Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: Camila Epprecht

30 Nonparametric Estimation of Risk-Neutral Densities via Empirical Esscher Transform

Authors: Manoel Pereira, Alvaro Veiga, Camila Epprecht, Renato Costa

Abstract:

This paper introduces an empirical version of the Esscher transform for risk-neutral option pricing. Traditional parametric methods require the formulation of an explicit risk-neutral model and are operational only for a few probability distributions for the returns of the underlying. In our proposal, we make only mild assumptions on the pricing kernel and there is no need for the formulation of the risk-neutral model for the returns. First, we simulate sample paths for the returns under the physical distribution. Then, based on the empirical Esscher transform, the sample is reweighted, giving rise to a risk-neutralized sample from which derivative prices can be obtained by a weighted sum of the options pay-offs in each path. We compare our proposal with some traditional parametric pricing methods in four experiments with artificial and real data.

Keywords: esscher transform, generalized autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedastic (GARCH), nonparametric option pricing

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29 Microthermometry of Carbonated Rocks of the Hondita-Lomagorda Formations, the Tiger Cave Sector, Municipality of Yaguara, Colombia

Authors: Camila Lozano-Vivas, Camila Quevedo-Villamil, Ingrid Munoz-Quijano, Diego Loaiza

Abstract:

Colombia's limited oil reserves make the finding of new fields of extraction or the potentiate of the existing ones a more important task to do every day; the exploration projects that allow to have a better knowledge of the oil basins are essential. The upper Magdalena Valley basin - VSM, whose reserves are limited, has been one of the first basins for the exploration and production of hydrocarbons in Colombia. The Hondita and Lomagorda formations were deposited in the Late Cretaceous Middle Albian to the Coniacian and are characterized by being the hydrocarbon-generating rocks in the VSM basin oil system along with the Shale de Bambucá; therefore multiple studies have been made. In the oil industry, geochemical properties are used to understand the origin, migration, accumulation, and alteration of hydrocarbons and, in general, the evolution of the basin containing them. One of the most important parameters to understand this evolution is the formation temperature of the oil system. For this reason, a microthermometric study of fluid inclusions was carried out to recognize formation temperatures and to determine certain basic physicochemical variables, homogenization temperature, pressure, density and salinity of the fluid at the time of entrapment, providing evidence on the history of different events in different geological environments in the evolution of a sedimentary basin. Prior to this study, macroscopic and microscopic petrographic analyses of the samples collected in the field were performed. The results of the mentioned properties of the fluid inclusions in the different samples analyzed have salinities ranging from 20.22% to 26.37% eq. by weight NaCl, similar densities found in the ranges of 1.05 to 1.16 g/cc and an average homogenization temperature at 142.92°C, indicating that, at the time of their entanglement, the rock was in the window of generation of medium hydrocarbons –light with fragile characteristics of the rock that would make it useful to treat them as naturally fractured reservoirs.

Keywords: homogenization temperature, fluid inclusions, microthermometry, salinity

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28 Interoperable Platform for Internet of Things at Home Applications

Authors: Fabiano Amorim Vaz, Camila Gonzaga de Araujo

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With the growing number of personal devices such as smartphones, tablets, smart watches, among others, in addition to recent devices designed for IoT, it is observed that residential environment has potential to generate important information about our daily lives. Therefore, this work is focused on showing and evaluating a system that integrates all these technologies considering the context of a smart house. To achieve this, we define an architecture capable of supporting the amount of data generated and consumed at a residence and, mainly, the variety of this data presents. We organize it in a particular cloud containing information about robots, recreational vehicles, weather, in addition to data from the house, such as lighting, energy, security, among others. The proposed architecture can be extrapolated to various scenarios and applications. Through the core of this work, we can define new functionality for residences integrating them with more resources.

Keywords: cloud computing, IoT, robotics, smart house

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27 Identify the Renewable Energy Potential through Sustainability Indicators and Multicriteria Analysis

Authors: Camila Lima, Murilo Andrade Valle, Patrícia Teixeira Leite Asano

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The growth in demand for electricity, caused by human development, depletion and environmental impacts caused by traditional sources of electricity generation have made new energy sources are increasingly encouraged and necessary for companies in the electricity sector. Based on this scenario, this paper assesses the negative environmental impacts associated with thermoelectric power plants in Brazil, pointing out the importance of using renewable energy sources, reducing environmental aggression. This article points out the existence of an energy alternative, wind energy, of the municipalities of São Paulo, represented by georeferenced maps with the help of GIS, using as a premise the indicators of sustainability and multicriteria analysis in the decision-making process.

Keywords: GIS (geographic information systems), multicriteria analysis, sustainability, wind energy

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26 Effect of Ultrasound on the Hydrolysis of Soy Oil Catalyzed by 1,3-Specific Lipase Abstract

Authors: Jamal Abd Awadallak, Thiago Olinek Reinehr, Eduardo Raizer, Deise Molinari, Edson Antonio, Camila da Silva da Silva

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The hydrolysis of soy oil catalyzed by 1,3-specific enzyme (Lecitase Ultra) in a well-stirred bioreactor was studied. Two forms of applications of the ultrasound were evaluated aiming to increase reaction rates, wherein the use of probe ultrasound associated with the use of surfactant to pre-emulsify the substrate showed the best results. Two different reaction periods were found: the first where the ultrasound has great influence on reaction rates, and the second where ultrasound influence is minimal. Studies on the time of pre-emulsification, surfactant concentration and enzyme concentration showed that the initial rate of hydrolysis depends on the interfacial area between the oil phase and the aqueous phase containing the enzyme.

Keywords: specific enzyme, free fatty acids, Hydrolysis, lecitase ultra, ultrasound

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25 Cultural Identity in Environmental Protection Areas of Nova Friburgo: Heritage, Tourism, and Traditions

Authors: Camila Dazzi, Crisitiane Passos de Mattos, Thiago Leite

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The paper discusses the cultural identity of the communities located in Environmental Protection Area (APAs), in the mountainous region of Rio de Janeiro, constituted almost entirely by descendants of Swiss immigrants who arrived in Brazil in the nineteenth century. The communication is the result of an extension project named "Cultural Identity in Environmental Protection Areas of Nova Friburgo." The objectives of this project were framed in the identification of local history, cultural demonstrations, crafts, religious events, festivals, the "know-how" and traditions. While an extension project, developed by students and teachers of a Bachelor of Tourism Management program, the work provided a more practical action: awareness the communities that inhabit the APAs on the possible implementation of the cultural community-based tourism, a sustainable alternative for economic development, involving local people as propagators of local culture, and tourism as a way of valuing and safeguarding of Intangible Heritage.

Keywords: tourism and cultural heritage, tourism and cultural impacts, tourism and cultural change, cultural identity

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24 The Relevance of the Generalist Judge’s Discretionary Limits in the Institutional Debate

Authors: Antonio Sepúlveda, Camila Marques, Carlos Bolonha, Igor De Lazari, Henrique Rangel

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The judicial practice faces a tension between normative discretion and institutional capacities. There are clarity graduations of the statutory text that might induce different specialization levels of the judges. A major problem stemming from that tension is a greater discretion without a proportional specialization. The normative clarity, although its absence can be overcome through specialization, avoids problems related to disproportionate discretion and judicial dissonance. When judicial interpretation deals with the lack of legal clarity, a significant juridical insecurity frame is verified. Decisional uniformity mechanisms are created in order to surpass these problems. Brazil brings great examples, such as the súmulas, the enunciados, and the súmulas vinculantes. Despite of the resistance presented to the latter, mainly based on judges’ independence, even countries of the Common Law tradition develop such mechanisms. The British Guidelines face the lack of legal clarity problem and promote a decisional consonance system.

Keywords: generalist judges, institutional capacities, normative clarity, normative discretion

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23 Intensification of Ethyl Esters Synthesis Using a Packed-Bed Tubular Reactor at Supercritical Conditions

Authors: Camila da Silva, Simone Belorte de Andrade, Vitor Augusto dos Santos Garcia, Vladimir Ferreira Cabral, J. Vladimir Oliveira Lúcio Cardozo-Filho

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In the present study, the non-catalytic transesterification of soybean oil in continuous mode using supercritical ethanol were investigated. Experiments were performed in a packed-bed tubular reactor (PBTR) and variable studied were reaction temperature (523 K to 598 K), pressure (10 MPa to 20 MPa), oil to ethanol molar ratio (1:10 to 1:40) and water concentration (0 wt% to 10 wt% in ethanol). Results showed that ethyl esters yields obtained in the PBTR were higher (> 20 wt%) than those verified in a tubular reactor (TR), due to improved mass transfer conditions attained in the PBTR. Results demonstrated that temperature, pressure, oil to ethanol molar ratio and water concentration had a positive effect on fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) production in the experimental range investigated, with appreciable reaction yields (90 wt%) achieved at 598 K, 20 MPa, oil to ethanol molar ratio of 1:40 and 10 wt% of water concentration.

Keywords: packed bed reactor, ethyl esters, continuous process, catalyst-free process

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22 The Use of Artificial Intelligence to Curb Corruption in Brazil

Authors: Camila Penido Gomes

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Over the past decade, an emerging body of research has been pointing to artificial intelligence´s great potential to improve the use of open data, increase transparency and curb corruption in the public sector. Nonetheless, studies on this subject are scant and usually lack evidence to validate AI-based technologies´ effectiveness in addressing corruption, especially in developing countries. Aiming to fill this void in the literature, this paper sets out to examine how AI has been deployed by civil society to improve the use of open data and prevent congresspeople from misusing public resources in Brazil. Building on the current debates and carrying out a systematic literature review and extensive document analyses, this research reveals that AI should not be deployed as one silver bullet to fight corruption. Instead, this technology is more powerful when adopted by a multidisciplinary team as a civic tool in conjunction with other strategies. This study makes considerable contributions, bringing to the forefront discussion a more accurate understanding of the factors that play a decisive role in the successful implementation of AI-based technologies in anti-corruption efforts.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, civil society organization, corruption, open data, transparency

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21 Socioterritorial Inequalities in a Region of Chile. Beyond the Geography

Authors: Javier Donoso-Bravo, Camila Cortés-Zambrano

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In this paper, we analyze socioterritorial inequalities in the region of Valparaiso (Chile) using secondary data to account for these inequalities drawing on economic, social, educational, and environmental dimensions regarding the thirty-six municipalities of the region. We looked over a wide-ranging set of secondary data from public sources regarding economic activities, poverty, employment, income, years of education, post-secondary education access, green areas, access to potable water, and others. We found sharp socioterritorial inequalities especially based on the economic performance in each territory. Analysis show, on the one hand, the existence of a dual and unorganized development model in some territories with a strong economic activity -especially in the areas of finance, real estate, mining, and vineyards- but, at the same time, with poor social indicators. On the other hand, most of the territories show a dispersed model with very little dynamic economic activities and very poor social development. Finally, we discuss how socioterritorial inequalities in the region of Valparaiso reflect the level of globalization of the economic activities carried on in every territory.

Keywords: socioterritorial inequalities, development model, Chile, secondary data, Region of Valparaiso

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20 Oral Biofilm and Stomatitis Denture: Local Implications and Cardiovascular Risks

Authors: Adriana B. Ribeiro, Camila B. Araujo, Frank L. Bueno, Luiz Eduardo V. Silva, Caroline V. Fortes, Helio C. Salgado, Rubens Fazan Jr., Claudia H. L. da Silva

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Denture-related stomatitis (DRS) has recently been associated with deleterious cardiovascular effects, including hypertension. This study evaluated salivary parameters, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate variability (HRV), before and after DRS treatment in edentulous patients (n=14). Collection of unstimulated and stimulated saliva, as well as blood pressure (BP) measurements and electrocardiogram recordings were performed before and after 10 days of DRS treatment. The salivary flow (mL/min) was found similar at both times while pH was smaller (more neutral) after treatment (7.3 ± 2.2 vs. 7.1 ± 0.24). Systolic BP (mmHg) showed a trend, but not a significant reduction after DRS treatment (158 ± 25.68 vs. 148 ± 16,72, p=0,062) while diastolic BP was found similar in both times (86 ± 13.93 and 84 ± 9.38). Overall HRV, measured by standard deviation of RR intervals was not affected by DRS treatment (24 ± 4 vs 18 ± 2 ms), but differences of successive RR intervals (an index of parasympathetic cardiac modulation) increased after the treatment (26 ± 4 vs 19 ± 2 ms). Moreover, another index of vagal modulation of the heart, the power of RR interval spectra at high-frequency, was also markedly higher after DRS treatment (236 ± 63 vs 135 ± 32 ms²). Such findings strongly suggest that DRS is linked to an autonomic imbalance with sympathetic overactivity, which is markedly deleterious, increasing cardiovascular risk and the incidence of diseases such as hypertension. Acknowledgment: This study is supported by FAPESP, CNPq.

Keywords: biofilm, denture stomatitis, HRV, blood pressure

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19 Body, Sex and Culture: Gender Dissidences through Cinema

Authors: Piedad Lucia Bolivar Goez, Daniel Ignacio Garzon Luna, Maria Camila Balcero Angel, Sara Carolina Martinez Roman, Daniela Natalia Polo Rivas, Sandra Liliana Rocha Guitierrez

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This article provides a critical analysis on the conception of disorders of sexual development (DSDs) within the bioethics framework. By means of analytical thought, the objective is to approach topics such as the rediscovery of the body, the reinvention of sexuality and link them to the liability that health personnel have to inform people about the options they have to decide over their health and body. The medicalization of sexed bodies in both psychosocial and anatomo-morpho-physiological dimensions from a legal standpoint were analyzed. Its also explored the gender stereotypes established by society and the role of laws in guaranteeing the right of autonomy that takes on greater relevance in DSD. Through this analysis, it was concluded that despite intersexuality having been analyzed by Colombia’s Constitutional Court, that it is stated as a fair entity, the stigmatization by society has not allowed these individuals to belong to an egalitarian context in which everyone has the same opportunities of access to the goods and services that they need. This leads individuals to hide their identity and expression of genre in order to be accepted in a set of contexts. Thus creating a vulnerability that the health system must be able to identify and in which it is necessary to intervene at a biopsychosocial level, in order to guarantee the protection of the individual within an unquestionable frame of equality and solidarity.

Keywords: disorders of sex development, gender identity, sexuality, transgender persons

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18 Passive Solar-Driven Membrane Distiller for Desalination: Effect of Middle Layer Material and Thickness on Desalination Performance

Authors: Glebert C. Dadol, Camila Flor Y. Lobarbio, Noel Peter B. Tan

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Water scarcity is a global problem. One of the promising solutions to this challenge is the use of membrane-based desalination technologies. In this study, a passive solar-driven membrane (PSDM) distillation was employed to test its desalination performance. The PSDM was fabricated using a TiNOX sheet solar absorber, cellulose-based hydrophilic top and bottom layers, and a middle layer. The effects of the middle layer material and thickness on the desalination performance in terms of distillate flow rate, productivity, and salinity were investigated. An air-gap screen mesh (2 mm, 4 mm, 6 mm thickness) and a hydrophobic PTFE membrane (0.3 mm thickness) were used as middle-layer materials. Saltwater input (35 g/L NaCl) was used for the PSDM distiller on a rooftop setting at the University of San Carlos, Cebu City, Philippines. The highest distillate flow rate and productivity of 1.08 L/m²-h and 1.47 L/kWh, respectively, were achieved using a 2 mm air-gap middle layer, but it also resulted in a high salinity of 25.20 g/L. Increasing the air gap lowered the salinity but also decreased the flow rate and productivity. The lowest salinity of 1.07 g/L was achieved using 6 mm air gap, but the flow rate and productivity were reduced to 0.08 L/m²-h and 0.17 L/kWh, respectively. The use of a hydrophobic PTFE membrane, on the other hand, did not offer a significant improvement in its performance. A PDSM distiller with a thick air gap as the middle layer can deliver a distillate with low salinity and is preferred over a thin hydrophobic PTFE membrane. Various modifications and optimizations to the distiller can be done to improve its performance further.

Keywords: desalination, membrane distillation, passive solar-driven membrane distiller, solar distillation

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17 Relevant Stakeholders in Environmental Management Organization: The Case of Industries Três Rios/RJ

Authors: Beatriz dos Anjos Furtado, Marina Barreiros Lamim, Camila Avozani Zago, Julianne Alvim Milward-de-Azevedo, Luís Cláudio Meirelles de Medeiros

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The intense process of economic acceleration, expansion of industrial activities and capitalism, combined with population growth, while promoting the development, bring environmental consequences and dynamics of locations. It can be seen that society is seeking to break with old paradigms of capitalist society, seeking to reconcile growth with sustainable development, with a change of mentality of the stakeholders of the production process (shareholders, employees, suppliers, customers, governments, and neighbors, groups citizens and the public in general). In this context, this research aims to map the stakeholders interested in environmental management in industries located in the city of Três Rios/RJ. The city of Três Rios is located in South-Central region of the state of Rio de Janeiro - Brazil. Methodological resources used refer to descriptive and field research, whose nature is qualitative and quantitative. It is also of multicases studies in the study area, and the data collection occurred by means of semi-structured questionnaires and interviews with employees related to the environmental area of the industries located in Três Rios and registered at the Federation of Industries the State of Rio de Janeiro - FIRJAN in the version of 2013 and active in federal revenue. Through this research it observed, among other things, the stakeholders involved in the environmental management process of “Três Rios” industry respondents, and those responding to the demands of environmental management.

Keywords: stakeholders, environmental management, industry, state, customer

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16 Desalination Performance of a Passive Solar-Driven Membrane Distiller: Effect of Middle Layer Material and Thickness

Authors: Glebert C. Dadol, Pamela Mae L. Ucab, Camila Flor Y. Lobarbio, Noel Peter B. Tan

Abstract:

Water scarcity is a global problem and membrane-based desalination technologies are one of the promising solutions to this problem. In this study, a passive solar-driven membrane distiller was fabricated and tested for its desalination performance. The distiller was composed of a TiNOX plate solar absorber, cellulose-based upper and lower hydrophilic layers, a hydrophobic middle layer, and aluminum heatsinks. The effect of the middle layer material and thickness on the desalination performance was investigated in terms of distillate productivity and salinity. The materials used for the middle layer were a screen mesh (2 mm, 4 mm, 6 mm thickness) to generate an air gap, a PTFE membrane (0.3 mm thickness)), and a combination of the screen mesh and the PTFE membrane (2.3 mm total thickness). Salt water (35 g/L NaCl) was desalinated using the distiller at a rooftop setting at the University of San Carlos, Cebu City, Philippines. The highest distillate productivity of 1.08 L/m2-h was achieved using a 2-mm screen mesh (air gap) but it also resulted in a high distillate salinity of 25.20 g/L. Increasing the thickness of the air gap lowered the distillate salinity but also decreased the distillate productivity. The lowest salinity of 1.07 g/L was achieved using a 6-mm air gap but the productivity was reduced to 0.08 L/m2-h. The use of the hydrophobic PTFE membrane increased the productivity (0.44 L/m2-h) compared to a 6-mm air gap but produced a distillate with high salinity (16.68 g/L). When using a combination of the screen mesh and the PTFE membrane, the productivity was 0.13 L/m2-h and a distillate salinity of 1.61 g/L. The distiller with a thick air gap as the middle layer can deliver a distillate with low salinity and is preferred over a thin hydrophobic PTFE membrane. The use of a combination of the air gap and PTFE membrane slightly increased the productivity with comparable distillate salinity. Modifications and optimizations to the distiller can be done to improve further its performance.

Keywords: desalination, membrane distillation, passive solar-driven membrane distiller, solar distillation

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15 Mechanical Properties Analysis of Masonry Residue Mortar as Cement Replacement

Authors: Camila Parodi, Viviana Letelier, Giacomo Moriconi

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The cement industry is responsible for around a 5% of the CO2 emissions worldwide and considering that concrete is one of the most used materials in construction its total effect is important. An alternative to reduce the environmental impact of concrete production is to incorporate certain amount of residues in the dosing, limiting the replacement percentages to avoid significant losses in the mechanical properties of the final material. Previous researches demonstrate the feasibility of using brick and rust residues, separately, as a cement replacement. This study analyses the variation in the mechanical properties of mortars by incorporating masonry residue composed of clay bricks and cement mortar. In order to improve the mechanical properties of masonry residue, this was subjected to a heat treatment of 650 ° C for four hours and its effect is analyzed in this study. Masonry residue was obtained from a demolition of masonry perimetral walls. The residues were crushed and sieved and the maximum size of particles used was 75 microns. The percentages of cement replaced by masonry residue were 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. The effect of masonry residue addition and its heat treatment in the mechanical properties of mortars is evaluated through compressive and flexural strength tests after 7, 14 and 28 curing days. Results show that increasing the amount of masonry residue used increases the losses in compressive strength and flexural strength. However, the use of up to a 20% of masonry residue, when a heat treatment is applied, allows obtaining mortars with similar compressive strength to the control mortar. Masonry residues mortars without a heat treatment show losses in compressive strengths between 15% and 27% with respect to masonry residues with heat treatment, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the heat treatment. From this analysis it can be conclude that it is possible to use up to 20% of masonry residue with heat treatment as cement replacement without significant losses in mortars mechanical properties, reducing considerably the environmental impact of the final material.

Keywords: cement replacement, environmental impact, masonry residue, mechanical properties of recycled mortars

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14 The TarMed Reform of 2014: A Causal Analysis of the Effects on the Behavior of Swiss Physicians

Authors: Camila Plaza, Stefan Felder

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In October 2014, the TARMED reform was implemented in Switzerland. In an effort to even out the financial standing of general practitioners (including pediatricians) relative to that of specialists in the outpatient sector, the reform tackled two aspects: on the one hand, GPs would be able to bill an additional 9 CHF per patient, once per consult per day. This is referred to as the surcharge position. As a second measure, it reduced the fees for certain technical services targeted to specialists (e.g., imaging, surgical technical procedures, etc.). Given the fee-for-service reimbursement system in Switzerland, we predict that physicians reacted to the economic incentives of the reform by increasing the consults per patient and decreasing the average amount of time per consult. Within this framework, our treatment group is formed by GPs and our control group by those specialists who were not affected by the reform. Using monthly insurance claims panel data aggregated at the physician praxis level (provided by SASIS AG), for the period of January 2013-December 2015, we run difference in difference panel data models with physician and time fixed effects in order to test for the causal effects of the reform. We account for seasonality, and control for physician characteristics such as age, gender, specialty, and physician experience. Furthermore, we run the models on subgroups of physicians within our sample so as to account for heterogeneity and treatment intensities. Preliminary results support our hypothesis. We find evidence of an increase in consults per patients and a decrease in time per consult. Robustness checks do not significantly alter the results for our outcome variable of consults per patient. However, we do find a smaller effect of the reform for time per consult. Thus, the results of this paper could provide policymakers a better understanding of physician behavior and their sensitivity to financial incentives of reforms (both past and future) under the current reimbursement system.

Keywords: difference in differences, financial incentives, health reform, physician behavior

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13 Beak Size and Asynchronous Hatch in Broiler Chicks

Authors: Mariana Thimotheo, Gabriel Carvalho Ripamonte, Marina De Almeida Nogueira, Silvia Camila Da Costa Aguiar, Marcelo Henrique Santana Ulian, Euclides Braga Malheiros, Isabel Cristina Boleli

Abstract:

Beak plays a fundamental role in the hatching process of the chicks, since it is used for internal and external pipping. The present study examined whether the size of the beak influences the birth period of the broiler chicks in the hatching window. It was analyzed the beak size (length, height and width) of one-hundred twenty nine newly hatched chicks from light eggs (56.22-61.05g) and one-hundred twenty six chicks from heavy eggs (64.95-70.90g), produced by 38 and 45 weeks old broiler breeders (Cobb 500®), respectively. Egg incubation occurred at 37.5°C and 60% RH, with egg turning every hour. Length, height and width of the beaks were measured using a digital caliper (Zaas precision - digital caliper 6", 0.01mm) and the data expressed in millimeters. The beak length corresponded to distance between the tip of the beak and the rictus. The height of the beak was measured in the region of the culmen and its width in the region of the nostrils. Data were analyzed following a 3x2 factorial experimental design, being three birth periods within the hatching window (early: 471.78 to 485.42h, intermediate: 485.43 to 512.27h, and late: 512.28 to 528.72h) and two egg weights (light and heavy). There was a significant interaction between birth period and egg weight for beak height (P < 0.05), which was higher in the intermediate chicks from heavy eggs than in the other chicks from the same egg weight and chicks from light eggs (P < 0.05), that did not differ (P > 0.05). The beak length was influenced only for a birth period, and decreased through the hatch window (early < intermediate < late) (P < 0.05). The width of the beaks was influenced by both main factors, birth period and egg weight (P < 0.05). Early and intermediate chicks had similar beak width, but greater than late chicks, and chicks from heavy eggs presented greater beak width than chicks from light eggs (P < 0.05). In sum, the results show that chicks with longer beak hatch first and that beak length is an important variable for hatch period determination mainly for light eggs.

Keywords: beak dimensions, egg weight, hatching period, hatching window

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12 Wharton's Jelly-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Modulate Heart Rate Variability and Improve Baroreflex Sensitivity in Septic Rats

Authors: Cóndor C. José, Rodrigues E. Camila, Noronha L. Irene, Dos Santos Fernando, Irigoyen M. Claudia, Andrade Lúcia

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Sepsis induces alterations in hemodynamics and autonomic nervous system (ASN). The autonomic activity can be calculated by measuring heart rate variability (HRV) that represents the complex interplay between ASN and cardiac pacemaker cells. Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) are known to express genes and secreted factors involved in neuroprotective and immunological effects, also to improve the survival in experimental septic animals. We hypothesized, that WJ-MSCs present an important role in the autonomic activity and in the hemodynamic effects in a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis. Methods: We used flow cytometry to evaluate WJ-MSCs phenotypes. We divided Wistar rats into groups: sham (shamoperated); CLP; and CLP+MSC (106 WJ-MSCs, i.p., 6 h after CLP). At 24 h post-CLP, we recorded the systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and heart rate (HR) over 20 min. The spectral analysis of HR and SAP; also the spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (measure by bradycardic and tachycardic responses) were evaluated after recording. The one-way ANOVA and the post hoc Student– Newman– Keuls tests (P< 0.05) were used to data comparison Results: WJ-MSCs were negative for CD3, CD34, CD45 and HLA-DR, whereas they were positive for CD73, CD90 and CD105. The CLP group showed a reduction in variance of overall variability and in high-frequency power of HR (heart parasympathetic activity); furthermore, there is a low-frequency reduction of SAP (blood vessels sympathetic activity). The treatment with WJ-MSCs improved the autonomic activity by increasing the high and lowfrequency power; and restore the baroreflex sensitive. Conclusions: WJ-MSCs attenuate the impairment of autonomic control of the heart and vessels and might therefore play a protective role in sepsis. (Supported by FAPESP).

Keywords: baroreflex response, heart rate variability, sepsis, wharton’s jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells

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11 The Impact of Human Intervention on Net Primary Productivity for the South-Central Zone of Chile

Authors: Yannay Casas-Ledon, Cinthya A. Andrade, Camila E. Salazar, Mauricio Aguayo

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The sustainable management of available natural resources is a crucial question for policy-makers, economists, and the research community. Among several, land constitutes one of the most critical resources, which is being intensively appropriated by human activities producing ecological stresses and reducing ecosystem services. In this context, net primary production (NPP) has been considered as a feasible proxy indicator for estimating the impacts of human interventions on land-uses intensity. Accordingly, the human appropriation of NPP (HANPP) was calculated for the south-central regions of Chile between 2007 and 2014. The HANPP was defined as the difference between the potential NPP of the naturally produced vegetation (NPP0, i.e., the vegetation that would exist without any human interferences) and the NPP remaining in the field after harvest (NPPeco), expressed in gC/m² yr. Other NPP flows taken into account in HANPP estimation were the harvested (NPPh) and the losses of NPP through land conversion (NPPluc). The ArcGIS 10.4 software was used for assessing the spatial and temporal HANPP changes. The differentiation of HANPP as % of NPP0 was estimated by each landcover type taken in 2007 and 2014 as the reference years. The spatial results depicted a negative impact on land use efficiency during 2007 and 2014, showing negative HANPP changes for the whole region. The harvest and biomass losses through land conversion components are the leading causes of loss of land-use efficiency. Furthermore, the study depicted higher HANPP in 2014 than in 2007, representing 50% of NPP0 for all landcover classes concerning 2007. This performance was mainly related to the higher volume of harvested biomass for agriculture. In consequence, the cropland depicted the high HANPP followed by plantation. This performance highlights the strong positive correlation between the economic activities developed into the region. This finding constitutes the base for a better understanding of the main driving force influencing biomass productivity and a powerful metric for supporting the sustainable management of land use.

Keywords: human appropriation, land-use changes, land-use impact, net primary productivity

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10 Public Space Appropriation of a Public Peripheric Library in El Agustino, Lima Metropolitana: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Camila Freire Barrios, Gonzalo Rivera Talavera

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The importance of public spaces has been shown for many years, and in different disciplines, with one example being their ability for developing a sustainable social environment, especially in mega cities like Lima. The aim of this study was to explore the process of space appropriation that occurs in the Peripheral Library of the district El Agustino in Lima, Peru. Space appropriation is a process by which people develop a link with a place within a specific sociocultural context. This process has been related to positive outcomes, such as: participation and in the development of compassionate behaviors with these places. To achieve the purpose of the research, a qualitative design was selected because this will allowed exploring in deep the process in an specific context. The study interviewed six adults, all of whom were deliberately chosen to have the longest residence time in the district and also utilized the library the most. In a complementary manner, two children and one adolescent were interviewed. Likewise, two observations were made on a weekday and weekend, and public documentation information was collected. As a result, five categories linked to this process were identified. It was found that the process of space appropriation begins with the needs of the people who arrive at the library, which provides benefits to these people by fulfilling them. Next in the process, through the construction of meanings, the library is then valued as a pleasant, productive, safe and regulated place; as a result, people become identified with the library. The identification generated is subsequently reflected in the level of participation that the person has in the library, which may go in a continuum from no participating at all to a more direct involvement in the library activities, as well as voluntary and altruistic work. Finally, this process leads to the library becoming part of the neighborhood. This study allows having a better understanding of how sociospatial processes work in a Latinamerican context and in cities like Lima, where the third of the country’s population lives. Also, Lima has grown in the past 50 years in a excessively way and with lack of planification. Therefore, these results brings new research questions and highlights the importance of learning how to design public spaces in order to promote these processes to develop.

Keywords: bond with the place, place identity, public spaces, space appropriation

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9 Enhanced Kinetic Solubility Profile of Epiisopiloturine Solid Solution in Hipromellose Phthalate

Authors: Amanda C. Q. M. Vieira, Cybelly M. Melo, Camila B. M. Figueirêdo, Giovanna C. R. M. Schver, Salvana P. M. Costa, Magaly A. M. de Lyra, Ping I. Lee, José L. Soares-Sobrinho, Pedro J. Rolim-Neto, Mônica F. R. Soares

Abstract:

Epiisopiloturine (EPI) is a drug candidate that is extracted from Pilocarpus microphyllus and isolated from the waste of Pilocarpine. EPI has demonstrated promising schistosomicidal, leishmanicide, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, according to in vitro studies that have been carried out since 2009. However, this molecule shows poor aqueous solubility, which represents a problem for the release of the drug candidate and its absorption by the organism. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the extent of enhancement of kinetic solubility of a solid solution (SS) of EPI in hipromellose phthalate HP-55 (HPMCP), an enteric polymer carrier. SS was obtained by the solvent evaporation methodology, using acetone/methanol (60:40) as solvent system. Both EPI and polymer (drug loading 10%) were dissolved in this solvent until a clear solution was obtained, and then dried in oven at 60ºC during 12 hours, followed by drying in a vacuum oven for 4 h. The results show a considerable modification in the crystalline structure of the drug candidate. For instance, X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows a crystalline behavior for the EPI, which becomes amorphous for the SS. Polarized light microscopy, a more sensitive technique than XRD, also shows completely absence of crystals in SS sample. Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) curves show no signal of EPI melting point in SS curve, indicating, once more, no presence of crystal in this system. Interaction between the drug candidate and the polymer were found in Infrared microscopy, which shows a carbonyl 43.3 cm-1 band shift, indicating a moderate-strong interaction between them, probably one of the reasons to the SS formation. Under sink conditions (pH 6.8), EPI SS had its dissolution performance increased in 2.8 times when compared with the isolated drug candidate. EPI SS sample provided a release of more than 95% of the drug candidate in 15 min, whereas only 45% of EPI (alone) could be dissolved in 15 min and 70% in 90 min. Thus, HPMCP demonstrates to have a good potential to enhance the kinetic solubility profile of EPI. Future studies to evaluate the stability of SS are required to conclude the benefits of this system.

Keywords: epiisopiloturine, hipromellose phthalate HP-55, pharmaceuticaltechnology, solubility

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8 Creatine Associated with Resistance Training Increases Muscle Mass in the Elderly

Authors: Camila Lemos Pinto, Juliana Alves Carneiro, Patrícia Borges Botelho, João Felipe Mota

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Sarcopenia, a syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength, currently affects over 50 million people and increases the risk of adverse outcomes such as physical disability, poor quality of life and death. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of creatine supplementation associated with resistance training on muscle mass in the elderly. A 12-week, double blind, randomized, parallel group, placebo controlled trial was conducted. Participants were randomly allocated into one of the following groups: placebo with resistance training (PL+RT, n=14) and creatine supplementation with resistance training (CR + RT, n=13). The subjects from CR+RT group received 5 g/day of creatine monohydrate and the subjects from the PL+RT group were given the same dose of maltodextrin. Participants were instructed to ingest the supplement on non-training days immediately after lunch and on training days immediately after resistance training sessions dissolved in a beverage comprising 100 g of maltodextrin lemon flavored. Participants of both groups undertook a supervised exercise training program for 12 weeks (3 times per week). The subjects were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. The primary outcome was muscle mass, assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The secondary outcome included diagnose participants with one of the three stages of sarcopenia (presarcopenia, sarcopenia and severe sarcopenia) by skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), handgrip strength and gait speed. CR+RT group had a significant increase in SMI and muscle (p<0.0001), a significant decrease in android and gynoid fat (p = 0.028 and p=0.035, respectively) and a tendency of decreasing in body fat (p=0.053) after the intervention. PL+RT only had a significant increase in SMI (p=0.007). The main finding of this clinical trial indicated that creatine supplementation combined with resistance training was capable of increasing muscle mass in our elderly cohort (p=0.02). In addition, the number of subjects diagnosed with one of the three stages of sarcopenia at baseline decreased in the creatine supplemented group in comparison with the placebo group (CR+RT, n=-3; PL+RT, n=0). In summary, 12 weeks of creatine supplementation associated with resistance training resulted in increases in muscle mass. This is the first research with elderly of both sexes that show the same increase in muscle mass with a minor quantity of creatine supplementation in a short period. Future long-term research should investigate the effects of these interventions in sarcopenic elderly.

Keywords: creatine, dietetic supplement, elderly, resistance training

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7 Cardiotoxicity Associated with Radiation Therapy: The Role of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Cells in Improvement of Heart Function

Authors: Isalira Peroba Ramos, Cherley Borba Vieira de Andrade, Grazielle Suhett, Camila Salata, Paulo Cesar Canary, Guilherme Visconde Brasil, Antonio Carlos Campos de Carvalho, Regina Coeli dos Santos Goldenberg

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Background: The therapeutic options for patients with cancer now include increasingly complex combinations of medications, radiation therapy (RT), and surgical intervention. Many of these treatments have important potential adverse cardiac effects and are likely to have significant effects on patient outcomes. Cell therapy appears to be promising for the treatment of chronic and degenerative diseases, including cardiomyopathy induced by RT, as the current therapeutic options are insufficient. Aims: To evaluate the potential of bone marrow mesenchymal cells (BMMCs) in radioinduced cardiac damage Methods: Female Wistar rats, 3 months old (Ethics Committee 054/14), were divided into 2 groups, non-treated irradiated group (IR n=15) and irradiated and BMMC treated (IRT n=10). Echocardiography was performed to evaluate heart function. After euthanasia, 3 months post treatment; the left ventricle was removed and prepared for RT-qPCR (VEGF and Pro Collagen I) and histological (picrosirius) analysis. Results: In both groups, 45 days after irradiation, ejection fraction (EF) was in the normal range for these animals (> 70%). However, the BMMC treated group had EF (83.1%±2.6) while the non-treated IR group showed a significant reduction (76.1%±2.6) in relation to the treated group. In addition, we observed an increase in VEGF gene expression and a decrease in Pro Collagen I in IRT when compared to IR group. We also observed by histology that the collagen deposition was reduced in IRT (10.26%±0.83) when compared to IR group (25.29%±0.96). Conclusions: Treatment with BMMCs was able to prevent ejection fraction reduction and collagen deposition in irradiated animals. The increase of VEGF and the decrease of pro collagen I gene expression might explain, at least in part, the cell therapy benefits. All authors disclose no financial or personal relationships with individuals or organizations that could be perceived to bias their work. Sources of funding: FAPERJ, CAPES, CNPq, MCT.

Keywords: mesenchymal cells, radioation, cardiotoxicity, bone marrow

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6 Composite Materials from Beer Bran Fibers and Polylactic Acid: Characterization and Properties

Authors: Camila Hurtado, Maria A. Morales, Diego Torres, L.H. Reyes, Alejandro Maranon, Alicia Porras

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This work presents the physical and chemical characterization of beer brand fibers and the properties of novel composite materials made of these fibers and polylactic acid (PLA). Treated and untreated fibers were physically characterized in terms of their moisture content (ASTM D1348), density, and particle size (ASAE S319.2). A chemical analysis following TAPPI standards was performed to determine ash, extractives, lignin, and cellulose content on fibers. Thermal stability was determined by TGA analysis, and an FTIR was carried out to check the influence of the alkali treatment in fiber composition. An alkali treatment with NaOH (5%) of fibers was performed for 90 min, with the objective to improve the interfacial adhesion with polymeric matrix in composites. Composite materials based on either treated or untreated beer brand fibers and polylactic acid (PLA) were developed characterized in tension (ASTM D638), bending (ASTM D790) and impact (ASTM D256). Before composites manufacturing, PLA and brand beer fibers (10 wt.%) were mixed in a twin extruder with a temperature profile between 155°C and 180°C. Coupons were manufactured by compression molding (110 bar) at 190°C. Physical characterization showed that alkali treatment does not affect the moisture content (6.9%) and the density (0.48 g/cm³ for untreated fiber and 0.46 g/cm³ for the treated one). Chemical and FTIR analysis showed a slight decrease in ash and extractives. Also, a decrease of 47% and 50% for lignin and hemicellulose content was observed, coupled with an increase of 71% for cellulose content. Fiber thermal stability was improved with the alkali treatment at about 10°C. Tensile strength of composites was found to be between 42 and 44 MPa with no significant statistical difference between coupons with either treated or untreated fibers. However, compared to neat PLA, composites with beer bran fibers present a decrease in tensile strength of 27%. Young modulus increases by 10% with treated fiber, compared to neat PLA. Flexural strength decreases in coupons with treated fiber (67.7 MPa), while flexural modulus increases (3.2 GPa) compared to neat PLA (83.3 MPa and 2.8 GPa, respectively). Izod impact test results showed an improvement of 99.4% in coupons with treated fibers - compared with neat PLA.

Keywords: beer bran, characterization, green composite, polylactic acid, surface treatment

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5 Effects of an Envious Experience on Schadenfreude and Economic Decisions Making

Authors: Pablo Reyes, Vanessa Riveros Fiallo, Cesar Acevedo, Camila Castellanos, Catalina Moncaleano, Maria F. Parra, Laura Colmenares

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Social emotions are physiological, cognitive and behavioral phenomenon that intervene in the mechanisms of adaptation of individuals and their context. These are mediated by interpersonal relationship and language. Such emotions are subdivided into moral and comparison. The present research emphasizes two comparative emotions: Envy and Schadenfreude. Envy arises when a person lack of quality, possessions or achievements and these are superior in someone else. The Schadenfreude (SC) expresses the pleasure that someone experienced by the misfortune of the other. The relationship between both emotions has been questioned before. Hence there are reports showing that envy increases and modulates SC response. Other documents suggest that envy causes SC response. However, the methodological approach of the topic has been made through self-reports, as well as the hypothetical scenarios. Given this problematic, the neuroscience social framework provides an alternative and demonstrates that social emotions have neurophysiological correlates that can be measured. This is relevant when studying social emotions that are reprehensible like envy or SC are. When tested, the individuals tend to report low ratings due to social desirability. In this study, it was drawn up a proposal in research's protocol and the progress on its own piloting. The aim is to evaluate the effect of feeling envy and Schadenfreude has on the decision-making process, as well as the cooperative behavior in an economic game. To such a degree, it was proposed an experimental model that will provoke to feel envious by performing games against an unknown opponent. The game consists of asking general knowledge questions. The difficulty level in questions and the strangers' facial response have been manipulated in order to generate an ecological comparison framework and be able to arise both envy and SC emotions. During the game, an electromyography registry will be made for two facial muscles that have been associated with the expressiveness of envy and SC emotions. One of the innovations of the current proposal is the measurement of the effect that emotions have on a specific behavior. To that extent, it was evaluated the effect of each condition on the dictators' economic game. The main intention is to evaluate if a social emotion can modulate actions that have been associated with social norms, in the literacy. The result of the evaluation of a pilot model (without electromyography record and self-report) have shown an association between envy and SC, in a way that as the individuals report a greater sense of envy, the greater the chance to experience SC. The results of the economic game show a slight tendency towards profit maximization decisions. It is expected that at the time of using real cash this behavior will be strengthened and also to correlate with the responses of electromyography.

Keywords: envy, schadenfreude, electromyography, economic games

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4 In Vitro Evaluation of a Chitosan-Based Adhesive to Treat Bone Fractures

Authors: Francisco J. Cedano, Laura M. Pinzón, Camila I. Castro, Felipe Salcedo, Juan P. Casas, Juan C. Briceño

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Complex fractures located in articular surfaces are challenging to treat and their reduction with conventional treatments could compromise the functionality of the affected limb. An adhesive material to treat those fractures is desirable for orthopedic surgeons. This adhesive must be biocompatible and have a high adhesion to bone surface in an aqueous environment. The proposed adhesive is based on chitosan, given its adhesive and biocompatibility properties. Chitosan is mixed with calcium carbonate and hydroxyapatite, which contribute to structural support and a gel like behavior, and glutaraldehyde is used as a cross-linking agent to keep the adhesive mechanical performance in aqueous environment. This work aims to evaluate the rheological, adhesion strength and biocompatibility properties of the proposed adhesive using in vitro tests. The gelification process of the adhesive was monitored by oscillatory rheometry in an ARG-2 TA Instruments rheometer, using a parallel plate geometry of 22 mm and a gap of 1 mm. Time sweep experiments were conducted at 1 Hz frequency, 1% strain and 37°C from 0 to 2400 s. Adhesion strength is measured using a butt joint test with bovine cancellous bone fragments as substrates. The test is conducted at 5 min, 20min and 24 hours after curing the adhesive under water at 37°C. Biocompatibility is evaluated by a cytotoxicity test in a fibroblast cell culture using MTT assay and SEM. Rheological results concluded that the average gelification time of the adhesive is 820±107 s, also it reaches storage modulus magnitudes up to 106 Pa; The adhesive show solid-like behavior. Butt joint test showed 28.6 ± 9.2 kPa of tensile bond strength for the adhesive cured for 24 hours. Also there was no significant difference in adhesion strength between 20 minutes and 24 hours. MTT showed 70 ± 23 % of active cells at sixth day of culture, this percentage is estimated respect to a positive control (only cells with culture medium and bovine serum). High vacuum SEM observation permitted to localize and study the morphology of fibroblasts presented in the adhesive. All captured fibroblasts presented in SEM typical flatted structure with filopodia growth attached to adhesive surface. This project reports an adhesive based on chitosan that is biocompatible due to high active cells presented in MTT test and these results were correlated using SEM. Also, it has adhesion properties in conditions that model the clinical application, and the adhesion strength do not decrease between 5 minutes and 24 hours.

Keywords: bioadhesive, bone adhesive, calcium carbonate, chitosan, hydroxyapatite, glutaraldehyde

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3 The Beauty and the Cruel: The Price of Ethics

Authors: Camila Lee Park, Mauro Fracarolli Nunes

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Understood as the preference for products and services that do not involve moral dilemmas, ethical consumption has been increasingly discussed by scholars, practitioners, and consumers. Among its diverse trends, the defense of animal rights and welfare seems to have gained particular momentum in past decades. Not surprisingly, companies, governments, ideologues, and virtually any institution or group interested in (re)shaping society invest in the building of narratives oriented to influence consumption behavior. The animal rights movement, for example, is devoted to the elimination of the use of animals in science, as well as of commercial animal agriculture and hunting activities. Although advances in ethical consumption may be observed in practice, it still seems more popular as rhetoric. Diverse scholars have addressed the disparities between self-professed ethical consumers and their actual purchase patterns, with differences being attributed to factors such as price sensitivity, lack of information, quality, cynicism, and limited availability. The gap is also linked to the 'consumer sovereignty myth', according to which consumers are only able to choose from a pre-determined range of choices made before products reach them. On the other hand, academics also debate ethical consumption behavior as more likely to occur when it assumes compliance with social norms. As sustainability becomes a permanent issue, customers may tend to adhere to ethical consumption, either because of an individual value or due to a social one. Regardless of these efforts, the actual value attributed to ethical businesses remains unclear. Likewise, the power of stakeholders’ initiatives to influence corporate strategies is dubious. In search to offer new perspectives on these matters, the present study concentrates on the following research questions: Do customers value products/companies that respect animal rights? If so, does such enhanced value convert into actions from the part of the companies? Broadly, we aim to understand if customers’ perception holds performative traits (i.e., are capable of either trigger or contribute to changes in organizational behaviour around the respect for animal rights). In addressing these issues, two preliminary behavioral vignette-based experiments were conducted, with the perspectives of 307 participants being assessed. Building on a case of the cosmetics industry, social, emotional, and functional values were hypothesized as directly impacting positive word-of-mouth, which, in turn, would carry direct effects on purchase intention. A first structural equation model was analyzed with the combined samples of studies I and II. Results suggest that emotional value strongly impacts both positive word-of-mouth and purchase intention. Data confirms initial expectations on customers valuing products and companies that comply with ethical postures concerning animals, especially if social-oriented practices are also present.

Keywords: animal rights, business ethics, emotional value, ethical consumption

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2 The Employment of Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Identification and Classification of Helicopter Landing Zones and Airdrop Zones in Calamity Situations

Authors: Marielcio Lacerda, Angelo Paulino, Elcio Shiguemori, Alvaro Damiao, Lamartine Guimaraes, Camila Anjos

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Accurate information about the terrain is extremely important in disaster management activities or conflict. This paper proposes the use of the Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) at the identification of Airdrop Zones (AZs) and Helicopter Landing Zones (HLZs). In this paper we consider the AZs the zones where troops or supplies are dropped by parachute, and HLZs areas where victims can be rescued. The use of digital image processing enables the automatic generation of an orthorectified mosaic and an actual Digital Surface Model (DSM). This methodology allows obtaining this fundamental information to the terrain’s comprehension post-disaster in a short amount of time and with good accuracy. In order to get the identification and classification of AZs and HLZs images from DJI drone, model Phantom 4 have been used. The images were obtained with the knowledge and authorization of the responsible sectors and were duly registered in the control agencies. The flight was performed on May 24, 2017, and approximately 1,300 images were obtained during approximately 1 hour of flight. Afterward, new attributes were generated by Feature Extraction (FE) from the original images. The use of multispectral images and complementary attributes generated independently from them increases the accuracy of classification. The attributes of this work include the Declivity Map and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). For the classification four distinct classes were considered: HLZ 1 – small size (18m x 18m); HLZ 2 – medium size (23m x 23m); HLZ 3 – large size (28m x 28m); AZ (100m x 100m). The Decision Tree method Random Forest (RF) was used in this work. RF is a classification method that uses a large collection of de-correlated decision trees. Different random sets of samples are used as sampled objects. The results of classification from each tree and for each object is called a class vote. The resulting classification is decided by a majority of class votes. In this case, we used 200 trees for the execution of RF in the software WEKA 3.8. The classification result was visualized on QGIS Desktop 2.12.3. Through the methodology used, it was possible to classify in the study area: 6 areas as HLZ 1, 6 areas as HLZ 2, 4 areas as HLZ 3; and 2 areas as AZ. It should be noted that an area classified as AZ covers the classifications of the other classes, and may be used as AZ, HLZ of large size (HLZ3), medium size (HLZ2) and small size helicopters (HLZ1). Likewise, an area classified as HLZ for large rotary wing aircraft (HLZ3) covers the smaller area classifications, and so on. It was concluded that images obtained through small UAV are of great use in calamity situations since they can provide data with high accuracy, with low cost, low risk and ease and agility in obtaining aerial photographs. This allows the generation, in a short time, of information about the features of the terrain in order to serve as an important decision support tool.

Keywords: disaster management, unmanned aircraft systems, helicopter landing zones, airdrop zones, random forest

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1 Assessment of Antioxidant and Cholinergic Systems, and Liver Histopathologies in Lithobates catesbeianus Exposed to the Waters of an Urban Stream

Authors: Diego R. Boiarski, Camila M. Toigo, Thais M. Sobjak, Andrey F. P. Santos, Silvia Romao, Ana T. B. Guimaraes

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Anthropogenic activities promote changes in the community’s structures and decrease the species abundance of amphibians. Biological communities of fluvial systems are assemblies of organisms that have adapted to regional conditions, including the physical environment and food resources, and are further refined through interactions with other species. The aim of this study was to assess neurotoxic alterations and in the antioxidant system on tadpoles of Lithobates catesbeianus exposed to waters from Cascavel River, in the south of Brazil. A total of 420 L of water was collected from the Cascavel River, 140 L from each of the three different locations: Site 1 – headwater; Site 2 – stretch of the stream that runs through an urbanized area; Site 3 – a stretch from the rural area. Twelve tadpoles were acclimated in each aquarium (100 L of water) for seven days. The water from each aquarium was replaced with the ones sampled from the river, except the one from the control aquarium. After seven days, a portion of the liver was removed and conditioned for ChE, SOD, CAT and LPO analysis; other part of the tissue was conditioned for histological analysis. The statistical analysis performed was one-way ANOVA, followed by post-hoc Tukey-HSD test, and the multivariate principal components analysis. It was not observed any neurotoxic effect, but a slight increase in SOD activity and elevation of CAT activity in both urban and rural environment. A decrease in LPO reaction was detected, mainly among the tadpoles exposed to the waters from the rural area. The results of the present study demonstrate the alteration of the antioxidant system, as well as liver histopathologies in tadpoles exposed mainly to waters collected in urban and rural environments. These alterations may cause the reduction in the velocity of the metamorphosis process from the tadpoles. Further, were observed histological alterations, highlighting necrotic areas mainly among the animals exposed to urban waters. Those damages can lead to metabolic dysfunction, interfering with survival capacity, diminishing not only individual fitness but for the whole population. In the interpretation synthesis of all biomarkers, the cellular damage gradient is perceptible, characterized by the variables related to the antioxidant system, due to the flow direction of the stream. This result is indicative that along the course of the creek occurs dumping of organic material, which promoted an acute response upon tadpoles of L. catesbeianus. and it was also observed the difference in tissue damage between the experimental groups and the control group, the latter presenting histological alterations, but to a lesser degree than the animals exposed to the waters of the Cascavel river. These damages, caused by reactive oxygen species possibly resulting from the contamination by organic compounds, can lead the animals to a series of metabolic dysfunctions, interfering with its metamorphosis capacity. Interruption of metamorphosis may affect survival, which may impair its growth, development and reproduction, diminishing not only the fitness of each individual but in a long-term, to the entire population.

Keywords: American bullfrog, histopathology, oxidative stress, urban creeks pollution

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