Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: Sonja Venter

22 Resistance to the South African Root-Knot Nematode Population Densities in Artemisia annua: An Anti-Malaria Ethnomedicinal Plant

Authors: Kgabo Pofu, Hintsa Araya, Dean Oelofse, Sonja Venter, Christian Du Plooy, Phatu Mashela

Abstract:

Nematode resistance to the tropical root-knot (Meloidogyne species) nematodes is one of the most preferred nematode management strategies in development of smallholder resource-poor farming systems. Due to its pharmacological and ethnomedicinal applications, Artemisia annua is one of the underutilised crops that have attracted attention of policy-makers in rural agrarian development in South Africa. However, the successful introduction of this crop in smallholder resource-poor farming systems could be upset by the widespread aggressive Meloidogyne species, which have limited management options. The objective of this study therefore was to determine the degree of nematode resistance to the South African M. incognita and M. javanica population densities on A. annua seedlings. Uniform three-week-old seedlings in pots containing pasteurised growing medium under greenhouse conditions were inoculated using a series of eggs and second-stage juveniles of two Meloidogyne species in separate trials. At 56 days after inoculation, treatments were highly significant on reproductive factor (RF) for M. incognita and M. javanica on A. annua, contributing 87 and 89% in total treatment variation of the variables, respectively. At all levels of inoculation, RF values for M. incognita (0.17-0.79) and M. javanica (0.02-0.29) were below unity, without any noticeable root galls. Infection of A. annua by both Meloidogyne species had no significant effects on growth variables. In conclusion, A. annua seedlings are resistant to the South African M. incognita and M. javanica population densities and could therefore be explored further for use in smallholder resource-poor farming systems.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, ethnomedicial plants, underutilised crops, plant parasitic nematodes

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21 Enforcement of Decisions of Ombudsmen and the South African Public Protector: Muzzling the Watchdogs

Authors: Roxan Venter

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Ombudsmen often face the challenge of a lack of authority to have their decisions and recommendations enforced. This lack of authority may be seen as one of the major obstacles in the way of the effectiveness of the institutions of Ombudsman and also the South African Public Protector. The paper will address the current legal position in South Africa with regard to the status of the decisions and recommendations of the South African Public Protector and the enforcement thereof. In addition, the paper will compare the South African position with the experiences of other jurisdictions, including Scandinavian countries like Sweden, Denmark and Norway, but also New Zealand and Northern Ireland, with regard to the enforcement of the decisions of Ombudsmen. Finally, the paper will make recommendations with regard to the enhancement of the power and authority of Ombudsmen in order to effectively enforce their decisions. It is submitted that the creation of the office of Ombudsman, and the Public Protector in the South African system, is an essential tool to ensure the protection of society against governmental abuse of power and it is therefore imperative to ensure that these watchdogs of democracy are not muzzled by a lack of powers of enforcement.

Keywords: ombudsman, enforcement of decisions of ombudsmen, governmental control, South African public protector

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20 Changing the Way South Africa Think about Parking Provision at Tertiary Institutions

Authors: M. C. Venter, G. Hitge, S. C. Krygsman, J. Thiart

Abstract:

For decades, South Africa has been planning transportation systems from a supply, rather than a demand side, perspective. In terms of parking, this relates to requiring the minimum parking provision that is enforced by city officials. Newer insight is starting to indicate that South Africa needs to re-think this philosophy in light of a new policy environment that desires a different outcome. Urban policies have shifted from reliance on the private car for access, to employing a wide range of alternative modes. Car dominated travel is influenced by various parameters, of which the availability and location of parking plays a significant role. The question is therefore, what is the right strategy to achieve the desired transport outcomes for SA. The focus of this paper is used to assess this issue with regard to parking provision, and specifically at a tertiary institution. A parking audit was conducted at the Stellenbosch campus of Stellenbosch University, monitoring occupancy at all 60 parking areas, every hour during business hours over a five-day period. The data from this survey was compared with the prescribed number of parking bays according to the Stellenbosch Municipality zoning scheme (requiring a minimum of 0.4 bays per student). The analysis shows that by providing 0.09 bays per student, the maximum total daily occupation of all the parking areas did not exceed an 80% occupation rate. It is concluded that the prevailing parking standards are not supportive of the new urban and transport policy environment, but that it is extremely conservative from a practical demand point of view.

Keywords: Travel Demand Management, travel behaviour, parking provision, parking requirements

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19 A Qualitative Case Study Exploring Zambian Mathematics Teachers' Content Knowledge of Functions

Authors: Priestly Malambo, Sonja Van Putten, Hanlie Botha, Gerrit Stols

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The relevance of what is content is taught in tertiary teacher training has long been in question. This study attempts to understand how advanced mathematics courses equip student teachers to teach functions at secondary school level. This paper reports on an investigation that was conducted in an African university, where preservice teachers were purposefully selected for participation in individual semi-structured interviews after completing a test on functions as taught at secondary school. They were asked to justify their reasoning in the test and to explain functions in a way that might bring about understanding of the topic in someone who did not know how functions work. These were final year preservice mathematics teachers who had studied advanced mathematics courses for three years. More than 50% of the students were not able to explain concepts or to justify their reasoning about secondary school functions in a coherent way. The results of this study suggest that the study of advanced mathematics does not automatically enable students to teach secondary school functions, and that, although these students were able to do advanced mathematics, they were unable to explain the working of functions in a way that would allow them to teach this topic successfully.

Keywords: Functions, secondary school, student-teachers, mathematical reasoning

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18 Biological Activity of Bilberry Pomace

Authors: Gordana S. Ćetković, Vesna T. Tumbas Šaponjac, Sonja M. Djilas, Jasna M. Čanadanović-Brunet, Sladjana M. Stajčić, Jelena J. Vulić

Abstract:

Bilberry is one of the most important dietary sources of phenolic compounds, including anthocyanins, phenolic acids, flavonol glycosides and flavan-3-ols. These phytochemicals have different biological activities and therefore may improve our health condition. Also, anthocyanins are interesting to the food industry as colourants. In the present study, bilberry pomace, a by-product of juice processing, was used as a potential source of bioactive compounds. The contents of total phenolic acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins in bilberry pomace were determined by HPLC/UV-Vis. The biological activities of bilberry pomace were evaluated by reducing power (RP) and α-glucosidase inhibitory potential (α-GIP), and expressed as RP0.5 value (the effective concentration of bilberry pomace extract assigned at 0.5 value of absorption) and IC50 value (the concentration of bilberry pomace extract necessary to inhibit 50% of α-glucosidase enzyme activity). Total phenolic acids content was 807.12 ± 25.16 mg/100 g pomace, flavonoids 54.36 ± 1.83mg/100 g pomace and anthocyanins 3426.18 ± 112.09 mg/100 g pomace. The RP0.5 value of bilberry pomace was 0.38 ± 0.02 mg/ml, while IC50 value was 1.82 ± 0.11 mg/ml. These results have revealed the potential for valorization of bilberry juice production by-products for further industrial use as a rich source of bioactive compounds and natural colourants (mainly anthocyanins).

Keywords: antioxidant activity, reducing power, phenolics, bilberry pomace, α-glucosidase enzyme activity

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17 Characterization of Caneberry Juices Enriched by Natural Antioxidants

Authors: Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Jasna Čanadanović-Brunet, Gordana Ćetković, Sonja Djilas, Jelena Vulić

Abstract:

Caneberries (raspberries and blackberries) are among the most popular berries in the world, which are consumed as fresh and processed to juice, jams, confitures and other products or as ingredients for different foods. These fruits are known as a rich source of phenolic compounds such as phenolic acids and anthocyanins. Antioxidant activity (AA) of caneberry juices was improved by addition of phenolic compounds which were extracted from two raspberry cultivars (Rubus idaeus, cv. 'Willamette' (RW) and 'Meeker' (RM)) and two blackberry cultivars (Rubus fruticosus, cv. 'Čačanka' (BC) and 'Thornfree' (BT)) pomace, a by-product in juice processing. The total phenolic contents in raspberry and blackberry pomace extracts were determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagens. The phenolic concentrations in caneberries (RW, RM, BC and BT) pomace extracts were 43.67 ± 2.13 mg GAE/g, 26.25 ± 1.18 mg GAE/g, 46.01 ± 3.26 mg GAE/g and 61.59 ± 1.14 mg GAE/g, respectively. In order to obtain enriched juices, phenolic compounds were applied at concentration of 0.05 mg GAE/ 100 ml. Antioxidant activities of caneberry juices and caneberry enriched juices were measured using stable 1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. AADPPH of RW, RM, BC and BT juices and enriched juices with addition of 0.01 µg GAE/ml, changed from 37.12% to 93.01%, 23.26% to 91.57%, 53.61% to 95.65% and 52.06% to 93.13%, respectively, while IC50 values of RW, RM, BC and BT juices and enriched juices were diminished 6.33, 19.00, 6.33 and 4.75 times, respectively. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that phenolic enriched juices were significantly more effective on DPPH radicals. Caneberry juices enriched with waste material are a good source of natural pigments and antioxidants and could be used as functional foods.

Keywords: caneberry, enriched juice, phenolic antioxidant, DPPH radical

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16 ‘Internationalize Yourself’: Mobility in Academia as a Form of Continuing Professional Training

Authors: Sonja Goegele, Petra Kletzenbauer

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The FH JOANNEUM- a university of applied sciences based in Austria - cooperates in teaching and research with well-known international universities and thus aims to foster so-called strategic partnerships. The exchange of university lecturers and other faculty members is a way to achieve and secure strategic company goals, in which excellent research and teaching play a central role in order to improve both the development of academics and administration. Thanks to mobility not only the university but also the involved people truly benefit in their professional development which can be seen on several levels: increased foreign language proficiency, excellent networking possibilities within the scientific community as well as reinforced didactic competencies in the form of different teaching and learning methodologies. The paper discusses mobility in the light of the university’s strategic paper entitled ‘Hands on 2022’ by presenting results from an empirical research study among faculty members who participate in exchange programmes on a regular basis. In the form of an online questionnaire, mobility was discussed from different angles such as networking, collaborative research, professional training for academics and the overall impact of the exchange within and outside the organization. From the findings, it can be concluded that mobility is an asset for any university. However, keeping in constant dialogue with partner universities requires more than the purpose of the exchange itself. Building rapport and keeping a relationship of trust are challenges that need to be addressed more closely in order to run successful mobility programmes. Best Practice examples should highlight the importance of mobility as a vital initiative to transfer disciplines.

Keywords: Mobility, Higher Education, Internationalization, strategic partnerships

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15 Antioxidant Property of Honey with Dried Cherry

Authors: Gordana S. Ćetković, Vesna T. Tumbas Šaponjac, Sonja M. Djilas, Jasna M. Čanadanović-Brunet, Sladjana M. Stajčić, Jelena J. Vulić

Abstract:

Honey serves as a source of natural antioxidants, which are effective in reducing the risk of heart disease, cancer, immune-system decline, cataracts, different inflammatory processes, and also prevent deteriorative oxidation reactions in foods such as enzymatic browning of fruit and vegetables. Honey is a natural saturated sugar solution, but it also contains certain minor constituents, proteins, enzymes, amino and organic acids, lipids, vitamins, phenolic acids, flavonoids and carotenoids. It is consumed in its natural form alone, but also in combination with nuts and various kinds of dried fruits. The aim of this research was to investigate the contribution of dried cherry on phenols (TPh) and flavonoids (Fl) contents and antioxidant activities of honey. Phenolic compounds in Serbian polyfloral (PH), linden (LH) and acacia (AH) honey and also in their mixtures with dried cherry, in 40% mass concentrations (PH40; LH40, AH40), were determined. In comparison to honey, TPh increased 2.25 times for LH40, 2.16 times for AH40 and 1.45 times for PH40, while Fl increased 2.81-fold for PH40, 1.21-fold for LH40 and 1.44-fold for AH40. Antioxidant activity was investigated with two assays, DPPH test and reducing power (RP), and expressed as EC50DPPH and RP0.5 values. The EC50DPPH values were: EC50PH40 = 1.16 mg/ml; EC50LH40= 1.42 mg/ml and EC50AH40= 1.69 mg/ml, while RP0.5 were: RP0.5PH40 = 15.05 mg/ml; RP0.5LH40 = 16.09 mg/ml and P0.5AH40 = 17.60 mg/ml. Our results indicate that supplementation of polyfloral, linden and acacia honey with 40% dried cherry improves antioxidant activity of honey by enriching the phenolic composition.

Keywords: honey, antioxidant activity, phenolics, dried cherry

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14 Cytotoxicity of 13 South African Macrofungal Species and Mechanism/s of Action against Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Maryna Van De Venter, Gerhardt Boukes, Sharlene Govender

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Macrofungi have been used for the past two thousand years in Asian countries, and more recently in Western countries, for their medicinal properties. Biological activities include antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anticancer and immunomodulatory to name a few. Several biologically active compounds have been identified and isolated. Macrofungal research in Africa is poorly documented and to the best of our knowledge non-existent. South Africa has a rich macrofungal biodiversity, which includes endemic and exotic macrofungal species. Ethanolic extracts of 13 macrofungal species, including mushrooms, bracket fungi and puffballs, were prepared and screened for cytotoxicity against a panel of seven cell lines, including A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma), HeLa (human cervical adenocarcinoma), HT-29 (human colorectal adenocarcinoma), MCF7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), MIA PaCa-2 (human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma), PC-3 (human prostate adenocarcinoma) and Vero (African green monkey kidney epithelial) cells using MTT. Cell lines were chosen according to the most prevalent cancer types affecting males and females in South Africa and globally, and the mutations they contain. Preliminary results have shown that three of the macrofungal genera, i.e. Fomitopsis, Gymnopilus and Pycnoporus, have shown cytotoxic activity, ranging between IC50 ~20 and 200 µg/mL. The molecular mechanism of action contributing to cell death investigated and being investigated include apoptosis (i.e. DNA cell cycle arrest, caspase-3 activation and mitochondrial membrane potential), autophagy (i.e. acridine orange and LC3B staining) and ER stress (i.e. thioflavin T staining and caspase-12) in the presence of melphalan, chloroquine and thapsigargin/tuncamycin as positive controls, respectively. The genus, Pycnoporus, has shown the best cytotoxicity of the three macrofungal genera. Future work will focus on the identification and isolation of novel active compounds and elucidating the mechanism/s of action.

Keywords: Cancer, Cytotoxicity, macrofungi, mechanism/s of action

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13 Rooibos Extract Antioxidants: In vitro Models to Assess Their Bioavailability

Authors: Ntokozo Dambuza, Maryna Van De Venter, Trevor Koekemoer

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Oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases and consequently antioxidant therapy has attracted much attention as a potential therapeutic strategy. Regardless of the quantities ingested, antioxidants need to reach the diseased tissues at concentrations sufficient to combat oxidative stress. Bioavailability is thus a defining criterion for the therapeutic efficacy of antioxidants. In addition, therapeutic antioxidants must possess biologically relevant characteristics which can target the specific molecular mechanisms responsible for disease related oxidative stress. While many chemical antioxidant assays are available to quantify antioxidant capacity, they relate poorly to the biological environment and provide no information as to the bioavailability. The present comparative study thus aims to characterise green and fermented rooibos extracts, well recognized for their exceptional antioxidant capacity, in terms of antioxidant bioavailability and efficacy in a disease relevant cellular setting. Chinese green tea antioxidant activity was also evaluated. Chemical antioxidant assays (FRAP, DPPH and ORAC) confirmed the potent antioxidant capacity of both green and fermented rooibos, with green rooibos possessing antioxidant activity superior to that of fermented rooibos and Chinese green tea. Bioavailability was assessed using the PAMPA assay and the results indicate that green and fermented rooibos have a permeation coefficient of 5.7 x 10-6 and 6.9 x 10-6 cm/s, respectively. Chinese green tea permeability coefficient was 8.5 x 10-6 cm/s. These values were comparable to those of rifampicin, which is known to have a high permeability across intestinal epithelium with a permeability coefficient of 5 x 10 -6 cm/s. To assess the antioxidant efficacy in a cellular context, U937 and red blood cells were pre-treated with rooibos and Chinese green tea extracts in the presence of a dye DCFH-DA and then exposed to oxidative stress. Green rooibos exhibited highest activity with an IC50 value of 29 μg/ml and 70 μg/ml, when U937 and red blood cells were exposed oxidative stress, respectively. Fermented rooibos and Chinese green tea had IC50 values of 61 μg/ml and 57 μg/ml for U937, respectively, and 221 μg/ml and 405 μg/ml for red blood cells, respectively. These results indicate that fermented and green rooibos extracts were able to permeate the U937 cells and red blood cell membrane and inhibited oxidation of DCFH-DA to a fluorescent DCF within the cells.

Keywords: Bioavailability, Antioxidants, Permeability, rooibos

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12 Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Fresh Chokeberries

Authors: Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Jasna Čanadanović-Brunet, Gordana Ćetković, Sonja Djilas, Jelena Vulić, Slađana Stajčić, Milica Vinčić

Abstract:

Substantial interest has been expressed in fruits and berries due to their potential favourable health effects and high content of polyphenols, especially flavonoids and anthocyanins. Chokeberries (Aronia melanocarpa) are dark berries, similar to blackcurrants, that have been used by native Americans both as a food resource and in traditional medicine for treatment of cold. Epidemiological studies revealed positive effects of chokeberries on colorectal cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and various inflammatory conditions. Chokeberries are well known as good natural antioxidants, which contain phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanidins and antioxidant vitamins. The aim of this study was to provide information on polyphenolic compounds present in fresh chokeberries as well as to determine its antioxidant activity. Individual polyphenolic compounds have been identified and quantified using HPLC/UV-Vis. Results showed that the most dominant phenolic acid was protocatechuic acid (274.23 mg/100 g FW), flavonoid rutin (319.66 mg/100 g FW) and anthocyanin cyanidin-3-galactoside (1532.68 mg/100 g FW). Generally, anthocyanins were predominant compounds in fresh chokeberry (2342.82 mg/100 g FW). Four anthocyanins have been identified in fresh chokeberry and all of them were cyanidin glicosides. Antioxidant activity was determined using spectrophotometric DPPH assay and compared to standard antioxidant compound vitamin C. The resulting EC50 value (amount of fresh chokeberries that scavenge 50% of DPPH radicals) is 0.33 mg vitamin C equivalent/100 g FW. The results of this investigation provide evidence on high contents of phenolic compounds, especially anthocyanins, in chokeberries as well as high antioxidant activity of this fruit.

Keywords: polyphenols, antioxidant, chokeberry, DPPH radicals

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11 Assessing Missouri State Park Employee Perceptions of Vulnerability and Resilience to Extreme Weather Events

Authors: Ojetunde Ojewola, Mark Morgan, Sonja Wilhelm-Stanis

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State parks and historic sites are vulnerable to extreme weather events which can affect visitor experiences, management priorities, and legislative requests for disaster relief funds. Recently, global attention has been focused on the perceptions of global warming and how the presence of extreme weather events might impact protected areas, both now and in the future. The effects of climate change are not equally distributed across the United States, leading to varied perceptions based on personal experience with extreme weather events. This study describes employee perceptions of vulnerability and resilience in Missouri State Parks & Historic Sites due to extreme weather events that occur across the state but grouped according to physiographic provinces. Using a four-point rating scale, perceptions of vulnerability and resilience were divided into high and low sub-groups, thus allowing researchers to construct a two by two typology of employee responses. Subsequently, this data was used to develop a three-point continuum of environmental concern (higher scores meant more concern). Employee scores were then compared against a statewide assessment which combined social, economic, infrastructural and environmental indicators of vulnerability and resilience. State park employees thought the system was less vulnerable and more resilient to climate change than data found in statewide assessment This result was also consistent in three out of five physiographic regions across Missouri. Implications suggest that Missouri state park should develop a climate change adaptation strategy for emergency preparedness.

Keywords: Resilience, Vulnerability, extreme weather events, state parks

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10 The Role of Leader, Member Exchange on Psychological Capital, Mediated by Person-Organisational Fit

Authors: Sonja Grobler

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Background: Leadership and specifically Leader, member exchange has a definite impact on employee behaviour and attitudes, and specifically their state of psychological capital. The interactionist construct of person-organisational fit (P-O fit), consisting of a combination of supplementary fit (indirect fit or value congruence) and complementary fit (direct or person-job fit, as well as needs-supply fit) may, however, impact on the relationship between LMX and psychological capital. The unique permutations of these relationships are important not only for conceptualisation purposes but also for intervention design to enhance the employees’ psychological capital; this would contribute to positive employee behaviour and attitudes. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between Leader, Member Exchange (LMX) and psychological capital, with possible mediation by P-O fit. Setting: The research was conducted with ± 60 employees from each of 43 private sectors and four public sector organisations in South Africa. Method: This study utilised a positivist methodology based on an empirical approach while using a cross-sectional design and quantitative analysis. The sample is relatively representative (in terms of race, gender, and the South African work force), as it consisted of 60 employees from each of the 43 South African organisations that participated in the study, with 2 486 respondents in total. Results: Significant, positive relationships were found between LMX, P-O fit, and psychological capital. Additionally, it was found that P-O fit partially mediates the relationship between ethical leadership and supervisory trust, confirming the proposed model. Conclusion: A strong, positive relationship exists between LMX (consisting of Affect, Loyalty, Contribution, and Professional Respect) and psychological capital (consisting of Self-efficacy, Hope, Resilience and Optimism) which is partially mediated by P-O fit (consisting of supplementary fit and complementary fit).

Keywords: Positive Psychology, psychological capital, leader and member exchange, person-organisational fit, interactionist approach

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9 Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Property of Honey with Dried Apricots

Authors: Jasna Čanadanović-Brunet, Gordana Ćetković, Sonja Djilas, Vesna Tumbas-Šaponjac, Jelena Vulić, Sladjana Stajčić

Abstract:

Honey, produced by the honeybee, is a natural saturated sugar solution, which is mainly composed of a complex mixture of carbohydrates. Besides this, it also contains certain minor constituents, proteins, enzymes, amino and organic acids, lipids, vitamins, phenolic acids, flavonoids and carotenoids. Honey serves as a source of natural antioxidants, which are effective in reducing the risk of heart disease, cancer, immune-system decline, cataracts, and different inflammatory processes. Honey is consumed in its natural form alone, but also in combination with nuts and various kinds of dried fruits (plums, figs, cranberries, apricots etc.). The aim of this research was to investigate the contribution of dried apricot addition to polyphenols and flavonoids contents and antioxidant activities of honey. Some individual phenolic compounds in Serbian polyfloral honey (PH), linden honey (LH) and also in their mixtures with dried apricot, in 40% mass concentrations (PH40; LH40), were identified and quantified by HPLC. The most dominant phenolic compound was: gallic acid in LH (11.14 mg/100g), LH40 (42.65 mg/100g), PH (7.24 mg/100g) and catehin in PH40 (11.83 mg/100g). The antioxidant activity of PH, LH, PH40 and LH40 was tested by measuring their ability to scavenge hydroxyl radicals (OH) by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). Honey samples with 40% dried apricot exhibited better antioxidant activity measured by hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. The EC50 values, the amount of antioxidant necessary to decrease the initial concentration of OH radicals by 50%, were: EC50PH=3.36 mg/ml, EC50LH=13.36 mg/ml, EC50PH40=2.29 mg/ml, EC50 LH40=7.78 mg/ml. Our results indicate that supplementation of polyfloral honey and linden honey with dried apricots improves antioxidant activity of honey by enriching the phenolic composition.

Keywords: HPLC, honey, dried apricot, hydroxyl radical

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8 Antimicrobial Activity of Sour Cherry Pomace

Authors: Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Sonja Djilas, Milica Vinčić, Sinisa Markov, Aleksandra Velićanski, Dragoljub Cvetković, Eva Lončar

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Due to high content of bioactive compounds, sour cherry possesses antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Additionally, waste material from industrial processing of sour cherry is also a good source of bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was to screen the antimicrobial activity and determine the minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of sour cherry pomace extract. Tested strains were Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 and wild isolates Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp.), Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 11632, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876 and wild isolates Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Bacillus sp.) and yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae 112, Hefebank Weihenstephan and Candida albicans ATCC 10231). Antimicrobial activity was tested by disc-diffusion method and agar-well diffusion method. MIC and MBC were determined by microdilution method. Screening tests showed that Gram-negative bacteria were resistant to tested extract, with exception of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella sp. for which only zones of reduced growth appeared. However, Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive where the highest clear zones appeared with 100 µl of extract applied. There was no activity against tested yeasts. MIC and MBC values were in the range 3.125-37.5 mg/ml and 6.25-100 mg/ml, respectively. The most susceptible strain was Staphylococcus aureus while the most resistant was Bacillus sp. where MBC was not found in tested concentration range. Sour cherry pomace possesses high antibacterial potential, which indicates that this waste material is a promising source of bioactive compounds and could be used as a functional food ingredient.

Keywords: Bioactive Compounds, Antimicrobial activity, pomace, sour cherry

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7 Effect of Sanitary-Environmental Conditions of Diabetic Hypertension Incidence of Displaced Persons

Authors: Radmila Maksimovic, Sonja Ketin, Rade Biocanin, Jelena Maksimovic

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The abnormal conditions of life and work genetic factors often play a major role in incidence of diabetes-diabetes, heart disease and vascular disease, jaundice, and post traumatic stress. Trauma and post traumatic stress are most common in the displaced persons,and the focus of this paper is to shed light on this issue in former Yugoslavia, Yugoslavia and now in our country. This is caused by increased beta-cell sensitivity to viruses, the development of autoimmune antibodies against its own pancreascells, degenerative changes in cells that r esult in change of structure and insulin. In this paper, we dealt with traumatic events and long-term psycho social consequences for internally displaced persons, several years after displacement, and found a high level of PTSD symptoms. This stress is present in almost 1/3 of internally displaced persons, and every sixth person is suffering from PTSD in the past. Respondents generally suffer from symptoms of intrusion, but there was a large number of symptoms, avoidance and increased arousal. We also found that gender, age andeducation related to the symptoms. Females, and older respondents and internally displaced persons with lower levels of education how a higher level of PTSD symptoms, especially symptoms of intrusion and increase darousal. It is a highly traumatized sample in which more than 1/2 of respondents experienced more than three traumatic events in life,although the number of traumas experienced before, during and after the conflict varies.We found that during the war, internally displaced persons haveexperienced more traumatic events compared with the periodbefore and after the conflict. Trauma are different in type. No significant correlation between the number of experienced trauma and PTSD, suggesting that it is necessary to further study the structure of past traumas and the intermediary effects of certain risk factors and protective factors.

Keywords: Trauma, Diabetes, treatment, jaundice, living environment, displaced persons, diabetic hypertension, post-traumatic stress (PTSD)

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6 Distribution of Antioxidants between Sour Cherry Juice and Pomace

Authors: Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Jasna Čanadanović-Brunet, Gordana Ćetković, Sonja Djilas, Jelena Vulić, Slađana Stajčić, Milica Vinčić

Abstract:

In recent years, interest in food rich in bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, increased the advantages of the functional food products. Bioactive components help to maintain health and prevention of diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular and many other degenerative diseases. Recent research has shown that the fruit pomace, a byproduct generated from the production of juice, can be a potential source of valuable bioactive compounds. The use of fruit industrial waste in the processing of functional foods represents an important new step for the food industry. Sour cherries have considerable nutritional, medicinal, dietetic and technological value. According to the production volume of cherries, Serbia ranks seventh in the world, with a share of 7% of the total production. The use of sour cherry pomace has so far been limited to animal feed, even though it can be potentially a good source of polyphenols. For this study, local variety of sour cherry cv. ‘Feketićka’ was chosen for its more intensive taste and deeper red color, indicating high anthocyanin content. The contents of total polyphenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins, as well as radical scavenging activity on DPPH radicals and reducing power of sour cherry juice and pomace were compared using spectrophotometrical assays. According to the results obtained, 66.91% of total polyphenols, 46.77% of flavonoids, 46.77% of total anthocyanins and 47.88% of anthocyanin monomers from sour cherry fruits have been transferred to juice. On the other hand, 29.85% of total polyphenols, 33.09% of flavonoids, 53.23% of total anthocyanins and 52.12% of anthocyanin monomers remained in pomace. Regarding radical scavenging activity, 65.51% of Trolox equivalents from sour cherries were exported to juice, while 34.49% was left in pomace. However, reducing power of sour cherry juice was much stronger than pomace (91.28% and 8.72% of Trolox equivalents from sour cherry fruits, respectively). Based on our results it can be concluded that sour cherry pomace is still a rich source of natural antioxidants, especially anthocyanins with coloring capacity, therefore it can be used for dietary supplements development and food fortification.

Keywords: Antioxidants, polyphenols, pomace, sour cherry

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5 Assessing the Impact of Forms of Entrepreneurial Capital on Corporate Entrepreneurship in State-Owned Enterprises

Authors: Phelelani Mpanza, Robert Venter

Abstract:

Abstract — Increasing competition in industries has made it necessary for established companies to regenerate themselves and renew their ability to compete. This is the goal of Corporate Entrepreneurship (CE) activities, which involve extending the firm’s domain of competence and corresponding opportunity set, through internally and externally resources. Recently, CE has evoked interest not only from academics, but also from business practitioners and policy makers. This interest stems from the recognition of the advantage that can be gained from corporate entrepreneurship activities The prominence of State Owned Enterprises (SOEs) in the economy continues to grow. Their assets have been growing steadily since 2011 while SOEs play a critical role in the economic pursuit of advancing economic growth and developmental objectives of the country. Despite numerous kinds of studies on the issues of corporate entrepreneurship, there is still paucity of research on the impact of forms of capital on corporate entrepreneurship in state-owned enterprises is still new and lacking. Hence, this study seeks to add to the research on corporate entrepreneurship by examining the impact of forms of capital (Economic, Human and Social capital) on corporate entrepreneurship on South African State Owned Companies (SOCs), previously referred to as State Owned Enterprises (SOEs).This dissertation assesses the impact of forms of capital on corporate entrepreneurship in State Owned Enterprises in South Africa. The focus is on three forms of entrepreneurial capital which are; (1) economic capital, (2) human capital, and (3) social capital. Each form of capital is critical and has been discussed in the literature in order to orientate its utility in relation to entrepreneurship. The study was carried out in three major SOEs, which are administered by the Department of Public Enterprises. The study was based on quantitative measures using a self-administrated questionnaire. It was found that some forms of capital have a significant impact on a company’s entrepreneurial activities. For instance, it was found that forms of entrepreneurial capital have significant influence on corporate entrepreneurship because they contributed positive toward the growth of the business. This study considered the nature or the quality of the company’s workforce by means of employee human capital. Therefore, of all the managerial processes that can affect the pursuit of corporate entrepreneurial outcomes, Human capital is considered as one of the more vital. Furthermore, the recent loan guarantees from government to SOEs such as Eskom and South African Airways are a practical indication on the level of importance Economic capital is on corporate entrepreneurial activities. On Social capital and Corporate Entrepreneurship, Foil argued that it is the access to a diverse set of firm resources that significantly enhances corporate entrepreneurship activities, which points to the importance of Social capital at multiple levels within the organisations in pursuing corporate entrepreneurship. However, more research is required to investigate further how forms of capital impact established company’s entrepreneurial activities.

Keywords: Human Capital, corporate entrepreneurship, Economic Capital, state owned enterprises

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4 Polyphenol Stability and Antioxidant Properties of Freeze-Dried Sour Cherry Encapsulates

Authors: Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Jasna Čanadanović-Brunet, Gordana Ćetković, Jelena Vulić, Slađana Stajčić, Sonja Đilas, Mirjana Jakišić

Abstract:

Despite the recommended amount of daily intake of fruits, the consumption in modern age remains very low. Therefore there is a need for delivering valuable phytochemicals into the human body through different foods by developing functional food products fortified with natural bioactive compounds from plant sources. Recently, a growing interest rises in exploiting the fruit and vegetable by-products as sources of phytochemicals such as polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamins etc. Cherry contain high amounts of polyphenols, which are known to display a wide range of biological activities like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial or anti-carcinogenic activities, improvement of vision, induction of apoptosis and neuroprotective effects. Also, cherry pomace, a by-product in juice processing, can also be promising source of phenolic compounds. However, the application of polyphenols as food additives is limited because after extraction these compounds are susceptible to degradation. Microencapsulation is one of the alternative approaches to protect bioactive compounds from degradation during processing and storage. Freeze-drying is one of the most used microencapsulation methods for the protection of thermosensitive and unstable molecules. In this study sour cherry pomace was extracted with food-grade solvent (50% ethanol) to be suitable for application in products for human use. Extracted polyphenols have been concentrated and stabilized on whey (WP) and soy (SP) proteins. Encapsulation efficiency in SP was higher (94.90%), however not significantly (p<0.05) from the one in WP (90.10%). Storage properties of WP and SP encapsulate in terms of total polyphenols, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity was tested for 6 weeks. It was found that the retention of polyphenols after 6 weeks in WP and SP (67.33 and 69.30%, respectively) was similar. The content of anthocyanins has increased in WP (for 47.97%), while their content in SP has very slightly decreased (for 1.45%) after 6-week storage period. In accordance with anthocyanins the decrease in antioxidant activity in WP (87.78%) was higher than in SP (43.02%). According to the results obtained in this study, the technique reported herewith can be used for obtaining quality encapsulates for their further use as functional food additives, and, on the other hand, for fruit waste valorization.

Keywords: Storage, polyphenols, microencapsulation, cherry pomace

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3 A (Morpho) Phonological Typology of Demonstratives: A Case Study in Sound Symbolism

Authors: Seppo Kittilä, Sonja Dahlgren

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In this paper, a (morpho)phonological typology of proximal and distal demonstratives is proposed. Only the most basic proximal (‘this’) and distal (‘that’) forms have been considered, potential more fine-grained distinctions based on proximity are not relevant to our discussion, nor are the other functions the discussed demonstratives may have. The sample comprises 82 languages that represent the linguistic diversity of the world’s languages, although the study is not based on a systematic sample. Four different major types are distinguished; (1) Vowel type: front vs. back; high vs. low vowel (2) Consonant type: front-back consonants (3) Additional element –type (4) Varia. The proposed types can further be subdivided according to whether the attested difference concern only, e.g., vowels, or whether there are also other changes. For example, the first type comprises both languages such as Betta Kurumba, where only the vowel changes (i ‘this’, a ‘that’) and languages like Alyawarra (nhinha vs. nhaka), where there are also other changes. In the second type, demonstratives are distinguished based on whether the consonants are front or back; typically front consonants (e.g., labial and dental) appear on proximal demonstratives and back consonants on distal demonstratives (such as velar or uvular consonants). An example is provided by Bunaq, where bari marks ‘this’ and baqi ‘that’. In the third type, distal demonstratives typically have an additional element, making it longer in form than the proximal one (e.g., Òko òne ‘this’, ònébé ‘that’), but the type also comprises languages where the distal demonstrative is simply phonologically longer (e.g., Ngalakan nu-gaʔye vs. nu-gunʔbiri). Finally, the last type comprises cases that do not fit into the three other types, but a number of strategies are used by the languages of this group. The two first types can be explained by iconicity; front or high phonemes appear on the proximal demonstratives, while back/low phonemes are related to distal demonstratives. This means that proximal demonstratives are pronounced at the front and/or high part of the oral cavity, while distal demonstratives are pronounced lower and more back, which reflects the proximal/distal nature of their referents in the physical world. The first type is clearly the most common in our data (40/82 languages), which suggests a clear association with iconicity. Our findings support earlier findings that proximal and distal demonstratives have an iconic phonemic manifestation. For example, it has been argued that /i/ is related to smallness (small distance). Consonants, however, have not been considered before, or no systematic correspondences have been discovered. The third type, in turn, can be explained by markedness; the distal element is more marked than the proximal demonstrative. Moreover, iconicity is relevant also here: some languages clearly use less linguistic substance for referring to entities close to the speaker, which is manifested in the longer (morpho)phonological form of the distal demonstratives. The fourth type contains different kinds of cases, and systematic generalizations are hard to make.

Keywords: Phonology, Language Typology, demonstratives, iconicity

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2 Using Technology to Deliver and Scale Early Childhood Development Services in Resource Constrained Environments: Case Studies from South Africa

Authors: Sonja Giese, Tess N. Peacock

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South African based Innovation Edge is experimenting with technology to drive positive behavior change, enable data-driven decision making, and scale quality early years services. This paper uses five case studies to illustrate how technology can be used in resource-constrained environments to first, encourage parenting practices that build early language development (using a stage-based mobile messaging pilot, ChildConnect), secondly, to improve the quality of ECD programs (using a mobile application, CareUp), thirdly, how to affordably scale services for the early detection of visual and hearing impairments (using a mobile tool, HearX), fourthly, how to build a transparent and accountable system for the registration and funding of ECD (using a blockchain enabled platform, Amply), and finally enable rapid data collection and feedback to facilitate quality enhancement of programs at scale (the Early Learning Outcomes Measure). ChildConnect and CareUp were both developed using a design based iterative research approach. The usage and uptake of ChildConnect and CareUp was evaluated with qualitative and quantitative methods. Actual child outcomes were not measured in the initial pilots. Although parents who used and engaged on either platform felt more supported and informed, parent engagement and usage remains a challenge. This is contrast to ECD practitioners whose usage and knowledge with CareUp showed both sustained engagement and knowledge improvement. HearX is an easy-to-use tool to identify hearing loss and visual impairment. The tool was tested with 10000 children in an informal settlement. The feasibility of cost-effectively decentralising screening services was demonstrated. Practical and financial barriers remain with respect to parental consent and for successful referrals. Amply uses mobile and blockchain technology to increase impact and accountability of public services. In the pilot project, Amply is being used to replace an existing paper-based system to register children for a government-funded pre-school subsidy in South Africa. Early Learning Outcomes Measure defines what it means for a child to be developmentally ‘on track’ at aged 50-69 months. ELOM administration is enabled via a tablet which allows for easy and accurate data collection, transfer, analysis, and feedback. ELOM is being used extensively to drive quality enhancement of ECD programs across multiple modalities. The nature of ECD services in South Africa is that they are in large part provided by disconnected private individuals or Non-Governmental Organizations (in contrast to basic education which is publicly provided by the government). It is a disparate sector which means that scaling successful interventions is that much harder. All five interventions show the potential of technology to support and enhance a range of ECD services, but pathways to scale are still being tested.

Keywords: Communication, Mobile, Disabilities, Data, Quality, Assessment, Technology, Behavior change, scale

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1 The Effects of the Interaction between Prenatal Stress and Diet on Maternal Insulin Resistance and Inflammatory Profile

Authors: Karen L. Lindsay, Sonja Entringer, Claudia Buss, Pathik D. Wadhwa

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Maternal nutrition and stress are independently recognized as among the most important factors that influence prenatal biology, with implications for fetal development and poor pregnancy outcomes. While there is substantial evidence from non-pregnancy human and animal studies that a complex, bi-directional relationship exists between nutrition and stress, to the author’s best knowledge, their interaction in the context of pregnancy has been significantly understudied. The aim of this study is to assess the interaction between maternal psychological stress and diet quality across pregnancy and its effects on biomarkers of prenatal insulin resistance and inflammation. This is a prospective longitudinal study of N=235 women carrying a healthy, singleton pregnancy, recruited from prenatal clinics of the University of California, Irvine Medical Center. Participants completed a 4-day ambulatory assessment in early, middle and late pregnancy, which included multiple daily electronic diary entries using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) technology on a dedicated study smartphone. The EMA diaries gathered moment-level data on maternal perceived stress, negative mood, positive mood and quality of social interactions. The numerical scores for these variables were averaged across each study time-point and converted to Z-scores. A single composite variable for 'STRESS' was computed as follows: (Negative mood+Perceived stress)–(Positive mood+Social interaction quality). Dietary intakes were assessed by three 24-hour dietary recalls conducted within two weeks of each 4-day assessment. Daily nutrient and food group intakes were averaged across each study time-point. The Alternative Healthy Eating Index adapted for pregnancy (AHEI-P) was computed for early, middle and late pregnancy as a validated summary measure of diet quality. At the end of each 4-day ambulatory assessment, women provided a fasting blood sample, which was assayed for levels of glucose, insulin, Interleukin (IL)-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α. Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) was computed. Pearson’s correlation was used to explore the relationship between maternal STRESS and AHEI-P within and between each study time-point. Linear regression was employed to test the association of the stress-diet interaction (STRESS*AHEI-P) with the biological markers HOMA-IR, IL-6 and TNF-α at each study time-point, adjusting for key covariates (pre-pregnancy body mass index, maternal education level, race/ethnicity). Maternal STRESS and AHEI-P were significantly inversely correlated in early (r=-0.164, p=0.018) and mid-pregnancy (-0.160, p=0.019), and AHEI-P from earlier gestational time-points correlated with later STRESS (early AHEI-P x mid STRESS: r=-0.168, p=0.017; mid AHEI-P x late STRESS: r=-0.142, p=0.041). In regression models, the interaction term was not associated with HOMA-IR or IL-6 at any gestational time-point. The stress-diet interaction term was significantly associated with TNF-α according to the following patterns: early AHEI-P*early STRESS vs early TNF-α (p=0.005); early AHEI-P*early STRESS vs mid TNF-α (p=0.002); early AHEI-P*mid STRESS vs mid TNF-α (p=0.005); mid AHEI-P*mid STRESS vs mid TNF-α (p=0.070); mid AHEI-P*late STRESS vs late TNF-α (p=0.011). Poor diet quality is significantly related to higher psychosocial stress levels in pregnant women across gestation, which may promote inflammation via TNF-α. Future prenatal studies should consider the combined effects of maternal stress and diet when evaluating either one of these factors on pregnancy or infant outcomes.

Keywords: Nutrition, pregnancy, stress, Inflammation, insulin resistance, Diet Quality, tumor necrosis factor-alpha

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