Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: ISSA Chaer

36 Implementation of Renewable Energy Technologies in Rural Africa

Authors: Joseph Levodo, Andy Ford, ISSA Chaer

Abstract:

Africa enjoys some of the best solar radiation levels in the world averaging between 4-6 kWh/m2/day for most of the year and the global economic and political conditions that tend to make African countries more dependent on their own energy resources have caused growing interest in wanting renewable energy based technologies. However to-date, implementation of Modern Energy Technologies in Africa is still very low especially the use of solar conversion technologies. It was initially speculated that the low uptake of solar technology in Africa was associated with the continent’s high poverty levels and limitations in technical capacity as well as awareness. Nonetheless, this is not an academic based speculation and the exact reasons for this low trend in technology adoption are unclear and require further investigation. This paper presents literature review and analysis relating to the techno-economic feasibility of solar photovoltaic power generation in Africa. The literature review would include the following four main categories: design methods, techno-economic feasibility of solar photovoltaic power generation, performance evaluations of various systems, Then it looks at the role of policy and potential future of technological development of photovoltaic (PV) by exploring the impact of alternative policy instruments and technology cost reductions on the financial viability of investing solar photovoltaic (PV) in Africa.

Keywords: Africa Solar Potential, policy, photovoltaic, technologies

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35 Climate Change and Variability-Induced Resource Based Conflicts: The Case of the Issa, Ittu and Afar (Agro) Pastoralists of Eastern Ethiopia

Authors: Bamlaku Tadesse Mengistu

Abstract:

This article explores the link between climate change/variability and its adaptation/coping strategies with resource-based ethnic conflicts among the Afar, Issa-Somali, and Ittu-Oromo ethnic groups. The qualitative data were collected from community leaders, ordinary members of the communities, and administrative and political bodies at various levels through one-on-one interviews, focus group discussions and field observations. The quantitative data were also collected through a household survey from the randomly selected 128 households drawn from the three districts of Mieso-Mullu, Mieso, and Amibara districts. The study shows that there is a causal relationship between resource scarcity impacted by climate change/variability and ethnic conflicts. The study reveals that the increasing nature of resource scarcity and environmental problems, and also the changing nature of ethnic diversity will aggravate the resource-based inter-ethnic conflicts.

Keywords: Eastern Ethiopia, ethnic conflict, climate change, Afar, Issa, Ittu

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34 Fuzzy Logic for Control and Automatic Operation of Natural Ventilation in Buildings

Authors: Ekpeti Bukola Grace, Mahmoudi Sabar Esmail, Chaer Issa

Abstract:

Global energy consumption has been increasing steadily over the last half - century, and this trend is projected to continue. As energy demand rises in many countries throughout the world due to population growth, natural ventilation in buildings has been identified as a viable option for lowering these demands, saving costs, and also lowering CO2 emissions. However, natural ventilation is driven by forces that are generally unpredictable in nature thus, it is important to manage the resulting airflow in order to maintain pleasant indoor conditions, making it a complex system that necessitates specific control approaches. The effective application of fuzzy logic technique amidst other intelligent systems is one of the best ways to bridge this gap, as its control dynamics relates more to human reasoning and linguistic descriptions. This article reviewed existing literature and presented practical solutions by applying fuzzy logic control with optimized techniques, selected input parameters, and expert rules to design a more effective control system. The control monitors used indoor temperature, outdoor temperature, carbon-dioxide levels, wind velocity, and rain as input variables to the system, while the output variable remains the control of window opening. This is achieved through the use of fuzzy logic control tool box in MATLAB and running simulations on SIMULINK to validate the effectiveness of the proposed system. Comparison analysis model via simulation is carried out, and with the data obtained, an improvement in control actions and energy savings was recorded.

Keywords: fuzzy logic, intelligent control systems, natural ventilation, optimization

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33 Leadership, Resource Based Conflicts and Its Resolution Practices among the Pastoral Groups in Eastern Ethiopia

Authors: Bamlaku Tadesse Mengistu

Abstract:

Resource-based inter-ethnic conflicts are common in eastern Ethiopia among the Afar, Ittu-Oromo, and Issa-Somali pastoral groups. The qualitative data required for the study were collected from community leaders, ordinary members of the communities, and administrative and political bodies at various levels through one-on-one interviews, focus group discussions and field observations. The quantitative data were also collected through a household survey from the 128 households drawn from the three districts of Meiso-Mullu, Meiso, and Amibara. This research tried to assess the triggering factors of inter-ethnic violent conflicts and tensions observed and other motivating factors that encourage the rival groups to instigate the recent conflicts. The research revealed some of the triggering factors that instigate violent conflicts among the rival groups such as the bad actions of conflict entrepreneurs/rent seekers, the incidence of plunder (banditry), the encroachment of farmers’ to pastoral lands/vice versa, the destruction of farmers’ crops by pastoralists’ livestock, and among others. The roles of conflict entrepreneurs such as low and medium level administrators/leaders, illicit arms traffickers, local level elites, and among others are very much significant in fueling up inter-ethnic conflicts and tensions. Leaders of various levels wrongly agitate the politicization of ethnicity and ethnic identity as well as regional boundaries as they are political boundaries rather than administrative boundaries.

Keywords: eastern ethiopia, resource competition, ethnic conflict, AFAR, ISSA and ITTU.

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
32 On Fourier Type Integral Transform for a Class of Generalized Quotients

Authors: A. S. Issa, S. K. Q. AL-Omari

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate certain spaces of generalized functions for the Fourier and Fourier type integral transforms. We discuss convolution theorems and establish certain spaces of distributions for the considered integrals. The new Fourier type integral is well-defined, linear, one-to-one and continuous with respect to certain types of convergences. Many properties and an inverse problem are also discussed in some details.

Keywords: Boehmian, Fourier integral, Fourier type integral, generalized quotient

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31 An Efficient and Green Procedure for the Synthesis of Highly Substituted Polyhydronaphthalene Derivatives via a One-Pot, Multi-Component Reaction in Aqueous Media

Authors: Adeleh Moshtaghi Zonouz, Issa Eskandari

Abstract:

A simple, efficient, and green one-pot, four-component synthesis of highly substituted polyhydronaphthalenes in aqueous media is described. The method has such advantages as short reaction times, high yields, mild reaction conditions, operational simplicity and environmentally benign.

Keywords: polyhydronaphthalene, 2, 6-dicyanoanilines, multi-component reaction, aqueous media

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30 The Thermal Simulation of Hydraulic Cable Drum Trailers 15-Ton

Authors: Ahmad Abdul-Razzak Aboudi Al-Issa

Abstract:

Thermal is the main important aspect in any hydraulic system since it is affected on the hydraulic system performance. Therefore must be simulated the hydraulic system -that was designed- in this aspect before constructing it. In this study, an existed expert system was using to simulate the thermal aspect of a designed hydraulic system that will be used in an industrial field. The expert system which is used in this study is (Hydraulic System Calculations), and its symbol (HSC). HSC had been designed and coded in an interactive program userfriendly named (Microsoft Visual Basic 2010).

Keywords: fluid power, hydraulic system, thermal and hydrodynamic, expert system

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29 Optimization of Scheduling through Altering Layout Using Pro-Model

Authors: Zouhair Issa Ahmed, Ahmed Abdulrasool Ahmed, Falah Hassan Abdulsada

Abstract:

This paper presents a layout of a factory using Pro-Model simulation by choosing the best layout that gives the highest productivity and least work in process. The general problem is to find the best sequence in which jobs pass between the machines which are compatible with the technological constraints and optimal with respect to some performance criteria. The best simulation with Pro-Model program increased productivity and reduced work in process by balancing lines of production compared with the current layout of factory when productivity increased from 45 products to 180 products through 720 hours.

Keywords: scheduling, Pro-Model, simulation, balancing lines of production, layout planning, WIP

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28 Design an Expert System to Assess the Hydraulic System in Thermal and Hydrodynamic Aspect

Authors: Ahmad Abdul-Razzak Aboudi Al-Issa

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Thermal and Hydrodynamic are basic aspects in any hydraulic system and therefore, they must be assessed with regard to this aspect before constructing the system. This assessment needs a good expertise in this aspect to obtain an efficient hydraulic system. Therefore, this study aims to build an expert system called Hydraulic System Calculations (HSC) to ensure a smooth operation for the hydraulic system. The expert system (HSC) had been designed and coded in an user-friendly interactive program called Microsoft Visual Basic 2010. The suggested code provides the designer with a number of choices to resolve the problem of hydraulic oil overheating which may arise during the continuous operation of the hydraulic unit. As a result, the HSC can minimize the human errors, effort, time and cost of hydraulic machine design.

Keywords: fluid power, hydraulic system, thermal and hydrodynamic, expert system

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
27 Corporate Profitability through Effective Supply Chain Performance

Authors: Tareq N. Issa

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The main pressuring challenges of global competition and high returns have forced businesses to shift their strategic competitive advantage from physical distribution management to integrated logistics management, finally moving into supply chain management. Conventionally, corporate profitability is a function of cost, capital employed, revenue and customer service. This article gives an insight into the effect of supply chain management on each of the above variables. It investigates the impact of the changing levels/ effects of these variables on corporate profitability and the means of measuring supply chain financial effectiveness. Information technology tools form the basis for supply chain optimal performance through alignment of supply chain systems in this ever increasing complexity in business decisions.

Keywords: corporate profitability, sypply chain systems, business decisions, competitive advanage

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26 Fabric Drapemeter Development towards the Analysis of Its Behavior in 3-D Design

Authors: Aida Sheeta, M. Nashat Fors, Sherwet El Gholmy, Marwa Issa

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Globalization has raised the customer preferences not only towards the high-quality garments but also the right fitting, comfort and aesthetic apparels. This only can be accomplished by the good interaction between fabric mechanical and physical properties as well as the required style. Consequently, this paper provides an integrated review of the fabric drape terminology because it is considered as an essential feature in which the fabric can form folds with the help of the gravity. Moreover, an instrument has been fabricated in order to analyze the static and dynamic drape behaviors using different fabric types. In addition, the obtained results find out the parameters affecting the drape coefficient using digital image processing for various kind of commercial fabrics. This was found to be an essential first step in order to analyze the behavior of this fabric when it is fabricated in a certain 3-D garment design.

Keywords: cloth fitting, fabric drape nodes, garment silhouette, image processing

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25 Synthesis and Characterization of Amino-Functionalized Polystyrene Nanoparticles as Reactive Filler

Authors: Yaseen Elhebshi, Abdulkareem Hamid, Nureddin Bin Issa, Xiaonong Chen

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A convenient method of preparing ultrafine polystyrene latex nano-particles with amino groups on the surface is developed. Polystyrene latexes in the size range 50–400 nm were prepared via emulsion polymerization, using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surfactant. Polystyrene with amino groups on the surface will be fine to use as organic filler to modify rubber. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe the morphology of silicon dioxide and functionalized polystyrene nano-particles. The nature of bonding between the polymer and the reactive groups on the filler surfaces was analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to examine the filler surface.

Keywords: reactive filler, emulsion polymerization, particle size, polystyrene nanoparticles

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24 Urban-Rural Inequality in Mexico after Nafta: A Quantile Regression Analysis

Authors: Rene Valdiviezo-Issa

Abstract:

In this paper, we use Mexico’s Households Income and Expenditures (ENIGH) survey to explain the behaviour that the urban-rural expenditure gap has had since Mexico’s incorporation to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1994 and we compare it with the latest available survey, which took place in 2014. We use real trimestral expenditure per capita (RTEPC) as the measure of welfare. We use quantile regressions and a quantile regression decomposition to describe the gap between urban and rural distributions of log RTEPC. We discover that the decrease in the difference between the urban and rural distributions of log RTEPC, or inequality, is motivated because of a deprivation of the urban areas, in very specific characteristics, rather than an improvement of the urban areas. When using the decomposition we observe that the gap is primarily brought about because differences in returns to covariates between the urban and rural areas.

Keywords: quantile regression, urban-rural inequality, inequality in Mexico, income decompositon

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23 The Effect of Inlet Baffle Position in Improving the Efficiency of Oil and Water Gravity Separator Tanks

Authors: Haitham A. Hussein, Rozi Abdullah, Issa Saket, Md. Azlin

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The gravitational effect has been extensively applied to separate oil from water in water and wastewater treatment systems. The maximum oil globules removal efficiency is improved by obtaining the best flow uniformity in separator tanks. This study used 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to investigate the effect of different inlet baffle positions inside the separator tank. Laboratory experiment has been conducted, and the measured velocity fields which were by Nortek Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) are used to verify the CFD model. Computational investigation results indicated that the construction of an inlet baffle in a suitable location provides the minimum recirculation zone volume, creates the best flow uniformity, and dissipates kinetic energy in the oil and water separator tank. Useful formulas were predicted to design the oil and water separator tanks geometry based on an experimental model.

Keywords: oil/water separator tanks, inlet baffles, CFD, VOF

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22 A Case Study: Remediation of Abandoned Mines for Residential Development

Authors: Issa S. Oweis, Gary Gartenberg, Luma J. Oweis

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The site for a residential apartment building overlies an abandoned iron mine in granitic gneiss in northern New Jersey. The mine stope is about 137 m (450 long) and dipping over 344m (800 feet) at 450 to 500. As the building footprint straddles, the mine site needed remediation. The remediation scheme consisted of compaction grouting a minimum 10 m (30 ft.) depth of the mine stope in rock to establish a buttress for the hanging wall and allow support of the building foundation. The rock strength parameters (friction and cohesion) were established based on Hoek Geologic Strength Index (GSI). The derived strength parameters were used in the wedge analysis to simulate rock cave-in. It was concluded that a cave-in would be unlikely. Verification holes confirmed the effectiveness of grouting. Although post grouting micro gravity survey depicted a few anomalies, no anomalies were found to exist by further drilling and excavation.

Keywords: grout, stope, rock, properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
21 Numerical Simulation of the Bond Behavior Between Concrete and Steel Reinforcing Bars in Specialty Concrete

Authors: Camille A. Issa, Omar Masri

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In the study, the commercial finite element software Abaqus was used to develop a three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model capable of simulating the pull-out test of reinforcing bars from underwater concrete. The results of thirty-two pull-out tests that have different parameters were implemented in the software to study the effect of the concrete cover, the bar size, the use of stirrups, and the compressive strength of concrete. The interaction properties used in the model provided accurate results in comparison with the experimental bond-slip results, thus the model has successfully simulated the pull-out test. The results of the finite element model are used to better understand and visualize the distribution of stresses in each component of the model, and to study the effect of the various parameters used in this study including the role of the stirrups in preventing the stress from reaching to the sides of the specimens.

Keywords: pull-out test, bond strength, underwater concrete, nonlinear finite element analysis, abaqus

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20 Object Oriented Software Engineering Approach to Industrial Information System Design and Implementation

Authors: Issa Hussein Manita

Abstract:

This paper presents an example of industrial information system design and implementation (IIDC), the most common software engineering design steps that are applied to the different design stages. We are going through the life cycle of software system development. We start by a study of system requirement and end with testing and delivering system, going by system design and coding, program integration and system integration step. The most modern software design tools available used in the design this includes, but not limited to, Unified Modeling Language (UML), system modeling, SQL server side application, uses case analysis, design and testing as applied to information processing systems. The system is designed to perform tasks specified by the client with real data. By the end of the implementation of the system, default or user defined acceptance policy to provide an overall score as an indication of the system performance is used. To test the reliability of he designed system, it is tested in different environment and different work burden such as multi-user environment.

Keywords: software engineering, design, system requirement, integration, unified modeling language

Procedia PDF Downloads 479
19 Accumulation of Phlorotannins in Abalone Haliotis discus Hannai after Feeding with Eisenia bicyclis

Authors: Bangoura Issa, Ji-Young Kang, M. T. H. Chowdhury, Ji-Eun Lee, Yong-Ki Hong

Abstract:

Investigation was carried out for the production of value-added abalone Haliotis discus hannai containing bioactive phlorotannin by feeding phlorotannin-rich seaweed Eisenia bicyclis 2 weeks prior to harvesting. Accumulation of phlorotannins was proceded by feeding with E. bicyclis after 4 days of starvation. HPLC purification afforded two major phlorotannins. Mass spectrometry and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis clarified their structures to be as 7-phloroeckol and eckol. Throughout the feeding period of 20 days, 7-phloroeckolol was accumulated in the muscle (foot muscle tissue) up to 0.18±0.12 mg g-1 dry weight of tissue after 12 days. Eckol reached 0.21±0.03 mg g-1 dry weight of tissue after 18 days. By feeding Laminaria japonica as reference, abalone showed no detection of phlorotannins in the muscle tissue. Seaweed consumption and growth rate of abalone revealed almost similar when feed with E. bicyclis or L. japonicain 20 days. Phlorotannins reduction to half-maximal accumulation values took 1.0 day and 2.7 days for 7-phloroeckol and eckol respectively, after replacing the feed to L. japonica.

Keywords: abalone, accumulation, eisenia bicyclis, phlorotannins

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18 Age-Dependent Anatomical Abnormalities of the Amygdala in Autism Spectrum Disorder and their Implications for Altered Socio-Emotional Development

Authors: Gabriele Barrocas, Habon Issa

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The amygdala is one of various brain regions that tend to be pathological in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD is a prevalent and heterogeneous developmental disorder affecting all ethnic and socioeconomic groups and consists of a broad range of severity, etiology, and behavioral symptoms. Common features of ASD include but are not limited to repetitive behaviors, obsessive interests, and anxiety. Neuroscientists view the amygdala as the core of the neural system that regulates behavioral responses to anxiogenic and threatening stimuli. Despite this consensus, many previous studies and literature reviews on the amygdala’s alterations in individuals with ASD have reported inconsistent findings. In this review, we will address these conflicts by highlighting recent studies which reveal that anatomical and related socio-emotional differences detected between individuals with and without ASD are highly age-dependent. We will specifically discuss studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), structural MRI, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to provide insights into the neuroanatomical substrates of ASD across development, with a focus on amygdala volumes, cell densities, and connectivity.

Keywords: autism, amygdala, development, abnormalities

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17 3D Modelling of Fluid Flow in Tunnel Kilns

Authors: Jaber H. Almutairi, Hosny Z. Abou-Ziyan, Issa F. Almesri, Mosab A. Alrahmani

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The present work investigates the behavior of fluid flow inside tunnel kilns using 3D-CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations. The CFD simulations are carried out with the FLUENT software and validated against experimental results on fluid flow and heat transfer in tunnel kilns. A grid dependency study is conducted in the current work to improve the accuracy of the results. Three turbulence models k–ω, standard k–ε, and RNG k–ε are tested where k–ω model gives the best results in comparison with the experiment. The numerical results reveal an intriguing phenomenon where a long flow separation zone behind the setting is observed under different geometric and operation conditions. It was found that the uniformity of flow distribution can be substantially improved by rearranging the geometrical parameters of brick setting relative to kiln/setting. This improvement of flow distribution plays a critical role to enhance the quality and quantity of the production. It can be concluded that a better design and operation of tunnel kilns in terms of productivity and energy consumption can be obtained by taking into consideration the flow uniformity inside the tunnel kilns using CFD modelling.

Keywords: tunnel kilns, flow separation, flow uniformity, computational fluid dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
16 Language Literacy Attrition: An Empirical Investigation

Authors: Ahmad Al-Issa

Abstract:

Our world is now operating under the auspices of globalization with its attendant language of ‘global English.' In many parts of the world, the need for English is often accepted without much thought given to native languages. Indeed, this is the current situation in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), with English encroaching into all areas of society, and especially forcefully into the education sector, where English as a medium of instruction (EMI) is on the rise. At the same time, Arabic literacy (i.e., the ability to read and write in Arabic) is declining among the UAE youth. Using a mixed-methods design, a study was conducted to gain insights into the use of Arabic by Emirati University students. The study examines how often Emiratis, males and females, use their native language (Arabic) in their daily lives, how they view their reading and writing skills in Arabic vis-à-vis their English literacy skills, and the extent to which they can demonstrate their literacy skills in Arabic. Clear evidence emerged showing that while Arabic as a dialect continues to be spoken on a daily basis, Arabic literacy is unquestionably losing ground. This was found to be motivated by educational, political, societal, and personal forces. These findings and their implications to language policy and existing bilingualism programs will be discussed. Suggestions for further research will also be made.

Keywords: Arabic, globalization, global English, literacy attrition, United Arab Emirates

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15 An Experimental Study for Assessing Email Classification Attributes Using Feature Selection Methods

Authors: Issa Qabaja, Fadi Thabtah

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Email phishing classification is one of the vital problems in the online security research domain that have attracted several scholars due to its impact on the users payments performed daily online. One aspect to reach a good performance by the detection algorithms in the email phishing problem is to identify the minimal set of features that significantly have an impact on raising the phishing detection rate. This paper investigate three known feature selection methods named Information Gain (IG), Chi-square and Correlation Features Set (CFS) on the email phishing problem to separate high influential features from low influential ones in phishing detection. We measure the degree of influentially by applying four data mining algorithms on a large set of features. We compare the accuracy of these algorithms on the complete features set before feature selection has been applied and after feature selection has been applied. After conducting experiments, the results show 12 common significant features have been chosen among the considered features by the feature selection methods. Further, the average detection accuracy derived by the data mining algorithms on the reduced 12-features set was very slight affected when compared with the one derived from the 47-features set.

Keywords: data mining, email classification, phishing, online security

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14 A Study on the Influence of Internal Sulfate on the Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete

Authors: Abbas S. Al-Ameeri Rawaa H. Issa

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The internal sulfate attack is considered as a very important problem of concrete manufacture in Iraq and Middle East countries. Sulfate drastically influences the properties of concrete. This experimental study is aimed at investigating the effect of internal sulfates on fresh and some of the hardened properties of self compacting concrete (SCC) made from locally available materials. Tests were conducted on five mixes, with five SO3 levels (3.9, 5, 6, 7 and 8) (% by wt. of cement). The last four SO3 levels are outside the limits of the Iraqi specifications (IQS NO.45/1984). The results indicated that sulfate passively influenced the fresh properties such as decreased workability, and effect on hardened properties of the self compacting concrete. Also, the result indicated the optimum SO3 content which gives maximum strength and little tendency to expanding, which showed up at a content equal to 5% (by wt of cement), is more than acceptable limits of Iraqi specifications. Further increase in sulfates content in concrete after this optimum value showed a considerable reduction in mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete, and increment in expansion of concrete. The percentages of reduction in compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, static modulus of elasticity and ultrasonic pulse velocity at their later age were ranged between 10.89-36.14%, 12.90-33.33%, 7.98-36.35%, 16.36 -38.37% and 1.03-10.88% respectively.

Keywords: self-compacting concrete, sulfate attack, internal sulfate attack, fresh properties, harden properties, optimum SO3 content

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13 Protocol Selection of Advanced Imaging Exams Using Multi-Steps Deep Learning Models

Authors: C. Cronister, T. B. Issa, D. Uminsky, R. W. Filice

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The radiology workflow is a time-consuming process that involves significant administrative procedures. One of the administratively intensive tasks that pull the physician away from patient-facing work is the daily exercise of matching the scheduled exams with a specified protocol for each exam. We present protocol selection networks (PSNet), a multi-step deep learning model that automatically recommends physician-specified protocols for the top 50 most common protocols at "Anonymize Hospital". PSNets has the potential to lower the burden for a physician at "Anonymize Hospital" to specify protocols by up to 70%. Yet PSNet achieves human expert accuracy in protocol selection with a weighted average top one recall of 90% and precision of 90% across all protocols. Furthermore, we studied the interpretability of our machine learning system and showed that the ‘reason’ and the ‘appointment type’ are the most important variables in the recommendation decision. We also present the results of a pilot hospital deployment study where the first-step model shows a top one accuracy of 76% and top two accuracy of 87%. The multi-step model achieves a maximum top one accuracy of 83% and an average of 63%, a maximum top two accuracy of 93%, and an average of 77%.

Keywords: protocol, machine learning, radiology, deep learning, medicine and AI, deployment, data wrangling

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12 Architecture and Students with Autism: Exploring Strategies for Their Inclusion in Society Mainstream

Authors: Safaa Mahmoud Issa

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Architecture, as an art and science of designing, has always been the medium to create environments that fulfill their users’ needs. It could create an inclusive environment that would not isolate any individual regardless of his /her disabilities. It could help, hopefully, in setting the strategies that provide a supportive, educational environment that would allow the inclusion of students with autism. Architects could help in the battle against this neuro-developmental disorder by providing the accommodating environment, at home and at school, in order to prevent institutionalizing these children. Through a theoretical approach and a review of literature, this study will explore and analyze best practices in autism-friendly, supportive, teaching environments. Additionally, it would provide the range of measures, and set the strategies to deal with the students with autism sensory peculiarities, and that, in order to allow them to concentrate in the school environment, and be able to succeed, and to be integrated as an important addition to society and the social mainstream. Architects should take into consideration the general guidelines for an autism-friendly built environment, and apply them to specific buildings systems. And that, as certain design elements have great effect on children’s behavior, by appropriating architecture to provide inclusive accommodating environments, the basis for equalization of opportunities is set allowing these individuals a better, normal, non-institutional life, as the discussion presented in this study would reveal.

Keywords: architecture, inclusion, students with autism, society mainstream

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11 Lean Manufacturing Implementation in Fused Plastic Bags Industry

Authors: Tareq Issa

Abstract:

Lean manufacturing is concerned with the implementation of several tools and methodologies that aim for the continuous elimination of wastes throughout manufacturing process flow in the production system. This research addresses the implementation of lean principles and tools in a small-medium industry focusing on 'fused' plastic bags production company in Amman, Jordan. In this production operation, the major type of waste to eliminate include material, waiting-transportation, and setup wastes. The primary goal is to identify and implement selected lean strategies to eliminate waste in the manufacturing process flow. A systematic approach was used for the implementation of lean principles and techniques, through the application of Value Stream Mapping analysis. The current state value stream map was constructed to improve the plastic bags manufacturing process through identifying opportunities to eliminate waste and its sources. Also, the future-state value stream map was developed describing improvements in the overall manufacturing process resulting from eliminating wastes. The implementation of VSM, 5S, Kanban, Kaizen, and Reduced lot size methods have provided significant benefits and results. Productivity has increased to 95.4%, delivery schedule attained at 99-100%, reduction in total inventory to 1.4 days and the setup time for the melting process was reduced to about 30 minutes.

Keywords: lean implementation, plastic bags industry, value stream map, process flow

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10 Partnership in Eradicating Corruption: Case Study of Indonesia’s Corruption Eradication Commission Partnership with Dompet Dhuafa in Preventing Corruption

Authors: Asriana Issa Sofia, Retno Hendrowati, Dewi Kurniaty

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This study aims at analyzing the role of Corruption Eradication Commission in combating corruption cases including punishing high-profile corruptors and changing the culture of corruption in Indonesia by strengthening the relations with other agencies. Corruption Eradicating Commission was created in 2002 as Indonesia’s most trusted government institution as the anti-corruption agency that will exercise investigatory and prosecutorial power independently from the executive, legislature, and judiciary. The analysis of partnership addressed the role of collaboration with other institutions including Non-Government Organization, Youth Organization, Governmental Institution and Society. The collaboration is needed due to the limitations of Corruption Eradication Commission in preventing corruption. The collaboration focuses on the intensive communication, strengthening leadership, commitment, and creating trust. The research method used the qualitative study by employing the literature study and having a semi-structured interview with the key informant in Corruption Eradication Commission and its partners. The analysis found that intensive communication, leadership, communication, and creating trust were the important pillars in assisting Corruption Eradication Commission to prevent the incoming seed of corruption. The pillars will support the Indonesian Government to deliver better services for society.

Keywords: corruption, corruption eradicating commission, partnership, preventing actions

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9 Explore and Reduce the Performance Gap between Building Modelling Simulations and the Real World: Case Study

Authors: B. Salehi, D. Andrews, I. Chaer, A. Gillich, A. Chalk, D. Bush

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With the rapid increase of energy consumption in buildings in recent years, especially with the rise in population and growing economies, the importance of energy savings in buildings becomes more critical. One of the key factors in ensuring energy consumption is controlled and kept at a minimum is to utilise building energy modelling at the very early stages of the design. So, building modelling and simulation is a growing discipline. During the design phase of construction, modelling software can be used to estimate a building’s projected energy consumption, as well as building performance. The growth in the use of building modelling software packages opens the door for improvements in the design and also in the modelling itself by introducing novel methods such as building information modelling-based software packages which promote conventional building energy modelling into the digital building design process. To understand the most effective implementation tools, research projects undertaken should include elements of real-world experiments and not just rely on theoretical and simulated approaches. Upon review of the related studies undertaken, it’s evident that they are mostly based on modelling and simulation, which can be due to various reasons such as the more expensive and time-consuming nature of real-time data-based studies. Taking in to account the recent rise of building energy software modelling packages and the increasing number of studies utilising these methods in their projects and research, the accuracy and reliability of these modelling software packages has become even more crucial and critical. This Energy Performance Gap refers to the discrepancy between the predicted energy savings and the realised actual savings, especially after buildings implement energy-efficient technologies. There are many different software packages available which are either free or have commercial versions. In this study, IES VE (Integrated Environmental Solutions Virtual Environment) is used as it is a common Building Energy Modeling and Simulation software in the UK. This paper describes a study that compares real time results with those in a virtual model to illustrate this gap. The subject of the study is a north west facing north-west (345°) facing, naturally ventilated, conservatory within a domestic building in London is monitored during summer to capture real-time data. Then these results are compared to the virtual results of IES VE, which is a commonly used building energy modelling and simulation software in the UK. In this project, the effect of the wrong position of blinds on overheating is studied as well as providing new evidence of Performance Gap. Furthermore, the challenges of drawing the input of solar shading products in IES VE will be considered.

Keywords: building energy modelling and simulation, integrated environmental solutions virtual environment, IES VE, performance gap, real time data, solar shading products

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8 Pride and Prejudice in Higher Education: Countering Elitist Perspectives in the Curriculum at Imperial College London

Authors: Mark R. Skopec, Hamdi M. Issa, Henock B. Taddese, Kate Ippolito, Matthew J. Harris

Abstract:

In peer review, there is a skew toward research from high-income countries, otherwise known as geographic bias. Research from well-known and prestigious institutions is often favored in the peer review process and is more frequently cited in biomedical research. English clinicians have been found to rate research from low-income countries worse compared to the same research presented as if from high-income countries. This entrenched bias, which is rooted in the perceived superiority of academic institutions in high-income countries is damaging in many regards. Crucially, it reinforces colonial roots by strengthening the dominance of knowledge bases in high-income contexts and perpetuates the perceived inferiority of research from low-income settings. We report on the interventions that Imperial College London is conducting to “decolonize” the higher education curriculum – a root and branch review of reading material in the Masters of Public Health course; identification of unconscious bias against low-income country research in faculty and staff; in-depth interviews with faculty members on their experiences and practices with respect to inclusion of low-income country research in their own teaching and learning practice; and exploring issues surrounding entrenched biases and structural impediments for enabling desirable changes. We intend to use these findings to develop frameworks and approaches, including workshops and online resources, to effect sustainable changes to diversify the curriculum at Imperial College London.

Keywords: curriculum design, diversity, geographic bias, higher education, implicit associations, inclusivity

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7 Preschool Teachers' Teaching Performance in Relation to Their Technology and 21st Century Skills

Authors: Vida Dones-Jimenez

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study is to determine the preschool teachers’ technology and 21st-century skills and its relation to teachers’ performance. The participants were 94 preschool teachers and 59 school administrators from the CDAPS member schools. The data were collected by using 21st Century Skill, developed by ISSA (2009), Technology Skills of Teachers Survey (2013) and Teacher Performance Evaluation Criteria and Descriptors (200) was modified by the current researcher to suit the needs of her study and was administered personally by her. The surveys were designed to measure the participants’ 21st-century skills, technology skills and teaching performance. The result of the study indicates that the majority of the preschool teachers are the college graduate. Most of them are in the teaching profession for 0 to 10 years. It also indicated that the majority of the school administrators are masters’ degree holder. The preschool teachers are outstanding in their teaching performance as rated by the school administrators. The preschool teachers are skillful in using technology, and they are very skillful in executing the 21st-century skills in teaching. It was further determined that no significant difference between preschool teachers 21st-century skill in regards to educational attainment same as with the number of years in teaching, likewise with their technology skills. Furthermore, the study has shown that there is a very weak relationship between technology and 21st-century skills of preschool teachers, a weak relationship between technology skills and teaching performance and a very weak relationship between 21st-century skills and teaching performance were also established. The study recommends that the preschool teachers should be encouraged to enroll in master degree programs. School administrators should support the implementation of newly adopted technologies and support faculty members at various levels of use and experience. It is also recommended that regular review of the professional development plan be undertaken to upgrade 21st-century teaching and learning skills of preschool teachers.

Keywords: preschool teacher, teaching performance, technology, 21st century skills

Procedia PDF Downloads 331