Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 41

Search results for: Alastair Allen

41 Effects of Reversible Watermarking on Iris Recognition Performance

Authors: Andrew Lock, Alastair Allen


Fragile watermarking has been proposed as a means of adding additional security or functionality to biometric systems, particularly for authentication and tamper detection. In this paper we describe an experimental study on the effect of watermarking iris images with a particular class of fragile algorithm, reversible algorithms, and the ability to correctly perform iris recognition. We investigate two scenarios, matching watermarked images to unmodified images, and matching watermarked images to watermarked images. We show that different watermarking schemes give very different results for a given capacity, highlighting the importance of investigation. At high embedding rates most algorithms cause significant reduction in recognition performance. However, in many cases, for low embedding rates, recognition accuracy is improved by the watermarking process.

Keywords: biometrics, iris recognition, reversible watermarking, vision engineering

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40 In-door Localization Algorithm and Appropriate Implementation Using Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Adeniran K. Ademuwagun, Alastair Allen


The relationship dependence between RSS and distance in an enclosed environment is an important consideration because it is a factor that can influence the reliability of any localization algorithm founded on RSS. Several algorithms effectively reduce the variance of RSS to improve localization or accuracy performance. Our proposed algorithm essentially avoids this pitfall and consequently, its high adaptability in the face of erratic radio signal. Using 3 anchors in close proximity of each other, we are able to establish that RSS can be used as reliable indicator for localization with an acceptable degree of accuracy. Inherent in this concept, is the ability for each prospective anchor to validate (guarantee) the position or the proximity of the other 2 anchors involved in the localization and vice versa. This procedure ensures that the uncertainties of radio signals due to multipath effects in enclosed environments are minimized. A major driver of this idea is the implicit topological relationship among sensors due to raw radio signal strength. The algorithm is an area based algorithm; however, it does not trade accuracy for precision (i.e the size of the returned area).

Keywords: anchor nodes, centroid algorithm, communication graph, radio signal strength

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39 Digital Metroliteracies: Space, Diversity and Identity

Authors: Sender Dovchin, Alastair Pennycook


This paper looks at the relationship between online space, urban space and digital literacies. The everyday digital literacy practices of Facebook users (with a particular focus on young urban Mongolians) can be understood as ‘metrolingual’ because of the varied ways in which linguistic and cultural resources, spatial repertoires, and online activities are bound together to make meaning. Whereas the initial development of the term metrolingualism was dependent on a notion of physical urban space, we here argue that the digital practices of these Facebook users perform a range of social and cultural identities (sexual, ethnic, and class-based identities) that are both parts of but also adjacent to the metrolingual fabric.

Keywords: metrolingualism, digital literacy, Mongolia, Facebook

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38 Exploring Students’ Visual Conception of Matter and Its Implications to Teaching and Learning Chemistry

Authors: Allen A. Espinosa, Arlyne C. Marasigan, Janir T. Datukan


The study explored how students visualize the states and classifications of matter using scientific models. It also identified misconceptions of students in using scientific models. In general, high percentage of students was able to use scientific models correctly and only a little misconception was identified. From the result of the study, a teaching framework was formulated wherein scientific models should be employed in classroom instruction to visualize abstract concepts in chemistry and for better conceptual understanding.

Keywords: visual conception, scientific models, mental models, states of matter, classification of matter

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37 Investigating Students’ Cognitive Processes in Solving Stoichiometric Problems and its Implications to Teaching and Learning Chemistry

Authors: Allen A. Espinosa, Larkins A. Trinidad


The present study investigated collegiate students’ problem solving strategies and misconceptions in solving stoichiometric problems and later on formulate a teaching framework from the result of the study. The study found out that the most prominent strategies among students are the mole method and the proportionality method, which are both algorithmic by nature. Misconception was also noted as some students rely on Avogadro’s number in converting between moles. It is suggested therefore that the teaching of stoichiometry should not be confined to demonstration. Students should be involved in the process of thinking of ways to solve the problem.

Keywords: stoichiometry, Svogadro’s number, mole method, proportionality method

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36 Literature Analysis of Nutrition in South Africa and How SA Harvest Aims to Improve Nutrition

Authors: Ali Conn, Kimberly Allen


Food and nutrition play a significant role in humans. It helps them function, grow, and develop into better individuals. However, as essential as food may seem to most people, it is not the case for everyone. South Africans, for example, have been suffering from hunger and poverty for the longest time now. With the spread of the COVID-19 virus, their situations have become worse. Millions of children and their families do not have access to food, hence no proper nutrition. They could barely make ends meet, so they make sure to make the most of what little they have for their household. Fortunately, organizations like SA Harvest aim to end hunger in South Africa. However, they still need to know more about how they can help South Africans with their current diet. Currently, most of the diets are composed of maize and rice. They do not have much to spend on fruits, so these commodities are seen as a luxury. With the help of organizations like SA Harvest, South Africans will be educated and more aware of what they need to eat.

Keywords: nutrition, public health, SA Harvest, food

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35 Recovery of Damages by General Cargo Interest under Bill of Lading Carriage Contract

Authors: Eunice Chiamaka Allen-Ngbale


Cargo claims are brought by cargo interests against carriers when the goods are not delivered or delivered short or mis-delivered or delivered damaged. The objective of the cargo claimant is to seek recovery for the loss suffered through the award of damages against the carrier by a court of competent jurisdiction. Moreover, whether the vessel on which the goods were carried is or is not under charter, the bill of lading plays a central role in the cargo claim. Since the bill of lading is an important international transport document, this paper examines, by chronicling the progress of a cargo claim as governed by the English law of contract. It finds that other than by contract, there are other modes of recovery available to a consignee or endorsee of a bill of lading to obtain a remedy under the sui generis contract of carriage contained in or evidenced by a bill of lading.

Keywords: bill of lading, cargo interests, carriage contract, transfer of right of suit

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34 Heating of Cold Ions by Emic Waves Using MMS Observations

Authors: Abid Ali Abid, Quanming Lu, Xing L. Gao, B. M. Alotaibi, S. Ali, M. N. S. Qureshi, Y. Al-Hadeethi, Shui Wang


The EMIC waves whose frequency ranges from 0.001 Hz to 5 Hz in the Earth’s magnetosphere and have received considerable attention for energy transport across the magnetosphere. Since these waves act as a mechanism for the loss of energetic electrons from the Van Allen radiation belts to the atmosphere, therefore, it is necessary to understand how and where they can be produced, as well as the direction of waves along the magnetic field lines. In this letter, the excitation of the EMIC waves is studied by taking into account the hot proton temperature anisotropy having energy ranging from 7 KeV to 26 KeV with a minimum resonant energy of 6.9KeV. However, the opposite effect can be observed for the hot protons for energy less than the minimum resonant energy. It is revealed that as long as the intensity of the EMIC waves increases, the number density and temperature anisotropy of the protons also increase within the energy range from 1eV to 100 eV.

Keywords: EMIC waves, temperature anisotropy of hot protons, energization of the cold proton, magnetospheric multiscale (MMS) satellite observations

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33 Effect of Clinical Depression on Automatic Speaker Verification

Authors: Sheeraz Memon, Namunu C. Maddage, Margaret Lech, Nicholas Allen


The effect of a clinical environment on the accuracy of the speaker verification was tested. The speaker verification tests were performed within homogeneous environments containing clinically depressed speakers only, and non-depresses speakers only, as well as within mixed environments containing different mixtures of both climatically depressed and non-depressed speakers. The speaker verification framework included the MFCCs features and the GMM modeling and classification method. The speaker verification experiments within homogeneous environments showed 5.1% increase of the EER within the clinically depressed environment when compared to the non-depressed environment. It indicated that the clinical depression increases the intra-speaker variability and makes the speaker verification task more challenging. Experiments with mixed environments indicated that the increase of the percentage of the depressed individuals within a mixed environment increases the speaker verification equal error rates.

Keywords: speaker verification, GMM, EM, clinical environment, clinical depression

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32 A Research to Determine the Impact of Mobbing on Organizational Commitment

Authors: A. Bedük, k. Eryeşil, o. Eşmen, m. Onacak


The mobbing is a process that is consisting of negative behaviors such as, systematically and continuously insulting, offending against personal dignity, preventing access to necessary information and disseminating rumors against employee by one or more than one individuals in a work environment through which disturbing the employee physically, psychologically and socially to cause to quit his/her job. This research is aiming to explore the results of mobbing (psychological violence) on employees’ organizational commitment in workplaces. Mobbing takes many forms and is often used to force an employee to leave the work environment. Two different types of scales have been reviewed and revised for use in the research. The Heinz Leymann scale is the first measure, which was developed to define causes and effects, in addition to characteristic behaviors of mobbing. The second scale was developed by Allen and Mayer and indicates levels of organizational commitment. In this research, a questionnaire were applied to 50 employees in a special glass factory in Konya to search mobbing itself and indicate the effects of mobbing to organizational commitments. One of the important findings of this research is that there was no relation between mobbing and general organizational commitment.

Keywords: mobbing, organizational commitment, affective commitment, normative commitment, continuance commitment

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31 Achievement Goal Orientations of Schooling Adolescents in Bayelsa State, Nigeria: Implications for Sustainable Development

Authors: Iniye Irene Wodi, Allen A. Agih


Goal theory perspective as an emerging trend in students’ motivation explores reasons why students engage in achievement related behaviour. While previous research typifies students’ goal orientations into two dimensions of mastery and performance orientations in various other parts of the world, not much has been done in this regard in Nigeria and specifically in Bayelsa state to the best of the researcher’s knowledge. To this end, the study explores the achievement goal orientations of schooling adolescents in Bayelsa State. The sample of the study consists of 220 schooling adolescents drawn from four urban schools in the state. A modified form of the Patterns of Adaptive learning survey (PALS) questionnaire was used to elicit data. Results indicated that schooling adolescents in Bayelsa state are mastery as well as performance oriented. The students also did not differ in goal orientations by gender. The implications of this for sustainable development were highlighted.

Keywords: achievement goals, goal orientations, schooling adolescents, sustainable development

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30 Transformational Leadership Style and Organizational Commitment: An Empirical Assessment

Authors: Ugochukwu D. Abasilim, Aize I. Obayan, Adedayo J. Odukoya, Godwyns Agube, Power A. I. Wogu, Nchekwube Excellence-Oluye


This paper examines the effect of transformational leadership style on organizational commitment among Private University employees in Nigeria. A quantitative methodology was adopted for this study. A structured Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) developed by Bass and Avolio (1997) and Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ) developed by Meyer and Allen (1997) were the major instruments used for data collection. Simple linear regression was used for testing the hypothesis. The results indicated that there was no significant positive effect of transformational leadership style on organizational commitment among employees of the Nigerian private university studied. Though the respondents rated their leaders high on transformational leadership style, their organizational commitment rating was average for majority, which implies that employees’ level of commitment could be accounted for by transformational leadership style existing in the institution. This finding is antithetical to the common submission in literature that transformational leadership style has a significant effect on organizational commitment. It was therefore recommended that further studies may want to further explore the reasons for this variance.

Keywords: leadership style, Nigeria, organizational, commitment, transformational leadership

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29 Market Acceptance of a Murabaha-Based Finance Structure within a Social Network of Non-Islamic Small and Medium Enterprise Owners in African Procurement

Authors: Craig M. Allen


Twenty two African entrepreneurs with Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in a single social network centered around a non-Muslim population in a smaller African country, selected an Islamic financing structure, a form of Murabaha, based solely on market rationale. These entrepreneurs had all won procurement contracts from major purchasers of goods within their country and faced difficulty arranging traditional bank financing to support their supply-chain needs. The Murabaha-based structure satisfied their market-driven demand and provided an attractive alternative to the traditional bank-offered lending products. The Murabaha-styled trade-financing structure was not promoted with any religious implications, but solely as a market solution to the existing problems associated with bank-related financing. This indicates the strong market forces that draw SMEs to financing structures that are traditionally considered within the framework of Islamic finance.

Keywords: Africa, entrepreneurs, Islamic finance, market acceptance, Murabaha, SMEs

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28 Understanding Music through the Framework of Feminist Confessional Literary Criticism: Heightening Audience Identification and Prioritising the Female Voice

Authors: Katharine Pollock


Feminist scholars assert that a defining aspect of feminist confessional literature is that it expresses both an individual and communal identity, one which is predicated on the commonly-shared aspects of female experience. Reading feminist confessional literature in this way accommodates a plurality of readerly experiences and textual interpretations. It affirms the individual whilst acknowledging those experiences which bind women together, and refuses traditional objective criticism. It invites readers to see themselves reflected in the text, and encourages them to share their own stories. Similarly, music which communicates women’s personal experience, fictive or not, expresses a dual identity. There is an inherent risk of imposing a confessional reading upon a musical or literary text. Understanding music as being multivocal in the same way as confessional literature negates this patriarchal tendency, and allows listeners to engage with both the subjective and collective aspects of a text. By hearing their own stories reflected in the music, listeners engage in an ongoing dialogic process in which female stories are prioritised. This refuses patriarchal silencing and ensures a diversity of female voices. To demonstrate the veracity of these claims, literary criticism is applied to Lily Allen’s music, and memoir My Thoughts Exactly.

Keywords: confession, female, feminist, literature, music

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27 Bed Scenes Allurement as Entertainment and Selling Point in Nigeria's Nollywood Movie Industry

Authors: Ojinime E. Ojiakor, Allen N. Adum


We report on bed scenes allurement as entertainment and selling point in Nigeria’s Nollywood movie industry. In recent times, there has been an increase in the portrayal of bed scenes in Nollywood movies. Before now, Nigerian film producers have been very conservative when it comes to showing sex and nudity. This appears to have changed in line with global trends. Movie industries all over the world appear a haven for delectable women who glamorize our screens, not only with their beauty but also their acting skills. At Hollywood, Bollywood, Ghollywood and the like, pretty actresses with sensuous endowments engage in bed scenes which allure the minds of viewers. The idea that, a ravishing beauty on cast is as good as a box office hit apparently drives Nigerian film producers to incorporate bed scenes in their movies. In this era of sex crusade where what sells is sex and maybe a little bit of violence, there is the suggestion that producers believe that if the talent of an actress doesn’t do the trick, the sexiness she exudes is bound to get attention. Against this backdrop, our study examined bed scenes depiction by Nollywood films, in an attempt to establish if their allurement influences the choice of movie and purchase decisions of target markets. We assessed Nollywood films and viewer preference using the mixed method approach. Our findings reveal that bed scenes, as portrayed in Nigerian movies are a significant determinant of which films to watch and which films to purchase among the respondents studied.

Keywords: allurement, bed scenes, nollywood, selling point

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26 Synthesis and Surface Engineering of Lanthanide Nanoparticles for NIR Luminescence Imaging and Photodynamic Therapy

Authors: Syue-Liang Lin, C. Allen Chang


Luminescence imaging is an important technique used in biomedical research and clinical diagnostic applications in recent years. Concurrently, the development of NIR luminescence probes / imaging contrast agents has helped the understanding of the structural and functional properties of cells and animals. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used clinically to treat a wide range of medical conditions, but the therapeutic efficacy of general PDT for deeper tumor was limited by the penetration of excitation source. The tumor targeting biomedical nanomaterials [email protected] (upconversion nanoparticle conjugated with photosensitizer) for photodynamic therapy and near-infrared imaging of cancer will be developed in our study. Synthesis and characterization of biomedical nanomaterials were completed in this studies. The spectrum of UCNP was characterized by photoluminescence spectroscopy and the morphology was characterized by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). TEM and XRD analyses indicated that these nanoparticles are about 20~50 nm with hexagonal phase. NaYF₄:Ln³⁺ (Ln= Yb, Nd, Er) upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) with core / shell structure, synthesized by thermal decomposition method in 300°C, have the ability to emit visible light (upconversion: 540 nm, 660 nm) and near-infrared with longer wavelength (downconversion: NIR: 980 nm, 1525 nm) by absorbing 800 nm NIR laser. The information obtained from these studies would be very useful for applications of these nanomaterials for bio-luminescence imaging and photodynamic therapy of deep tumor tissue in the future.

Keywords: Near Infrared (NIR), lanthanide, core-shell structure, upconversion, theranostics

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25 Native Language Identification with Cross-Corpus Evaluation Using Social Media Data: 'Reddit'

Authors: Yasmeen Bassas, Sandra Kuebler, Allen Riddell


Native Language Identification is one of the growing subfields in Natural Language Processing (NLP). The task of Native Language Identification (NLI) is mainly concerned with predicting the native language of an author’s writing in a second language. In this paper, we investigate the performance of two types of features; content-based features vs. content independent features when they are evaluated on a different corpus (using social media data “Reddit”). In this NLI task, the predefined models are trained on one corpus (TOEFL) and then the trained models are evaluated on a different data using an external corpus (Reddit). Several features that have been proven useful for NLI tasks are used in this work (such as word n-grams, character n-grams, POS n-grams and function words). Three classifiers are used in this task; the baseline, linear SVM, and Logistic Regression. Two experiments are conducted in this paper. The first one is to explore the performance of the content-based features versus the content independent ones within one domain using TOEFL corpus. The second experiment is to examine how the trained models perform in a different data using an external corpus called Reddit. The aim is to find out which features (content-based vs content independent features) are more accurate when tested on a different corpus. Results show that content-based features are more accurate and robust than content independent ones when tested within corpus and across corpus.

Keywords: Native Language Identification, Social Media Data: Reddit, NLP, Content-based features, Content independent features

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24 Performing a Chamber Theatre Adaptation of Nick Joaquin's 'the Summer Solstice'

Authors: Allen B. Baylosis


Chamber Theatre has been one of the least articulated staging devices in the field of theatre and performance studies. This creative exploratory-descriptive study responds to this gap by employing the staging technique in a Chamber Theatre production based on Nick Joaquin’s The Summer Solstice. Specifically, this study opts to understand three processes involved in the Chamber Theatre creative thesis production of The Summer Solstice as performance: performance of the theatre-maker, performance of the spect-actors, and performance of the spectators. For this purpose, the theatre-maker describes the creative process of transforming The Summer Solstice text to a Chamber Theatre production—from text to staging. The theatre-maker also analyzes the performers’ experiences and the spectators’ responses as they participate in a Chamber Theatre performance. In doing so, the theatre-maker collects qualitative data from seventeen (17) performers and qualitative feedback from twenty (20) spectators. For the mode of data analysis, this study employed Ranciere’s concept on the Emancipated Spectator (2008) and Schechner’s Performance Theory (1988). The study’s findings examine how the theatre-maker, the performers, and the spectators become distant viewers of their respective restored behavior performances. Through these viewed performances, this study implies that it is possible to ascertain a reasonable definition of purpose for Chamber Theatre. Hence, despite the existence of other modern staging devices in the field of theatre and performance studies, this study concludes that Chamber Theatre remains to be a relevant staging technique.

Keywords: adaptation of text, chamber theatre, experimental theater, oral interpretation

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23 Thermochemical Modelling for Extraction of Lithium from Spodumene and Prediction of Promising Reagents for the Roasting Process

Authors: Allen Yushark Fosu, Ndue Kanari, James Vaughan, Alexandre Changes


Spodumene is a lithium-bearing mineral of great interest due to increasing demand of lithium in emerging electric and hybrid vehicles. The conventional method of processing the mineral for the metal requires inevitable thermal transformation of α-phase to the β-phase followed by roasting with suitable reagents to produce lithium salts for downstream processes. The selection of appropriate reagent for roasting is key for the success of the process and overall lithium recovery. Several researches have been conducted to identify good reagents for the process efficiency, leading to sulfation, alkaline, chlorination, fluorination, and carbonizing as the methods of lithium recovery from the mineral.HSC Chemistry is a thermochemical software that can be used to model metallurgical process feasibility and predict possible reaction products prior to experimental investigation. The software was employed to investigate and explain the various reagent characteristics as employed in literature during spodumene roasting up to 1200°C. The simulation indicated that all used reagents for sulfation and alkaline were feasible in the direction of lithium salt production. Chlorination was only feasible when Cl2 and CaCl2 were used as chlorination agents but not NaCl nor KCl. Depending on the kind of lithium salt formed during carbonizing and fluorination, the process was either spontaneous or nonspontaneous throughout the temperature range investigated. The HSC software was further used to simulate and predict some promising reagents which may be equally good for roasting the mineral for efficient lithium extraction but have not yet been considered by researchers.

Keywords: thermochemical modelling, HSC chemistry software, lithium, spodumene, roasting

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22 Methane versus Carbon Dioxide Mitigation Prospects

Authors: Alexander J. Severinsky, Allen L. Sessoms


Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂) has dominated the discussion about the causes of climate change. This is a reflection of the time horizon that has become the norm adopted by the IPCC as the planning horizon. Recently, it has become clear that a 100-year time horizon is much too long, and yet almost all mitigation efforts, including those in the near-term horizon of 30 years, are geared toward it. In this paper, we show that, for a 30-year time horizon, methane (CH₄) is the greenhouse gas whose radiative forcing exceeds that of CO₂. In our analysis, we used radiative forcing of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere since they directly affect the temperature rise on Earth. In 2019, the radiative forcing of methane was ~2.5 W/m² and that of carbon dioxide ~2.1 W/m². Under a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario until 2050, such forcing would be ~2.8 W/m² and ~3.1 W/m², respectively. There is a substantial spread in the data for anthropogenic and natural methane emissions as well as CH₄ leakages from production to consumption. We estimated the minimum and maximum effects of the reduction of these leakages. Such action may reduce the annual radiative forcing of all CH₄ emissions by between ~15% and ~30%. This translates into a reduction of the RF by 2050 from ~2.8 W/m² to ~2.5 W/m² in the case of the minimum effect and to ~2.15 W/m² in the case of the maximum. Under the BAU, we found that the RF of CO₂ would increase from ~2.1 W/m² nowadays to ~3.1 W/m² by 2050. We assumed a reduction of 50% of anthropogenic emission linearly over the next 30 years. That would reduce radiative forcing from ~3.1 W/m² to ~2.9 W/m². In the case of ‘net zero,’ the other 50% of reduction of only anthropogenic emissions would be limited to either from sources of emissions or directly from the atmosphere. The total reduction would be from ~3.1 to ~2.7, or ~0.4 W/m². To achieve the same radiative forcing as in the scenario of maximum reduction of methane leakages of ~2.15 W/m², then an additional reduction of radiative forcing of CO₂ would be approximately 2.7 -2.15=0.55 W/m². This is a much larger value than in expectations from ‘net zero’. In total, one needs to remove from the atmosphere ~660 GT to match the maximum reduction of current methane leakages and ~270 GT to achieve ‘net zero.’ This amounts to over 900 GT in total.

Keywords: methane leakages, methane radiative forcing, methane mitigation, methane net zero

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21 THz Phase Extraction Algorithms for a THz Modulating Interferometric Doppler Radar

Authors: Shaolin Allen Liao, Hual-Te Chien


Various THz phase extraction algorithms have been developed for a novel THz Modulating Interferometric Doppler Radar (THz-MIDR) developed recently by the author. The THz-MIDR differs from the well-known FTIR technique in that it introduces a continuously modulating reference branch, compared to the time-consuming discrete FTIR stepping reference branch. Such change allows real-time tracking of a moving object and capturing of its Doppler signature. The working principle of the THz-MIDR is similar to the FTIR technique: the incoming THz emission from the scene is split by a beam splitter/combiner; one of the beams is continuously modulated by a vibrating mirror or phase modulator and the other split beam is reflected by a reflection mirror; finally both the modulated reference beam and reflected beam are combined by the same beam splitter/combiner and detected by a THz intensity detector (for example, a pyroelectric detector). In order to extract THz phase from the single intensity measurement signal, we have derived rigorous mathematical formulas for 3 Frequency Banded (FB) signals: 1) DC Low-Frequency Banded (LFB) signal; 2) Fundamental Frequency Banded (FFB) signal; and 3) Harmonic Frequency Banded (HFB) signal. The THz phase extraction algorithms are then developed based combinations of 2 or all of these 3 FB signals with efficient algorithms such as Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear fitting algorithm. Numerical simulation has also been performed in Matlab with simulated THz-MIDR interferometric signal of various Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) to verify the algorithms.

Keywords: algorithm, modulation, THz phase, THz interferometry doppler radar

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20 “It Just Feels Risky”: Intuition vs Evidence in Child Sexual Abuse Cases. Proposing an Empirically Derived Risk and Protection Protocol

Authors: Christian Perrin, Nicholas Blagden, Louise Allen, Sarah Impey


Social workers in the UK and professionals globally are faced with a particular challenge when dealing with allegations of child sexual abuse (CSA) in the community. In the absence of a conviction or incontestable evidence, staff can often find themselves unable to take decisive action to remove a child from harm, even though there may be a credible threat to their welfare. Conversely, practitioners may over-calculate risk through fear of being accountable for harm. This is, in part, due to the absence of a structured and evidence-based risk assessment tool which can predict the likelihood of a person committing child sexual abuse. Such assessments are often conducted by forensic professionals who utilise offence-specific data and personal history information to calculate risk. In situations where only allegations underpin a case, this mode of assessment is not viable. There are further ethical issues surrounding the assessment of risk in this area which require expert consideration and sensitive planning. This paper explores this entangled problem extant in the wider call to prevent sexual and child sexual abuse in the community. To this end, 32 qualitative interviews were undertaken with social workers dealing with CSA cases. Results were analysed using thematic analysis and operationalised to formulate a risk and protection protocol for use in case management. This paper reports on the early findings associated with the initial indications of protocol reliability. Implications for further research and practice are discussed.

Keywords: sexual offending, child sexual offence, offender rehabilitation, risk assessment, offence prevention

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19 Interaction of GCN5L1 with WHAMM and KIF5B Regulates Autolysosome Tubulation

Authors: Allen Seylani


Lysosome-dependent autophagy is a nutrient-deprivation-induced evolutionarily conserved intracellular recycling program that sequestrates intracellular cargo into autophagosomes (AP), which then fuse with lysosomes to form autolysosomes (ALs) for cargo digestion. To restore free lysosomes, autophagic lysosome reformation (ALR) is initiated by extrusion of tubular structures from autolysosomes at the final stage of autophagy, in a process called lysosomal tubulation (LT). This project aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of GCN5L1 in LT and the following lysosomal signaling. GCN5L1 belongs to the BORC multiprotein complexes and is involved in controlling lysosomal trafficking; however, the effect of GCN5L1 on lysosome tubulation remains largely unknown. Genetic ablation of GCN5L1 in the mouse primary hepatocytes showed dramatically increased autolysosomes (ALs), decreased lysosome regeneration and absence of lysosomal tubulation. This phenotype suggests the possibility of disruption in lysosome tubulation, which results in the disturbance of the overall lysosome homeostasis. The formation of tubulars from ALs requires kinesin motor protein KIF5B. Immunoprecipitation was employed and confirmed the interaction of GCN5L1 with the ARL8B-KIF5B complex, which recruited KIF5B to ALs. At the same time, GCN5L1 interacted with WHAMM, which promotes the actin nucleation factor, which brings actin cytoskeleton to ALs and initiates LT. Furthermore, impaired LT in GCN5L1 deficient hepatocytes was restored by overexpression of GCN5L1, and this rescue effect was attenuated by knockdown of KIF5B. Additionally, lysosomal mTORC1 activity was upregulated in GCN5L1-/- hepatocytes, while inhibition of mTORC1 abrogated the GCN5L1 mediated rescue of LT in knockout hepatocytes. Altogether these findings revealed a novel mechanism of ALR, in which a simultaneous interaction of GCN5L1 with KIF5B and WHAMM is required for LT and downstream mTORC1 signaling.

Keywords: autophagy, autolysosome, GCN5L1, lysosome

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18 Transfer of Contractual Right of Suit Evidenced in Carriage Contract of Bill of Lading in Nigeria

Authors: Eunice Chiamaka Allen-Ngbale


Prior to bill of lading (BOL), merchants travelled along with their goods; then recorded the goods in the ship’s mates’ register; and finally started selling the goods while in transit by way of BOL, indicative that BOL is negotiable. Common law doctrine of privity of contract did not allow the transfer of right to sue to a non-party to the contract. This created hardship to cargo owners, which made many jurisdictions enact laws in this regard. Bill of Lading Act 1855 (BLA) was enacted in the United Kingdom, which applied as statute of general application under section 375 Merchant Shipping Act 1990 (MSA) in Nigeria; and conferred contractual rights of the suit on consignees and endorsees, but on the passing of ownership upon or by reason of such consignment or endorsement on the shipment of the goods simultaneously. The repeal of section 375 MSA by section 439 MSA 2007 created a lacuna, and the doctrine of privity of contract is the extant law in Nigeria. The aim of this study is to evaluate laws governing the transfer of the contractual right of suit to a third party under the bill of lading in Nigeria. The specific objectives of this study are to ascertain: (i) whether the extant law of common law doctrine of privity of the contract covers the transfer of the right of suit to the third party under the bill of lading in Nigeria; (ii) impediment(s) of the common law to transfer such right in Nigeria in the absence of any legislation; (iii) the level of applicability of the doctrine of privity of contract as it relates to transfer of the contractual right of suit to third party under the bill of lading in Nigeria; and (iv) whether to proffer possible suggestion on how to fill the lacuna left by the repeal of Merchant Shipping Act 1990. This work adopted a doctrinal approach with reliance on primary and secondary source materials. It finds that the common law doctrine of privity of contract in Nigeria is retrogressive. This work recommends for amendment of the relevant statute to cure this defect/lacuna like other commonwealth nations for best international practices.

Keywords: contract of carriage by sea, doctrine of privity of contract, lawful holder of bill of lading, third party right of suit

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17 Competitor Integration with Voice of Customer Ratings in QFD Studies Using Geometric Mean Based on AHP

Authors: Zafar Iqbal, Nigel P. Grigg, K. Govindaraju, Nicola M. Campbell-Allen


Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is structured approach. It has been used to improve the quality of products and process in a wide range of fields. Using this systematic tool, practitioners normally rank Voice of Customer ratings (VoCs) in order to produce Improvement Ratios (IRs) which become the basis for prioritising process / product design or improvement activities. In one matrix of the House of Quality (HOQ) competitors are rated. The method of obtaining improvement ratios (IRs) does not always integrate the competitors’ rating in a systematic way that fully utilises competitor rating information. This can have the effect of diverting QFD practitioners’ attention from a potentially important VOC to less important VOC. In order to enhance QFD analysis, we present a more systematic method for integrating competitor ratings, utilising the geometric mean of the customer rating matrix. In this paper we develop a new approach, based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), in which we generating a matrix of multiple comparisons of all competitors, and derive a geometric mean for each competitor. For each VOC an improved IR is derived which-we argue herein - enhances the initial VOC importance ratings by integrating more information about competitor performance. In this way, our method can help overcome one of the possible shortcomings of QFD. We then use a published QFD example from literature as a case study to demonstrate the use of the new AHP-based IRs, and show how these can be used to re-rank existing VOCs to -arguably- better achieve the goal of customer satisfaction in relation VOC ratings and competitors’ rankings. We demonstrate how two dimensional AHP-based geometric mean derived from the multiple competitor comparisons matrix can be useful for analysing competitors’ rankings. Our method utilises an established methodology (AHP) applied within an established application (QFD), but in an original way (through the competitor analysis matrix), to achieve a novel improvement.

Keywords: quality function deployment, geometric mean, improvement ratio, AHP, competitors ratings

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16 Geometric Optimisation of Piezoelectric Fan Arrays for Low Energy Cooling

Authors: Alastair Hales, Xi Jiang


Numerical methods are used to evaluate the operation of confined face-to-face piezoelectric fan arrays as pitch, P, between the blades is varied. Both in-phase and counter-phase oscillation are considered. A piezoelectric fan consists of a fan blade, which is clamped at one end, and an extremely low powered actuator. This drives the blade tip’s oscillation at its first natural frequency. Sufficient blade tip speed, created by the high oscillation frequency and amplitude, is required to induce vortices and downstream volume flow in the surrounding air. A single piezoelectric fan may provide the ideal solution for low powered hot spot cooling in an electronic device, but is unable to induce sufficient downstream airflow to replace a conventional air mover, such as a convection fan, in power electronics. Piezoelectric fan arrays, which are assemblies including multiple fan blades usually in face-to-face orientation, must be developed to widen the field of feasible applications for the technology. The potential energy saving is significant, with a 50% power demand reduction compared to convection fans even in an unoptimised state. A numerical model of a typical piezoelectric fan blade is derived and validated against experimental data. Numerical error is found to be 5.4% and 9.8% using two data comparison methods. The model is used to explore the variation of pitch as a function of amplitude, A, for a confined two-blade piezoelectric fan array in face-to-face orientation, with the blades oscillating both in-phase and counter-phase. It has been reported that in-phase oscillation is optimal for generating maximum downstream velocity and flow rate in unconfined conditions, due at least in part to the beneficial coupling between the adjacent blades that leads to an increased oscillation amplitude. The present model demonstrates that confinement has a significant detrimental effect on in-phase oscillation. Even at low pitch, counter-phase oscillation produces enhanced downstream air velocities and flow rates. Downstream air velocity from counter-phase oscillation can be maximally enhanced, relative to that generated from a single blade, by 17.7% at P = 8A. Flow rate enhancement at the same pitch is found to be 18.6%. By comparison, in-phase oscillation at the same pitch outputs 23.9% and 24.8% reductions in peak downstream air velocity and flow rate, relative to that generated from a single blade. This optimal pitch, equivalent to those reported in the literature, suggests that counter-phase oscillation is less affected by confinement. The optimal pitch for generating bulk airflow from counter-phase oscillation is large, P > 16A, due to the small but significant downstream velocity across the span between adjacent blades. However, by considering design in a confined space, counterphase pitch should be minimised to maximise the bulk airflow generated from a certain cross-sectional area within a channel flow application. Quantitative values are found to deviate to a small degree as other geometric and operational parameters are varied, but the established relationships are maintained.

Keywords: piezoelectric fans, low energy cooling, power electronics, computational fluid dynamics

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15 Vortex Generation to Model the Airflow Downstream of a Piezoelectric Fan Array

Authors: Alastair Hales, Xi Jiang, Siming Zhang


Numerical methods are used to generate vortices in a domain. Through considered design, two counter-rotating vortices may interact and effectively drive one another downstream. This phenomenon is comparable to the vortex interaction that occurs in a region immediately downstream from two counter-oscillating piezoelectric (PE) fan blades. PE fans are small blades clamped at one end and driven to oscillate at their first natural frequency by an extremely low powered actuator. In operation, the high oscillation amplitude and frequency generate sufficient blade tip speed through the surrounding air to create downstream air flow. PE fans are considered an ideal solution for low power hot spot cooling in a range of small electronic devices, but a single blade does not typically induce enough air flow to be considered a direct alternative to conventional air movers, such as axial fans. The development of face-to-face PE fan arrays containing multiple blades oscillating in counter-phase to one another is essential for expanding the range of potential PE fan applications regarding the cooling of power electronics. Even in an unoptimised state, these arrays are capable of moving air volumes comparable to axial fans with less than 50% of the power demand. Replicating the airflow generated by face-to-face PE fan arrays without including the actual blades in the model reduces the process’s computational demands and enhances the rate of innovation and development in the field. Vortices are generated at a defined inlet using a time-dependent velocity profile function, which pulsates the inlet air velocity magnitude. This induces vortex generation in the considered domain, and these vortices are shown to separate and propagate downstream in a regular manner. The generation and propagation of a single vortex are compared to an equivalent vortex generated from a PE fan blade in a previous experimental investigation. Vortex separation is found to be accurately replicated in the present numerical model. Additionally, the downstream trajectory of the vortices’ centres vary by just 10.5%, and size and strength of the vortices differ by a maximum of 10.6%. Through non-dimensionalisation, the numerical method is shown to be valid for PE fan blades with differing parameters to the specific case investigated. The thorough validation methods presented verify that the numerical model may be used to replicate vortex formation from an oscillating PE fans blade. An investigation is carried out to evaluate the effects of varying the distance between two PE fan blade, pitch. At small pitch, the vorticity in the domain is maximised, along with turbulence in the near vicinity of the inlet zones. It is proposed that face-to-face PE fan arrays, oscillating in counter-phase, should have a minimal pitch to optimally cool nearby heat sources. On the other hand, downstream airflow is maximised at a larger pitch, where the vortices can fully form and effectively drive one another downstream. As such, this should be implemented when bulk airflow generation is the desired result.

Keywords: piezoelectric fans, low energy cooling, vortex formation, computational fluid dynamics

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14 Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Maternal, Newborn, Child Health and Nutrition Indicators in Miagao, Iloilo and Sibunag, Guimaras, Philippines

Authors: Franco Miguel Nodado, Adrienne Marie Bugayong Janagap, Allen Claire Arances, Kirsten Anne Gerez, Frances Catherine Rosario, Charise Alvyne Samaniego, Matt Andrew Secular, Rommel Gestuveo, Marilyn Sumayo, Joseph Arbizo, Philip Ian Padilla


COVID-19 pandemic adversely affected the delivery of health care services, but its impacts on Maternal, Newborn, Child Health and Nutrition (MNCHN) programs in rural municipalities in the Philippines remains understudied. Thus, this study explored the effects of the pandemic on MNCHN indicators in the municipalities of Miagao, Iloilo and Sibunag, Guimaras. A cross-sectional design was employed to compare the MNCHN indicators before and during the pandemic, and between Miagao and Sibunag. Key informant interviews (KII) were performed to identify the factors affecting access to MNCHN programs. During the pandemic, Miagao had a significant increase in positive outcomes of eight out of ten maternal health indicators, while Sibunag showed a significant decrease in six indicators. For child health and nutrition, Miagao obtained significant improvements in five of seven indicators, while Sibunag showed a significant increase in positive outcomes for six. KII data showed that the primary concern of mothers in Miagao is accessibility, while mothers in Sibunag raised concerns on accessibility, availability, and affordability of these MNCHN services. Miagao MHO employed various strategies such as telemedicine, activation of barangay health workers, and decentralization of health services to Barangay Health Centers, which can explain the improvements in MNCHN indicators. Sibunag also decentralized its health services, but its limited resources might have led them to prioritize child health and nutrition services. The findings suggest that the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on MNCHN depend on local health measures employed by the municipality, while telemedicine is a very useful tool in mitigating the negative effects of disrupted health services.

Keywords: maternal, child, COVID-19, Miagao, Sibunag, nutrition

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13 Analyzing the Sound of Space - The Glissando of the Planets and the Spiral Movement on the Sound of Earth, Saturn and Jupiter

Authors: L. Tonia, I. Daglis, W. Kurth


The sound of the universe creates an affinity with the sounds of music. The analysis of the sound of space focuses on the existence of a tone material, the microstructure and macrostructure, and the form of the sound through the signals recorded during the flight of the spacecraft Van Allen Probes and Cassini’s mission. The sound becomes from the frequencies that belong to electromagnetic waves. Plasma Wave Science Instrument and Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) recorded the signals from space. A transformation of that signals to audio gave the opportunity to study and analyze the sound. Due to the fact that the musical tone pitch has a frequency and every electromagnetic wave produces a frequency too, the creation of a musical score, which appears as the sound of space, can give information about the form, the symmetry, and the harmony of the sound. The conversion of space radio emissions to audio provides a number of tone pitches corresponding to the original frequencies. Through the process of these sounds, we have the opportunity to present a music score that “composed” from space. In this score, we can see some basic features associated with the music form, the structure, the tone center of music material, the construction and deconstruction of the sound. The structure, which was built through a harmonic world, includes tone centers, major and minor scales, sequences of chords, and types of cadences. The form of the sound represents the symmetry of a spiral movement not only in micro-structural but also to macro-structural shape. Multiple glissando sounds in linear and polyphonic process of the sound, founded in magnetic fields around Earth, Saturn, and Jupiter, but also a spiral movement appeared on the spectrogram of the sound. Whistles, Auroral Kilometric Radiations, and Chorus emissions reveal movements similar to musical excerpts of works by contemporary composers like Sofia Gubaidulina, Iannis Xenakis, EinojuhamiRautavara.

Keywords: space sound analysis, spiral, space music, analysis

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12 A Descriptive Study of the Characteristics of Introductory Accounting Courses Offered by Community Colleges

Authors: Jonathan Nash, Allen Hartt, Catherine Plante


In many nations, community colleges, or similar institutions, play a crucial role in higher education. For example, in the United States more than half of all undergraduate students enroll in a community college at some point during their academic career. Similar statistics have been reported for Australia and Canada. Recognizing the important role these institutions play in educating future accountants, the American Accounting Association has called for research that contributes to a better understanding of these members of the academic community. Although previous literature has shown that community colleges and 4-year institutions differ on many levels, the extant literature has provided data on the characteristics of introductory accounting courses for four-year institutions but not for community colleges. We fill a void in the literature by providing data on the characteristics of introductory accounting courses offered by community colleges in the United States. Data are collected on several dimensions including: course size and staffing, pedagogical orientation, standardization of course elements, textbook selection, and use of technology-based course management tools. Many of these dimensions have been used in previous research examining four-year institutions thereby facilitating comparisons. The resulting data should be of interest to instructors, regulators and administrators, researchers, and the accounting profession. The data provide information on the introductory accounting courses completed by the average community college student which can help instructors identify areas where transfer students’ experiences might differ from their contemporaries at four-year colleges. Regulators and administrators may be interested in the differences between accounting courses offered by two- and four-year institutions when implementing standardized transfer programs. Researchers might use the data to motivate future research into whether differences between two- and four-year institutions affect outcomes like the probability of students choosing to major in accounting and their performance within the major. Accounting professionals may use our findings as a springboard for facilitating discussions related to the accounting labor supply.

Keywords: Accounting curricula, Community college, Descriptive study, Introductory accounting

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