Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: Akanksha Pareek

21 Innovative Handloom Design Techniques- an Experimental Study Based on Primary Colour Gradation

Authors: Akanksha Pareek


The Indian Handloom clusters are known for its tradition and heritage of excellent craftsmanship. The design development of Indian handloom clusters are oriented on traditionally dobby and jacquard design. This comprehensive paper proposes practises on handloom woven design based on primary colour gradation with the help of basic weaved on four shaft. The innovative design ideas are inspired from Nature and transferred into the handloom samples to achieve colour gradation with primary colours. In this paper, design methodology where in woven samples are strategically designed in such way that traditional knowledge of the weavers will be oriented to leveraged their skills.

Keywords: handloom, weaving, colour gradation, shaft

Procedia PDF Downloads 515
20 Simulation of Photovoltaic Array for Specified Ratings of Converter

Authors: Smita Pareek, Ratna Dahiya


The power generated by solar photovoltaic (PV) module depends on surrounding irradiance, temperature, shading conditions, and shading pattern. This paper presents a simulation of photovoltaic module using Matlab/Simulink. PV Array is also simulated by series and parallel connections of modules and their characteristics curves are given. Further PV module topology/configuration are proposed for 5.5kW inverter available in the literature. Shading of a PV array either complete or partial can have a significant impact on its power output and energy yield; therefore, the simulated model characteristics curves (I-V and P-V) are drawn for uniform shading conditions (USC) and then output power, voltage and current are calculated for variation in insolation for shading conditions. Additionally the characteristics curves are also given for a predetermined shadowing condition.

Keywords: array, series, parallel, photovoltaic, partial shading

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19 Analysis of Reflection of Elastic Waves in Three Dimensional Model Comprised with Viscoelastic Anisotropic Medium

Authors: Amares Chattopadhyay, Akanksha Srivastava


A unified approach to study the reflection of a plane wave in three-dimensional model comprised of the triclinic viscoelastic medium. The phase velocities of reflected qP, qSV and qSH wave have been calculated for the concerned medium by using the eigenvalue approach. The generalized method has been implemented to compute the complex form of amplitude ratios. Further, we discussed the nature of reflection coefficients of qP, qSV and qSH wave. The viscoelastic parameter, polar angle and azimuthal angle are found to be strongly influenced by amplitude ratios. The research article is particularly focused to study the effect of viscoelasticity associated with highly anisotropic media which exhibits the notable information about the reflection coefficients of qP, qSV, and qSH wave. The outcomes may further useful to the better exploration of all types of hydrocarbon reservoir and advancement in the field of reflection seismology.

Keywords: amplitude ratios, three dimensional, triclinic, viscoelastic

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18 Energy Harvesting with Zinc Oxide Based Nanogenerator: Design and Simulation Using Comsol-4.3 Software

Authors: Akanksha Rohit, Ujjwala Godavarthi, Anshua Mukherjee


Nanotechnology is one of the promising sustainable solutions in the era of miniaturization due to its multidisciplinary nature. The most interesting aspect about nanotechnology is its wide ranging applications from electronics to military and biomedical. It tries to connect individuals more closely to the environment. In this paper, concept of parasitic energy harvesting is used in designing nanogenerators using COMSOL 4.3 software. The output of the nanogenerator is optimized using following constraints: ease of availability of the material, fabrication process and cost of the material. The nanogenerator is optimized using ZnO based nanowires, PMMA as insulator and aluminum and silicon as metal electrodes. The energy harvested from the model can be used to power nanobots, several other biomedical sensors and eventually to replace batteries. Thus, advancements in this field can be very challenging but it is the future of the nano era.

Keywords: zinc oxide, piezoelectric, PMMA, parasitic energy harvesting, renewable energy engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
17 Isotype and Logical Positivism: A Critical Understanding through Intersemiotic Translation

Authors: Satya Girish Goparaju, Sushmita Pareek


This paper examines two sets of pictograms published in Neurath’s books Basic by Isotype and International Pictorial Language in order to investigate the reasons for pictorial language having become an end in itself despite its potential to be relevant, especially in the 21st century digital age of heightened interlingual engagement. ISOTYPE was developed by Otto Neurath to be an ‘international language’ (pictorial) in the late 1920s. It was derived from the philosophy of logical positivism (of the Vienna Circle), which believed that language can be reduced to sets of direct experiences as bare symbols, devoid of the emotive and expressive functions. In his book International Picture Language, Neurath noted that any language is less clear-cut in one or the other way, and hence the pictorial language was justified. However, Isotype, as an ambitious version of logical positivism in practice distanced itself from the semiotic theories of language, and therefore his pictograms were defined as an independent set of signs rather than signs as a part of the language. This paper attempts to investigate intersemiotic translation in the form of Isotypes and trace the effects of logical positivism on Neurath’s concept of isotypes; the ‘international language’.

Keywords: intersemiotic translation, isotype, logical positivism, Otto Neurath, translation studies

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
16 Anxiety and Depression in Chronic Headache Patients: Major Concern for Community Mental Health

Authors: Neeti Sharma, Harshika Pareek, Prerna Puri, Manika Mohan


The present study is aimed at studying the significant relationship between anxiety and depression in chronic headache patients. Chronic Headache patients coming to the Neurology Unit-1 Outpatient Department of the Sawai Mansingh Hospital (SMS) Jaipur, Rajasthan, were included in this study. The sample consisted of 100 patients (N=100). Initially patients were examined by a physician and then they were assessed for Anxiety and Depression using the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. The relevant information was recorded on a Performa designed for this purpose comprising of socio-demographic variables like age, gender and triggering factors. The correlation-coefficient indicated a significant positive relationship between the anxiety and depression in chronic headache patients. These findings implicate high prevalence of anxiety and depression in the general population, and also indicate an association between headache and psychological disorders. Many evidences support the anxiety-headache-depression syndrome as a distinct disorder, and the association of co-morbid psychiatric illness with headache intractability. This study highlights the importance of prospective research for studying the developmental course and consequences of headache syndromes. Also, various psychotherapies should be applied to the headache patients so as to treat them, at the onset level of anxiety and depression, with the help of medication.

Keywords: anxiety, chronic headaches, depression, HAM-A, HAM

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15 Multipurpose Agricultural Robot Platform: Conceptual Design of Control System Software for Autonomous Driving and Agricultural Operations Using Programmable Logic Controller

Authors: P. Abhishesh, B. S. Ryuh, Y. S. Oh, H. J. Moon, R. Akanksha


This paper discusses about the conceptual design and development of the control system software using Programmable logic controller (PLC) for autonomous driving and agricultural operations of Multipurpose Agricultural Robot Platform (MARP). Based on given initial conditions by field analysis and desired agricultural operations, the structural design development of MARP is done using modelling and analysis tool. PLC, being robust and easy to use, has been used to design the autonomous control system of robot platform for desired parameters. The robot is capable of performing autonomous driving and three automatic agricultural operations, viz. hilling, mulching, and sowing of seeds in the respective order. The input received from various sensors on the field is later transmitted to the controller via ZigBee network to make the changes in the control program to get desired field output. The research is conducted to provide assistance to farmers by reducing labor hours for agricultural activities by implementing automation. This study will provide an alternative to the existing systems with machineries attached behind tractors and rigorous manual operations on agricultural field at effective cost.

Keywords: agricultural operations, autonomous driving, MARP, PLC

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14 Conventional and Computational Investigation of the Synthesized Organotin(IV) Complexes Derived from o-Vanillin and 3-Nitro-o-Phenylenediamine

Authors: Harminder Kaur, Manpreet Kaur, Akanksha Kapila, Reenu


Schiff base with general formula H₂L was derived from condensation of o-vanillin and 3-nitro-o-phenylenediamine. This Schiff base was used for the synthesis of organotin(IV) complexes with general formula R₂SnL [R=Phenyl or n-octyl] using equimolar quantities. Elemental analysis UV-Vis, FTIR, and multinuclear spectroscopic techniques (¹H, ¹³C, and ¹¹⁹Sn) NMR were carried out for the characterization of the synthesized complexes. These complexes were coloured and soluble in polar solvents. Computational studies have been performed to obtain the details of the geometry and electronic structures of ligand as well as complexes. Geometry of the ligands and complexes have been optimized at the level of Density Functional Theory with B3LYP/6-311G (d,p) and B3LYP/MPW1PW91 respectively followed by vibrational frequency analysis using Gaussian 09. Observed ¹¹⁹Sn NMR chemical shifts of one of the synthesized complexes showed tetrahedral geometry around Tin atom which is also confirmed by DFT. HOMO-LUMO energy distribution was calculated. FTIR, ¹HNMR and ¹³CNMR spectra were also obtained theoretically using DFT. Further IRC calculations were employed to determine the transition state for the reaction and to get the theoretical information about the reaction pathway. Moreover, molecular docking studies can be explored to ensure the anticancer activity of the newly synthesized organotin(IV) complexes.

Keywords: DFT, molecular docking, organotin(IV) complexes, o-vanillin, 3-nitro-o-phenylenediamine

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13 Comparative Analysis of the Psychosocial Impact of Skin Diseases in India

Authors: Priyanka Jain, Sushila Pareek


Skin disease is often considered to be ‘only cosmetic’ by many medical professionals and lay-people alike but unlike most internal illnesses, skin disease is often immediately visible to others and therefore people suffering from dermatological conditions may suffer serious social and emotional consequences. The purpose of this research was to compare patients suffering from acne, alopecia areata (AA) and melanosis on perceived stress, social appearance anxiety and coping. The study included 120 patients (acne = 40 AA = 40 melanosis = 40) ages ranged from 15 to 25 years. Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS), and The Brief COPE were administered to the patients. Analytical evaluation was done by Kruskal Wallis and ANOVA-tests. The results of the present study clearly revealed that perceived stress and social appearance anxiety were highest in patients with AA followed by acne patients and found least in patients with melanosis. With regard to coping, self-distraction as a coping technique was found highest in patients suffering from AA followed by acne and then melanosis. Denial was highest in acne patients followed by AA and experienced least by patients with melanosis. Behavioural disengagement was almost equal in patients with melanosis and acne and a little less in patients suffering from AA Acceptance was highest in patients with melanosis, followed by AA and least in acne patients. Self-blame was found highest in patients with acne, followed by AA patients further followed by patients suffering from melanosis. This study is an attempt to stimulate professionals working in the field of dermatology and mental health to explore their supportive communication and increase awareness regarding the difficulties that patients with skin disease can face.

Keywords: coping, dermatology, perceived stress, psychosocial impact, social appearance anxiety

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12 Fate of Organic Waste, Refuse and Inert from Municipal Discards as Source of Energy and Nutrient in India: A Brief Review

Authors: Kunwar Paritosh, Vivekanand Vivekanand, Nidhi Pareek


Presently, India depends primarily on fossil fuels for its acute energy demand. The swift in development of India in last two decades is accentuating its natural resources and compelling expenditures to cope energy security for the habitats. A total inhabitant of 1.2 billion, observing growing industrialization; is generating 68.8 million tonnes of municipal solid waste per year, 53.7 million tonnes is collected, and only trifling amount of 10.3 million tonnes of waste is treated per year that integrates to a massive amount of unimaginable land hill. In India, waste is mostly landfilled and/or incinerated with low technology and is poorly managed. Underutilization of this waste not only gulps resources but also stresses environment, public health and bionetwork thus affecting the bioeconomy negatively. It also creates conditions that invoke inevitable expenditures and loss of its renewable energy potential. The non-scientific approach to manage waste may lead to an economy downfall, underutilization and degradation of natural resources. Waste treatment technologies must be scientifically tailored and engineered as per the type of waste where it may be utilized as a source of energy (here biogas) and nutrients employing anaerobic digestion to the sorted waste. This paper presents a brief review on current practices, key achievements and forthcoming aspects of harnessing energy from municipal solid waste in Indian scenario.

Keywords: municipal discards, organic waste, anaerobic digestion, incineration, energy

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11 A Feasibility Study of Waste (d) Potential: Synergistic Effect Evaluation by Co-digesting Organic Wastes and Kinetics of Biogas Production

Authors: Kunwar Paritosh, Sanjay Mathur, Monika Yadav, Paras Gandhi, Subodh Kumar, Nidhi Pareek, Vivekanand Vivekanand


A significant fraction of energy is wasted every year managing the biodegradable organic waste inadequately as development and sustainability are the inherent enemies. The management of these waste is indispensable to boost its optimum utilization by converting it to renewable energy resource (here biogas) through anaerobic digestion and to mitigate greenhouse gas emission. Food and yard wastes may prove to be appropriate and potential feedstocks for anaerobic co-digestion for biogas production. The present study has been performed to explore the synergistic effect of co-digesting food waste and yard trimmings from MNIT campus for enhanced biogas production in different ratios in batch tests (37±10C, 90 rpm, 45 days). The results were overwhelming and showed that blending two different organic waste in proper ratio improved the biogas generation considerably, with the highest biogas yield (2044±24 mLg-1VS) that was achieved at 75:25 of food waste to yard waste ratio on volatile solids (VS) basis. The yield was 1.7 and 2.2 folds higher than the mono-digestion of food or yard waste (1172±34, 1016±36mLg-1VS) respectively. The increase in biogas production may be credited to optimum C/N ratio resulting in higher yield. Also Adding TiO2 nanoparticles showed virtually no effect on biogas production as sometimes nanoparticles enhance biogas production. ICP-MS, FTIR analysis was carried out to gain an insight of feedstocks. Modified Gompertz and logistics models were applied for the kinetic study of biogas production where modified Gompertz model showed goodness-of-fit (R2=0.9978) with the experimental results.

Keywords: anaerobic co-digestion, biogas, kinetics, nanoparticle, organic waste

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10 Fault Tolerant and Testable Designs of Reversible Sequential Building Blocks

Authors: Vishal Pareek, Shubham Gupta, Sushil Chandra Jain


With increasing high-speed computation demand the power consumption, heat dissipation and chip size issues are posing challenges for logic design with conventional technologies. Recovery of bit loss and bit errors is other issues that require reversibility and fault tolerance in the computation. The reversible computing is emerging as an alternative to conventional technologies to overcome the above problems and helpful in a diverse area such as low-power design, nanotechnology, quantum computing. Bit loss issue can be solved through unique input-output mapping which require reversibility and bit error issue require the capability of fault tolerance in design. In order to incorporate reversibility a number of combinational reversible logic based circuits have been developed. However, very few sequential reversible circuits have been reported in the literature. To make the circuit fault tolerant, a number of fault model and test approaches have been proposed for reversible logic. In this paper, we have attempted to incorporate fault tolerance in sequential reversible building blocks such as D flip-flop, T flip-flop, JK flip-flop, R-S flip-flop, Master-Slave D flip-flop, and double edge triggered D flip-flop by making them parity preserving. The importance of this proposed work lies in the fact that it provides the design of reversible sequential circuits completely testable for any stuck-at fault and single bit fault. In our opinion our design of reversible building blocks is superior to existing designs in term of quantum cost, hardware complexity, constant input, garbage output, number of gates and design of online testable D flip-flop have been proposed for the first time. We hope our work can be extended for building complex reversible sequential circuits.

Keywords: parity preserving gate, quantum computing, fault tolerance, flip-flop, sequential reversible logic

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9 The Beacon of Collective Hope: Mixed Method Study on the Participation of Indian Youth with Regard to Mass Demonstrations Fueled by Social Activism Media

Authors: Akanksha Lohmore, Devanshu Arya, Preeti Kapur


Rarely does the human mind look at the positive fallout of highly negative events. Positive psychology attempts to emphasize on the strengths and positives for human well-being. The present study examines the underpinning socio-cognitive factors of the protest movements regarding the gang rape case of December 16th, 2012 through the lens of positive psychology. A gamut of negative emotions came to the forum globally: of anger, shame, hatred, violence, death penalty for the perpetrators, amongst other equally strong. In relation to this incident, a number of questions can be raised. Can such a heinous crime have some positive inputs for contemporary society? What is it that has held people to protests for long even when they see faded lines of success in view? This paper explains the constant feeding of protests and continuation of movements by the robust model of Collective Hope by Snyder, a phenomenon unexplored by social psychologists. In this paper, mixed method approach was undertaken. Results confirmed the interaction of various socio-psychological factors that imitated the Snyders model of collective hope. Emergence of major themes was: Sense of Agency, Sense of Worthiness, Social Sharing and Common Grievances and Hope of Collective Efficacy. Statistical analysis (correlation and regression) showed significant relationship between media usage and occurrence of these themes among participants. Media-communication processes and educational theories for development of citizenship behavior can find implications from these results. Theory development as indicated by theorists working in the area of Social Psychology of Protests can be furthered by the direction of research.

Keywords: agency, collective, hope, positive psychology, protest, social media

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
8 Safety Profile of Three Commonly Prescribed Interleukin Inhibitors for Psoriasis Treatment: Analysis of Drug Safety Database - Vigibase

Authors: Akanksha Marwah, Kajal Kaushik, Amit Kamboj, Tarni Prakash Shrivastava


Monoclonal antibodies are known as biological agents targeting specific Interleukins, i.e., IL-17A, IL-17RA, IL-23, AND IL-12/23 associated with the pathogenesis of psoriasis and other chronic inflammatory disorders were comparatively analyzed using WHO VigiFlow ADR reporting database for safety evaluation globally. Spontaneous reports associated with three commonly prescribed interleukin inhibitors, namely; Secukinumab, Ustekinumab, and Brodalumab available in VigiLyze, were analyzed concerning patient demography, the profession of reporter, system organ class (SOC) affected, causality assessment, the seriousness of the adverse event and year-wise analysis of reported ADRs. According to WHO Adverse Reaction Terminology for causality assessment, only 'certain', 'probable,' or 'possible' ADRs were included. Association between drugs and any ADR was assessed by using the case/non-case methodology. The reported ICSRs are higher in numbers for Secukinumab (72926) as compared to Ustekinumab (41480) and Brodalumab (1419). A higher prevalence of ADRs was seen in females for Secukinumab (54.8%) and Ustekinumab (51.5%), while Brodalumab associated ADRs were more in males (55.5%). Out of all three drugs, Ustekinumab has caused more serious ADRs (45.0%) in patients. System organ class mostly reported for ADRs associated with all the three drugs included general disorders and administration site conditions (Avg. 35.53%), and the most reported preferred term was drug ineffective (12.0%) for all the three drugs. This study has identified the potential of the three most prescribed Interleukin inhibitors for causing specific ADRs in patients using these drugs. All these three drugs mostly cause the reaction associated with the involvement of administration sites and general disorders. surprisingly, the preferred term which was most reported for all these drugs was the drug ineffective, which indicates a failure of the drug to cause a therapeutic effect. More focused PV studies in clinical settings are needed to witness the safety profile of Secukinumab, Ustekinumab, and Brodalumab in the treatment of Psoriasis.

Keywords: adverse drug reactions, interleukins, case-non case study, poriasis

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7 Nanoparticles-Protein Hybrid-Based Magnetic Liposome

Authors: Amlan Kumar Das, Avinash Marwal, Vikram Pareek


Liposome plays an important role in medical and pharmaceutical science as e.g. nano scale drug carriers. Liposomes are vesicles of varying size consisting of a spherical lipid bilayer and an aqueous inner compartment. Magnet-driven liposome used for the targeted delivery of drugs to organs and tissues1. These liposome preparations contain encapsulated drug components and finely dispersed magnetic particles. Liposomes are vesicles of varying size consisting of a spherical lipid bilayer and an aqueous inner compartment that are generated in vitro. These are useful in terms of biocompatibility, biodegradability, and low toxicity, and can control biodistribution by changing the size, lipid composition, and physical characteristics2. Furthermore, liposomes can entrap both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs and are able to continuously release the entrapped substrate, thus being useful drug carriers. Magnetic liposomes (MLs) are phospholipid vesicles that encapsulate magneticor paramagnetic nanoparticles. They are applied as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)3. The biological synthesis of nanoparticles using plant extracts plays an important role in the field of nanotechnology4. Green-synthesized magnetite nanoparticles-protein hybrid has been produced by treating Iron (III)/Iron(II) chloride with the leaf extract of Dhatura Inoxia. The phytochemicals present in the leaf extracts act as a reducing as well stabilizing agents preventing agglomeration, which include flavonoids, phenolic compounds, cardiac glycosides, proteins and sugars. The magnetite nanoparticles-protein hybrid has been trapped inside the aqueous core of the liposome prepared by reversed phase evaporation (REV) method using oleic and linoleic acid which has been shown to be driven under magnetic field confirming the formation magnetic liposome (ML). Chemical characterization of stealth magnetic liposome has been performed by breaking the liposome and release of magnetic nanoparticles. The presence iron has been confirmed by colour complex formation with KSCN and UV-Vis study using spectrophotometer Cary 60, Agilent. This magnet driven liposome using nanoparticles-protein hybrid can be a smart vesicles for the targeted drug delivery.

Keywords: nanoparticles-protein hybrid, magnetic liposome, medical, pharmaceutical science

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
6 Effect of Elevated Temperatures on Trans Fat Content and Oxidative Parameters of Groundnut Oil

Authors: Akanksha Jain, Santosh J. Passi, William Selvamurthy, Archna Singh


Heating/frying at elevated temperatures cause numerous physiochemical reactions including oxidative deterioration and trans fatty acid (TFA) formation; however Indian data on these parameters are scanty. The present study was designed to assess the effect of constant heating/frying on formation of TFAs and oxidative stability in groundnut oil. 750 mL of the oil was heated in a large iron karahi (utensil similar to a wok) and freshly cut potato strips were fried constantly at varying temperatures (160ºC, 180ºC, 200ºC, 220ºC, 230ºC). In each case, the oil sample was drawn after one hour and stored at –20ºC until analysed. While TFA was estimated using gas chromatography with flame ionisation detector (AOCS official method Ce 1h–05), other chemical parameters were assessed by AOCS official methods. Oil samples subjected to heating/frying at varying temperatures demonstrated a significant increase in TFAs (p < 0.01) and saturated fatty acids (p < 0.01) while there was a corresponding decrease in cis-unsaturated fatty acids (p < 0.01). Frying process demonstrated greater TFA formation (mean TFA at 160ºC being 0.11±0.01g/100g; at 230ºC it being 2.33±0.05g/100g) as compared to heating alone (mean TFA at 160ºC being 0.07g±0.01/100g; at 230ºC it being 0.47±0.02g/100g), indicating that there was a significant difference in the generation of TFAs during the two thermal treatments (heating vs. frying; p=0.05). With increasing temperatures, acid value, p-anisidine value and total oxidation (TOTOX) value registered a significant increase (p < 0.01); however, peroxide value was found to be inconsistent. Thus, the formation of TFA and various oxidative parameters (except peroxide value) is directly influenced by the temperature of heating/frying. Since TFA formation and poor oxidative stability of oils can pose serious health concerns, food safety agencies/organizations need to devise appropriate policies, stringent food laws/standards and impose necessary safety regulations to curb oil abuse during the process of heating and frying. There is a dire need to raise consumer awareness regarding deleterious health effects of TFA and oxidative deterioration of oils at elevated temperatures employed during heating/frying procedures.

Keywords: cis-unsaturated fatty acid, oxidative stability, saturated fatty acid, trans fatty acid

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5 Plethora of Drivers Transforming Colonial Cities: The Case of Allahabad

Authors: Akanksha Gupta, Vishal Dubey


In the Neoliberal era, there has been a much-talked discourse about urban issues that arise from a narrow approach of the single rationality of market-driven planning in Indian cities. More to this, India's urban planning is already jeopardized by the captious shortage of infrastructure, a cluster of incoherent governing bodies and implementation mechanism, leading cities to lie in the plethora of urban challenges. In this context, Allahabad (now known as Prayagraj) a city in North India is not an exception. Once known as the most planned splendid Colonial city of the British regime in India collapsed phenomenally because of the incompetent approach of planning machinery, straightforward market-driven accession and lack of attention on urban equity and sustainability. Particularly Civil Lines a Colonial neighbourhood, reached to the zenith of the glorified legacy of the Colonial era, transformed into filthy and congested urban form. Contextually this study contemplates and assesses the chronological episodes of major changes in land management reforms and policies under the ad hoc approach of political economy and land use planning which radically degraded the living environment in the present context. This study would empirically showcase the selected sample area detailing some of the major consequences in terms of gradual change in urban morphology, land use, and function. Here the method of study is primarily a qualitative study implying oral history and other historical methods to exhibit the idiom of planning conundrum. This subsequently reflects the repercussions translated into major issues like unclear land titles, encroachment, and unauthorized development and mushrooming of informal and squatter settlements. In nutshell, the study seeks to distinct out the limitations of the land reform and land management policies, which impacted the general degradation to the beautiful setting of Colonial neighbourhood. The Colonial legacy of Civil Lines now exists in the traces of history- memories of people, who once took pride in its serenity have now witnessed the transformation bit by bit till neo-liberal market forces completely swallow it.

Keywords: civil lines, land reforms, policies, urban challenges

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4 Photoinduced Energy and Charge Transfer in InP Quantum Dots-Polymer/Metal Composites for Optoelectronic Devices

Authors: Akanksha Singh, Mahesh Kumar, Shailesh N. Sharma


Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) such as CdSe, CdS, InP, etc. have gained significant interest in the recent years due to its application in various fields such as LEDs, solar cells, lasers, biological markers, etc. The interesting feature of the QDs is their tunable band gap. The size of the QDs can be easily varied by varying the synthesis parameters which change the band gap. One of the limitations with II-VI semiconductor QDs is their biological application. The use of cadmium makes them unsuitable for biological applications. III-V QD such as InP overcomes this problem as they are structurally robust because of the covalent bonds which do not allow the ions to leak. Also, InP QDs has large Bohr radii which increase the window for the quantum confinement effect. The synthesis of InP QDs is difficult and time consuming. Authors have synthesized InP using a novel, quick synthesis method which utilizes trioctylphosphine as a source of phosphorus. In this work, authors have made InP composites with P3HT(Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl))polymer(organic-inorganic hybrid material) and gold nanoparticles(metal-semiconductor composites). InP-P3HT shows FRET phenomenon whereas InP-Au shows charge transfer mechanism. The synthesized InP QDs has an absorption band at 397 nm and PL peak position at 491 nm. The band gap of the InP QDs is 2.46 eV as compared to the bulk band gap of InP i.e. 1.35 eV. The average size of the QDs is around 3-4 nm. In order to protect the InP core, a shell of wide band gap material i.e. ZnS is coated on the top of InP core. InP-P3HT composites were made in order to study the charge transfer/energy transfer phenomenon between them. On adding aliquots of P3HT to InP QDs solution, the P3HT PL increases which can be attributed to the dominance of Förster energy transfer between InP QDs (donor) P3HT polymer (acceptor). There is a significant spectral overlap between the PL spectra of InP QDs and absorbance spectra of P3HT. But in the case of InP-Au nanocomposites, significant charge transfer was seen from InP QDs to Au NPs. When aliquots of Au NPs were added to InP QDs, a decrease in the PL of the InP QDs was observed. This is due to the charge transfer from the InP QDs to the Au NPs. In the case of metal semiconductor composites, the enhancement and quenching of QDs depend on the size of the QD and the distance between the QD and the metal NP. These two composites have different phenomenon between donor and acceptor and hence can be utilized for two different applications. The InP-P3HT composite can be utilized for LED devices due to enhancement in the PL emission (FRET). The InP-Au can be utilized efficiently for photovoltaic application owing to the successful charge transfer between InP-Au NPs.

Keywords: charge transfer, FRET, gold nanoparticles, InP quantum dots

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3 Application of Natural Dyes on Polyester and Polyester-Cellulosic Blended Fabrics

Authors: Deepali Rastogi, Akanksha Rastogi


Comfort and safety are two essential factors in a newborn’s clothing. Natural dyes are considered safe for infant clothes because they are non-toxic and have medicinal properties. Natural dyes are sensitive to pH and may show changes in hue under different pH conditions. Infant garments face treatments different than adult clothing, for instance, exposure to infant’s saliva, milk, and urine. The present study was designed to study the suitability of natural dyes for infant clothes. Cotton fabric was dyed using fifteen natural dyes and two mordants, alum, and ferrous sulphate. The dyed samples were assessed for colour fastness to washing, rubbing, perspiration and light. In addition, fastness to milk, saliva, and urine was also tested. Simulated solutions of saliva and urine were prepared for the study. For milk, one of the commercial formulations for infants was taken and used as per the directions. A wide gamut of colours was obtained after dyeing the cotton with different natural dyes and mordants. The colour strength of all the dyed samples was determined in terms of K/S values. Most of the ferrous sulphate mordanted dyes gave higher K/S values than alum mordanted samples. The wash fastness of dyed cotton fabrics ranged from 3/4 -5. Perspiration fastness test for the samples was done in both acidic and alkaline mediums. The ratings ranged from 3-5, with most of the dyes falling in the range of 4-5. The rubbing fastness of the dyed samples was tested in dry and wet conditions. The results showed excellent rub fastness ranging between 4-5. Light fastness was found to be good to moderate. The main food for infants is milk, and this becomes one of the main agents to spot infants' garments. All dyes showed excellent fastness properties against milk with a grey scale rating of 4-5. Fastness against saliva is recommended by various eco-labels, standards, and organizations for fabrics of infants or babies. The fastness of most of the dyes was found to be satisfactory against saliva. Infant garments get frequently soiled with urine. Most of the natural dyes on cotton fabric had good to excellent fastness to simulated urine. The grey scale ratings ranged from 3/4 – 5. Thus, it can be concluded that most of the natural dyes can be successfully used for infant wear and accessories and are fast to various liquids to which infant wear are exposed. Therefore, we can surround little ones with beautiful hues from nature's garden and clothe them in natural fibres dyed with natural dyes.

Keywords: fastness properties, infant wear, mordants, natural dyes

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2 Preceptor Program: A Way to Reduce Absconding Rate and Increase Patient Satisfaction

Authors: Akanksha Dicholkar, Celin Jacob, Omkar More


Work force instability, as demonstrated by high rates of staff turnover and lingering vacancy rates, continues to be a major challenge faced by health care organizations. The impact is manifested in workflow inefficiencies, delays in delivering patient care, and dissatisfaction among patients and staff, all of which can have significant negative effects on quality of care and patient safety. In addition, the staggering administrative costs created by a transient work force threaten health care organizations financial viability. One nurse retention strategy is to have newly hired nurses partake in Preceptorship. Precepting is a way to enculturate new employees into their role. Also good professional, collegial relationship between an experienced nurse and a newly hired nurse relations was evidenced. This study demonstrates impact of preceptor program on absconding rate, employee satisfaction & Patient satisfaction. Purpose of study: To decrease absconding rate. Objective: 1. To reduce the high absconding rate among nurses in Aster Medcity (AMC). 2. To facilitate the acclimatization of the newly hired nurse into their role, focusing on professional growth, inter-professional relationships and clinical skills required for the job. Methodology: Descriptive study by Convenience sampling method and collect data by direct observation, questionnaire, interviews. Sample size as per Sample size statistical table at 95 % CI. We conducted a pre and post intervention analysis to assess the impact of Preceptorship at AMC, with a daily occupancy of approx. 300 patients. Result: Preceptor program has had a significant improvement positive impact on all measured parameters. Absconding rate came down from 20% to 0% (P= 0.001). Patient satisfaction scores rose from 85% to 95%. Employee satisfaction rose form 65% to 85%. Conclusion: The project proved that Preceptor Development Programme and the steps taken in hand holding of the new joinees were effective in reducing the absconding rate among nurses and improved the overall satisfaction of new nurses. Preceptee satisfaction with the preceptorship experience was correlated with favorable evaluation of the relationship between the preceptee and preceptor. These findings indicate that when preceptors and preceptees have the benefit of formal preceptorship programs that are well supported, and when the preceptors’ efforts are rewarded, satisfaction is enhanced for both participants, preceptor commitment to the role is reinforced.

Keywords: absconding rate, preceptor, employee satisfaction index, satisfaction index

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1 Altered Proteostasis Contributes to Skeletal Muscle Atrophy during Chronic Hypobaric Hypoxia: An Insight into Signaling Mechanisms

Authors: Akanksha Agrawal, Richa Rathor, Geetha Suryakumar


Muscle represents about ¾ of the body mass, and a healthy muscular system is required for human performance. A healthy muscular system is dynamically balanced via the catabolic and anabolic process. High altitude associated hypoxia altered this redox balance via producing reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that ultimately modulates protein structure and function, hence, disrupts proteostasis or protein homeostasis. The mechanism by which proteostasis is clinched includes regulated protein translation, protein folding, and protein degradation machinery. Perturbation in any of these mechanisms could increase proteome imbalance in the cellular processes. Altered proteostasis in skeletal muscle is likely to be responsible for contributing muscular atrophy in response to hypoxia. Therefore, we planned to elucidate the mechanism involving altered proteostasis leading to skeletal muscle atrophy under chronic hypobaric hypoxia. Material and Methods-Male Sprague Dawley rats weighing about 200-220 were divided into five groups - Control (Normoxic animals), 1d, 3d, 7d and 14d hypobaric hypoxia exposed animals. The animals were exposed to simulated hypoxia equivalent to 282 torr pressure (equivalent to an altitude of 7620m, 8% oxygen) at 25°C. On completion of chronic hypobaric hypoxia (CHH) exposure, rats were sacrificed, muscle was excised and biochemical, histopathological and protein synthesis signaling were studied. Results-A number of changes were observed with the CHH exposure time period. ROS was increased significantly on 07 and 14 days which were attributed to protein oxidation via damaging muscle protein structure by oxidation of amino acids moiety. The oxidative damage to the protein further enhanced the various protein degradation pathways. Calcium activated cysteine proteases and other intracellular proteases participate in protein turnover in muscles. Therefore, we analysed calpain and 20S proteosome activity which were noticeably increased at CHH exposure as compared to control group representing enhanced muscle protein catabolism. Since inflammatory markers (myokines) affect protein synthesis and triggers degradation machinery. So, we determined inflammatory pathway regulated under hypoxic environment. Other striking finding of the study was upregulation of Akt/PKB translational machinery that was increased on CHH exposure. Akt, p-Akt, p70 S6kinase, and GSK- 3β expression were upregulated till 7d of CHH exposure. Apoptosis related markers, caspase-3, caspase-9 and annexin V was also increased on CHH exposure. Conclusion: The present study provides evidence of disrupted proteostasis under chronic hypobaric hypoxia. A profound loss of muscle mass is accompanied by the muscle damage leading to apoptosis and cell death under CHH. These cellular stress response pathways may play a pivotal role in hypobaric hypoxia induced skeletal muscle atrophy. Further research in these signaling pathways will lead to development of therapeutic interventions for amelioration of hypoxia induced muscle atrophy.

Keywords: Akt/PKB translational machinery, chronic hypobaric hypoxia, muscle atrophy, protein degradation

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