Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: Alvaro Fernandez-Quintero

36 Alvaro Siza’s Design Strategy: An Insight into Critical Regionalism

Authors: Rahmatollah Amirjani


By the emergence of the debate over the failure of Regionalism in the late 1970s, Critical Regional­ism was introduced as a different way to respond to the state of architecture in the post-war era. Critical Regionalism is most often understood as a discourse that not only mediates the language of modern architecture with the local cultures but also revives the relation between architecture and spectator as indexed by capitalism. Since the inception of Critical Regionalism, a large number of architectural practices have emerged around the globe; however, the work of the well-known Portuguese architect, Álvaro Siza, is considered as a unique case amongst works associated with the discourse of Critical Regionalism. This paper intends to respond to a number of questions, including; what are the origins of Critical Regionalism? How does Siza’s design strategy correspond to the thematic of Critical Regionalism? How does Siza recover the relation between object and subject in most of his projects? Using Siza’s housing project for the Malagueira district in Évora, Portugal, this article will attempt to answer these questions, and highlight Alvaro Siza’s design procedure which goes beyond the existing discourse of Critical Regionalism and contributes to our understanding of this practice.

Keywords: Alvaro Siza, critical regionalism, Malagueira housing, placelessness

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35 One vs. Rest and Error Correcting Output Codes Principled Rebalancing Schemes for Solving Imbalanced Multiclass Problems

Authors: Alvaro Callejas-Ramos, Lorena Alvarez-Perez, Alexander Benitez-Buenache, Anibal R. Figueiras-Vidal


This contribution presents a promising formulation which allows to extend the principled binary rebalancing procedures, also known as neutral re-balancing mechanisms in the sense that they do not alter the likelihood ratio

Keywords: Bregman divergences, imbalanced multiclass classifi-cation, informed re-balancing, invariant likelihood ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
34 Application of Artificial Neural Networks to Adaptive Speed Control under ARDUINO

Authors: Javier Fernandez De Canete, Alvaro Fernandez-Quintero


Nowadays, adaptive control schemes are being used when model based control schemes are applied in presence of uncertainty and model mismatches. Artificial neural networks have been employed both in modelling and control of non-linear dynamic systems with unknown dynamics. In fact, these are powerful tools to solve this control problem when only input-output operational data are available. A neural network controller under SIMULINK together with the ARDUINO hardware platform has been used to perform real-time speed control of a computer case fan. Comparison of performance with a PID controller has also been presented in order to show the efficacy of neural control under different command signals tracking and also when disturbance signals are present in the speed control loops.

Keywords: neural networks, ARDUINO platform, SIMULINK, adaptive speed control

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33 Multidimensional Item Response Theory Models for Practical Application in Large Tests Designed to Measure Multiple Constructs

Authors: Maria Fernanda Ordoñez Martinez, Alvaro Mauricio Montenegro


This work presents a statistical methodology for measuring and founding constructs in Latent Semantic Analysis. This approach uses the qualities of Factor Analysis in binary data with interpretations present on Item Response Theory. More precisely, we propose initially reducing dimensionality with specific use of Principal Component Analysis for the linguistic data and then, producing axes of groups made from a clustering analysis of the semantic data. This approach allows the user to give meaning to previous clusters and found the real latent structure presented by data. The methodology is applied in a set of real semantic data presenting impressive results for the coherence, speed and precision.

Keywords: semantic analysis, factorial analysis, dimension reduction, penalized logistic regression

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32 Nonparametric Estimation of Risk-Neutral Densities via Empirical Esscher Transform

Authors: Manoel Pereira, Alvaro Veiga, Camila Epprecht, Renato Costa


This paper introduces an empirical version of the Esscher transform for risk-neutral option pricing. Traditional parametric methods require the formulation of an explicit risk-neutral model and are operational only for a few probability distributions for the returns of the underlying. In our proposal, we make only mild assumptions on the pricing kernel and there is no need for the formulation of the risk-neutral model for the returns. First, we simulate sample paths for the returns under the physical distribution. Then, based on the empirical Esscher transform, the sample is reweighted, giving rise to a risk-neutralized sample from which derivative prices can be obtained by a weighted sum of the options pay-offs in each path. We compare our proposal with some traditional parametric pricing methods in four experiments with artificial and real data.

Keywords: esscher transform, generalized autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedastic (GARCH), nonparametric option pricing

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31 Financial Inclusion from the Perspective of Social Innovation: The Case of Colombia

Authors: Maria Luisa Jaramillo, Alvaro Turriago Hoyos, Ulf Thoene


Financial inclusion has become a crucially important factor in debates on economic inequality posing challenges to the financial systems of countries around the world. Nowadays, governments and banks are concerned about creating products that allow access to wide sectors of the population. The creation of banking products by the financial sector for people with low incomes tends to lead to improvements in the quality of life of vulnerable parts of the population. In countries with notable social and economic inequalities financial inclusion is a key aspect for equitable economic growth. This study is based on the case of Colombia, which is a country with a strong record of economic growth over the past decade. Nevertheless, corruption, unemployment, and poverty contribute to uncertainty regarding the country’s future growth prospects. This study wants to explain the situation of financial exclusion and financial inclusion with respect to the Colombian case. Financial inclusion is going to be studied from the perspective of social innovation.

Keywords: Colombia, financial exclusion, financial inclusion, social innovation

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30 Improvement of Sandy Clay Soils with the Addition of Rice Husk Ash and Expanded Polystyrene Beads

Authors: Alvaro Quino, Roger Trejo, Gary Duran, Jordy Viso


This article presents a study on the lightening and improvement of properties of soil extracted in the province of Talara in the department of Piura -Peru, to be used in filling in the construction of embankments for roads. This soft soil has a high percentage of elastic settlement and consolidation settlement. Currently, there are different methods that seek to mitigate the impact of this problem, which have achieved favorable results. As a contribution to these investigations, we propose the use of two lightening materials to be used in the filling of embankments; these materials are expanded polystyrene beads (EPS) and rice husk ash (RHA). Favorable results were obtained, such as a reduction of 14.34% of the volumetric weight, so the settlement will be reduced. In addition, it is observed that as the RHA dosage increases, the shear resistance increases. In this article, soil mechanics tests were performed to determine the effectiveness of this method in lightening and improving properties for the soil under study.

Keywords: sandy clay soils, rice husk ash, expanded polystyrene, soft soils

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29 Solving Dimensionality Problem and Finding Statistical Constructs on Latent Regression Models: A Novel Methodology with Real Data Application

Authors: Sergio Paez Moncaleano, Alvaro Mauricio Montenegro


This paper presents a novel statistical methodology for measuring and founding constructs in Latent Regression Analysis. This approach uses the qualities of Factor Analysis in binary data with interpretations on Item Response Theory (IRT). In addition, based on the fundamentals of submodel theory and with a convergence of many ideas of IRT, we propose an algorithm not just to solve the dimensionality problem (nowadays an open discussion) but a new research field that promises more fear and realistic qualifications for examiners and a revolution on IRT and educational research. In the end, the methodology is applied to a set of real data set presenting impressive results for the coherence, speed and precision. Acknowledgments: This research was financed by Colciencias through the project: 'Multidimensional Item Response Theory Models for Practical Application in Large Test Designed to Measure Multiple Constructs' and both authors belong to SICS Research Group from Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Keywords: item response theory, dimensionality, submodel theory, factorial analysis

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28 Comparative Study of Sub-Critical and Supercritical ORC Applications for Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery

Authors: Buket Boz, Alvaro Diez


Waste heat recovery by means of Organic Rankine Cycle is a promising technology for the recovery of engine exhaust heat. However, it is complex to find out the optimum cycle conditions with appropriate working fluids to match exhaust gas waste heat due to its high temperature. Hence, this paper focuses on comparing sub-critical and supercritical ORC conditions with eight working fluids on a combined diesel engine-ORC system. The model employs two ORC designs, Regenerative-ORC and Pre-Heating-Regenerative-ORC respectively. The thermodynamic calculations rely on the first and second law of thermodynamics, thermal efficiency and exergy destruction factors are the fundamental parameters evaluated. Additionally, in this study, environmental and safety, GWP (Global Warming Potential) and ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential), characteristic of the refrigerants are taken into consideration as evaluation criteria to define the optimal ORC configuration and conditions. Consequently, the studys outcomes reveal that supercritical ORCs with alkane and siloxane are more suitable for high temperature exhaust waste heat recovery in contrast to sub-critical conditions.

Keywords: internal combustion engine, organic Rankine cycle, waste heat recovery, working fluids

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27 Bridging the Gap: Theoretical Challenges in Cognitive Translation Studies and the Language Industry

Authors: Alvaro Marin


This paper explores the challenges in Cognitive Translation Studies (CTS) conceptual development to accommodate professionals’ perceptions in the language industry into CTS established theoretical apparatus, empirical research projects, and university pedagogical proposals. A comparative conceptual assessment framework is developed from a pluralist epistemological stance that promotes interdisciplinary explorations of the translation process. The framework is used to review key notions such as expertise or feedback, as understood by language industry stakeholders. This review is followed by an analysis of how these notions can enrich research constructs to be applied in empirical investigations of translators’ cognitive processes from an embedded, situated cognition perspective. Thus, it will be proposed to apply the conceptual assessment framework as an effort towards strengthening the interpretative research tools and bridging the gap between industry and academia. The conclusions of this analysis will serve as a basis to further discuss how professional practices, combined with our current knowledge about expertise development in cognitive science and Expertise Studies, can enhance the learning experience of university translation students and help them better understand the processes and requirements of professional cross-linguistic mediation.

Keywords: language industry, cognitive translation studies, translation cognitive theory, translation teaching

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26 Drying Kinects of Soybean Seeds

Authors: Amanda Rithieli Pereira Dos Santos, Rute Quelvia De Faria, Álvaro De Oliveira Cardoso, Anderson Rodrigo Da Silva, Érica Leão Fernandes Araújo


The study of the kinetics of drying has great importance for the mathematical modeling, allowing to know about the processes of transference of heat and mass between the products and to adjust dryers managing new technologies for these processes. The present work had the objective of studying the kinetics of drying of soybean seeds and adjusting different statistical models to the experimental data varying cultivar and temperature. Soybean seeds were pre-dried in a natural environment in order to reduce and homogenize the water content to the level of 14% (b.s.). Then, drying was carried out in a forced air circulation oven at controlled temperatures of 38, 43, 48, 53 and 58 ± 1 ° C, using two soybean cultivars, BRS 8780 and Sambaíba, until reaching a hygroscopic equilibrium. The experimental design was completely randomized in factorial 5 x 2 (temperature x cultivar) with 3 replicates. To the experimental data were adjusted eleven statistical models used to explain the drying process of agricultural products. Regression analysis was performed using the least squares Gauss-Newton algorithm to estimate the parameters. The degree of adjustment was evaluated from the analysis of the coefficient of determination (R²), the adjusted coefficient of determination (R² Aj.) And the standard error (S.E). The models that best represent the drying kinetics of soybean seeds are those of Midilli and Logarítmico.

Keywords: curve of drying seeds, Glycine max L., moisture ratio, statistical models

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25 Numerical Simulations on the Torsional Behavior of Multistory Concrete Masonry Buildings

Authors: Alvaro Jose Cordova, Hsuan Teh Hu


The use of concrete masonry constructions in developing countries has become very frequent, especially for domestic purpose. Most of them with asymmetric wall configurations in plan resulting in significant torsional actions when subjected to seismic loads. The study consisted on the finding of a material model for hollow unreinforced concrete masonry and a validation with experimental data found in literature. Numerical simulations were performed to 20 buildings with variations in wall distributions and heights. Results were analyzed by inspection and with a non-linear static method. The findings revealed that eccentricities as well as structure rigidities have a strong influence on the overall response of concrete masonry buildings. In addition, slab rotations depicted more accurate information about the torsional behavior than maximum versus average displacement ratios. The failure modes in low buildings were characterized by high tensile strains in the first floor. Whereas in tall buildings these strains were lowered significantly by higher compression stresses due to a higher self-weight. These tall buildings developed multiple plastic hinges along the height. Finally, the non-linear static analysis exposed a brittle response for all masonry assemblies. This type of behavior is undesired in any construction and the need for a material model for reinforced masonry is pointed out.

Keywords: concrete damaged plasticity, concrete masonry, macro-modeling, nonlinear static analysis, torsional capacity

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24 Feasibility Study for the Implementation of a Condition-Based Maintenance System in the UH-60 Helicopters

Authors: Santos Cabrera, Halbert Yesid, Moncada Nino, Alvaro Fernando, Rincon Cuta, Yeisson Alexis


The present work evaluates the feasibility of implementing a health and use monitoring system (HUMS), based on vibration analysis as a condition-based maintenance program for the UH60L 'Blackhawk' helicopters. The mixed approach used consists of contributions from national and international experts, the analysis of data extracted from the software (Meridium), the correlation of variables derived from the diagnosis of availability, the development, and application of the HUMS system, the evaluation of the latter through of the use of instruments designed for the collection of information using the DELPHI method and data capture with the device installed in the helicopter studied. The results obtained in the investigation reflect the context of maintenance in aerial operations, a reduction of operation and maintenance costs of over 2%, better use of human resources, improvement in availability (5%), and fulfillment of the aircraft’s security standards, enabling the implementation of the monitoring system (HUMS) in the condition-based maintenance program. New elements are added to the study of maintenance based on condition -specifically, in the determination of viability based on qualitative and quantitative data according to the methodology. The use of condition-based maintenance will allow organizations to adjust and reconfigure their strategic, logistical, and maintenance capabilities, aligning them with their strategic objectives of responding quickly and adequately to changes in the environment and operational requirements.

Keywords: air transportation sustainability, HUMS, maintenance based condition, maintenance blackhawk capability

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23 Workforce Optimization: Fair Workload Balance and Near-Optimal Task Execution Order

Authors: Alvaro Javier Ortega


A large number of companies face the challenge of matching highly-skilled professionals to high-end positions by human resource deployment professionals. However, when the professional list and tasks to be matched are larger than a few dozens, this process result is far from optimal and takes a long time to be made. Therefore, an automated assignment algorithm for this workforce management problem is needed. The majority of companies are divided into several sectors or departments, where trained employees with different experience levels deal with a large number of tasks daily. Also, the execution order of all tasks is of mater consequence, due to some of these tasks just can be run it if the result of another task is provided. Thus, a wrong execution order leads to large waiting times between consecutive tasks. The desired goal is, therefore, creating accurate matches and a near-optimal execution order that maximizes the number of tasks performed and minimizes the idle time of the expensive skilled employees. The problem described before can be model as a mixed-integer non-linear programming (MINLP) as it will be shown in detail through this paper. A large number of MINLP algorithms have been proposed in the literature. Here, genetic algorithm solutions are considered and a comparison between two different mutation approaches is presented. The simulated results considering different complexity levels of assignment decisions show the appropriateness of the proposed model.

Keywords: employees, genetic algorithm, industry management, workforce

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22 A Multi-Layer Based Architecture for the Development of an Open Source CAD/CAM Integration Virtual Platform

Authors: Alvaro Aguinaga, Carlos Avila, Edgar Cando


This article proposes a n-layer architecture, with a web client as a front-end, for the development of a virtual platform for process simulation on CNC machines. This Open-Source platform includes a CAD-CAM interface drawing primitives, and then used to furnish a CNC program that triggers a touch-screen virtual simulator. The objectives of this project are twofold. First one is an educational component that fosters new alternatives for the CAD-CAM/CNC learning process in undergrad and grade schools and technical and technological institutes emphasizing in the development of critical skills, discussion and collaborative work. The second objective puts together a research and technological component that will take the state of the art in CAD-CAM integration to a new level with the development of optimal algorithms and virtual platforms, on-line availability, that will pave the way for the long-term goal of this project, that is, to have a visible and active graduate school in Ecuador and a world wide Open-Innovation community in the area of CAD-CAM integration and operation of CNC machinery. The virtual platform, developed as a part of this study: (1) delivers improved training process of students, (2) creates a multidisciplinary team and a collaborative work space that will push the new generation of students to face future technological challenges, (3) implements industry standards for CAD/CAM, (4) presents a platform for the development of industrial applications. A protoype of this system was developed and implemented in a network of universities and technological institutes in Ecuador.

Keywords: CAD-CAM integration, virtual platforms, CNC machines, multi-layer based architecture

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21 Use of Geosynthetics as Reinforcement Elements in Unpaved Tertiary Roads

Authors: Vivian A. Galindo, Maria C. Galvis, Jaime R. Obando, Alvaro Guarin


In Colombia, most of the roads of the national tertiary road network are unpaved roads with granular rolling surface. These are very important ways of guaranteeing the mobility of people, products, and inputs from the agricultural sector from the most remote areas to urban centers; however, it has not paid much attention to the search for alternatives to avoid the occurrence of deteriorations that occur shortly after its commissioning. In recent years, geosynthetics have been used satisfactorily to reinforce unpaved roads on soft soils, with geotextiles and geogrids being the most widely used. The interaction of the geogrid and the aggregate minimizes the lateral movement of the aggregate particles and increases the load capacity of the material, which leads to a better distribution of the vertical stresses, consequently reducing the vertical deformations in the subgrade. Taking into account the above, the research aimed at the mechanical behavior of the granular material, used in unpaved roads with and without the presence of geogrids, from the development of laboratory tests through the loaded wheel tester (LWT). For comparison purposes, the reinforced conditions and traffic conditions to which this type of material can be accessed in practice were simulated. In total four types of geogrids, were tested with granular material; this means that five test sets, the reinforced material and the non-reinforced control sample were evaluated. The results of the numbers of load cycles and depth rutting supported by each test body showed the influence of the properties of the reinforcement on the mechanical behavior of the assembly and the significant increases in the number of load cycles of the reinforced specimens in relation to those without reinforcement.

Keywords: geosynthetics, load wheel tester LWT, tertiary roads, unpaved road, vertical deformation

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20 Thermolysin Entrapment in a Gold Nanoparticles/Polymer Composite: Construction of an Efficient Biosensor for Ochratoxin a Detection

Authors: Fatma Dridi, Mouna Marrakchi, Mohammed Gargouri, Alvaro Garcia Cruz, Sergei V. Dzyadevych, Francis Vocanson, Joëlle Saulnier, Nicole Jaffrezic-Renault, Florence Lagarde


An original method has been successfully developed for the immobilization of thermolysin onto gold interdigitated electrodes for the detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) in olive oil samples. A mix of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyethylenimine (PEI) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was used. Cross-linking sensors chip was made by using a saturated glutaraldehyde (GA) vapor atmosphere in order to render the two polymers water stable. Performance of AuNPs/ (PVA/PEI) modified electrode was compared to a traditional immobilized enzymatic method using bovine serum albumin (BSA). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments were employed to provide a useful insight into the structure and morphology of the immobilized thermolysin composite membranes. The enzyme immobilization method influence the topography and the texture of the deposited layer. Biosensors optimization and analytical characteristics properties were studied. Under optimal conditions AuNPs/ (PVA/PEI) modified electrode showed a higher increment in sensitivity. A 700 enhancement factor could be achieved with a detection limit of 1 nM. The newly designed OTA biosensors showed a long-term stability and good reproducibility. The relevance of the method was evaluated using commercial doped olive oil samples. No pretreatment of the sample was needed for testing and no matrix effect was observed. Recovery values were close to 100% demonstrating the suitability of the proposed method for OTA screening in olive oil.

Keywords: thermolysin, A. ochratoxin , polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylenimine, gold nanoparticles, olive oil

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19 Neuroprotective Effects of Gly-Pro-Glu-Thr-Ala-Phe-Leu-Arg, a Peptide Isolated from Lupinus angustifolius L. Protein Hydrolysate

Authors: Maria Del Carmen Millan-Linares, Ana Lemus Conejo, Rocio Toscano, Alvaro Villanueva, Francisco Millan, Justo Pedroche, Sergio Montserrat-De La Paz


GPETAFLR (Glycine-Proline-Glutamine-Threonine-Alanine-Phenylalanine-Leucine-Arginine) is a peptide isolated from Lupinus angustifolius L. protein hydrolysate (LPH). Herein, the effect of this peptide was investigated in two different models of neuroinflammation: in the immortalized murine microglia cell line BV-2 and in a high-fat-diet-induced obesity mouse model. Methods and Results: Effects of GPETAFLR on neuroinflammation were evaluated by RT-qPCR, flow cytometry, and ELISA techniques. In BV-2 microglial cells, Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) enhanced the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) whereas GPETAFLR decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and increased the release of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in BV2 microglial cells. M1 (CCR7 and iNOS) and M2 (Arg-1 and Ym-1) polarization markers results showed how the GPETAFLR octapeptide was able to decrease M1 polarization marker expression and increase the M2 polarization marker expression compared to LPS. Animal model results indicate that GPETAFLR has an immunomodulatory capacity, both decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and increasing the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in brain tissue. Polarization markers in the brain tissue were also modulated by GPETAFLR that decreased the pro-inflammatory expression (M1) and increased the anti-inflammatory expression (M2). Conclusion: Our results suggest that GPETAFLR isolated from LPH has significant potential for management of neuroinflammatory conditions and offer benefits derived from the consumption of Lupinus angustifolius L. in the prevention of neuroinflammatory-related diseases.

Keywords: GPETAFLR peptide, BV-2 cell line, neuroinflammation, cytokines, high-fat-diet

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18 The Work and Life Ethics at the Beginning of the 21st Century and the Vulnerability of Long-Term Unemployed over 45 Years Old in Spain since the Economic Crisis of 2008

Authors: Maria Del Mar Maira Vidal, Alvaro Briales


In this paper, we will conduct an analysis of the results of the I+D+i research project “New types of socio-existential vulnerability, support and care in Spain” (VULSOCU) (2016-20). This project had the objective to analyze the new types of vulnerability that are the result of the combination of several factors as the economic crisis, the unemployment, the transformations of the Welfare State, the individualization, etc. We have, therefore, analyzed the way that Spanish long-term unemployed over 45 years experience vulnerability and its consequences on their lives. We have focused on long-term unemployed over 45 that had previously developed stable career paths and have been looking for a job for two years or more. In order to carry out this analysis, we will try to break the dichotomy between the social and the individual, between the socio-historical and the subjectivity, to overcome some of the limits of the research on unemployment. The fieldwork consisted of more than ten focus groups and fifty in-depth interviews. The work and life ethics completely changed at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. In the nineteenth century, companies had trouble maintaining their staff, but in the 21st century, unemployed workers feel that they are useless people. Workers value themselves if they have a job. This unveils that labor is a comprehensive social relationship in capitalist societies. In general, unemployed workers are not able to analyze their unemployment as a social problem. They analyze their unemployment as an individual problem. They blame themselves for their unemployment; instead of taking into account that there are millions of unemployed, they talk about themselves as if they were on their own. And the problems caused by unemployment are explained as psychological problems and are medicalized. Anyway, it is important to highlight that this is the result of an ideology and a social relationship that is part of our historical time.

Keywords: life ethics, work ethics, unemployment, unemployed over 45 years old

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17 Regulatory Guidelines to Support the Design of Nanosatellite Projects in Mexican Academic Contexts

Authors: Alvaro Armenta-Ramade, Arturo Serrano-Santoyo, Veronica Rojas-Mendizabal, Roberto Conte-Galvan


The availability and affordability of commercial off-the-shell products have brought a major impetus in the development of university projects related to the design, construction and launching of small satellites on a global scale. Universities in emerging economies as well as in least developed countries have been able to develop prototypes of small satellites (cubesats and cansats) with limited budgets. The experience gained in the development of small satellites gives rise to capacity building for designing more complex aerospace systems. This trend has significantly increased the pace and number of aerospace university projects around the world. In the case of Mexico, projects funded by different agencies have been very effective in accelerating the capacity building and technology transfer initiatives in the aerospace ecosystem. However, many of this initiatives have centered their efforts in technology development matters with minimum or no considerations of key regulatory issues related to frequency assignment, management and licensing, as well as launching requirements and measures of mitigation of space debris. These regulatory concerns are fundamental to accomplish successful missions that take into account the complete value chain of an aerospace project. The purpose of this paper is to develop a regulatory framework to support the efforts of educational institutions working on the development of small satellites in Mexico. We base our framework on recommendations from the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) and other major actors of the Mexican regulatory ecosystem. In order to develop an integrated and cohesive framework, we draw on complexity science to identify the agents, their role and interactions. Our goal is to create a guiding instrument available both in print and online that can also be used in other regions of the world

Keywords: capacity building, complexity science, cubesats, space regulations, small satellites

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16 Analysing Time Series for a Forecasting Model to the Dynamics of Aedes Aegypti Population Size

Authors: Flavia Cordeiro, Fabio Silva, Alvaro Eiras, Jose Luiz Acebal


Aedes aegypti is present in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world and is a vector of several diseases such as dengue fever, yellow fever, chikungunya, zika etc. The growth in the number of arboviruses cases in the last decades became a matter of great concern worldwide. Meteorological factors like mean temperature and precipitation are known to influence the infestation by the species through effects on physiology and ecology, altering the fecundity, mortality, lifespan, dispersion behaviour and abundance of the vector. Models able to describe the dynamics of the vector population size should then take into account the meteorological variables. The relationship between meteorological factors and the population dynamics of Ae. aegypti adult females are studied to provide a good set of predictors to model the dynamics of the mosquito population size. The time-series data of capture of adult females of a public health surveillance program from the city of Lavras, MG, Brazil had its association with precipitation, humidity and temperature analysed through a set of statistical methods for time series analysis commonly adopted in Signal Processing, Information Theory and Neuroscience. Cross-correlation, multicollinearity test and whitened cross-correlation were applied to determine in which time lags would occur the influence of meteorological variables on the dynamics of the mosquito abundance. Among the findings, the studied case indicated strong collinearity between humidity and precipitation, and precipitation was selected to form a pair of descriptors together with temperature. In the techniques used, there were observed significant associations between infestation indicators and both temperature and precipitation in short, mid and long terms, evincing that those variables should be considered in entomological models and as public health indicators. A descriptive model used to test the results exhibits a strong correlation to data.

Keywords: Aedes aegypti, cross-correlation, multicollinearity, meteorological variables

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15 A Case-Control Study on Dietary Heme/Nonheme Iron and Colorectal Cancer Risk

Authors: Alvaro L. Ronco


Background and purpose: Although our country is a developing one, it has a typical Western meat-rich dietary style. Based on estimates of heme and nonheme iron contents in representative foods, we carried out the present epidemiologic study, with the aim of accurately analyzing dietary iron and its role on CRC risk. Subjects/methods: Patients (611 CRC incident cases and 2394 controls, all belonging to public hospitals of our capital city) were interviewed through a questionnaire including socio-demographic, reproductive and lifestyle variables, and a food frequency questionnaire of 64 items, which asked about food intake 5 years before the interview. The sample included 1937 men and 1068 women. Controls were matched by sex and age (± 5 years) to cases. Food-derived nutrients were calculated from available databases. Total dietary iron was calculated and classified by heme or nonheme source, following data of specific Dutch and Canadian studies, and additionally adjusted by energy. Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated through unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for relevant potential confounders (education, body mass index, family history of cancer, energy, infusions, and others). A heme/nonheme (H/NH) ratio was created and the interest variables were categorized into tertiles, for analysis purposes. Results: The following risk estimations correspond to the highest tertiles. Total iron intake showed no association with CRC risk neither among men (OR=0.83, ptrend =.18) nor among women (OR=1.48, ptrend =.09). Heme iron was positively associated among men (OR=1.88, ptrend < .001) and for the overall sample (OR=1.44, ptrend =.002), however, it was not associated among women (OR=0.91, ptrend =.83). Nonheme iron showed an inverse association among men (OR=0.53, ptrend < .001) and the overall sample (OR=0.78, ptrend =.04), but was not associated among women (OR=1.46, ptrend =.14). Regarding H/NH ratio, risks increased only among men (OR=2.12, ptrend < .001) but lacked of association among women (OR=0.81, ptrend =.29). Conclusions. We have observed different types of associations between CRC risk and high dietary heme, nonheme and H/NH iron ratio. Therefore, the source of the available iron might be of importance as a link to colorectal carcinogenesis, perhaps pointing to reconsider the animal/plant proportions of this vital mineral within diet. Nevertheless, the different associations observed for each sex, demand further studies in order to clarify these points.

Keywords: chelation, colorectal cancer, heme, iron, nonheme

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14 The Relationship between Proximity to Sources of Industrial-Related Outdoor Air Pollution and Children Emergency Department Visits for Asthma in the Census Metropolitan Area of Edmonton, Canada, 2004/2005 to 2009/2010

Authors: Laura A. Rodriguez-Villamizar, Alvaro Osornio-Vargas, Brian H. Rowe, Rhonda J. Rosychuk


Introduction/Objectives: The Census Metropolitan Area of Edmonton (CMAE) has important industrial emissions to the air from the Industrial Heartland Alberta (IHA) at the Northeast and the coal-fired power plants (CFPP) at the West. The objective of the study was to explore the presence of clusters of children asthma ED visits in the areas around the IHA and the CFPP. Methods: Retrospective data on children asthma ED visits was collected at the dissemination area (DA) level for children between 2 and 14 years of age, living in the CMAE between April 1, 2004, and March 31, 2010. We conducted a spatial analysis of disease clusters around putative sources with count (ecological) data using descriptive, hypothesis testing, and multivariable modeling analysis. Results: The mean crude rate of asthma ED visits was 9.3/1,000 children population per year during the study period. Circular spatial scan test for cases and events identified a cluster of children asthma ED visits in the DA where the CFPP are located in the Wabamum area. No clusters were identified around the IHA area. The multivariable models suggest that there is a significant decline in risk for children asthma ED visits as distance increases around the CFPP area this effect is modified at the SE direction with mean angle 125.58 degrees, where the risk increases with distance. In contrast, the regression models for IHA suggest that there is a significant increase in risk for children asthma ED visits as distance increases around the IHA area and this effect is modified at SW direction with mean angle 216.52 degrees, where the risk increases at shorter distances. Conclusions: Different methods for detecting clusters of disease consistently suggested the existence of a cluster of children asthma ED visits around the CFPP but not around the IHA within the CMAE. These results are probably explained by the direction of the air pollutants dispersion caused by the predominant and subdominant wind direction at each point. The use of different approaches to detect clusters of disease is valuable to have a better understanding of the presence, shape, direction and size of clusters of disease around pollution sources.

Keywords: air pollution, asthma, disease cluster, industry

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13 Phytoremediation Alternative for Landfill Leachate Sludges Doña Juana Bogotá D.C. Colombia Treatment

Authors: Pinzón Uribe Luis Felipe, Chávez Porras Álvaro, Ruge Castellanos Liliana Constanza


According to global data, solid waste management of has low economic investment for its management in underdeveloped countries; being the main factor the advanced technologies acknowledge for proper operation and at the same time the technical development. Has been evidenced that communities have a distorted perception of the role and legalized final destinations for waste or "Landfill" places specific management; influenced primarily by their physical characteristics and the information that the media provide of these, as well as their wrong association with "open dumps". One of the major inconveniences in these landfills is the leachate sludge management from treatment plants; as this exhibit a composition highly contaminating (physical, chemical and biological) for the natural environment due to improper handling and disposal. This is the case Landfill Doña Juana (RSDJ), Bogotá, Colombia, considered among the largest in South America; where management problems have persisted for decades, since its creation being definitive on the concept that society has acquired about this form of waste disposal and improper leachate handling. Within this research process for treating phytoremediation alternatives were determined by using plants that are able to degrade heavy metals contained in these; allowing the resulting sludge to be used as a seal in the final landfill cover; within a restoration process, providing option to solve the landscape contamination problem, as well as in the communities perception and conflicts that generates landfill. For the project chemical assays were performed in sludge leachate that allowed the characterization of metals such as chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg), in order to meet the amount in the biosolids regard to the provisions of the USEPA 40 CFR 503. The evaluations showed concentrations of 102.2 mg / kg of Cr, 0.49 mg / kg Pb, 0.390 mg / kg of As and 0.104 mg / kg of Hg; being lower than of the standards. A literature review on native plant species suitable for an alternative process of phytoremediation, these metals degradation capable was developed. Concluding that among them, Vetiveria zizanioides, Eichhornia crassipes and Limnobium laevigatum, for their hiperacumulativas in their leaves, stems and roots characteristics may allow these toxic elements reduction of in the environment, improving the outlook for disposal.

Keywords: health, filling slurry of leachate, heavy metals, phytoremediation

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12 The Effect of Emotional Stimuli Related to Body Imbalance in Postural Control and the Phenomenological Experience of Young Healthy Adults

Authors: David Martinez-Pernia, Alvaro Rivera-Rei, Alejandro Troncoso, Gonzalo Forno, Andrea Slachevsky, David Huepe, Victoria Silva-Mack, Jorge Calderon, Mayte Vergara, Valentina Carrera


Background: Recent theories in the field of emotions have taken the relevance of motor control beyond a system related to personal autonomy (walking, running, grooming), and integrate it into the emotional dimension. However, to our best knowledge, there are no studies that specifically investigate how emotional stimuli related to motor control modify emotional states in terms of postural control and phenomenological experience. Objective: The main aim of this work is to investigate the emotions produced by stimuli of bodily imbalance (neutral, pleasant and unpleasant) in the postural control and the phenomenological experience of young, healthy adults. Methodology: 46 healthy young people are shown emotional videos (neutral, pleasant, motor unpleasant, and non-motor unpleasant) related to the body imbalance. During the period of stimulation of each of the videos (60 seconds) the participant is standing on a force platform to collect temporal and spatial data of postural control. In addition, the electrophysiological activity of the heart and electrodermal activity is recorded. In relation to the two unpleasant conditions (motor versus non-motor), a phenomenological interview is carried out to collect the subjective experience of emotion and body perception. Results: Pleasant and unpleasant emotional videos have significant changes with respect to the neutral condition in terms of greater area, higher mean velocity, and greater mean frequency power on the anterior-posterior axis. The results obtained with respect to the electrodermal response was that the pleasurable and unpleasant conditions produced a significant increase in the phasic component with respect to the neutral condition. Regarding the electrophysiology of the heart, no significant change was found in any condition. Phenomenological experiences in the two unpleasant conditions differ in body perception and the emotional meaning of the experience. Conclusion: Emotional stimuli related to bodily imbalance produce changes in postural control, electrodermal activity, and phenomenological experience. This experimental setting could be relevant to be implemented in people with motor disorders (Parkinson, Stroke, TBI) to know how emotions affect motor control.

Keywords: body imbalance stimuli, emotion, phenomenological experience, postural control

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11 Assessing Online Learning Paths in an Learning Management Systems Using a Data Mining and Machine Learning Approach

Authors: Alvaro Figueira, Bruno Cabral


Nowadays, students are used to be assessed through an online platform. Educators have stepped up from a period in which they endured the transition from paper to digital. The use of a diversified set of question types that range from quizzes to open questions is currently common in most university courses. In many courses, today, the evaluation methodology also fosters the students’ online participation in forums, the download, and upload of modified files, or even the participation in group activities. At the same time, new pedagogy theories that promote the active participation of students in the learning process, and the systematic use of problem-based learning, are being adopted using an eLearning system for that purpose. However, although there can be a lot of feedback from these activities to student’s, usually it is restricted to the assessments of online well-defined tasks. In this article, we propose an automatic system that informs students of abnormal deviations of a 'correct' learning path in the course. Our approach is based on the fact that by obtaining this information earlier in the semester, may provide students and educators an opportunity to resolve an eventual problem regarding the student’s current online actions towards the course. Our goal is to prevent situations that have a significant probability to lead to a poor grade and, eventually, to failing. In the major learning management systems (LMS) currently available, the interaction between the students and the system itself is registered in log files in the form of registers that mark beginning of actions performed by the user. Our proposed system uses that logged information to derive new one: the time each student spends on each activity, the time and order of the resources used by the student and, finally, the online resource usage pattern. Then, using the grades assigned to the students in previous years, we built a learning dataset that is used to feed a machine learning meta classifier. The produced classification model is then used to predict the grades a learning path is heading to, in the current year. Not only this approach serves the teacher, but also the student to receive automatic feedback on her current situation, having past years as a perspective. Our system can be applied to online courses that integrate the use of an online platform that stores user actions in a log file, and that has access to other student’s evaluations. The system is based on a data mining process on the log files and on a self-feedback machine learning algorithm that works paired with the Moodle LMS.

Keywords: data mining, e-learning, grade prediction, machine learning, student learning path

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10 Impact of the Dog-Technic for D1-D4 and Longitudinal Stroke Technique for Diaphragm on Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF) in Asthmatic Patients

Authors: Victoria Eugenia Garnacho-Garnacho, Elena Sonsoles Rodriguez-Lopez, Raquel Delgado-Delgado, Alvaro Otero-Campos, Jesus Guodemar-Perez, Angelo Michelle Vagali, Juan Pablo Hervas-Perez


Asthma is a heterogeneous disease which has always had a drug treatment. Osteopathic treatment that we propose is aimed, seen through a dorsal manipulation (Dog Technic D1-D4) and a technique for diaphragm (Longitudinal Stroke) forced expiratory flow in spirometry changes there are in particular that there is an increase in the volumes of the Peak Flow and Post intervention and effort and that the application of these two techniques together is more powerful if we applied only a Longitudinal (Stroke). Also rating if this type of treatment will have repercussions on breathlessness, a very common symptom in asthma. And finally to investigate if provided vertebra pain decreased after a manipulation. Methods—Participants were recruited between students and professors of the University, aged 18-65, patients (n = 18) were assigned randomly to one of the two groups, group 1 (longitudinal Stroke and manipulation dorsal Dog Technic) and group 2 (diaphragmatic technique, Longitudinal Stroke). The statistical analysis is characterized by the comparison of the main indicator of obstruction of via area PEF (peak expiratory flow) in various situations through the peak flow meter Datospir Peak-10. The measurements were carried out in four phases: at rest, after the stress test, after the treatment, after treatment and the stress test. After each stress test was evaluated, through the Borg scale, the level of Dyspnea on each patient, regardless of the group. In Group 1 in addition to these parameters was calculated using an algometer spinous pain before and after the manipulation. All data were taken at the minute. Results—12 Group 1 (Dog Technic and Longitudinal Stroke) patients responded positively to treatment, there was an increase of 5.1% and 6.1% of the post-treatment PEF and post-treatment, and effort. The results of the scale of Borg by which we measure the level of Dyspnea were positive, a 54.95%, patients noted an improvement in breathing. In addition was confirmed through the means of both groups group 1 in which two techniques were applied was 34.05% more effective than group 2 in which applied only a. After handling pain fell by 38% of the cases. Conclusions—The impact of the technique of Dog-Technic for D1-D4 and the Longitudinal Stroke technique for diaphragm in the volumes of peak expiratory flow (PEF) in asthmatic patients were positive, there was a change of the PEF Post intervention and post-treatment, and effort and showed the most effective group in which only a technique was applied. Furthermore this type of treatment decreased facilitated vertebrae pain and was efficient in the improvement of Dyspnea and the general well-being of the patient.

Keywords: ANS, asthma, manipulation, manual therapy, osteopathic

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9 Association between G2677T/A MDR1 Polymorphism with the Clinical Response to Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Authors: Alan Ruiz-Padilla, Brando Villalobos-Villalobos, Yeniley Ruiz-Noa, Claudia Mendoza-Macías, Claudia Palafox-Sánchez, Miguel Marín-Rosales, Álvaro Cruz, Rubén Rangel-Salazar


Introduction: In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, resistance or poor response to disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) may be a reflection of the increase in g-P. The expression of g-P may be important in mediating the effluence of DMARD from the cell. In addition, P-glycoprotein is involved in the transport of cytokines, IL-1, IL-2 and IL-4, from normal lymphocytes activated to the surrounding extracellular matrix, thus influencing the activity of RA. The involvement of P-glycoprotein in the transmembrane transport of cytokines can serve as a modulator of the efficacy of DMARD. It was shown that a number of lymphocytes with glycoprotein P activity is increased in patients with RA; therefore, P-glycoprotein expression could be related to the activity of RA and could be a predictor of poor response to therapy. Objective: To evaluate in RA patients, if the G2677T/A MDR1 polymorphisms is associated with differences in the rate of therapeutic response to disease-modifying antirheumatic agents in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Material and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted. Fifty seven patients with RA were included. They had an active disease according to DAS-28 (score >3.2). We excluded patients receiving biological agents. All the patients were followed during 6 months in order to identify the rate of therapeutic response according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. At the baseline peripheral blood samples were taken in order to identify the G2677T/A MDR1 polymorphisms using PCR- Specific allele. The fragment was identified by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels stained with ethidium bromide. For statistical analysis, the genotypic and allelic frequencies of MDR1 gene polymorphism between responders and non-responders were determined. Chi-square tests as well as, relative risks with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were computed to identify differences in the risk for achieving therapeutic response. Results: RA patients had a mean age of 47.33 ± 12.52 years, 87.7% were women with a mean for DAS-28 score of 6.45 ± 1.12. At the 6 months, the rate of therapeutic response was 68.7 %. The observed genotype frequencies were: for G/G 40%, T/T 32%, A/A 19%, G/T 7% and for A/A genotype 2%. Patients with G allele developed at 6 months of treatment, higher rate for therapeutic response assessed by ACR20 compared to patients with others alleles (p=0.039). Conclusions: Patients with G allele of the - G2677T/A MDR1 polymorphisms had a higher rate of therapeutic response at 6 months with DMARD. These preliminary data support the requirement for a deep evaluation of these and other genotypes as factors that may influence the therapeutic response in RA.

Keywords: pharmacogenetics, MDR1, P-glycoprotein, therapeutic response, rheumatoid arthritis

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8 Quantification of Lawsone and Adulterants in Commercial Henna Products

Authors: Ruchi B. Semwal, Deepak K. Semwal, Thobile A. N. Nkosi, Alvaro M. Viljoen


The use of Lawsonia inermis L. (Lythraeae), commonly known as henna, has many medicinal benefits and is used as a remedy for the treatment of diarrhoea, cancer, inflammation, headache, jaundice and skin diseases in folk medicine. Although widely used for hair dyeing and temporary tattooing, henna body art has popularized over the last 15 years and changed from being a traditional bridal and festival adornment to an exotic fashion accessory. The naphthoquinone, lawsone, is one of the main constituents of the plant and responsible for its dyeing property. Henna leaves typically contain 1.8–1.9% lawsone, which is used as a marker compound for the quality control of henna products. Adulteration of henna with various toxic chemicals such as p-phenylenediamine, p-methylaminophenol, p-aminobenzene and p-toluenodiamine to produce a variety of colours, is very common and has resulted in serious health problems, including allergic reactions. This study aims to assess the quality of henna products collected from different parts of the world by determining the lawsone content, as well as the concentrations of any adulterants present. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was used to determine the lawsone concentrations in 172 henna products. Separation of the chemical constituents was achieved on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column using gradient elution (0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile). The results from UPLC-MS revealed that of 172 henna products, 11 contained 1.0-1.8% lawsone, 110 contained 0.1-0.9% lawsone, whereas 51 samples did not contain detectable levels of lawsone. High performance thin layer chromatography was investigated as a cheaper, more rapid technique for the quality control of henna in relation to the lawsone content. The samples were applied using an automatic TLC Sampler 4 (CAMAG) to pre-coated silica plates, which were subsequently developed with acetic acid, acetone and toluene (0.5: 1.0: 8.5 v/v). A Reprostar 3 digital system allowed the images to be captured. The results obtained corresponded to those from UPLC-MS analysis. Vibrational spectroscopy analysis (MIR or NIR) of the powdered henna, followed by chemometric modelling of the data, indicates that this technique shows promise as an alternative quality control method. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to investigate the data by observing clustering and identifying outliers. Partial least squares (PLS) multivariate calibration models were constructed for the quantification of lawsone. In conclusion, only a few of the samples analysed contain lawsone in high concentrations, indicating that they are of poor quality. Currently, the presence of adulterants that may have been added to enhance the dyeing properties of the products, is being investigated.

Keywords: Lawsonia inermis, paraphenylenediamine, temporary tattooing, lawsone

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7 The Elimination of Fossil Fuel Subsidies from the Road Transportation Sector and the Promotion of Electro Mobility – The Ecuadorian Case

Authors: Alvaro Corral Naveda, Juan Fonseca, Henry Acurio, Guillermo Fernández


In Ecuador, subventions on fossil fuels for the road transportation sector have always been part of its economy throughout time, mainly because of demagogy and populism from political leaders. It is clearly seen that the government cannot maintain the subsidies anymore due to its commercial balance and its general state budget, subsidies are a key barrier to implement the use of cleaner technologies. However, during the last few months, the elimination of subsidies has been done gradually with the purpose of reaching international prices. It is expected that with this measure, the population will opt for other means of transportation, and in a certain way, it will promote the use of private electric vehicles, public, e.g., taxis, buses (urban transport). It is also important to consider that Ecuador´s production of energy is mainly hydropower. Considering the three main elements of sustainable development, an analysis of the social, economic, and environmental impacts of eliminating subsidies will be generated at the country level. To achieve this, four scenarios will be developed in order to determine how the subsidies will contribute to the promotion of electro mobility. 1)A Business as Usual BAU scenario;2) the introduction of 10.000 electric vehicles by 2025; 3) the introduction of 100.000 electric vehicles by 2030; 4) the introduction of 750.000 electric vehicles by 2040 (for all the scenarios buses, taxis, lightweight duty vehicles, and private vehicles will be introduced, as it was established in the National ElectroMobility Strategy for Ecuador). The Low Emissions Analysis Platform LEAP will be used, and it will be suitable to determine the cost for the government in terms of importing derivatives for fossil fuels and the cost of electricity to power the electric fleet that can be changed. The elimination of subventions generates fiscal resources to the state that can be used to develop other kinds of projects that will benefit Ecuadorian society. It will definitely change the energy matrix, and it will provide energy security for the country. It will be an opportunity for the government to incentivize a greater introduction of renewable energies, e.g., solar and wind. At the same time, it will help reduce the amount of greenhouse gases emissions GHG from the transportation sector, considering its mitigation potential, which in result will improve the inhabitant´s quality of life by improving the quality of air, therefore reducing respiratory diseases associated with exhaust emissions. Consequently, achieving sustainability, the Sustainable Development Goals SDGs, and complying with the agreements established in the Paris Agreement COP 21 in 2015. Electromobility in Latin America and the Caribbean can only be achieved by the implementation of the right policies at the central government, that need to be accompanied by a National Urban Mobility Policy NUMP, and can encompass a greater vision to develop holistic sustainable transport systems at local governments.

Keywords: electromobility, energy, policy, sustainable transportation

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