Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 52

Search results for: Alvaro Veiga

52 Alvaro Siza’s Design Strategy: An Insight into Critical Regionalism

Authors: Rahmatollah Amirjani

Abstract:

By the emergence of the debate over the failure of Regionalism in the late 1970s, Critical Regional­ism was introduced as a different way to respond to the state of architecture in the post-war era. Critical Regionalism is most often understood as a discourse that not only mediates the language of modern architecture with the local cultures but also revives the relation between architecture and spectator as indexed by capitalism. Since the inception of Critical Regionalism, a large number of architectural practices have emerged around the globe; however, the work of the well-known Portuguese architect, Álvaro Siza, is considered as a unique case amongst works associated with the discourse of Critical Regionalism. This paper intends to respond to a number of questions, including; what are the origins of Critical Regionalism? How does Siza’s design strategy correspond to the thematic of Critical Regionalism? How does Siza recover the relation between object and subject in most of his projects? Using Siza’s housing project for the Malagueira district in Évora, Portugal, this article will attempt to answer these questions, and highlight Alvaro Siza’s design procedure which goes beyond the existing discourse of Critical Regionalism and contributes to our understanding of this practice.

Keywords: Alvaro Siza, critical regionalism, Malagueira housing, placelessness

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
51 Nonparametric Estimation of Risk-Neutral Densities via Empirical Esscher Transform

Authors: Manoel Pereira, Alvaro Veiga, Camila Epprecht, Renato Costa

Abstract:

This paper introduces an empirical version of the Esscher transform for risk-neutral option pricing. Traditional parametric methods require the formulation of an explicit risk-neutral model and are operational only for a few probability distributions for the returns of the underlying. In our proposal, we make only mild assumptions on the pricing kernel and there is no need for the formulation of the risk-neutral model for the returns. First, we simulate sample paths for the returns under the physical distribution. Then, based on the empirical Esscher transform, the sample is reweighted, giving rise to a risk-neutralized sample from which derivative prices can be obtained by a weighted sum of the options pay-offs in each path. We compare our proposal with some traditional parametric pricing methods in four experiments with artificial and real data.

Keywords: esscher transform, generalized autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedastic (GARCH), nonparametric option pricing

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
50 One vs. Rest and Error Correcting Output Codes Principled Rebalancing Schemes for Solving Imbalanced Multiclass Problems

Authors: Alvaro Callejas-Ramos, Lorena Alvarez-Perez, Alexander Benitez-Buenache, Anibal R. Figueiras-Vidal

Abstract:

This contribution presents a promising formulation which allows to extend the principled binary rebalancing procedures, also known as neutral re-balancing mechanisms in the sense that they do not alter the likelihood ratio

Keywords: Bregman divergences, imbalanced multiclass classifi-cation, informed re-balancing, invariant likelihood ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
49 Induced Bone Tissue Temperature in Drilling Procedures: A Comparative Laboratory Study with and without Lubrication

Authors: L. Roseiro, C. Veiga, V. Maranha, A. Neto, N. Laraqi, A. Baïri, N. Alilat

Abstract:

In orthopedic surgery there are various situations in which the surgeon needs to implement methods of cutting and drilling the bone. With this type of procedure the generated friction leads to a localized increase in temperature, which may lead to the bone necrosis. Recognizing the importance of studying this phenomenon, an experimental evaluation of the temperatures developed during the procedure of drilling bone has been done. Additionally the influence of the use of the procedure with / without additional lubrication during drilling of bone has also been done. The obtained results are presented and discussed and suggests an advantage in using additional lubrication as a way to minimize the appearance of bone tissue necrosis during bone drilling procedures.

Keywords: bone necrosis, bone drilling, thermography, surgery

Procedia PDF Downloads 479
48 Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms Approach for Word Correction and Prediction

Authors: Rodrigo S. Fonseca, Antônio C. P. Veiga

Abstract:

Aiming at helping people with some movement limitation that makes typing and communication difficult, there is a need to customize an assistive tool with a learning environment that helps the user in order to optimize text input, identifying the error and providing the correction and possibilities of choice in the Portuguese language. The work presents an Orthographic and Grammatical System that can be incorporated into writing environments, improving and facilitating the use of an alphanumeric keyboard, using a prototype built using a genetic algorithm in addition to carrying out the prediction, which can occur based on the quantity and position of the inserted letters and even placement in the sentence, ensuring the sequence of ideas using a Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) neural network. The prototype optimizes data entry, being a component of assistive technology for the textual formulation, detecting errors, seeking solutions and informing the user of accurate predictions quickly and effectively through machine learning.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, neural networks, word prediction, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
47 Application of Artificial Neural Networks to Adaptive Speed Control under ARDUINO

Authors: Javier Fernandez De Canete, Alvaro Fernandez-Quintero

Abstract:

Nowadays, adaptive control schemes are being used when model based control schemes are applied in presence of uncertainty and model mismatches. Artificial neural networks have been employed both in modelling and control of non-linear dynamic systems with unknown dynamics. In fact, these are powerful tools to solve this control problem when only input-output operational data are available. A neural network controller under SIMULINK together with the ARDUINO hardware platform has been used to perform real-time speed control of a computer case fan. Comparison of performance with a PID controller has also been presented in order to show the efficacy of neural control under different command signals tracking and also when disturbance signals are present in the speed control loops.

Keywords: neural networks, ARDUINO platform, SIMULINK, adaptive speed control

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
46 Multidimensional Item Response Theory Models for Practical Application in Large Tests Designed to Measure Multiple Constructs

Authors: Maria Fernanda Ordoñez Martinez, Alvaro Mauricio Montenegro

Abstract:

This work presents a statistical methodology for measuring and founding constructs in Latent Semantic Analysis. This approach uses the qualities of Factor Analysis in binary data with interpretations present on Item Response Theory. More precisely, we propose initially reducing dimensionality with specific use of Principal Component Analysis for the linguistic data and then, producing axes of groups made from a clustering analysis of the semantic data. This approach allows the user to give meaning to previous clusters and found the real latent structure presented by data. The methodology is applied in a set of real semantic data presenting impressive results for the coherence, speed and precision.

Keywords: semantic analysis, factorial analysis, dimension reduction, penalized logistic regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
45 Oral Microflora and the Risk of Dental Caries in Portuguese Children

Authors: Sara Sousa, Veronique Gomes, Nélio Veiga, Maria José Correia

Abstract:

Objectives: To assess the presence or absence of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus salivarius in the oral biofilm of children in an elementary school of Viseu, Portugal, and verify the relationship between Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus salivarius and the absence of dental caries. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed with a final sample of 40 children aged 6-11 years old. Oral examination was accomplished with the identification of their oral health status and oral biofilm collection. Analysis of biological samples by molecular techniques of DNA isolation and identification of three Streptococci bacteria by Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was made. Results: We identified Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus gordoni only in the lower interincisal region. These species were also present mainly in the first permanent non-decayed molars. On the contrary, Streptococcus mutans was found mostly in decayed first permanent molars. Conclusion: This preliminary study establishes a possible association between the absence of dental caries and the presence of Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus salivarius. Since these two species are described as alkali producers, it is suggested that their presence somehow confers protection against caries. These results support new dental caries prevention strategies based on oral biofilm modulation by enrichment with alkalinogenic species.

Keywords: dental caries, oral biofilm, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus salivarius

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
44 The Coexistence of Dual Form of Malnutrition among Portuguese Institutionalized Elderly People

Authors: C. Caçador, M. J. Reis Lima, J. Oliveira, M. J. Veiga, M. Teixeira Veríssimo, F. Ramos, M. C. Castilho, E. Teixeira-Lemos

Abstract:

In the present study we evaluated the nutritional status of 214 institutionalized elderly residents of both genders, aged 65 years and older of 11 care homes located in the district of Viseu (center of Portugal). The evaluation was based on anthropometric measurements and the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) score. The mean age of the subjects was 82.3 ± 6.1 years-old. Most of the elderly residents were female (72.0%). The majority had 4 years of formal education (51.9%) and was widowed (74.3%) or married (14.0%). Men presented a mean age of 81.2±8.5 years-old, weight 69.3±14.5 kg and BMI 25.33±6.5 kg/m2. In women, the mean age was 84.5±8.2 years-old, weight 61.2±14.7 kg and BMI 27.43±5.6 kg/m2. The evaluation of the nutritional status using the MNA score showed that 24.0% of the residents show a risk of undernutrition and 76.0% of them were well nourished. There was a high prevalence of obese (24.8%) and overweight residents (33.2%) according to the BMI. 7.5% were considered underweight. We also found that according to their waist circumference measurements 88.3% of the residents were at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and 64.0% of them presented very high risk for CVD (WC≥88 cm for women and WC ≥102 cm for men). The present study revealed the coexistence of a dual form of malnutrition (undernourished and overweight) among the institutionalized Portuguese concomitantly with an excess of abdominal adiposity. The high prevalence of residents at high risk for CVD should not be overlooked. Given the vulnerability of the group of institutionalized elderly, our study highlights the importance of the classification of nutritional status based on both instruments: the BMI and the MNA.

Keywords: nutritional satus, MNA, BMI, elderly

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
43 Impact of Protean Career Attitude on Career Success with the Mediating Effect of Career Insight

Authors: Prabhashini Wijewantha

Abstract:

This study looks at the impact of protean career attitude of employees on their career success and next it looks at the mediation effect of career insights on the above relationship. Career success is defined as the accomplishment of desirable work related outcomes at any point in person’s work experiences over time and it comprises of two sub variables, namely, career satisfaction and perceived employability. Protean career attitude was measured using the eight items from the Self Directedness subscale of the Protean Career Attitude scale developed by Briscoe and Hall, where as career satisfaction was measured by the three item scale developed by Martine, Eddleston, and Veiga. Perceived employability was also evaluated using three items and career insight was measured using fourteen items that were adapted and used by De Vos and Soens. Data were collected from a sample of 300 mid career executives in Sri Lanka deploying the survey strategy and data were analyzed using the SPSS and AMOS software version 20.0. A preliminary analysis of data was initially performed where data were screened and reliability and validity were ensured. Next a simple regression analysis was performed to test the direct impact of protean career attitude on career success and the hypothesis was supported. The Baron and Kenney’s four steps, three regressions approach for mediator testing was used to calculate the mediation effect of career insight on the above relationship and a partial mediation was supported by the data. Finally theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Keywords: career success, career insight, mid career MBAs, protean career attitude

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
42 Financial Inclusion from the Perspective of Social Innovation: The Case of Colombia

Authors: Maria Luisa Jaramillo, Alvaro Turriago Hoyos, Ulf Thoene

Abstract:

Financial inclusion has become a crucially important factor in debates on economic inequality posing challenges to the financial systems of countries around the world. Nowadays, governments and banks are concerned about creating products that allow access to wide sectors of the population. The creation of banking products by the financial sector for people with low incomes tends to lead to improvements in the quality of life of vulnerable parts of the population. In countries with notable social and economic inequalities financial inclusion is a key aspect for equitable economic growth. This study is based on the case of Colombia, which is a country with a strong record of economic growth over the past decade. Nevertheless, corruption, unemployment, and poverty contribute to uncertainty regarding the country’s future growth prospects. This study wants to explain the situation of financial exclusion and financial inclusion with respect to the Colombian case. Financial inclusion is going to be studied from the perspective of social innovation.

Keywords: Colombia, financial exclusion, financial inclusion, social innovation

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
41 Indoor Microclimate in a Historic Library: Considerations on the Positive Effect of Historic Books on the Stability of Indoor Relative Humidity

Authors: Magda Posani, Maria Do Rosario Veiga, Vasco Peixoto De Freitas

Abstract:

The presented research considers the hygrothermal data acquired in the municipal library of Porto. The library is housed in an XVIII century convent and, among all the rooms in the construction, one, in particular, was chosen for the monitoring campaign because of the presence of a great number of historic books. Temperature and relative humidity, as well as CO₂ concentration, were measured for six consecutive months, in the period December 24th - June 24th. The indoor environment of the building is controlled with a heating and cooling system that is turned on only during the opening hours of the library. The ventilation rate is low because the windows are kept closed, and there is no forced ventilation. The micro-climate is analyzed in terms of users’ comfort and degradation risks for historic books and valuable building surfaces. Through a comparison between indoor and outdoor measured hygrothermal data, indoor relative humidity appears very stable. The influence of the hygroscopicity of books on the stabilization of indoor relative humidity is therefore investigated in detail. The paper finally discusses the benefits given by the presence of historic books in libraries with intermittent heating and cooling. The possibility of obtaining a comfortable and stable indoor climate with low use of HVAC systems in these conditions, while avoiding degradation risks for books and historic building components, is further debated.

Keywords: books, historic buildings, hygroscopicity, relative humidity

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
40 Improvement of Sandy Clay Soils with the Addition of Rice Husk Ash and Expanded Polystyrene Beads

Authors: Alvaro Quino, Roger Trejo, Gary Duran, Jordy Viso

Abstract:

This article presents a study on the lightening and improvement of properties of soil extracted in the province of Talara in the department of Piura -Peru, to be used in filling in the construction of embankments for roads. This soft soil has a high percentage of elastic settlement and consolidation settlement. Currently, there are different methods that seek to mitigate the impact of this problem, which have achieved favorable results. As a contribution to these investigations, we propose the use of two lightening materials to be used in the filling of embankments; these materials are expanded polystyrene beads (EPS) and rice husk ash (RHA). Favorable results were obtained, such as a reduction of 14.34% of the volumetric weight, so the settlement will be reduced. In addition, it is observed that as the RHA dosage increases, the shear resistance increases. In this article, soil mechanics tests were performed to determine the effectiveness of this method in lightening and improving properties for the soil under study.

Keywords: sandy clay soils, rice husk ash, expanded polystyrene, soft soils

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
39 Solving Dimensionality Problem and Finding Statistical Constructs on Latent Regression Models: A Novel Methodology with Real Data Application

Authors: Sergio Paez Moncaleano, Alvaro Mauricio Montenegro

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel statistical methodology for measuring and founding constructs in Latent Regression Analysis. This approach uses the qualities of Factor Analysis in binary data with interpretations on Item Response Theory (IRT). In addition, based on the fundamentals of submodel theory and with a convergence of many ideas of IRT, we propose an algorithm not just to solve the dimensionality problem (nowadays an open discussion) but a new research field that promises more fear and realistic qualifications for examiners and a revolution on IRT and educational research. In the end, the methodology is applied to a set of real data set presenting impressive results for the coherence, speed and precision. Acknowledgments: This research was financed by Colciencias through the project: 'Multidimensional Item Response Theory Models for Practical Application in Large Test Designed to Measure Multiple Constructs' and both authors belong to SICS Research Group from Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Keywords: item response theory, dimensionality, submodel theory, factorial analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
38 Comparative Study of Sub-Critical and Supercritical ORC Applications for Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery

Authors: Buket Boz, Alvaro Diez

Abstract:

Waste heat recovery by means of Organic Rankine Cycle is a promising technology for the recovery of engine exhaust heat. However, it is complex to find out the optimum cycle conditions with appropriate working fluids to match exhaust gas waste heat due to its high temperature. Hence, this paper focuses on comparing sub-critical and supercritical ORC conditions with eight working fluids on a combined diesel engine-ORC system. The model employs two ORC designs, Regenerative-ORC and Pre-Heating-Regenerative-ORC respectively. The thermodynamic calculations rely on the first and second law of thermodynamics, thermal efficiency and exergy destruction factors are the fundamental parameters evaluated. Additionally, in this study, environmental and safety, GWP (Global Warming Potential) and ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential), characteristic of the refrigerants are taken into consideration as evaluation criteria to define the optimal ORC configuration and conditions. Consequently, the studys outcomes reveal that supercritical ORCs with alkane and siloxane are more suitable for high temperature exhaust waste heat recovery in contrast to sub-critical conditions.

Keywords: internal combustion engine, organic Rankine cycle, waste heat recovery, working fluids

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
37 Experimental Characterization of the AA7075 Aluminum Alloy Using Hot Shear Tensile Test

Authors: Trunal Bhujangrao, Catherine Froustey, Fernando Veiga, Philippe Darnis, Franck Girot Mata

Abstract:

The understanding of the material behavior under shear loading has great importance for a researcher in manufacturing processes like cutting, machining, milling, turning, friction stir welding, etc. where the material experiences large deformation at high temperature. For such material behavior analysis, hot shear tests provide a useful means to investigate the evolution of the microstructure at a wide range of temperature and to improve the material behavior model. Shear tests can be performed by direct shear loading (e.g. torsion of thin-walled tubular samples), or appropriate specimen design to convert a tensile or compressive load into shear (e.g. simple shear tests). The simple shear tests are straightforward and designed to obtained very large deformation. However, many of these shear tests are concerned only with the elastic response of the material. It is becoming increasingly important to capture a plastic response of the material. Plastic deformation is significantly more complex and is known to depend more heavily on the strain rate, temperature, deformation, etc. Besides, there is not enough work is done on high-temperature shear loading, because of geometrical instability occurred during the plastic deformation. The aim of this study is to design a new shear tensile specimen geometry to convert the tensile load into dominant shear loading under plastic deformation. Design of the specimen geometry is based on FEM. The material used in this paper is AA7075 alloy, tested quasi statically under elevated temperature. Finally, the microstructural changes taking place during

Keywords: AA7075 alloy, dynamic recrystallization, edge effect, large strain, shear tensile test

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
36 Expansion of Cord Blood Cells Using a Mix of Neurotrophic Factors

Authors: Francisco Dos Santos, Diogo Fonseca-Pereira, Sílvia Arroz-Madeira, Henrique Veiga-Fernandes

Abstract:

Haematopoiesis is a developmental process that generates all blood cell lineages in health and disease. This relies on quiescent haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that are able to differentiate, self renew and expand upon physiological demand. HSCs have great interest in regenerative medicine, including haematological malignancies, immunodeficiencies and metabolic disorders. However, the limited yield from existing HSC sources drives the global need for reliable techniques to expand harvested HSCs at high quality and sufficient quantities. With the extensive use of cord blood progenitors for clinical applications, there is a demand for a safe and efficient expansion protocol that is able to overcome the limitations of the cord blood as a source of HSC. StemCell2MAXTM developed a technology that enhances the survival, proliferation and transplantation efficiency of HSC, leading the way to a more widespread use of HSC for research and clinical purposes. StemCell2MAXTM MIX is a solution that improves HSC expansion up to 20x, while preserving stemness, when compared to state-of-the-art. In a recent study by a leading cord blood bank, StemCell2MAX MIX was shown to support a selective 100-fold expansion of CD34+ Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells (when compared to a 10-fold expansion of Total Nucleated Cells), while maintaining their multipotent differentiative potential as assessed by CFU assays. The technology developed by StemCell2MAXTM opens new horizons for the usage of expanded hematopoietic progenitors for both research purposes (including quality and functional assays in Cord Blood Banks) and clinical applications.

Keywords: cord blood, expansion, hematopoietic stem cell, transplantation

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
35 Bridging the Gap: Theoretical Challenges in Cognitive Translation Studies and the Language Industry

Authors: Alvaro Marin

Abstract:

This paper explores the challenges in Cognitive Translation Studies (CTS) conceptual development to accommodate professionals’ perceptions in the language industry into CTS established theoretical apparatus, empirical research projects, and university pedagogical proposals. A comparative conceptual assessment framework is developed from a pluralist epistemological stance that promotes interdisciplinary explorations of the translation process. The framework is used to review key notions such as expertise or feedback, as understood by language industry stakeholders. This review is followed by an analysis of how these notions can enrich research constructs to be applied in empirical investigations of translators’ cognitive processes from an embedded, situated cognition perspective. Thus, it will be proposed to apply the conceptual assessment framework as an effort towards strengthening the interpretative research tools and bridging the gap between industry and academia. The conclusions of this analysis will serve as a basis to further discuss how professional practices, combined with our current knowledge about expertise development in cognitive science and Expertise Studies, can enhance the learning experience of university translation students and help them better understand the processes and requirements of professional cross-linguistic mediation.

Keywords: language industry, cognitive translation studies, translation cognitive theory, translation teaching

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
34 Mental Contrasting with Implementation Intentions: A Metacognitive Strategy on Educational Context

Authors: Paula Paulino, Alzira Matias, Ana Margarida Veiga Simão

Abstract:

Self-regulated learning (SRL) directs students in analyzing proposed tasks, setting goals and designing plans to achieve those goals. The literature has suggested a metacognitive strategy for goal attainment known as Mental Contrasting with Implementation Intentions (MCII). This strategy involves Mental Contrasting (MC), in which a significant goal and an obstacle are identified, and Implementation Intentions (II), in which an "if... then…" plan is conceived and operationalized to overcome that obstacle. The present study proposes to assess the MCII process and whether it promotes students’ commitment towards learning goals during school tasks in sciences subjects. In this investigation, we intended to study the MCII strategy in a systemic context of the classroom. Fifty-six students from middle school and secondary education attending a public school in Lisbon (Portugal) participated in the study. The MCII strategy was explicitly taught in a procedure that included metacognitive modeling, guided practice and autonomous practice of strategy. A mental contrast between a goal they wanted to achieve and a possible obstacle to achieving that desire was instructed, and then the formulation of plans in order to overcome the obstacle identified previously. The preliminary results suggest that the MCII metacognitive strategy, applied to the school context, leads to more sophisticated reflections, the promotion of learning goals and the elaboration of more complex and specific self-regulated plans. Further, students achieve better results on school tests and worksheets after strategy practice. This study presents important implications since the MCII has been related to improved outcomes and increased attendance. Additionally, MCII seems to be an innovative process that captures students’ efforts to learn and enhances self-efficacy beliefs during learning tasks.

Keywords: implementation intentions, learning goals, mental contrasting, metacognitive strategy, self-regulated learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
33 Drying Kinects of Soybean Seeds

Authors: Amanda Rithieli Pereira Dos Santos, Rute Quelvia De Faria, Álvaro De Oliveira Cardoso, Anderson Rodrigo Da Silva, Érica Leão Fernandes Araújo

Abstract:

The study of the kinetics of drying has great importance for the mathematical modeling, allowing to know about the processes of transference of heat and mass between the products and to adjust dryers managing new technologies for these processes. The present work had the objective of studying the kinetics of drying of soybean seeds and adjusting different statistical models to the experimental data varying cultivar and temperature. Soybean seeds were pre-dried in a natural environment in order to reduce and homogenize the water content to the level of 14% (b.s.). Then, drying was carried out in a forced air circulation oven at controlled temperatures of 38, 43, 48, 53 and 58 ± 1 ° C, using two soybean cultivars, BRS 8780 and Sambaíba, until reaching a hygroscopic equilibrium. The experimental design was completely randomized in factorial 5 x 2 (temperature x cultivar) with 3 replicates. To the experimental data were adjusted eleven statistical models used to explain the drying process of agricultural products. Regression analysis was performed using the least squares Gauss-Newton algorithm to estimate the parameters. The degree of adjustment was evaluated from the analysis of the coefficient of determination (R²), the adjusted coefficient of determination (R² Aj.) And the standard error (S.E). The models that best represent the drying kinetics of soybean seeds are those of Midilli and Logarítmico.

Keywords: curve of drying seeds, Glycine max L., moisture ratio, statistical models

Procedia PDF Downloads 546
32 Fostering Preschoolers’ Self-Regulated Learning: A Pilot Study

Authors: Janete Silva Moreira, Paula Costa Ferreira, Ana Margarida Veiga Simão

Abstract:

Self-regulated learning is a transversal competency in human development and plays a central role in acquiring autonomy. It is a complex and dynamic process involving personal, behavioral, and contextual dimensions, as advocated by the socio-cognitive theory. Moreover, the current social challenges require educational professionals, particularly teachers, to be flexible and personalize teaching practices according to children's specificities. This investigation aimed to support the use of approaches that foster self-regulated learning in preschool through a mixed-method and cross-validation approach. We intended to improve preschoolers' self-regulated learning strategies (i.e., forethought, performance, and self-reflection) through an educational intervention, specially designed for this purpose, hypothesizing different results when comparing levels of intervention. Additionally, we aimed to validate a dynamic assessment method socially. Participants included nine preschool teachers and their students (N = 115). The educational intervention was implemented by teachers while engaging in professional training. Children’s pre and post-measures were collected with a dynamic assessment method validated for the children's age, the Dynamic Assessment of Self-regulation in Preschool (DASP) method, applied by teachers. Focus groups were conducted by the researchers with teachers to assess the social validity of the DASP method. Results will be presented showing significant differences between intervention levels regarding some self-regulated learning phases (i.e., forethought and self-reflection). The potentialities of the DASP method for preschool practices considered by teachers will also be shown. Furthermore, this study contributes to the design of educational resources to promote preschool practices according to self-regulated learning dimensions and preschool authentic activities. The possibilities and constraints of the investigation will be discussed considering theoretical, practical, and policy implications.

Keywords: self-regulated learning, preschool, dynamic assessment, educational intervention, professional training

Procedia PDF Downloads 14
31 Numerical Simulations on the Torsional Behavior of Multistory Concrete Masonry Buildings

Authors: Alvaro Jose Cordova, Hsuan Teh Hu

Abstract:

The use of concrete masonry constructions in developing countries has become very frequent, especially for domestic purpose. Most of them with asymmetric wall configurations in plan resulting in significant torsional actions when subjected to seismic loads. The study consisted on the finding of a material model for hollow unreinforced concrete masonry and a validation with experimental data found in literature. Numerical simulations were performed to 20 buildings with variations in wall distributions and heights. Results were analyzed by inspection and with a non-linear static method. The findings revealed that eccentricities as well as structure rigidities have a strong influence on the overall response of concrete masonry buildings. In addition, slab rotations depicted more accurate information about the torsional behavior than maximum versus average displacement ratios. The failure modes in low buildings were characterized by high tensile strains in the first floor. Whereas in tall buildings these strains were lowered significantly by higher compression stresses due to a higher self-weight. These tall buildings developed multiple plastic hinges along the height. Finally, the non-linear static analysis exposed a brittle response for all masonry assemblies. This type of behavior is undesired in any construction and the need for a material model for reinforced masonry is pointed out.

Keywords: concrete damaged plasticity, concrete masonry, macro-modeling, nonlinear static analysis, torsional capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
30 Feasibility Study for the Implementation of a Condition-Based Maintenance System in the UH-60 Helicopters

Authors: Santos Cabrera, Halbert Yesid, Moncada Nino, Alvaro Fernando, Rincon Cuta, Yeisson Alexis

Abstract:

The present work evaluates the feasibility of implementing a health and use monitoring system (HUMS), based on vibration analysis as a condition-based maintenance program for the UH60L 'Blackhawk' helicopters. The mixed approach used consists of contributions from national and international experts, the analysis of data extracted from the software (Meridium), the correlation of variables derived from the diagnosis of availability, the development, and application of the HUMS system, the evaluation of the latter through of the use of instruments designed for the collection of information using the DELPHI method and data capture with the device installed in the helicopter studied. The results obtained in the investigation reflect the context of maintenance in aerial operations, a reduction of operation and maintenance costs of over 2%, better use of human resources, improvement in availability (5%), and fulfillment of the aircraft’s security standards, enabling the implementation of the monitoring system (HUMS) in the condition-based maintenance program. New elements are added to the study of maintenance based on condition -specifically, in the determination of viability based on qualitative and quantitative data according to the methodology. The use of condition-based maintenance will allow organizations to adjust and reconfigure their strategic, logistical, and maintenance capabilities, aligning them with their strategic objectives of responding quickly and adequately to changes in the environment and operational requirements.

Keywords: air transportation sustainability, HUMS, maintenance based condition, maintenance blackhawk capability

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
29 Detecting Hate Speech And Cyberbullying Using Natural Language Processing

Authors: Nádia Pereira, Paula Ferreira, Sofia Francisco, Sofia Oliveira, Sidclay Souza, Paula Paulino, Ana Margarida Veiga Simão

Abstract:

Social media has progressed into a platform for hate speech among its users, and thus, there is an increasing need to develop automatic detection classifiers of offense and conflicts to help decrease the prevalence of such incidents. Online communication can be used to intentionally harm someone, which is why such classifiers could be essential in social networks. A possible application of these classifiers is the automatic detection of cyberbullying. Even though identifying the aggressive language used in online interactions could be important to build cyberbullying datasets, there are other criteria that must be considered. Being able to capture the language, which is indicative of the intent to harm others in a specific context of online interaction is fundamental. Offense and hate speech may be the foundation of online conflicts, which have become commonly used in social media and are an emergent research focus in machine learning and natural language processing. This study presents two Portuguese language offense-related datasets which serve as examples for future research and extend the study of the topic. The first is similar to other offense detection related datasets and is entitled Aggressiveness dataset. The second is a novelty because of the use of the history of the interaction between users and is entitled the Conflicts/Attacks dataset. Both datasets were developed in different phases. Firstly, we performed a content analysis of verbal aggression witnessed by adolescents in situations of cyberbullying. Secondly, we computed frequency analyses from the previous phase to gather lexical and linguistic cues used to identify potentially aggressive conflicts and attacks which were posted on Twitter. Thirdly, thorough annotation of real tweets was performed byindependent postgraduate educational psychologists with experience in cyberbullying research. Lastly, we benchmarked these datasets with other machine learning classifiers.

Keywords: aggression, classifiers, cyberbullying, datasets, hate speech, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
28 Workforce Optimization: Fair Workload Balance and Near-Optimal Task Execution Order

Authors: Alvaro Javier Ortega

Abstract:

A large number of companies face the challenge of matching highly-skilled professionals to high-end positions by human resource deployment professionals. However, when the professional list and tasks to be matched are larger than a few dozens, this process result is far from optimal and takes a long time to be made. Therefore, an automated assignment algorithm for this workforce management problem is needed. The majority of companies are divided into several sectors or departments, where trained employees with different experience levels deal with a large number of tasks daily. Also, the execution order of all tasks is of mater consequence, due to some of these tasks just can be run it if the result of another task is provided. Thus, a wrong execution order leads to large waiting times between consecutive tasks. The desired goal is, therefore, creating accurate matches and a near-optimal execution order that maximizes the number of tasks performed and minimizes the idle time of the expensive skilled employees. The problem described before can be model as a mixed-integer non-linear programming (MINLP) as it will be shown in detail through this paper. A large number of MINLP algorithms have been proposed in the literature. Here, genetic algorithm solutions are considered and a comparison between two different mutation approaches is presented. The simulated results considering different complexity levels of assignment decisions show the appropriateness of the proposed model.

Keywords: employees, genetic algorithm, industry management, workforce

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
27 A Multi-Layer Based Architecture for the Development of an Open Source CAD/CAM Integration Virtual Platform

Authors: Alvaro Aguinaga, Carlos Avila, Edgar Cando

Abstract:

This article proposes a n-layer architecture, with a web client as a front-end, for the development of a virtual platform for process simulation on CNC machines. This Open-Source platform includes a CAD-CAM interface drawing primitives, and then used to furnish a CNC program that triggers a touch-screen virtual simulator. The objectives of this project are twofold. First one is an educational component that fosters new alternatives for the CAD-CAM/CNC learning process in undergrad and grade schools and technical and technological institutes emphasizing in the development of critical skills, discussion and collaborative work. The second objective puts together a research and technological component that will take the state of the art in CAD-CAM integration to a new level with the development of optimal algorithms and virtual platforms, on-line availability, that will pave the way for the long-term goal of this project, that is, to have a visible and active graduate school in Ecuador and a world wide Open-Innovation community in the area of CAD-CAM integration and operation of CNC machinery. The virtual platform, developed as a part of this study: (1) delivers improved training process of students, (2) creates a multidisciplinary team and a collaborative work space that will push the new generation of students to face future technological challenges, (3) implements industry standards for CAD/CAM, (4) presents a platform for the development of industrial applications. A protoype of this system was developed and implemented in a network of universities and technological institutes in Ecuador.

Keywords: CAD-CAM integration, virtual platforms, CNC machines, multi-layer based architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
26 How Unpleasant Emotions, Morals and Normative Beliefs of Severity Relate to Cyberbullying Intentions

Authors: Paula C. Ferreira, Ana Margarida Veiga Simão, Nádia Pereira, Aristides Ferreira, Alexandra Marques Pinto, Alexandra Barros, Vitor Martinho

Abstract:

Cyberbullying is a phenomenon of worldwide concern regarding children and adolescents’ mental health and risk behavior. Bystanders of this phenomenon can help diminish the incidence of this phenomenon if they engage in pro-social behavior. However, different social-cognitive and affective bystander reactions may surface because of the lack of contextual information and emotional cues in cyberbullying situations. Hence, this study investigated how cyberbullying bystanders’ unpleasant emotions could be related to their personal moral beliefs and their behavioral intentions to cyberbully or defend the victim. It also proposed to investigate how their normative beliefs of perceived severity about cyberbullying behavior could be related to their personal moral beliefs and their behavioral intentions. Three groups of adolescents participated in this study, namely a first of group 402 students (5th – 12th graders; Mage = 13.12; SD = 2.19; 55.7% girls) to compute explorative factorial analyses of the instruments used; a second group of 676 students (5th – 12th graders; Mage = 14.10; SD = 2.74; 55.5% were boys) to run confirmatory factor analyses; and a third group (N = 397; 5th – 12th graders; Mage = 13.88 years; SD = 1.45; 55.5% girls) to perform the main analyses to test the research hypotheses. Self-report measures were used, such as the Personal moral beliefs about cyberbullying behavior questionnaire, the Normative beliefs of perceived severity about cyberbullying behavior questionnaire, the Unpleasant emotions about cyberbullying incidents questionnaires, and the Bystanders’ behavioral intentions in cyberbullying situations questionnaires. Path analysis results revealed that unpleasant emotions were mediators of the relationship between adolescent cyberbullying bystanders’ personal moral beliefs and their intentions to help the victims in cyberbullying situations. Moreover, adolescent cyberbullying bystanders’ normative beliefs of gravity were mediators of the relationship between their personal moral beliefs and their intentions to cyberbully others. These findings provide insights for the development of prevention and intervention programs that promote social and emotional learning strategies as a means to prevent and intervene in cyberbullying.

Keywords: cyberbullying, normative beliefs of perceived severity, personal moral beliefs, unpleasant emotions

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
25 Network Conditioning and Transfer Learning for Peripheral Nerve Segmentation in Ultrasound Images

Authors: Harold Mauricio Díaz-Vargas, Cristian Alfonso Jimenez-Castaño, David Augusto Cárdenas-Peña, Guillermo Alberto Ortiz-Gómez, Alvaro Angel Orozco-Gutierrez

Abstract:

Precise identification of the nerves is a crucial task performed by anesthesiologists for an effective Peripheral Nerve Blocking (PNB). Now, anesthesiologists use ultrasound imaging equipment to guide the PNB and detect nervous structures. However, visual identification of the nerves from ultrasound images is difficult, even for trained specialists, due to artifacts and low contrast. The recent advances in deep learning make neural networks a potential tool for accurate nerve segmentation systems, so addressing the above issues from raw data. The most widely spread U-Net network yields pixel-by-pixel segmentation by encoding the input image and decoding the attained feature vector into a semantic image. This work proposes a conditioning approach and encoder pre-training to enhance the nerve segmentation of traditional U-Nets. Conditioning is achieved by the one-hot encoding of the kind of target nerve a the network input, while the pre-training considers five well-known deep networks for image classification. The proposed approach is tested in a collection of 619 US images, where the best C-UNet architecture yields an 81% Dice coefficient, outperforming the 74% of the best traditional U-Net. Results prove that pre-trained models with the conditional approach outperform their equivalent baseline by supporting learning new features and enriching the discriminant capability of the tested networks.

Keywords: nerve segmentation, U-Net, deep learning, ultrasound imaging, peripheral nerve blocking

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
24 Use of Geosynthetics as Reinforcement Elements in Unpaved Tertiary Roads

Authors: Vivian A. Galindo, Maria C. Galvis, Jaime R. Obando, Alvaro Guarin

Abstract:

In Colombia, most of the roads of the national tertiary road network are unpaved roads with granular rolling surface. These are very important ways of guaranteeing the mobility of people, products, and inputs from the agricultural sector from the most remote areas to urban centers; however, it has not paid much attention to the search for alternatives to avoid the occurrence of deteriorations that occur shortly after its commissioning. In recent years, geosynthetics have been used satisfactorily to reinforce unpaved roads on soft soils, with geotextiles and geogrids being the most widely used. The interaction of the geogrid and the aggregate minimizes the lateral movement of the aggregate particles and increases the load capacity of the material, which leads to a better distribution of the vertical stresses, consequently reducing the vertical deformations in the subgrade. Taking into account the above, the research aimed at the mechanical behavior of the granular material, used in unpaved roads with and without the presence of geogrids, from the development of laboratory tests through the loaded wheel tester (LWT). For comparison purposes, the reinforced conditions and traffic conditions to which this type of material can be accessed in practice were simulated. In total four types of geogrids, were tested with granular material; this means that five test sets, the reinforced material and the non-reinforced control sample were evaluated. The results of the numbers of load cycles and depth rutting supported by each test body showed the influence of the properties of the reinforcement on the mechanical behavior of the assembly and the significant increases in the number of load cycles of the reinforced specimens in relation to those without reinforcement.

Keywords: geosynthetics, load wheel tester LWT, tertiary roads, unpaved road, vertical deformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
23 Thermolysin Entrapment in a Gold Nanoparticles/Polymer Composite: Construction of an Efficient Biosensor for Ochratoxin a Detection

Authors: Fatma Dridi, Mouna Marrakchi, Mohammed Gargouri, Alvaro Garcia Cruz, Sergei V. Dzyadevych, Francis Vocanson, Joëlle Saulnier, Nicole Jaffrezic-Renault, Florence Lagarde

Abstract:

An original method has been successfully developed for the immobilization of thermolysin onto gold interdigitated electrodes for the detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) in olive oil samples. A mix of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyethylenimine (PEI) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was used. Cross-linking sensors chip was made by using a saturated glutaraldehyde (GA) vapor atmosphere in order to render the two polymers water stable. Performance of AuNPs/ (PVA/PEI) modified electrode was compared to a traditional immobilized enzymatic method using bovine serum albumin (BSA). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments were employed to provide a useful insight into the structure and morphology of the immobilized thermolysin composite membranes. The enzyme immobilization method influence the topography and the texture of the deposited layer. Biosensors optimization and analytical characteristics properties were studied. Under optimal conditions AuNPs/ (PVA/PEI) modified electrode showed a higher increment in sensitivity. A 700 enhancement factor could be achieved with a detection limit of 1 nM. The newly designed OTA biosensors showed a long-term stability and good reproducibility. The relevance of the method was evaluated using commercial doped olive oil samples. No pretreatment of the sample was needed for testing and no matrix effect was observed. Recovery values were close to 100% demonstrating the suitability of the proposed method for OTA screening in olive oil.

Keywords: thermolysin, A. ochratoxin , polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylenimine, gold nanoparticles, olive oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 515