsic motivation for learning in favor of the experimental group. - There were statistically significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in academic achievement in favor of the experimental group.

Keywords: reasoning, thinking, intrinsic motivation, active learning

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19 Food Intake Patterns in Omani University Students

Authors: Nasiruddin Khan, Saud Iqbal

Abstract:

Arabian Gulf region has undergone enormous development due to oil boom resulting in overwhelming changes in the lifestyle of the population over the past few decades. This study focused on food consumption patterns of Omani university students. Information, on anthropometric measurements, dietary intakes (measured by a food frequency questionnaire) of students was recorded. Anthropometric data revealed 62.5% of the subjects to be of normal weight and approximately 25% being overweight. Female students appeared to be more weight conscious than males. Dietary intakes in terms of servings (Mean ± S.D) per day among normal weight (BMI 18.5 – 24.9) males vs. females were approximately; cereals (7.5 ± 5.9 vs. 4.9 ± 2.9 servings), meat and alternatives (1.9 ± 0.9 vs. 1.5 ± 0.9 servings), dairy foods (0.9 ± 0.8 vs. 1.1 ± 0.9 servings) per day, respectively. Overall 55.3% of both males (average 1.9 servings) as well as females (average 1.7 servings) had severely inadequate intakes of vegetables on a daily basis as per the food guide pyramid recommendations. Only the fruit group intakes were adequate in about 70% of the population. Adequate intakes of dairy and meat and alternatives group were found in only 22% and 32% of the subjects, respectively. These results indicate a significant influence of a modern lifestyle on dietary habits and food selection of the target population.

Keywords: dietary pattern, food guide pyramid, lifestyle, Oman

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18 Influences of Island Characteristics on Plant Community Structure of Farasan Archipelago, Saudi Arabia: Island Biogeography and Nested Pattern

Authors: Khalid Al Mutairi, Mashhor Mansor, Magdy El-Bana, Saud L. Al-Rowaily, Asyraf Mansor

Abstract:

The present study was carried out in 20 islands of Farasan Archipelago in Saudi Arabia to describe the biogeography patterns of plants. A total of 191 species belonging to 129 genera and 53 families were identified. Following island biogeography theory, total plant species richness and their ecological groups were positively influenced by island size, number of habitats,elevation and were not affected by isolation. The high level of nestedness, the strong effect of area on total plant species richness and ecological groups, and the similarity of vegetation composition on the islands has several implications for conservation. In conclusion the large and richest islands in Farasan Archipelago such as Farasan Alkbir would conserve higher diversity than several smaller islands. This island also includes rare habitats like coral rocks and rare species. The invasion of the unique habitats such as wadi channels and water catchments in this island by the exotic tree Prosopis juliflora should be managed to conserve the native biodiversity. The protection of such critical habitats is very important on the other large island (e.g. Zufaf), due to their limited distribution in the country.

Keywords: island biogeography, conservation, farasan archipelago, saudi arabia, plant diversity

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17 Effect of Ambient Oxygen Content and Lifting Frequency on the Participant’s Lifting Capabilities, Muscle Activities, and Perceived Exertion

Authors: Atef M. Ghaleb, Mohamed Z. Ramadan, Khalid Saad Aljaloud

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to assesses the lifting capabilities of persons experiencing hypoxia. It also examines the behavior of the physiological response induced through the lifting process related to changing in the hypoxia and lifting frequency variables. For this purpose, the study performed two consecutive tests by using; (1) training and acclimatization; and (2) an actual collection of data. A total of 10 male students from King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were recruited in the study. A two-way repeated measures design, with two independent variables (ambient oxygen (15%, 18% and 21%)) and lifting frequency (1 lift/min and 4 lifts/min) and four dependent variables i.e., maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL), Electromyography (EMG) of four muscle groups (anterior deltoid, trapezius, biceps brachii, and erector spinae), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and rating of oxygen feeling (ROF) were used in this study. The results show that lifting frequency has significantly impacted the MAWL and muscles’ activities. The oxygen content had a significant effect on the RPE and ROE. The study has revealed that acclimatization and training sessions significantly reduce the effect of the hypoxia on the human physiological parameters during the manual materials handling tasks.

Keywords: lifting capabilities, muscle activities, oxygen content, perceived exertion

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16 Coffee Consumption: Predictors, Prevalence, Awareness, and Trend among Saudi University Students

Authors: Nasiruddin Khan, Hanan A. Alfawaz, Sobhy M. Yakout, Malak N. K. Khattak, Amani A. Alsaikhan, Areej A. Almousa, Taghreed A. Alsuwailem, Taghreed M. Almjlad, Nada A. Alamri, Sahar G. Alshammari, Nasser M. Al-Daghri

Abstract:

The consumption of coffee as a beverage is increasing in every part of the world. However, its excessive intake might exert negative effects. Our objective was to demonstrate the prevalence and awareness of coffee consumption among Saudi students and its determinants among this section of the population. Nine hundred thirty female students participated from various departments of King Saud University in a survey-based study using a face-to-face interview. The study demonstrates a high prevalence of coffee consumption (88.2%) among students in the Riyadh region. Certain situations such as exams were associated with increased frequency of coffee intake combined with unhealthy dietary habits of adding other ingredients such as sugar and spices in amount more than needed. Unmarried and fresh year students with high academic grades were associated with higher coffee consumption. The main determinants of coffee consumption among university students were high BMI and increased family income level. Continued awareness and basic knowledge, along with understanding the importance of reading food labels, should be provided to young generations. The university students must be cautioned to limit excessive coffee consumption and maintain healthy dietary habits.

Keywords: academic performance, BMI, coffee, health awareness

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