Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: Catalina Palacio

19 EU Integratıon Impact over the Real Convergence

Authors: Badoiu Mihaela Catalina


Main focus of COHESION policy was reducing social and economic disparities between member states and regions, sustainable development and equal opportunities. In this perspective, the present study intend to analyze the evolution of the European architecture and its direct impact over the real convergence in the member states.

Keywords: cooperation, European Union, member states, cohesion policy

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18 A Proposal of a Strategic Framework for the Development of Smart Cities: The Argentinian Case

Authors: Luis Castiella, Mariano Rueda, Catalina Palacio


The world’s rapid urbanisation represents an excellent opportunity to implement initiatives that are oriented towards a country’s general development. However, this phenomenon has created considerable pressure on current urban models, pushing them nearer to a crisis. As a result, several factors usually associated with underdevelopment have been steadily rising. Moreover, actions taken by public authorities have not been able to keep up with the speed of urbanisation, which has impeded them from meeting the demands of society, responding with reactionary policies instead of with coordinated, organised efforts. In contrast, the concept of a Smart City which emerged around two decades ago, in principle, represents a city that utilises innovative technologies to remedy the everyday issues of the citizen, empowering them with the newest available technology and information. This concept has come to adopt a wider meaning, including human and social capital, as well as productivity, economic growth, quality of life, environment and participative governance. These developments have also disrupted the management of institutions such as academia, which have become key in generating scientific advancements that can solve pressing problems, and in forming a specialised class that is able to follow up on these breakthroughs. In this light, the Ministry of Modernisation of the Argentinian Nation has created a model that is rooted in the concept of a ‘Smart City’. This effort considered all the dimensions that are at play in an urban environment, with careful monitoring of each sub-dimensions in order to establish the government’s priorities and improving the effectiveness of its operations. In an attempt to ameliorate the overall efficiency of the country’s economic and social development, these focused initiatives have also encouraged citizen participation and the cooperation of the private sector: replacing short-sighted policies with some that are coherent and organised. This process was developed gradually. The first stage consisted in building the model’s structure; the second, at applying the method created on specific case studies and verifying that the mechanisms used respected the desired technical and social aspects. Finally, the third stage consists in the repetition and subsequent comparison of this experiment in order to measure the effects on the ‘treatment group’ over time. The first trial was conducted on 717 municipalities and evaluated the dimension of Governance. Results showed that levels of governmental maturity varied sharply with relation to size: cities with less than 150.000 people had a strikingly lower level of governmental maturity than cities with more than 150.000 people. With the help of this analysis, some important trends and target population were made apparent, which enabled the public administration to focus its efforts and increase its probability of being successful. It also permitted to cut costs, time, and create a dynamic framework in tune with the population’s demands, improving quality of life with sustained efforts to develop social and economic conditions within the territorial structure.

Keywords: Smart Cities, composite index, comprehensive model, strategic framework

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17 The Influence of Characteristics of Waste Water on Properties of Sewage Sludge

Authors: Lucian P. Georgescu, Catalina Iticescu, Mihaela Timofti, Gabriel Murariu, Catalina Topa


In the field of environmental protection in the EU and also in Romania, strict and clear rules are imposed that are respected. Among those, mandatory municipal wastewater treatment is included. Our study involved Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (MWWTP) of Galati. MWWTP began its activity by the end of 2011 and technology is one of the most modern used in the EU. Moreover, to our knowledge, it is the first technology of this kind used in the region. Until commissioning, municipal wastewater was discharged directly into the Danube without any treatment. Besides the benefits of depollution, a new problem has arisen: the accumulation of increasingly large sewage sludge. Therefore, it is extremely important to find economically feasible and environmentally friendly solutions. One of the most feasible methods of disposing of sewage sludge is their use on agricultural land. Sewage sludge can be used in agriculture if monitored in terms of physicochemical properties (pH, nutrients, heavy metals, etc.), in order not to contribute to pollution in soils and not to affect chemical and biological balances, which are relatively fragile. In this paper, 16 physico-chemical parameters were monitored. Experimental testings were realised on waste water samples, sewage sludge results and treated water samples. Testing was conducted with electrochemichal methods (pH, conductivity, TDS); parameters N-total (mg/L), P-total (mg/L), N-NH4 (mg/L), N-NO2 (mg/L), N-NO3 (mg/L), Fe-total (mg/L), Cr-total (mg/L), Cu (mg/L), Zn (mg/L), Cd (mg/L), Pb (mg/L), Ni (mg/L) were determined by spectrophotometric methods using a spectrophotometer NOVA 60 and specific kits. Analyzing the results, we concluded that Sewage sludges, although containing heavy metals, are in small quantities and will not affect the land on which they will be deposited. Also, the amount of nutrients contained are appreciable. These features indicate that the sludge can be safely used in agriculture, with the advantage that they represent a cheap fertilizer. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research and Innovation – UEFISCDI, PNCDI III project, 79BG/2017, Efficiency of the technological process for obtaining of sewage sludge usable in agriculture, Efficient.

Keywords: Technology, Sewage Sludge, Municipal Wastewater, physico-chemical properties

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16 Analysis of Preferences in Decision Making in a Bilateral Negotiation Context: An Experimental Approach from Game Theory

Authors: Laura V. Gonzalez, Juan B. Duarte, Luis A. Palacio


Decision making can be conditioned by factors such as the environments, circumstances, behavioral biases, emotions, beliefs and preferences of the participants. The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect ‘amount of information’ and ‘number of options’, on the behavior of competitors under a bilateral negotiation context. For the above, it has been designed an experiment as a classroom game where they negotiate goods, under the condition that none of the players knows exactly the real value of the asset. The game is designed under the concept of zero-sum (non-cooperative game) and focuses on the fact that agents must anticipate the strategies of their opponent to improve their chances of winning in the negotiation. The empirical results show that, contrary to the traditional view of expected utility theory, players prefer to obtain low profits and losses, when faced with a higher expectation of losses, using sub-optimal strategies not in accordance with game theory.

Keywords: Decision Making, Game theory, bilateral negotiation, classroom game

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15 Equilibrium Modeling of a Two Stage Downdraft Gasifier Using Different Gasification Fluids

Authors: F. R. M. Nascimento, E. E. S. Lora, J. C. E. Palácio


A mathematical model to investigate the performance of a two stage fixed bed downdraft gasifier operating with air, steam and oxygen mixtures as the gasifying fluid has been developed. The various conditions of mixtures for a double stage fluid entry, have been performed. The model has been validated through a series of experimental tests performed by NEST – The Excellence Group in Thermal and Distributed Generation of the Federal University of Itajubá. Influence of mixtures are analyzed through the Steam to Biomass (SB), Equivalence Ratio (ER) and the Oxygen Concentration (OP) parameters in order to predict the best operating conditions to obtain adequate output gas quality, once is a key parameter for subsequent gas processing in the synthesis of biofuels, heat and electricity generation. Results show that there is an optimal combination in the steam and oxygen content of the gasifying fluid which allows the user find the best conditions to design and operate the equipment according to the desired application.

Keywords: Mathematical Modeling, Equilibrium, Air, mixtures, downdraft, fixed bed gasification, oxygen steam

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14 An Institutional Analysis of IFRS Adoption in Poor Jurisdictions

Authors: Catalina Florentina Pricope


The last two decades witnessed a movement towards harmonization of international financial reporting standards (IFRS) throughout the global economy. This investigation seeks to identify the factors that could explain the adoption of IFRS by poor jurisdictions. While there has been a considerable amount, of literature published on the effects and key drivers of IFRS adoption in both developed and developing countries, little attention has been paid to jurisdictions with less developed capital markets and low-income levels exclusively. Drawing upon the Institutional Isomorphism theory and analyzing a sample of 45 poor jurisdictions between 2008 and 2013, the study empirically shows that poor jurisdictions are driven by legitimacy concerns rather than by economic reasoning to adopt an international accounting perspective. This in turn has implications for the IASB, as it should seek to influence institutional pressures within a particular jurisdiction in order to promote IFRS adoption.

Keywords: Isomorphism, IFRS adoption, poor jurisdictions, accounting harmonization

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13 Use of Alternative and Complementary Therapies in Patients with Chronic Pain in a Medical Institution in Medellin, Colombia, 2014

Authors: Gloria Inés Martínez Domínguez, Lina María Martínez Sánchez, María de los Ángeles Rodríguez Gázquez, Daniel Gallego Gonzalez, Juliana Molina Valencia, Esteban Vallejo Agudelo, María Isabel Pérez Palacio, Juan Ricardo Gaviria García


Alternative and complementary therapies constitute a vast and complex combination of interventions, philosophies, approaches, and therapies that acquire a holistic healthcare point of view, becoming an alternative for the treatment of patients with chronic pain. Objective: determine the characteristics of the use of alternative and complementary therapies in patients with chronic pain who consulted in a medical institution. Methodology: cross-sectional and descriptive study, with a population of patients that assisted to the outpatient consultation and met the eligibility criteria. Sampling was not conducted. A form was used for the collection of demographic and clinical variables and the Holistic Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire (HCAMQ) was validated. The analysis and processing of information was carried out using the SPSS program vr.19. Results: 220 people with chronic pain were included. The average age was 54.7±16.2 years, 78.2% were women, and 75.5% belonged to the socioeconomic strata 1 to 3. Musculoskeletal pain (77.7%), migraine (15%) and neuralgia (9.1%) were the most frequently types of chronic pain. 33.6% of participants have used some kind of alternative and complementary therapy; the most frequent were: homeopathy (14.5%), phytotherapy (12.7%), and acupuncture (11.4%). The total average HCAMQ score for the study group was 30.2±7.0 points, which shows a moderate attitude toward the use of complementary and alternative medicine. The highest scores according to the type of pain were: neuralgia (32.4±5.8), musculoskeletal pain (30.5±6.7), fibromyalgia (29.6±7.3) and migraine (28.5±8.8). The reliability of the HCAMQ was acceptable (Cronbach's α: 0.6). Conclusion: it was noted that the types of chronic pain and the clinical or therapeutic management of patients correspond to the data available in current literature. Despite the moderate attitude toward the use of these alternative and complementary therapies, one of every three patients uses them.

Keywords: Chronic Pain, homeopathy, complementary therapies, acupuncture analgesia

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12 Prevalence of Workplace Bullying in Hong Kong: A Latent Class Analysis

Authors: Catalina Sau Man Ng


Workplace bullying is generally defined as a form of direct and indirect maltreatment at work including harassing, offending, socially isolating someone or negatively affecting someone’s work tasks. Workplace bullying is unfortunately commonplace around the world, which makes it a social phenomenon worth researching. However, the measurements and estimation methods of workplace bullying seem to be diverse in different studies, leading to dubious results. Hence, this paper attempts to examine the prevalence of workplace bullying in Hong Kong using the latent class analysis approach. It is often argued that the traditional classification of workplace bullying into the dichotomous 'victims' and 'non-victims' may not be able to fully represent the complex phenomenon of bullying. By treating workplace bullying as one latent variable and examining the potential categorical distribution within the latent variable, a more thorough understanding of workplace bullying in real-life situations may hence be provided. As a result, this study adopts a latent class analysis method, which was tested to demonstrate higher construct and higher predictive validity previously. In the present study, a representative sample of 2814 employees (Male: 54.7%, Female: 45.3%) in Hong Kong was recruited. The participants were asked to fill in a self-reported questionnaire which included measurements such as Chinese Workplace Bullying Scale (CWBS) and Chinese Version of Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS). It is estimated that four latent classes will emerge: 'non-victims', 'seldom bullied', 'sometimes bullied', and 'victims'. The results of each latent class and implications of the study will also be discussed in this working paper.

Keywords: Workplace bullying, Survey, Prevalence, latent class analysis

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11 Optimization of Bills Assignment to Different Skill-Levels of Data Entry Operators in a Business Process Outsourcing Industry

Authors: M. S. Maglasang, S. O. Palacio, L. P. Ogdoc


Business Process Outsourcing has been one of the fastest growing and emerging industry in the Philippines today. Unlike most of the contact service centers, more popularly known as "call centers", The BPO Industry’s primary outsourced service is performing audits of the global clients' logistics. As a service industry, manpower is considered as the most important yet the most expensive resource in the company. Because of this, there is a need to maximize the human resources so people are effectively and efficiently utilized. The main purpose of the study is to optimize the current manpower resources through effective distribution and assignment of different types of bills to the different skill-level of data entry operators. The assignment model parameters include the average observed time matrix gathered from through time study, which incorporates the learning curve concept. Subsequently, a simulation model was made to duplicate the arrival rate of demand which includes the different batches and types of bill per day. Next, a mathematical linear programming model was formulated. Its objective is to minimize direct labor cost per bill by allocating the different types of bills to the different skill-levels of operators. Finally, a hypothesis test was done to validate the model, comparing the actual and simulated results. The analysis of results revealed that the there’s low utilization of effective capacity because of its failure to determine the product-mix, skill-mix, and simulated demand as model parameters. Moreover, failure to consider the effects of learning curve leads to overestimation of labor needs. From 107 current number of operators, the proposed model gives a result of 79 operators. This results to an increase of utilization of effective capacity to 14.94%. It is recommended that the excess 28 operators would be reallocated to the other areas of the department. Finally, a manpower capacity planning model is also recommended in support to management’s decisions on what to do when the current capacity would reach its limit with the expected increasing demand.

Keywords: Simulation, capacity planning, Linear Programming, optimization modelling, time and motion study

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10 Calculation of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and the Spectral Signature of Coffee Crops: Benefits of Image Filtering on Mixed Crops

Authors: Giacomo Barbieri, Catalina Albornoz


Crop monitoring has shown to reduce vulnerability to spreading plagues and pathologies in crops. Remote sensing with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) has made crop monitoring more precise, cost-efficient and accessible. Nowadays, remote monitoring involves calculating maps of vegetation indices by using different software that takes either Truecolor (RGB) or multispectral images as an input. These maps are then used to segment the crop into management zones. Finally, knowing the spectral signature of a crop (the reflected radiation as a function of wavelength) can be used as an input for decision-making and crop characterization. The calculation of vegetation indices using software such as Pix4D has high precision for monoculture plantations. However, this paper shows that using this software on mixed crops may lead to errors resulting in an incorrect segmentation of the field. Within this work, authors propose to filter all the elements different from the main crop before the calculation of vegetation indices and the spectral signature. A filter based on the Sobel method for border detection is used for filtering a coffee crop. Results show that segmentation into management zones changes with respect to the traditional situation in which a filter is not applied. In particular, it is shown how the values of the spectral signature change in up to 17% per spectral band. Future work will quantify the benefits of filtering through the comparison between in situ measurements and the calculated vegetation indices obtained through remote sensing.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Precision Agriculture, Filtering, coffee, mixed crop, spectral signature

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9 Media Representation of Romanian Migrants in the Italian Media: A Comparative Study

Authors: Paula-Catalina Meirosu


The economic migration (intra-EU) is a topic of debate in the public space in both countries of origin and countries of destination. Since the 1990s, after the collapse of communist regimes and then the accession of some former communist countries to the EU, the migratory flows of migrants (including Romanian migrants) to EU countries has been increased constantly. Italy is one of the main countries of destination among Romanians since at the moment Italy hosts more than one million Romanian migrants. Based on an interdisciplinary analytical framework focused on the theories in the field of transnationalism, media and migration studies and critical media analysis, this paper investigates the media construction of intra-EU economic migration in the Italian press from two main perspectives. The first point of view is the media representation of Romanian migrants in the Italian press in a specific context: the EU elections in 2014. The second one explores the way in which Romanian journalists use the media in the destinations countries (such as Italy) as a source to address the issue of migration. In this context, the paper focuses on online articles related to the Romanian migrants’ representation in the media before and during the EU elections in two newspapers (La Repubblica from Italy and Adevarul from Romania), published during January-May 2014. The methodology is based on a social-constructivist approach, predominantly discursive and includes elements of critical discourse analysis (CDA) to identify the patterns of Romanian migrants in the Italian press as well as strategies for building categories, identities, and roles of migrants. The aim of such an approach is to find out the dynamic of the media discourse on migration from a destination country in the light of a European electoral context (EU elections) and based on the results, to propose scenarios for the elections to be held this year.

Keywords: Migration, Transnationalism, media discourse, Romanian migrants

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8 Studies on the Use of Sewage Sludge in Agriculture or in Incinerators

Authors: Gabriel Murariu, Catalina Iticescu, Lucian Georgescu, Mihaela Timofti, Dumitru Dima


The amounts of sludge resulting from the treatment of domestic and industrial wastewater can create serious environmental problems if no solutions are found to eliminate them. At present, the predominant method of sewage sludge disposal is to store and use them in agricultural applications. The sewage sludge has fertilizer properties and can be used to enrich agricultural soils due to the nutrient content. In addition to plant growth (nitrogen and phosphorus), the sludge also contains heavy metals in varying amounts. An increasingly used method is the incineration of sludge. Thermal processes can be used to convert large amounts of sludge into useful energy. The sewage sludge analyzed for the present paper was extracted from the Wastewater Treatment Station (WWTP) Galati, Romania. The physico-chemical parameters determined were: pH (upH), nutrients and heavy metals. The determination methods were electrochemical, spectrophotometric and energy dispersive X–ray analyses (EDX). The results of the tests made on the content of nutrients in the sewage sludge have shown that existing nutrients can be used to increase the fertility of agricultural soils. The conclusion reached was that these sludge can be safely used on agricultural land and with good agricultural productivity results. To be able to use sewage sludge as a fuel, we need to know its calorific values. For wet sludge, the caloric power is low, while for dry sludge it is high. Higher calorific value and lower calorific value are determined only for dry solids. The apparatus used to determine the calorific power was a Parr 6755 Solution Calorimeter Calorimeter (Parr Instrument Company USA 2010 model). The calorific capacities for the studied sludge indicate that they can be used successfully in incinerators. Mixed with coal, they can also be used to produce electricity. The advantages are: it reduces the cost of obtaining electricity and considerably reduces the amount of sewage sludge.

Keywords: Agriculture, Properties, Sewage Sludge, incinerators

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7 Food Security Model and the Role of Community Empowerment: The Case of a Marginalized Village in Mexico, Tatoxcac, Puebla

Authors: Marco Antonio Lara De la Calleja, María Catalina Ovando Chico, Eduardo Lopez Ruiz


Community empowerment has been proved to be a key element in the solution of the food security problem. As a result of a conceptual analysis, it was found that agricultural production, economic development and governance, are the traditional basis of food security models. Although the literature points to social inclusion as an important factor for food security, no model has considered it as the basis of it. The aim of this research is to identify different dimensions that make an integral model for food security, with emphasis on community empowerment. A diagnosis was made in the study community (Tatoxcac, Zacapoaxtla, Puebla), to know the aspects that impact the level of food insecurity. With a statistical sample integrated by 200 families, the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale (ELCSA) was applied, finding that: in households composed by adults and children, have moderated food insecurity, (ELCSA scale has three levels, low, moderated and high); that result is produced mainly by the economic income capacity and the diversity of the diet on its food. With that being said, a model was developed to promote food security through five dimensions: 1. Regional context of the community; 2. Structure and system of local food; 3. Health and nutrition; 4. Information and technology access; and 5. Self-awareness and empowerment. The specific actions on each axis of the model, allowed a systemic approach needed to attend food security in the community, through the empowerment of society. It is concluded that the self-awareness of local communities is an area of extreme importance, which must be taken into account for participatory schemes to improve food security. In the long term, the model requires the integrated participation of different actors, such as government, companies and universities, to solve something such vital as food security.

Keywords: Food Security, model, community empowerment, systemic approach

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6 Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Lyophilization Using Vacuum-Induced Freezing

Authors: Erika K. Méndez, Carlos E. Orrego, Natalia A. Salazar, Catalina Álvarez


Lyophilization, also called freeze-drying, is an important dehydration technique mainly used for pharmaceuticals. Food industry also uses lyophilization when it is important to retain most of the nutritional quality, taste, shape and size of dried products and to extend their shelf life. Vacuum-Induced during freezing cycle (VI) has been used in order to control ice nucleation and, consequently, to reduce the time of primary drying cycle of pharmaceuticals preserving quality properties of the final product. This procedure has not been applied in freeze drying of foods. The present work aims to investigate the effect of VI on the lyophilization drying time, final moisture content, density and reconstitutional properties of mango (Mangifera indica L.) slices (MS) and mango pulp-maltodextrin dispersions (MPM) (30% concentration of total solids). Control samples were run at each freezing rate without using induced vacuum. The lyophilization endpoint was the same for all treatments (constant difference between capacitance and Pirani vacuum gauges). From the experimental results it can be concluded that at the high freezing rate (0.4°C/min) reduced the overall process time up to 30% comparing process time required for the control and VI of the lower freeze rate (0.1°C/min) without affecting the quality characteristics of the dried product, which yields a reduction in costs and energy consumption for MS and MPM freeze drying. Controls and samples treated with VI at freezing rate of 0.4°C/min in MS showed similar results in moisture and density parameters. Furthermore, results from MPM dispersion showed favorable values when VI was applied because dried product with low moisture content and low density was obtained at shorter process time compared with the control. There were not found significant differences between reconstitutional properties (rehydration for MS and solubility for MPM) of freeze dried mango resulting from controls, and VI treatments.

Keywords: mango, drying time, lyophilization, vacuum induced freezing

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5 Methods and Techniques for Lower Danube Sturgeon Monitoring Used for the Assessment of Anthropic Activities Pressures and the Quantification of Risks on These Species

Authors: Lucian P. Georgescu, Catalina Iticescu, Gyorgy Deak, Marius C. Raischi, Tiberius M. Danalache, Elena Holban, Madalina G. Boboc, Monica Matei, Marius V. Olteanu, Stefan Zamfir, Gabriel Cornateanu


At present, on the Lower Danube, different types of pressures have been identified that affect the anadromous sturgeons stocks with an impact that leads to their decline. This paper presents techniques and procedures used by Romanian experts in the tagging and monitoring of anadromous sturgeons, as well as unique results at international level obtained on the basis of an informational volume collected in over 7 years of monitoring on these species behavior (both for adults as well as for ultrasonically tagged juveniles) on the Lower Danube. The local impact of hydrotechnical constructions (bottom sill, maritime navigation channel), the global impact of the poaching phenomenon and the impact of the restocking programs with sturgeon juveniles were assessed. Thus, the bottom sill impact on the Bala branch, the Bastroe Channel (cross-border impact) and the poaching phenomenon at the level of the Lower Danube was analyzed on the basis of a unique informational volume obtained through the use of patented monitoring systems by the Romanian experts (DKTB respectively, DKMR-01T). At the same time, the results from the monitoring of ultrasonically tagged sturgeon juveniles from the 2015 repopulation program are presented. Conclusions resulting from research can ensure favorable premises for finding some conservation solutions for CITES-protected sturgeon species that have survived for millions of years, currently being 1 species on the brink of extinction - Russian sturgeon, 2 species in danger of extinction - Beluga sturgeon and Stellate sturgeon and 2 species already extinct from the Lower Danube, namely common sturgeon and ship sturgeon.

Keywords: tagging, Lower Danube, sturgeons monitoring (adults and juveniles), impact on conservation

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4 Results of an Educative Procedure by Nursing on Patients Subjected to a Transplant from Hematopoietic Parents

Authors: C. Catalina Zapata, Z. Claudia Montoya


Transplant from hematopoietic parents (THP) or medulla (MT) is a procedure used to replace the medulla that does not work as part of a disease or when it is destroyed either by a treatment of high medication doses against cancer or by radiation. The transplant process has three stages, a stage prior to transplant, during and after the transplant. It is held with the help of an interdisciplinary team, including nursing, carrying out mainly educative procedures to warrant the adhesion and the changes in lifestyles needed to whom will undergo this procedure. The aim of the study was to assess the results of an educative procedure by nursing, on adult patients subjected to a transplant from hematopoietic parents at a high complexity institution of Medellin city, Colombia. This study had an observational longitudinal design. According to the rules of protocol, the educative activity must be held on all patients joining the procedure. Four instruments were designed in order to collect all the information. One of them to measure the sociodemographic variables, another one to measure self-care practices, another one to measure transplant knowledge and its cares and the other one to measure the 30-day post-transplant complications. The last three instruments were applied before and after the educative procedure. A univaried analysis was carried out but the bivaried analysis was not carried out since there were not statistically meaningful differences before and after. Within the results, ten patients were evaluated. The average age was 38.2 (13.38 SD – standard deviation), 8/10 were men. Some self-care practices such us having pets and plants and consuming some specific food as well as little use of UV protection are all present in this type of patients and are not modified after the procedure. In measuring the knowledge, something stands out among the answers. It is the fact that some patients do not know what the medulla is, the nature of separating wastes at home and the need to consult about vomit and nausea. The most frequent complications during the first thirty days were: nausea, vomit, fever, and rash. They are considered to be expected within this period. Patients do not exhibit differences in their level of knowledge before and after the educative procedure by nursing. The patients’ self-care practices do not involve all the necessary ones to avoid complications. During the first 30 days, most of the complications are typical of the transplant process from hematopoietic parents.

Keywords: Education, Nursing, Family, patients, bone marrow transplant, Transplantation of hematopoietic progenitors

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3 Influence of Sewage Sludge on Agricultural Land Quality and Crop

Authors: Lucian P. Georgescu, Catalina Iticescu, Mihaela Timofti, Gabriel Murariu


Since the accumulation of large quantities of sewage sludge is producing serious environmental problems, numerous environmental specialists are looking for solutions to solve this problem. The sewage sludge obtained by treatment of municipal wastewater may be used as fertiliser on agricultural soils because such sludge contains large amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter. In many countries, sewage sludge is used instead of chemical fertilizers in agriculture, this being the most feasible method to reduce the increasingly larger quantities of sludge. The use of sewage sludge on agricultural soils is allowed only with a strict monitoring of their physical and chemical parameters, because heavy metals exist in varying amounts in sewage sludge. Exceeding maximum permitted quantities of harmful substances may lead to pollution of agricultural soil and may cause their removal aside because the plants may take up the heavy metals existing in soil and these metals will most probably be found in humans and animals through food. The sewage sludge analyzed for the present paper was extracted from the Wastewater Treatment Station (WWTP) Galati, Romania. The physico-chemical parameters determined were: pH (upH), total organic carbon (TOC) (mg L⁻¹), N-total (mg L⁻¹), P-total (mg L⁻¹), N-NH₄ (mg L⁻¹), N-NO₂ (mg L⁻¹), N-NO₃ (mg L⁻¹), Fe-total (mg L⁻¹), Cr-total (mg L⁻¹), Cu (mg L⁻¹), Zn (mg L⁻¹), Cd (mg L⁻¹), Pb (mg L⁻¹), Ni (mg L⁻¹). The determination methods were electrometrical (pH, C, TSD) - with a portable HI 9828 HANNA electrodes committed multiparameter and spectrophotometric - with a Spectroquant NOVA 60 - Merck spectrophotometer and with specific Merck parameter kits. The tests made pointed out the fact that the sludge analysed is low heavy metal falling within the legal limits, the quantities of metals measured being much lower than the maximum allowed. The results of the tests made to determine the content of nutrients in the sewage sludge have shown that the existing nutrients may be used to increase the fertility of agricultural soils. Other tests were carried out on lands where sewage sludge was applied in order to establish the maximum quantity of sludge that may be used so as not to constitute a source of pollution. The tests were made on three plots: a first batch with no mud and no chemical fertilizers applied, a second batch on which only sewage sludge was applied, and a third batch on which small amounts of chemical fertilizers were applied in addition to sewage sludge. The results showed that the production increases when the soil is treated with sludge and small amounts of chemical fertilizers. Based on the results of the present research, a fertilization plan has been suggested. This plan should be reconsidered each year based on the crops planned, the yields proposed, the agrochemical indications, the sludge analysis, etc.

Keywords: Crops, Sewage Sludge, agricultural use, physico–chemical parameters

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2 Effects of an Envious Experience on Schadenfreude and Economic Decisions Making

Authors: Pablo Reyes, Vanessa Riveros Fiallo, Cesar Acevedo, Camila Castellanos, Catalina Moncaleano, Maria F. Parra, Laura Colmenares


Social emotions are physiological, cognitive and behavioral phenomenon that intervene in the mechanisms of adaptation of individuals and their context. These are mediated by interpersonal relationship and language. Such emotions are subdivided into moral and comparison. The present research emphasizes two comparative emotions: Envy and Schadenfreude. Envy arises when a person lack of quality, possessions or achievements and these are superior in someone else. The Schadenfreude (SC) expresses the pleasure that someone experienced by the misfortune of the other. The relationship between both emotions has been questioned before. Hence there are reports showing that envy increases and modulates SC response. Other documents suggest that envy causes SC response. However, the methodological approach of the topic has been made through self-reports, as well as the hypothetical scenarios. Given this problematic, the neuroscience social framework provides an alternative and demonstrates that social emotions have neurophysiological correlates that can be measured. This is relevant when studying social emotions that are reprehensible like envy or SC are. When tested, the individuals tend to report low ratings due to social desirability. In this study, it was drawn up a proposal in research's protocol and the progress on its own piloting. The aim is to evaluate the effect of feeling envy and Schadenfreude has on the decision-making process, as well as the cooperative behavior in an economic game. To such a degree, it was proposed an experimental model that will provoke to feel envious by performing games against an unknown opponent. The game consists of asking general knowledge questions. The difficulty level in questions and the strangers' facial response have been manipulated in order to generate an ecological comparison framework and be able to arise both envy and SC emotions. During the game, an electromyography registry will be made for two facial muscles that have been associated with the expressiveness of envy and SC emotions. One of the innovations of the current proposal is the measurement of the effect that emotions have on a specific behavior. To that extent, it was evaluated the effect of each condition on the dictators' economic game. The main intention is to evaluate if a social emotion can modulate actions that have been associated with social norms, in the literacy. The result of the evaluation of a pilot model (without electromyography record and self-report) have shown an association between envy and SC, in a way that as the individuals report a greater sense of envy, the greater the chance to experience SC. The results of the economic game show a slight tendency towards profit maximization decisions. It is expected that at the time of using real cash this behavior will be strengthened and also to correlate with the responses of electromyography.

Keywords: Economic Games, electromyography, envy, Schadenfreude

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1 Experimental Field for the Study of Soil-Atmosphere Interaction in Soft Soils

Authors: Andres Mejia-Ortiz, Catalina Lozada, German R. Santos, Rafael Angulo-Jaramillo, Bernardo Caicedo


The interaction between atmospheric variables and soil properties is a determining factor when evaluating the flow of water through the soil. This interaction situation directly determines the behavior of the soil and greatly influences the changes that occur in it. The atmospheric variations such as changes in the relative humidity, air temperature, wind velocity and precipitation, are the external variables that reflect a greater incidence in the changes that are generated in the subsoil, as a consequence of the water flow in descending and ascending conditions. These environmental variations have a major importance in the study of the soil because the conditions of humidity and temperature in the soil surface depend on them. In addition, these variations control the thickness of the unsaturated zone and the position of the water table with respect to the surface. However, understanding the relationship between the atmosphere and the soil is a somewhat complex aspect. This is mainly due to the difficulty involved in estimating the changes that occur in the soil from climate changes; since this is a coupled process where act processes of mass transfer and heat. In this research, an experimental field was implemented to study in-situ the interaction between the atmosphere and the soft soils of the city of Bogota, Colombia. The soil under study consists of a 60 cm layer composed of two silts of similar characteristics at the surface and a deep soft clay deposit located under the silky material. It should be noted that the vegetal layer and organic matter were removed to avoid the evapotranspiration phenomenon. Instrumentation was carried on in situ through a field disposal of many measuring devices such as soil moisture sensors, thermocouples, relative humidity sensors, wind velocity sensor, among others; which allow registering the variations of both the atmospheric variables and the properties of the soil. With the information collected through field monitoring, the water balances were made using the Hydrus-1D software to determine the flow conditions that developed in the soil during the study. Also, the moisture profile for different periods and time intervals was determined by the balance supplied by Hydrus 1D; this profile was validated by experimental measurements. As a boundary condition, the actual evaporation rate was included using the semi-empirical equations proposed by different authors. In this study, it was obtained for the rainy periods a descending flow that was governed by the infiltration capacity of the soil. On the other hand, during dry periods. An increase in the actual evaporation of the soil induces an upward flow of water, increasing suction due to the decrease in moisture content. Also, cracks were developed accelerating the evaporation process. This work concerns to the study of soil-atmosphere interaction through the experimental field and it is a very useful tool since it allows considering all the factors and parameters of the soil in its natural state and real values of the different environmental conditions.

Keywords: field Monitoring, soft soils, soil-atmosphere, soil-water balance

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