Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3052

Search results for: centroid algorithm

3052 Using Genetic Algorithms and Rough Set Based Fuzzy K-Modes to Improve Centroid Model Clustering Performance on Categorical Data

Authors: Rishabh Srivastav, Divyam Sharma


We propose an algorithm to cluster categorical data named as ‘Genetic algorithm initialized rough set based fuzzy K-Modes for categorical data’. We propose an amalgamation of the simple K-modes algorithm, the Rough and Fuzzy set based K-modes and the Genetic Algorithm to form a new algorithm,which we hypothesise, will provide better Centroid Model clustering results, than existing standard algorithms. In the proposed algorithm, the initialization and updation of modes is done by the use of genetic algorithms while the membership values are calculated using the rough set and fuzzy logic.

Keywords: categorical data, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithm, K modes clustering, rough sets

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3051 Enhanced Weighted Centroid Localization Algorithm for Indoor Environments

Authors: I. Nižetić Kosović, T. Jagušt


Lately, with the increasing number of location-based applications, demand for highly accurate and reliable indoor localization became urgent. This is a challenging problem, due to the measurement variance which is the consequence of various factors like obstacles, equipment properties and environmental changes in complex nature of indoor environments. In this paper we propose low-cost custom-setup infrastructure solution and localization algorithm based on the Weighted Centroid Localization (WCL) method. Localization accuracy is increased by several enhancements: calibration of RSSI values gained from wireless nodes, repetitive measurements of RSSI to exclude deviating values from the position estimation, and by considering orientation of the device according to the wireless nodes. We conducted several experiments to evaluate the proposed algorithm. High accuracy of ~1m was achieved.

Keywords: indoor environment, received signal strength indicator, weighted centroid localization, wireless localization

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
3050 Interactive, Topic-Oriented Search Support by a Centroid-Based Text Categorisation

Authors: Mario Kubek, Herwig Unger


Centroid terms are single words that semantically and topically characterise text documents and so may serve as their very compact representation in automatic text processing. In the present paper, centroids are used to measure the relevance of text documents with respect to a given search query. Thus, a new graphbased paradigm for searching texts in large corpora is proposed and evaluated against keyword-based methods. The first, promising experimental results demonstrate the usefulness of the centroid-based search procedure. It is shown that especially the routing of search queries in interactive and decentralised search systems can be greatly improved by applying this approach. A detailed discussion on further fields of its application completes this contribution.

Keywords: search algorithm, centroid, query, keyword, co-occurrence, categorisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
3049 Airborne SAR Data Analysis for Impact of Doppler Centroid on Image Quality and Registration Accuracy

Authors: Chhabi Nigam, S. Ramakrishnan


This paper brings out the analysis of the airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data to study the impact of Doppler centroid on Image quality and geocoding accuracy from the perspective of Stripmap mode of data acquisition. Although in Stripmap mode of data acquisition radar beam points at 90 degrees broad side (side looking), shift in the Doppler centroid is invariable due to platform motion. In-accurate estimation of Doppler centroid leads to poor image quality and image miss-registration. The effect of Doppler centroid is analyzed in this paper using multiple sets of data collected from airborne platform. Occurrences of ghost (ambiguous) targets and their power levels have been analyzed that impacts appropriate choice of PRF. Effect of aircraft attitudes (roll, pitch and yaw) on the Doppler centroid is also analyzed with the collected data sets. Various stages of the RDA (Range Doppler Algorithm) algorithm used for image formation in Stripmap mode, range compression, Doppler centroid estimation, azimuth compression, range cell migration correction are analyzed to find the performance limits and the dependence of the imaging geometry on the final image. The ability of Doppler centroid estimation to enhance the imaging accuracy for registration are also illustrated in this paper. The paper also tries to bring out the processing of low squint SAR data, the challenges and the performance limits imposed by the imaging geometry and the platform dynamics on the final image quality metrics. Finally, the effect on various terrain types, including land, water and bright scatters is also presented.

Keywords: ambiguous target, Doppler Centroid, image registration, Airborne SAR

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3048 Localization of Buried People Using Received Signal Strength Indication Measurement of Wireless Sensor

Authors: Feng Tao, Han Ye, Shaoyi Liao


City constructions collapse after earthquake and people will be buried under ruins. Search and rescue should be conducted as soon as possible to save them. Therefore, according to the complicated environment, irregular aftershocks and rescue allow of no delay, a kind of target localization method based on RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication) is proposed in this article. The target localization technology based on RSSI with the features of low cost and low complexity has been widely applied to nodes localization in WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks). Based on the theory of RSSI transmission and the environment impact to RSSI, this article conducts the experiments in five scenes, and multiple filtering algorithms are applied to original RSSI value in order to establish the signal propagation model with minimum test error respectively. Target location can be calculated from the distance, which can be estimated from signal propagation model, through improved centroid algorithm. Result shows that the localization technology based on RSSI is suitable for large-scale nodes localization. Among filtering algorithms, mixed filtering algorithm (average of average, median and Gaussian filtering) performs better than any other single filtering algorithm, and by using the signal propagation model, the minimum error of distance between known nodes and target node in the five scene is about 3.06m.

Keywords: signal propagation model, centroid algorithm, localization, mixed filtering, RSSI

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3047 In-door Localization Algorithm and Appropriate Implementation Using Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Adeniran K. Ademuwagun, Alastair Allen


The relationship dependence between RSS and distance in an enclosed environment is an important consideration because it is a factor that can influence the reliability of any localization algorithm founded on RSS. Several algorithms effectively reduce the variance of RSS to improve localization or accuracy performance. Our proposed algorithm essentially avoids this pitfall and consequently, its high adaptability in the face of erratic radio signal. Using 3 anchors in close proximity of each other, we are able to establish that RSS can be used as reliable indicator for localization with an acceptable degree of accuracy. Inherent in this concept, is the ability for each prospective anchor to validate (guarantee) the position or the proximity of the other 2 anchors involved in the localization and vice versa. This procedure ensures that the uncertainties of radio signals due to multipath effects in enclosed environments are minimized. A major driver of this idea is the implicit topological relationship among sensors due to raw radio signal strength. The algorithm is an area based algorithm; however, it does not trade accuracy for precision (i.e the size of the returned area).

Keywords: anchor nodes, centroid algorithm, communication graph, radio signal strength

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3046 Modeling Average Paths Traveled by Ferry Vessels Using AIS Data

Authors: Devin Simmons


At the USDOT’s Bureau of Transportation Statistics, a biannual census of ferry operators in the U.S. is conducted, with results such as route mileage used to determine federal funding levels for operators. AIS data allows for the possibility of using GIS software and geographical methods to confirm operator-reported mileage for individual ferry routes. As part of the USDOT’s work on the ferry census, an algorithm was developed that uses AIS data for ferry vessels in conjunction with known ferry terminal locations to model the average route travelled for use as both a cartographic product and confirmation of operator-reported mileage. AIS data from each vessel is first analyzed to determine individual journeys based on the vessel’s velocity, and changes in velocity over time. These trips are then converted to geographic linestring objects. Using the terminal locations, the algorithm then determines whether the trip represented a known ferry route. Given a large enough dataset, routes will be represented by multiple trip linestrings, which are then filtered by DBSCAN spatial clustering to remove outliers. Finally, these remaining trips are ready to be averaged into one route. The algorithm interpolates the point on each trip linestring that represents the start point. From these start points, a centroid is calculated, and the first point of the average route is determined. Each trip is interpolated again to find the point that represents one percent of the journey’s completion, and the centroid of those points is used as the next point in the average route, and so on until 100 points have been calculated. Routes created using this algorithm have shown demonstrable improvement over previous methods, which included the implementation of a LOESS model. Additionally, the algorithm greatly reduces the amount of manual digitizing needed to visualize ferry activity.

Keywords: ferry vessels, transportation, modeling, AIS data

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3045 Density-based Denoising of Point Cloud

Authors: Faisal Zaman, Ya Ping Wong, Boon Yian Ng


Point cloud source data for surface reconstruction is usually contaminated with noise and outliers. To overcome this, we present a novel approach using modified kernel density estimation (KDE) technique with bilateral filtering to remove noisy points and outliers. First we present a method for estimating optimal bandwidth of multivariate KDE using particle swarm optimization technique which ensures the robust performance of density estimation. Then we use mean-shift algorithm to find the local maxima of the density estimation which gives the centroid of the clusters. Then we compute the distance of a certain point from the centroid. Points belong to outliers then removed by automatic thresholding scheme which yields an accurate and economical point surface. The experimental results show that our approach comparably robust and efficient.

Keywords: point preprocessing, outlier removal, surface reconstruction, kernel density estimation

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3044 Understanding the Qualitative Nature of Product Reviews by Integrating Text Processing Algorithm and Usability Feature Extraction

Authors: Cherry Yieng Siang Ling, Joong Hee Lee, Myung Hwan Yun


The quality of a product to be usable has become the basic requirement in consumer’s perspective while failing the requirement ends up the customer from not using the product. Identifying usability issues from analyzing quantitative and qualitative data collected from usability testing and evaluation activities aids in the process of product design, yet the lack of studies and researches regarding analysis methodologies in qualitative text data of usability field inhibits the potential of these data for more useful applications. While the possibility of analyzing qualitative text data found with the rapid development of data analysis studies such as natural language processing field in understanding human language in computer, and machine learning field in providing predictive model and clustering tool. Therefore, this research aims to study the application capability of text processing algorithm in analysis of qualitative text data collected from usability activities. This research utilized datasets collected from LG neckband headset usability experiment in which the datasets consist of headset survey text data, subject’s data and product physical data. In the analysis procedure, which integrated with the text-processing algorithm, the process includes training of comments onto vector space, labeling them with the subject and product physical feature data, and clustering to validate the result of comment vector clustering. The result shows 'volume and music control button' as the usability feature that matches best with the cluster of comment vectors where centroid comments of a cluster emphasized more on button positions, while centroid comments of the other cluster emphasized more on button interface issues. When volume and music control buttons are designed separately, the participant experienced less confusion, and thus, the comments mentioned only about the buttons' positions. While in the situation where the volume and music control buttons are designed as a single button, the participants experienced interface issues regarding the buttons such as operating methods of functions and confusion of functions' buttons. The relevance of the cluster centroid comments with the extracted feature explained the capability of text processing algorithms in analyzing qualitative text data from usability testing and evaluations.

Keywords: usability, qualitative data, text-processing algorithm, natural language processing

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3043 Capacitance Models of AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors

Authors: A. Douara, N. Kermas, B. Djellouli


In this study, we report calculations of gate capacitance of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with nextnano device simulation software. We have used a physical gate capacitance model for III-V FETs that incorporates quantum capacitance and centroid capacitance in the channel. These simulations explore various device structures with different values of barrier thickness and channel thickness. A detailed understanding of the impact of gate capacitance in HEMTs will allow us to determine their role in future 10 nm physical gate length node.

Keywords: gate capacitance, AlGaN/GaN, HEMTs, quantum capacitance, centroid capacitance

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3042 Vector Quantization Based on Vector Difference Scheme for Image Enhancement

Authors: Biji Jacob


Vector quantization algorithm which uses minimum distance calculation for codebook generation, a time consuming calculation performed on each pixel values leads to computation complexity. The codebook is updated by comparing the distance of each vector to their centroid vector and measure for their closeness. In this paper vector quantization is modified based on vector difference algorithm for image enhancement purpose. In the proposed scheme, vector differences between the vectors are considered as the new generation vectors or new codebook vectors. The codebook is updated by comparing the new generation vector with a threshold value having minimum error with the parent vector. The minimum error decides the fitness of each newly generated vector. Thus the codebook is generated in an adaptive manner and the fitness value is determined for the suppression of the degraded portion of the image and thereby leads to the enhancement of the image through the adaptive searching capability of the vector quantization through vector difference algorithm. Experimental results shows that the vector difference scheme efficiently modifies the vector quantization algorithm for enhancing the image with peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), mean square error (MSE), Euclidean distance (E_dist) as the performance parameters.

Keywords: codebook, image enhancement, vector difference, vector quantization

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3041 An Improved K-Means Algorithm for Gene Expression Data Clustering

Authors: Billel Kenidra, Mohamed Benmohammed


Data mining technique used in the field of clustering is a subject of active research and assists in biological pattern recognition and extraction of new knowledge from raw data. Clustering means the act of partitioning an unlabeled dataset into groups of similar objects. Each group, called a cluster, consists of objects that are similar between themselves and dissimilar to objects of other groups. Several clustering methods are based on partitional clustering. This category attempts to directly decompose the dataset into a set of disjoint clusters leading to an integer number of clusters that optimizes a given criterion function. The criterion function may emphasize a local or a global structure of the data, and its optimization is an iterative relocation procedure. The K-Means algorithm is one of the most widely used partitional clustering techniques. Since K-Means is extremely sensitive to the initial choice of centers and a poor choice of centers may lead to a local optimum that is quite inferior to the global optimum, we propose a strategy to initiate K-Means centers. The improved K-Means algorithm is compared with the original K-Means, and the results prove how the efficiency has been significantly improved.

Keywords: microarray data mining, biological pattern recognition, partitional clustering, k-means algorithm, centroid initialization

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3040 Co-Evolutionary Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm and Firefly Algorithm for Solving Unconstrained Optimization Problems

Authors: R. M. Rizk-Allah


This paper presents co-evolutionary fruit fly optimization algorithm based on firefly algorithm (CFOA-FA) for solving unconstrained optimization problems. The proposed algorithm integrates the merits of fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA), firefly algorithm (FA) and elite strategy to refine the performance of classical FOA. Moreover, co-evolutionary mechanism is performed by applying FA procedures to ensure the diversity of the swarm. Finally, the proposed algorithm CFOA- FA is tested on several benchmark problems from the usual literature and the numerical results have demonstrated the superiority of the proposed algorithm for finding the global optimal solution.

Keywords: firefly algorithm, fruit fly optimization algorithm, unconstrained optimization problems

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3039 A Hybrid Multi-Objective Firefly-Sine Cosine Algorithm for Multi-Objective Optimization Problem

Authors: Gaohuizi Guo, Ning Zhang


Firefly algorithm (FA) and Sine Cosine algorithm (SCA) are two very popular and advanced metaheuristic algorithms. However, these algorithms applied to multi-objective optimization problems have some shortcomings, respectively, such as premature convergence and limited exploration capability. Combining the privileges of FA and SCA while avoiding their deficiencies may improve the accuracy and efficiency of the algorithm. This paper proposes a hybridization of FA and SCA algorithms, named multi-objective firefly-sine cosine algorithm (MFA-SCA), to develop a more efficient meta-heuristic algorithm than FA and SCA.

Keywords: firefly algorithm, hybrid algorithm, multi-objective optimization, sine cosine algorithm

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3038 Approximating Fixed Points by a Two-Step Iterative Algorithm

Authors: Safeer Hussain Khan


In this paper, we introduce a two-step iterative algorithm to prove a strong convergence result for approximating common fixed points of three contractive-like operators. Our algorithm basically generalizes an existing algorithm..Our iterative algorithm also contains two famous iterative algorithms: Mann iterative algorithm and Ishikawa iterative algorithm. Thus our result generalizes the corresponding results proved for the above three iterative algorithms to a class of more general operators. At the end, we remark that nothing prevents us to extend our result to the case of the iterative algorithm with error terms.

Keywords: contractive-like operator, iterative algorithm, fixed point, strong convergence

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3037 Automatic Segmentation of the Clean Speech Signal

Authors: M. A. Ben Messaoud, A. Bouzid, N. Ellouze


Speech Segmentation is the measure of the change point detection for partitioning an input speech signal into regions each of which accords to only one speaker. In this paper, we apply two features based on multi-scale product (MP) of the clean speech, namely the spectral centroid of MP, and the zero crossings rate of MP. We focus on multi-scale product analysis as an important tool for segmentation extraction. The multi-scale product is based on making the product of the speech wavelet transform coefficients at three successive dyadic scales. We have evaluated our method on the Keele database. Experimental results show the effectiveness of our method presenting a good performance. It shows that the two simple features can find word boundaries, and extracted the segments of the clean speech.

Keywords: multiscale product, spectral centroid, speech segmentation, zero crossings rate

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3036 An Algorithm to Compute the State Estimation of a Bilinear Dynamical Systems

Authors: Abdullah Eqal Al Mazrooei


In this paper, we introduce a mathematical algorithm which is used for estimating the states in the bilinear systems. This algorithm uses a special linearization of the second-order term by using the best available information about the state of the system. This technique makes our algorithm generalizes the well-known Kalman estimators. The system which is used here is of the bilinear class, the evolution of this model is linear-bilinear in the state of the system. Our algorithm can be used with linear and bilinear systems. We also here introduced a real application for the new algorithm to prove the feasibility and the efficiency for it.

Keywords: estimation algorithm, bilinear systems, Kakman filter, second order linearization

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3035 Solutions of Fuzzy Transportation Problem Using Best Candidates Method and Different Ranking Techniques

Authors: M. S. Annie Christi


Transportation Problem (TP) is based on supply and demand of commodities transported from one source to the different destinations. Usual methods for finding solution of TPs are North-West Corner Rule, Least Cost Method Vogel’s Approximation Method etc. The transportation costs tend to vary at each time. We can use fuzzy numbers which would give solution according to this situation. In this study the Best Candidate Method (BCM) is applied. For ranking Centroid Ranking Technique (CRT) and Robust Ranking Technique have been adopted to transform the fuzzy TP and the above methods are applied to EDWARDS Vacuum Company, Crawley, in West Sussex in the United Kingdom. A Comparative study is also given. We see that the transportation cost can be minimized by the application of CRT under BCM.

Keywords: best candidate method, centroid ranking technique, fuzzy transportation problem, robust ranking technique, transportation problem

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3034 Handshake Algorithm for Minimum Spanning Tree Construction

Authors: Nassiri Khalid, El Hibaoui Abdelaaziz et Hajar Moha


In this paper, we introduce and analyse a probabilistic distributed algorithm for a construction of a minimum spanning tree on network. This algorithm is based on the handshake concept. Firstly, each network node is considered as a sub-spanning tree. And at each round of the execution of our algorithm, a sub-spanning trees are merged. The execution continues until all sub-spanning trees are merged into one. We analyze this algorithm by a stochastic process.

Keywords: Spanning tree, Distributed Algorithm, Handshake Algorithm, Matching, Probabilistic Analysis

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3033 A Novel Method for Silence Removal in Sounds Produced by Percussive Instruments

Authors: B. Kishore Kumar, Rakesh Pogula, T. Kishore Kumar


The steepness of an audio signal which is produced by the musical instruments, specifically percussive instruments is the perception of how high tone or low tone which can be considered as a frequency closely related to the fundamental frequency. This paper presents a novel method for silence removal and segmentation of music signals produced by the percussive instruments and the performance of proposed method is studied with the help of MATLAB simulations. This method is based on two simple features, namely the signal energy and the spectral centroid. As long as the feature sequences are extracted, a simple thresholding criterion is applied in order to remove the silence areas in the sound signal. The simulations were carried on various instruments like drum, flute and guitar and results of the proposed method were analyzed.

Keywords: percussive instruments, spectral energy, spectral centroid, silence removal

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3032 Hybridized Approach for Distance Estimation Using K-Means Clustering

Authors: Ritu Vashistha, Jitender Kumar


Clustering using the K-means algorithm is a very common way to understand and analyze the obtained output data. When a similar object is grouped, this is called the basis of Clustering. There is K number of objects and C number of cluster in to single cluster in which k is always supposed to be less than C having each cluster to be its own centroid but the major problem is how is identify the cluster is correct based on the data. Formulation of the cluster is not a regular task for every tuple of row record or entity but it is done by an iterative process. Each and every record, tuple, entity is checked and examined and similarity dissimilarity is examined. So this iterative process seems to be very lengthy and unable to give optimal output for the cluster and time taken to find the cluster. To overcome the drawback challenge, we are proposing a formula to find the clusters at the run time, so this approach can give us optimal results. The proposed approach uses the Euclidian distance formula as well melanosis to find the minimum distance between slots as technically we called clusters and the same approach we have also applied to Ant Colony Optimization(ACO) algorithm, which results in the production of two and multi-dimensional matrix.

Keywords: ant colony optimization, data clustering, centroids, data mining, k-means

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3031 Improving the Performance of Back-Propagation Training Algorithm by Using ANN

Authors: Vishnu Pratap Singh Kirar


Artificial Neural Network (ANN) can be trained using backpropagation (BP). It is the most widely used algorithm for supervised learning with multi-layered feed-forward networks. Efficient learning by the BP algorithm is required for many practical applications. The BP algorithm calculates the weight changes of artificial neural networks, and a common approach is to use a two-term algorithm consisting of a learning rate (LR) and a momentum factor (MF). The major drawbacks of the two-term BP learning algorithm are the problems of local minima and slow convergence speeds, which limit the scope for real-time applications. Recently the addition of an extra term, called a proportional factor (PF), to the two-term BP algorithm was proposed. The third increases the speed of the BP algorithm. However, the PF term also reduces the convergence of the BP algorithm, and criteria for evaluating convergence are required to facilitate the application of the three terms BP algorithm. Although these two seem to be closely related, as described later, we summarize various improvements to overcome the drawbacks. Here we compare the different methods of convergence of the new three-term BP algorithm.

Keywords: neural network, backpropagation, local minima, fast convergence rate

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3030 Tabu Random Algorithm for Guiding Mobile Robots

Authors: Kevin Worrall, Euan McGookin


The use of optimization algorithms is common across a large number of diverse fields. This work presents the use of a hybrid optimization algorithm applied to a mobile robot tasked with carrying out a search of an unknown environment. The algorithm is then applied to the multiple robots case, which results in a reduction in the time taken to carry out the search. The hybrid algorithm is a Random Search Algorithm fused with a Tabu mechanism. The work shows that the algorithm locates the desired points in a quicker time than a brute force search. The Tabu Random algorithm is shown to work within a simulated environment using a validated mathematical model. The simulation was run using three different environments with varying numbers of targets. As an algorithm, the Tabu Random is small, clear and can be implemented with minimal resources. The power of the algorithm is the speed at which it locates points of interest and the robustness to the number of robots involved. The number of robots can vary with no changes to the algorithm resulting in a flexible algorithm.

Keywords: algorithms, control, multi-agent, search and rescue

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3029 Hybrid Bee Ant Colony Algorithm for Effective Load Balancing and Job Scheduling in Cloud Computing

Authors: Thomas Yeboah


Cloud Computing is newly paradigm in computing that promises a delivery of computing as a service rather than a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a utility (like the electricity grid) over a network (typically the Internet). As Cloud Computing is a newly style of computing on the internet. It has many merits along with some crucial issues that need to be resolved in order to improve reliability of cloud environment. These issues are related with the load balancing, fault tolerance and different security issues in cloud environment.In this paper the main concern is to develop an effective load balancing algorithm that gives satisfactory performance to both, cloud users and providers. This proposed algorithm (hybrid Bee Ant Colony algorithm) is a combination of two dynamic algorithms: Ant Colony Optimization and Bees Life algorithm. Ant Colony algorithm is used in this hybrid Bee Ant Colony algorithm to solve load balancing issues whiles the Bees Life algorithm is used for optimization of job scheduling in cloud environment. The results of the proposed algorithm shows that the hybrid Bee Ant Colony algorithm outperforms the performances of both Ant Colony algorithm and Bees Life algorithm when evaluated the proposed algorithm performances in terms of Waiting time and Response time on a simulator called CloudSim.

Keywords: ant colony optimization algorithm, bees life algorithm, scheduling algorithm, performance, cloud computing, load balancing

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3028 Evolution of Multimodulus Algorithm Blind Equalization Based on Recursive Least Square Algorithm

Authors: Sardar Ameer Akram Khan, Shahzad Amin Sheikh


Blind equalization is an important technique amongst equalization family. Multimodulus algorithms based on blind equalization removes the undesirable effects of ISI and cater ups the phase issues, saving the cost of rotator at the receiver end. In this paper a new algorithm combination of recursive least square and Multimodulus algorithm named as RLSMMA is proposed by providing few assumption, fast convergence and minimum Mean Square Error (MSE) is achieved. The excellence of this technique is shown in the simulations presenting MSE plots and the resulting filter results.

Keywords: blind equalizations, constant modulus algorithm, multi-modulus algorithm, recursive least square algorithm, quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM)

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3027 Heuristic Classification of Hydrophone Recordings

Authors: Daniel M. Wolff, Patricia Gray, Rafael de la Parra Venegas


An unsupervised machine listening system is constructed and applied to a dataset of 17,195 30-second marine hydrophone recordings. The system is then heuristically supplemented with anecdotal listening, contextual recording information, and supervised learning techniques to reduce the number of false positives. Features for classification are assembled by extracting the following data from each of the audio files: the spectral centroid, root-mean-squared values for each frequency band of a 10-octave filter bank, and mel-frequency cepstral coefficients in 5-second frames. In this way both time- and frequency-domain information are contained in the features to be passed to a clustering algorithm. Classification is performed using the k-means algorithm and then a k-nearest neighbors search. Different values of k are experimented with, in addition to different combinations of the available feature sets. Hypothesized class labels are 'primarily anthrophony' and 'primarily biophony', where the best class result conforming to the former label has 104 members after heuristic pruning. This demonstrates how a large audio dataset has been made more tractable with machine learning techniques, forming the foundation of a framework designed to acoustically monitor and gauge biological and anthropogenic activity in a marine environment.

Keywords: anthrophony, hydrophone, k-means, machine learning

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3026 A Comparative Study of GTC and PSP Algorithms for Mining Sequential Patterns Embedded in Database with Time Constraints

Authors: Safa Adi


This paper will consider the problem of sequential mining patterns embedded in a database by handling the time constraints as defined in the GSP algorithm (level wise algorithms). We will compare two previous approaches GTC and PSP, that resumes the general principles of GSP. Furthermore this paper will discuss PG-hybrid algorithm, that using PSP and GTC. The results show that PSP and GTC are more efficient than GSP. On the other hand, the GTC algorithm performs better than PSP. The PG-hybrid algorithm use PSP algorithm for the two first passes on the database, and GTC approach for the following scans. Experiments show that the hybrid approach is very efficient for short, frequent sequences.

Keywords: database, GTC algorithm, PSP algorithm, sequential patterns, time constraints

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3025 A Genetic Based Algorithm to Generate Random Simple Polygons Using a New Polygon Merge Algorithm

Authors: Ali Nourollah, Mohsen Movahedinejad


In this paper a new algorithm to generate random simple polygons from a given set of points in a two dimensional plane is designed. The proposed algorithm uses a genetic algorithm to generate polygons with few vertices. A new merge algorithm is presented which converts any two polygons into a simple polygon. This algorithm at first changes two polygons into a polygonal chain and then the polygonal chain is converted into a simple polygon. The process of converting a polygonal chain into a simple polygon is based on the removal of intersecting edges. The merge algorithm has the time complexity of O ((r+s) *l) where r and s are the size of merging polygons and l shows the number of intersecting edges removed from the polygonal chain. It will be shown that 1 < l < r+s. The experiments results show that the proposed algorithm has the ability to generate a great number of different simple polygons and has better performance in comparison to celebrated algorithms such as space partitioning and steady growth.

Keywords: Divide and conquer, genetic algorithm, merge polygons, Random simple polygon generation.

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3024 Orthogonal Basis Extreme Learning Algorithm and Function Approximation

Authors: Ying Li, Yan Li


A new algorithm for single hidden layer feedforward neural networks (SLFN), Orthogonal Basis Extreme Learning (OBEL) algorithm, is proposed and the algorithm derivation is given in the paper. The algorithm can decide both the NNs parameters and the neuron number of hidden layer(s) during training while providing extreme fast learning speed. It will provide a practical way to develop NNs. The simulation results of function approximation showed that the algorithm is effective and feasible with good accuracy and adaptability.

Keywords: neural network, orthogonal basis extreme learning, function approximation

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3023 An IM-COH Algorithm Neural Network Optimization with Cuckoo Search Algorithm for Time Series Samples

Authors: Wullapa Wongsinlatam


Back propagation algorithm (BP) is a widely used technique in artificial neural network and has been used as a tool for solving the time series problems, such as decreasing training time, maximizing the ability to fall into local minima, and optimizing sensitivity of the initial weights and bias. This paper proposes an improvement of a BP technique which is called IM-COH algorithm (IM-COH). By combining IM-COH algorithm with cuckoo search algorithm (CS), the result is cuckoo search improved control output hidden layer algorithm (CS-IM-COH). This new algorithm has a better ability in optimizing sensitivity of the initial weights and bias than the original BP algorithm. In this research, the algorithm of CS-IM-COH is compared with the original BP, the IM-COH, and the original BP with CS (CS-BP). Furthermore, the selected benchmarks, four time series samples, are shown in this research for illustration. The research shows that the CS-IM-COH algorithm give the best forecasting results compared with the selected samples.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, back propagation algorithm, time series, local minima problem, metaheuristic optimization

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