Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Search results for: Abir S. Al-Harrasi

29 Association Rules Mining Task Using Metaheuristics: Review

Authors: Abir Derouiche, Abdesslem Layeb


Association Rule Mining (ARM) is one of the most popular data mining tasks and it is widely used in various areas. The search for association rules is an NP-complete problem that is why metaheuristics have been widely used to solve it. The present paper presents the ARM as an optimization problem and surveys the proposed approaches in the literature based on metaheuristics.

Keywords: Optimization, Metaheuristics, Data Mining, Association rules Mining

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28 A CORDIC Based Design Technique for Efficient Computation of DCT

Authors: Deboraj Muchahary, Amlan Deep Borah Abir J. Mondal, Alak Majumder


A discrete cosine transform (DCT) is described and a technique to compute it using fast Fourier transform (FFT) is developed. In this work, DCT of a finite length sequence is obtained by incorporating CORDIC methodology in radix-2 FFT algorithm. The proposed methodology is simple to comprehend and maintains a regular structure, thereby reducing computational complexity. DCTs are used extensively in the area of digital processing for the purpose of pattern recognition. So the efficient computation of DCT maintaining a transparent design flow is highly solicited.


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27 Characterization of the Viscoelastic Behavior of Polymeric Composites

Authors: Abir Abdessalem, Sahbi Tamboura, J. Fitoussi, Hachmi Ben Daly, Abbas Tcharkhtchi


Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) is one of the most used experimental techniques to investigate the temperature and frequency dependence of the mechanical behavior of viscoelastic materials. The measured data are generally shifted by the application of the principle of the time– temperature superposition (TTS) to obtain the viscoelastic system’s master curve. The aim of this work is to show the methodology to define the horizontal shift factor to be applied to the storage modulus measured in order to indicate the validity of (TTS) principle for this material system. This principle was successfully used to determine the long-term properties of the Sheet Moulding Compound (SMC) composites.

Keywords: composite material, dynamic mechanical analysis, SMC composites, viscoelastic behavior, modeling

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26 Parametric Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Using Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: Abir Yahya, Hacen Dhahri, Khalifa Slimi


The present paper deals with a numerical simulation of temperature field inside a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) components. The temperature distribution is investigated using a co-flow planar SOFC comprising the air and fuel channel and two-ceramic electrodes, anode and cathode, separated by a dense ceramic electrolyte. The Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is used for the numerical simulation of the physical problem. The effects of inlet temperature, anode thermal conductivity and current density on temperature distribution are discussed. It was found that temperature distribution is very sensitive to the inlet temperature and the current density.

Keywords: heat sources, Lattice Boltzmann method, solid oxide fuel cell, temperature

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25 Factors Impacting Entrepreneurial Intention: A Literature Review

Authors: Abir S. AL-Harrasi, Eyad B. AL-Zadjali, Zahran S. AL-Salti


Entrepreneurship has captured the attention of policy-makers, educators and researchers in the last few decades. It has been regarded as a main driver for economic growth, development and employment generation in many countries worldwide. However, scholars have not agreed on the key factors that impact entrepreneurial intention. This study attempts, through an extensive literature review, to provide a holistic view and a more comprehensive understanding of the key factors that lead university undergraduate students to become entrepreneurs. A systematic literature review is conducted and several scientific articles and reports have been examined. The results of this study indicate that there are four main sets of factors: the personality-traits factors, contextual factors, motivational factors, and personal background factors. This research will serve as a base for future studies and will have valuable implications for policy makers and educators.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial intention, literature review, economic growth

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24 Graft Copolymerization of Cellulose Acetate with Nitro-N-Amino Phenyl Maleimides

Authors: Azza. A. Al-Ghamdi, Abir. A. Abdel-Naby


The construction of Nitro -N-amino phenyl maleimide branches onto Cellulose acetate (CA) substrate by free radical graft copolymerization using benzoyl peroxide as initiator led to formation of highly thermal stable copolymers as shown from the results of gravimetric analysis (TGA). CA-g-2,4-dinitro amino phenyl maleimide exhibited higher thermal stability than the CA-g-4-nitro amino phenyl maleimide as shown from the initial decomposition temperature (To). This is due to the ability of nitro group to form hydrogen bonding with hydroxyl group of the glucopyranose ring which increases the crystallinity of polymeric matrix. The crystalline shapes representing the graft part are clearly distinct in the Emission scanning electron microscope (ESEM) morphology of the copolymer. A suggested reaction mechanism for the grafting process was also discussed.

Keywords: Cellulose acetate, Crystallinity, Graft copolymerization, Thermal properties

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23 Performance of an Absorption Refrigerator Using a Solar Thermal Collector

Authors: Abir Hmida, Nihel Chekir, Ammar Ben Brahim


In the present paper, we investigate the feasibility of a thermal solar driven cold room in Gabes, southern region of Tunisia. The cold room of 109 m3 is refrigerated using an ammonia absorption machine. It is destined to preserve dates during the hot months of the year. A detailed study of the cold room leads previously to the estimation of the cooling load of the proposed storage room in the operating conditions of the region. The next step consists of the estimation of the required heat in the generator of the absorption machine to ensure the desired cold temperature. A thermodynamic analysis was accomplished and complete description of the system is determined. We propose, here, to provide the needed heat thermally from the sun by using vacuum tube collectors. We found that at least 21m² of solar collectors are necessary to accomplish the work of the solar cold room.

Keywords: absorption, ammonia, cold room, solar collector, vacuum tube

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22 Analytical Formulae for Parameters Involved in Side Slopes of Embankments Stability

Authors: Abdulrahman Abdulrahman, Abir Abdulrahman


The stability of slopes of earthen embankments is usually examined by Swedish slip circle method or the slices method. The factor of safety against sliding using Fellenius procedure depends upon the angle formed by the arc of sliding at the center ψ and the radius of the slip circle r. The values of both mentioned parameters ψ and r aren't precisely predicted because they are measured from the drawing. In this paper, analytical formulae were derived for finding the exact values of both ψ and r. Also this paper presents the different conditions of intersections the slip circle with the body of an earthen dam and the coordinate of intersection points. Numerical examples are chosen for demonstration the proposed solution

Keywords: earthen dams stability, , earthen embankments stability, , Fellenius method, hydraulic structures, , side slopes stability, , slices method, Swedish slip circle

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21 Motivations for Using Social Networking Sites by College Students for Educational Purposes

Authors: Kholoud H. Al-Zedjali, Abir S. Al-Harrasi, Ali H. Al-Badi


Recently there has been a dramatic proliferation in the number of social networking sites (SNSs) users; however, little is published about what motivates college students to use SNSs in education. The main goal of this research is to explore the college students’ motives for using SNSs in education. A conceptual framework has therefore been developed to identify the main factors that influence/motivate students to use social networking sites for learning purposes. To achieve the research objectives a quantitative method was used to collect data. A questionnaire has been distributed amongst college students. The results reveal that social influence, perceived enjoyment, institute regulation, perceived usefulness, ranking up-lift, attractiveness, communication tools, free of charge, sharing material and course nature all play an important role in the motivation of college students to use SNSs for learning purposes.

Keywords: Social Networking Sites (SNSs), education, college students, motivations

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20 Morphometric Relationships of Length-Weight and Length-Length of Oreochromis aureus in Relation to Body Size and Condition Factor from Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdus Salam, Sumera Yasmin, Abir Ishtiaq


In the present study, eighty-three wild Oreochromis aureus of different body size ranging 5.3-14.6 cm in total length were collected from the River Chenab, District Muzzafer Garh, Pakistan to investigate the parameters of length –weight, length-length relationships and condition factor in relation to size. Each fish was measured and weighed on arrival at laboratory. Log transformed regressions were used to test the allometric growth. Length-weight relationship was found highly significant (r = 0.964; P < 0.01). The values of exponent “ b” in Length–weight regression (W=aL^b), deviated from 3, showing isometric growth (b = 2.75). Results for LLRs indicated that these are highly correlated (P < 0.001). Condition factor (K) found constant with increasing body weight, however, showed negative influence with increasing total length.

Keywords: lenght-weight, Oreochromis aureus, morphometric study

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19 Length-Weight and Length-Length Relationships of Oreochromis aureus in Relation to Body Size from Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Amina Zubari, Abdus Salam, Summera Yasmeen, Syed Ali Ayub Bukhari, Abir Ishtiaq


In the present study, eighty three wild Oreochromis aureus of different body size ranging 5.3-14.6 cm in total length were collected from the River Chenab, District Muzzafer Garh, Pakistan to investigate the parameters of length –weight, length-length relationships and condition factor in relation to size. Each fish was measured and weighed on arrival at laboratory. Log transformed regressions were used to test the allometric growth. Length-weight relationship was found highly significant (r = 0.964; P < 0.01). The values of exponent “ b” in Length–weight regression (W=aLb), deviated from 3, showing isometric growth (b = 2.75). Results for LLRs indicated that these are highly correlated (P< 0.001). Condition factor (K) found constant with increasing body weight, however, showed negative influence with increasing total length.

Keywords: Oreochromis aureus, weight-length relationship, condition factor, predictive equations

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18 Biodegradable Cellulose-Based Materials for the Use in Food Packaging

Authors: Azza A. Al-Ghamdi, Abir S. Abdel-Naby


Cellulose acetate (CA) is a natural biodegradable polymer. It forms transparent films by the casting technique. CA suffers from high degree of water permeability as well as the low thermal stability at high temperatures. To adjust the CA polymeric films to the manufacture of food packaging, its thermal and mechanical properties should be improved. The modification of CA by grafting it with N-Amino phenyl maleimide (N-APhM) led to the construction of hydrophobic branches throughout the polymeric matrix which reduced its wettability as compared to the parent CA. The branches built onto the polymeric chains had been characterized by UV/Vis, 13C-NMR and ESEM. The improvement of the thermal properties was investigated and compared to the parent CA using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA), contact angle and mechanical testing measurements. The results revealed that the water-uptake was reduced by increasing the graft percentage. The thermal and mechanical properties were also improved.

Keywords: cellulose acetate, food packaging, graft copolymerization, thermal properties

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17 Analytical Solution for End Depth Ratio in Rectangular Channels

Authors: Abdulrahman Abdulrahman, Abir Abdulrahman


Free over-fall is an instrument for measuring discharge in open channels by measuring end depth. A comprehensive researchers investigated theoretically and experimentally brink phenomenon with various approaches for different cross-sectional shapes. Anderson's method, based on Boussinq's approximation and energy approach was used to derive a pressure distribution factor at end depth. Applying the one-dimensional momentum equation and the principles of limit slope analysis, a relevant analytical solution may be derived for brink depth ratio (EDR) in prismatic rectangular channel. Also relationships between end depth ratio and slope ratio for a given non-dimensional normal or critical depth with upstream supercritical flow regime are presented. Simple indirect procedure is used to estimate the end depth discharge ratio (EDD) for subcritical and supercritical flow using measured end depth. The comparison of this analysis with all previous theoretical and experimental studies showed an excellent agreement.

Keywords: analytical solution, brink depth, end depth, flow measurement, free over fall, hydraulics, rectangular channel

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16 Analysis of Potential Flow around Two-Dimensional Body by Surface Panel Method and Vortex Lattice Method

Authors: M. Abir Hossain, M. Shahjada Tarafder


This paper deals with the analysis of potential flow past two-dimensional body by discretizing the body into panels where the Laplace equation was applied to each panel. The Laplace equation was solved at each panel by applying the boundary conditions. The boundary condition was applied at each panel to mathematically formulate the problem and then convert the problem into a computer-solvable problem. Kutta condition was applied at both the leading and trailing edges to see whether the condition is satisfied or not. Another approach that is applied for the analysis is Vortex Lattice Method (VLM). A vortex ring is considered at each control point. Using the Biot-Savart Law the strength at each control point is calculated and hence the pressure differentials are measured. For the comparison of the analytic result with the experimental result, different NACA section hydrofoil is used. The analytic result of NACA 0012 and NACA 0015 are compared with the experimental result of Abbott and Doenhoff and found significant conformity with the achieved result.

Keywords: Kutta condition, Law of Biot-Savart, pressure differentials, potential flow, vortex lattice method

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15 Effect of Atmospheric Turbulence on Hybrid FSO/RF Link Availability under Qatar's Harsh Climate

Authors: Abir Touati, Syed Jawad Hussain, Farid Touati, Ammar Bouallegue


Although there has been a growing interest in the hybrid free-space optical link and radio frequency FSO/RF communication system, the current literature is limited to results obtained in moderate or cold environment. In this paper, using a soft switching approach, we investigate the effect of weather inhomogeneities on the strength of turbulence hence the channel refractive index under Qatar harsh environment and their influence on the hybrid FSO/RF availability. In this approach, either FSO/RF or simultaneous or none of them can be active. Based on soft switching approach and a finite state Markov Chain (FSMC) process, we model the channel fading for the two links and derive a mathematical expression for the outage probability of the hybrid system. Then, we evaluate the behavior of the hybrid FSO/RF under hazy and harsh weather. Results show that the FSO/RF soft switching renders the system outage probability less than that of each link individually. A soft switching algorithm is being implemented on FPGAs using Raptor code interfaced to the two terminals of a 1Gbps/100 Mbps FSO/RF hybrid system, the first being implemented in the region. Experimental results are compared to the above simulation results.

Keywords: atmospheric turbulence, haze, hybrid FSO/RF, outage probability, refractive index

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14 Mixed Alumina-Silicate Materials for Groundwater Remediation

Authors: Ziyad Abunada, Abir Al-tabbaa


The current work is investigating the effectiveness of combined mixed materials mainly modified bentonites and organoclay in treating contaminated groundwater. Sodium bentonite was manufactured with a quaternary amine surfactant, dimethyl ammonium chloride to produce organoclay (OC). Inorgano-organo bentonite (IOB) was produced by intercalating alkylbenzyd-methyl-ammonium chloride surfactant into sodium bentonite and pillared with chlorohydrol pillaring agent. The materials efficiency was tested for both TEX compounds from model-contaminated water and a mixture of organic contaminants found in groundwater samples collected from a contaminated site in the United Kingdom. The sorption data was fitted well to both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models reflecting the double sorption model where the correlation coefficient was greater than 0.89 for all materials. The mixed materials showed higher sorptive capacity than individual material with a preference order of X> E> T and a maximum sorptive capacity of 21.8 mg/g was reported for IOB-OC materials for o-xylene. The mixed materials showed at least two times higher affinity towards a mixture of organic contaminants in groundwater samples. Other experimental parameters such as pH and contact time were also investigated. The pseudo-second-order rate equation was able to provide the best description of adsorption kinetics.

Keywords: modified bentobite, groundwater, adsorption, contaminats

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13 Digital Design and Practice of The Problem Based Learning in College of Medicine, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ahmed Elzainy, Abir El Sadik, Waleed Al Abdulmonem, Ahmad Alamro, Homaidan Al-Homaidan


Problem-based learning (PBL) is an educational modality which stimulates critical and creative thinking. PBL has been practiced in the college of medicine, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia, since the 2002s with offline face to face activities. Therefore, crucial technological changes in paperless work were needed. The aim of the present study was to design and implement the digitalization of the PBL activities and to evaluate its impact on students' and tutors’ performance. This approach promoted the involvement of all stakeholders after their awareness of the techniques of using online tools. IT support, learning resources facilities, and required multimedia were prepared. Students’ and staff perception surveys reflected their satisfaction with these remarkable changes. The students were interested in the new digitalized materials and educational design, which facilitated the conduction of PBL sessions and provided sufficient time for discussion and peer sharing of knowledge. It enhanced the tutors for supervision and tracking students’ activities on the Learning Management System. It could be concluded that introducing of digitalization of the PBL activities promoted the students’ performance, engagement and enabled a better evaluation of PBL materials and getting prompt students as well as staff feedback. These positive findings encouraged the college to implement the digitalization approach in other educational activities, such as Team-Based Learning, as an additional opportunity for further development.

Keywords: multimedia in PBL, online PBL, problem-based learning, PBL digitalization

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12 Fluid-Structure Interaction Study of Fluid Flow past Marine Turbine Blade Designed by Using Blade Element Theory and Momentum Theory

Authors: Abu Afree Andalib, M. Mezbah Uddin, M. Rafiur Rahman, M. Abir Hossain, Rajia Sultana Kamol


This paper deals with the analysis of flow past the marine turbine blade which is designed by using the blade element theory and momentum theory for the purpose of using in the field of renewable energy. The designed blade is analyzed for various parameters using FSI module of Ansys. Computational Fluid Dynamics is used for the study of fluid flow past the blade and other fluidic phenomena such as lift, drag, pressure differentials, energy dissipation in water. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) module of Ansys was used to analyze the structural parameter such as stress and stress density, localization point, deflection, force propagation. Fine mesh is considered in every case for more accuracy in the result according to computational machine power. The relevance of design, search and optimization with respect to complex fluid flow and structural modeling is considered and analyzed. The relevancy of design and optimization with respect to complex fluid for minimum drag force using Ansys Adjoint Solver module is analyzed as well. The graphical comparison of the above-mentioned parameter using CFD and FEA and subsequently FSI technique is illustrated and found the significant conformity between both the results.

Keywords: blade element theory, computational fluid dynamics, finite element analysis, fluid-structure interaction, momentum theory

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11 FSO Performance under High Solar Irradiation: Case Study Qatar

Authors: Syed Jawad Hussain, Abir Touati, Farid Touati


Free-Space Optics (FSO) is a wireless technology that enables the optical transmission of data though the air. FSO is emerging as a promising alternative or complementary technology to fiber optic and wireless radio-frequency (RF) links due to its high-bandwidth, robustness to EMI, and operation in unregulated spectrum. These systems are envisioned to be an essential part of future generation heterogeneous communication networks. Despite the vibrant advantages of FSO technology and the variety of its applications, its widespread adoption has been hampered by rather disappointing link reliability for long-range links due to atmospheric turbulence-induced fading and sensitivity to detrimental climate conditions. Qatar, with modest cloud coverage, high concentrations of airborne dust and high relative humidity particularly lies in virtually rainless sunny belt with a typical daily average solar radiation exceeding 6 kWh/m2 and 80-90% clear skies throughout the year. The specific objective of this work is to study for the first time in Qatar the effect of solar irradiation on the deliverability of the FSO Link. In order to analyze the transport media, we have ported Embedded Linux kernel on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and designed a network sniffer application that can run into FPGA. We installed new FSO terminals and configure and align them successively. In the reporting period, we carry out measurement and relate them to weather conditions.

Keywords: free space optics, solar irradiation, field programmable gate array, FSO outage

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10 Effect of Iron Oxide Addition on the Solid-State Synthesis of Ye’Elimite

Authors: F. Z. Abir, M. Mesnaoui, Y. Abouliatim, L. Nibou, Y. El Hafiane, A. Smith


The cement industry has been taking significant steps for years to reduce its carbon footprint by opting for an eco-friendly alternative such as Calcium Sulfoaluminate Cements (CSA). These binders, compared to Ordinary Portland Cements (OPC), have two advantages: reduction of the CO2 emissions and energy-saving because the sintering temperature of CSA cements is between 1250 and 1350 °C, which means 100 to 200 °C less than OPC. The aim of this work is to study the impurities effect, such as iron oxide, on the formation of the ye'elimite phase, which represents the main phase of Calcium Sulfoaluminate Cements and the consequence on its hydration. Several elaborations and characterization techniques were used to study the structure and microstructure of ye'elimite, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), thermal analysis, specific surface area measurement, and electrical conductivity of diluted solutions. This study details the protocol for the solid-state synthesis of ye'elimite containing increasing amounts of iron (general formula: Ca4Al(6-2x)Fe2xSO16 with x = 0.00 to 1.13). Ye'elimite is formed by solid-state reactions between Al2O3, CaO and CaSO4 and the maximum ye'elimite content is reached at a sintering temperature of 1300 °C. The presence of iron promotes the formation of cubic ye'elimite at the expense of the orthorhombic phase. The total incorporation of iron in ye'elimite structure is possible when x < 0.12. Beyond this content, the ferritic phase (CaO)2(Al2O3,Fe2O3) appears as a minor phase and develops two different morphologies during cooling: dendritic crystals and melt morphology. The formation of the ferrous liquid phase affects the evolution of grain size of the ye’elimite and calcium aluminates.

Keywords: calcium sulfoaluminate cement, ferritic phase, sintering, solid-state synthesis, ye’elimite

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9 Upgrading of Problem-Based Learning with Educational Multimedia to the Undergraduate Students

Authors: Sharifa Alduraibi, Abir El Sadik, Ahmed Elzainy, Alaa Alduraibi, Ahmed Alsolai


Introduction: Problem-based learning (PBL) is an active student-centered educational modality, influenced by the students' interest that required continuous motivation to improve their engagement. The new era of professional information technology facilitated the utilization of educational multimedia, such as videos, soundtracks, and photographs promoting students' learning. The aim of the present study was to introduce multimedia-enriched PBL scenarios for the first time in college of medicine, Qassim University, as an incentive for better students' engagement. In addition, students' performance and satisfaction were evaluated. Methodology: Two multimedia-enhanced PBL scenarios were implemented to the third years' students in the urinary system block. Radiological images, plain CT scan, and X-ray of the abdomen and renal nuclear scan correlated with their pathological gross photographs were added to the scenarios. One week before the first sessions, pre-recorded orientation videos for PBL tutors were submitted to clarify the multimedia incorporated in the scenarios. Other two traditional PBL scenarios devoid of multimedia demonstrating the pathological and radiological findings were designed. Results and Discussion: Comparison between the formative assessments' results by the end of the two PBL modalities was done. It revealed significant increase in students' engagement, critical thinking and practical reasoning skills during the multimedia-enhanced sessions. Students' perception survey showed great satisfaction with the new strategy. Conclusion: It could be concluded from the current work that multimedia created technology-based teaching strategy inspiring the student for self-directed thinking and promoting students' overall achievement.

Keywords: multimedia, pathology and radiology images, problem-based learning, videos

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8 A Perspective on Education to Support Industry 4.0: An Exploratory Study in the UK

Authors: Sin Ying Tan, Mohammed Alloghani, A. J. Aljaaf, Abir Hussain, Jamila Mustafina


Industry 4.0 is a term frequently used to describe the new upcoming industry era. Higher education institutions aim to prepare students to fulfil the future industry needs. Advancement of digital technology has paved the way for the evolution of education and technology. Evolution of education has proven its conservative nature and a high level of resistance to changes and transformation. The gap between the industry's needs and competencies offered generally by education is revealing the increasing need to find new educational models to face the future. The aim of this study was to identify the main issues faced by both universities and students in preparing the future workforce. From December 2018 to April 2019, a regional qualitative study was undertaken in Liverpool, United Kingdom (UK). Interviews were conducted with employers, faculty members and undergraduate students, and the results were analyzed using the open coding method. Four main issues had been identified, which are the characteristics of the future workforce, student's readiness to work, expectations on different roles played at the tertiary education level and awareness of the latest trends. The finding of this paper concluded that the employers and academic practitioners agree that their expectations on each other’s roles are different and in order to face the rapidly changing technology era, students should not only have the right skills, but they should also have the right attitude in learning. Therefore, the authors address this issue by proposing a learning framework known as 'ASK SUMA' framework as a guideline to support the students, academicians and employers in meeting the needs of 'Industry 4.0'. Furthermore, this technology era requires the employers, academic practitioners and students to work together in order to face the upcoming challenges and fast-changing technologies. It is also suggested that an interactive system should be provided as a platform to support the three different parties to play their roles.

Keywords: attitude, expectations, industry needs, knowledge, skills

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7 Surface Deformation Studies in South of Johor Using the Integration of InSAR and Resistivity Methods

Authors: Sirajo Abubakar, Ismail Ahmad Abir, Muhammad Sabiu Bala, Muhammad Mustapha Adejo, Aravind Shanmugaveloo


Over the years, land subsidence has been a serious threat mostly to urban areas. Land subsidence is the sudden sinking or gradual downward settling of the ground’s surface with little or no horizontal motion. In most areas, land subsidence is a slow process that covers a large area; therefore, it is sometimes left unnoticed. South of Johor is the area of interest for this project because it is going through rapid urbanization. The objective of this research is to evaluate and identify potential deformations in the south of Johor using integrated remote sensing and 2D resistivity methods. Synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) which is a remote sensing technique has the potential to map coherent displacements at centimeter to millimeter resolutions. Persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) stacking technique was applied to Sentinel-1 data to detect the earth deformation in the study area. A dipole-dipole configuration resistivity profiling was conducted in three areas to determine the subsurface features in that area. This subsurface features interpreted were then correlated with the remote sensing technique to predict the possible causes of subsidence and uplifts in the south of Johor. Based on the results obtained, West Johor Bahru (0.63mm/year) and Ulu Tiram (1.61mm/year) are going through uplift due to possible geological uplift. On the other end, East Johor Bahru (-0.26mm/year) and Senai (-1.16mm/year) undergo subsidence due to possible fracture and granitic boulders loading. Land subsidence must be taken seriously as it can cause serious damages to infrastructures and human life. Monitoring land subsidence and taking preventive actions must be done to prevent any disasters.

Keywords: interferometric synthetic aperture radar, persistent scatter, minimum spanning tree, resistivity, subsidence

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6 Assessment of Ocular Morbidity, Knowledge and Barriers to Access Eye Care Services among the Children Live in Offshore Island, Bangladesh

Authors: Abir Dey, Shams Noman


Introduction: Offshore Island is the remote and isolated area from the terrestrial mainland. They are deprived of their needs. The children from an offshore island are usually underserved in the case of health care because it is a remote area where the health care systems are quite poor compared to mainland. So, the proper information is required for appropriate planning to reduce underlying causes behind visual deprivation among the surviving children of the Offshore Island. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine ocular morbidities, knowledge, and barriers of eye care services among children in an Offshore Island. Methods: The study team visited, and all data were collected from different rural communities at Sandwip Upazila, Chittagong district for screening the children aged 5-16 years old by doing spot examination. The whole study was conducted in both qualitative and quantitative methods. To determine ocular status of children, examinations were done under skilled Ophthalmologists and Optometrists. A focus group discussion was held. The sample size was 490. It was a community based descriptive study and the sampling method was purposive sampling. Results: In total 490 children, about 56.90% were female and 43.10% were male. Among them 456 were school-going children (93.1%) and 34 were non-school going children (6.9%). In this study the most common ocular morbidity was Allergic Conjunctivitis (35.2%). Other mentionable ocular morbidities were Refractive error (27.7%), Blepharitis (13.8%), Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (7.5%), Strabismus (6.3%) and Amblyopia (6.3%). Most of the non-school going children were involved in different types of domestic work like farming, fishing, etc. About 90.04% children who had different ocular abnormalities could not attend to the doctor due to various reasons. Conclusions: The ocular morbidity was high in rate on the offshore island. Eye health care facility was also not well established there. Awareness should be raised about necessity of maintaining hygiene and eye healthcare among the island people. Timely intervention through available eye care facilities and management can reduce the ocular morbidity rate in that area.

Keywords: morbidities, screening, barriers, offshore island, knowledge

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5 Impact of Gamma Irradiation on Biological Activities of Artemisia herba alba from Algeria

Authors: Abir Mohamed Mohamed Ibrahim, Amina Titouche, Mohamed Hazzit


Phytotherapy is based on use of plant natural products holding the main sources of drugs with healing properties for the treatment of human, animal or vegetable diseases. With these aims, and to replace chemical preservatives in natural products, we are interested to use essential oils from Algerian endemic plants belonging to the Asteraceae family: Artemisia herba alba Asso, which was undergoes a hydro-distillation after its irradiation by Gamma rays at frequencies: 10, 20, and 30 KGray which gave respectively the following essential oil yields: 1.087%, 1.087%, 1.085%, compared with that of the untreated sample giving a yield of 1.27 %. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity in vitro of essential oil for A. herba alba has been assessed by two different methods: inhibition of DPPH radical and measurement of reducing power. The first method has not revealed a very big difference regardless of the dose of irradiation, the IC50 is about 4000 mg/l, the maximum of inhibition was around 49.4%, likewise, the test of reducing power awarded us a maximum reducing capacity was of 0.76%; both of results were registered by the specimen irradiated at 20 KGy, it has a more better antioxidant power than no irradiated sample but slightly. To combat Fusarium culmorum, causing the wilts and rots, we are focused on the antifungal screening of this aromatic plant. The results obtained, followed by measurements of Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC); showed promising inhibitory effect against pathogen tested. With a yield superior to l%, the essential oil has shown a remarkable efficiency on the stump, mainly for sample irradiate at 30KGray (MICs= 625 µg/ml; MICc= 1250 µg/ml) with MIC of 2%. These results demonstrate a good antifungal activity, to limit and even to stop the development of the pathogenic microorganism and also the positive effect of dose of irradiation to upgrade this capacity as well, to uphold the antioxidant capacity.

Keywords: artemisia herba alba Asso, essential oil yield, gamma ray, antioxidant activity, antifungal activity

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4 Caffeic Acid Methyl and Ethyl Esters Exhibit Beneficial Effect on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Cultured Murine Insulin-Sensitive Cells

Authors: Hoda M. Eid, Abir Nachar, Farah Thong, Gary Sweeney, Pierre S. Haddad


Caffeic acid methyl ester (CAME) and caffeic ethyl esters (CAEE) were previously reported to potently stimulate glucose uptake in cultured C2C12 skeletal muscle cells via insulin-independent mechanisms involving the activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In the present study, we investigated the effect of the two compounds on the translocation of glucose transporter GLUT4 in L6 skeletal muscle cells. The cells were treated with the optimum non-toxic concentration (50 µM) of either CAME or CAEE for 18 h. Levels of GLUT4myc at the cell surface were measured by O-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (OPD) assay. The effects of CAME and CAEE on GLUT1 and GLUT4 protein content were also measured by western immunoblot. Our results show that CAME and CAEE significantly increased glucose uptake, GLUT4 translocation and GLUT4 protein content. Furthermore, the effect of the two CA esters on two insulin-sensitive cell lines: H4IIE rat hepatoma and 3T3-L1 adipocytes were investigated. CAME and CAEE reduced the enzymatic activity of the key hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, they exerted a concentration-dependent antiadipogenic effect on 3T3-L1 cells. Mitotic clonal expansion (MCE), a prerequisite for adipocytes differentiation was also concentration-dependently inhibited. The two compounds abrogated lipid droplet accumulation, blocked MCE and maintained cells in fibroblast-like state when applied at the maximum non-toxic concentration (100 µM). In addition, the expression of the early key adipogenic transcription factors CCAAT enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBP-β) and the master regulator of adipogenesis peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) were inhibited. We, therefore, conclude that CAME and CAEE exert pleiotropic benefits in several insulin-sensitive cell lines through insulin-independent mechanisms involving AMPK, hence they may treat obesity, diabetes and other metabolic diseases.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, GLUT4, Akt, AMPK.

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3 The Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Full Thickness Skin Wound Healing in Albino Rats

Authors: Abir O. El Sadik


Introduction: Wound healing involves the interaction of multiple biological processes among different types of cells, intercellular matrix and specific signaling factors producing enhancement of cell proliferation of the epidermis over dermal granulation tissue. Several studies investigated multiple strategies to promote wound healing and to minimize infection and fluid losses. However, burn crisis, and its related morbidity and mortality are still elevated. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in accelerating wound healing and to compare the most efficient route of administration of MSCs, either intradermal or systemic injection, with focusing on the mechanisms producing epidermal and dermal cell regeneration. Material and methods: Forty-two adult male Sprague Dawley albino rats were divided into three equal groups (fourteen rats in each group): control group (group I); full thickness surgical skin wound model, Group II: Wound treated with systemic injection of MSCs and Group III: Wound treated with intradermal injection of MSCs. The healing ulcer was examined on day 2, 6, 10 and 15 for gross morphological evaluation and on day 10 and 15 for fluorescent, histological and immunohistochemical studies. Results: The wounds of the control group did not reach complete closure up to the end of the experiment. In MSCs treated groups, better and faster healing of wounds were detected more than the control group. Moreover, the intradermal route of administration of stem cells increased the rate of healing of the wounds more than the systemic injection. In addition, the wounds were found completely healed by the end of the fifteenth day of the experiment in all rats of the group injected intradermally. Microscopically, the wound areas of group III were hardly distinguished from the adjacent normal skin with complete regeneration of all skin layers; epidermis, dermis, hypodermis and underlying muscle layer. Fully regenerated hair follicles and sebaceous glands in the dermis of the healed areas surrounded by different arrangement of collagen fibers with a significant increase in their area percent were recorded in this group more than in other groups. Conclusion: MSCs accelerate the healing process of wound closure. The route of administration of MSCs has a great influence on wound healing as intradermal injection of MSCs was more effective in enhancement of wound healing than systemic injection.

Keywords: intradermal, mesenchymal stem cells, morphology, skin wound, systemic injection

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2 Molecular Detection of E. coli in Treated Wastewater and Well Water Samples Collected from Al Riyadh Governorate, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Hanouf A. S. Al Nuwaysir, Nadine Moubayed, Abir Ben Bacha, Islem Abid


Consumption of waste water continues to cause significant problems for human health in both developed and developing countries. Many regulations have been implied by different world authorities controlling water quality for the presence of coliforms used as standard indicators of water quality deterioration and historically leading health protection concept. In this study, the European directive for the detection of Escherichia coli, ISO 9308-1, was applied to examine and monitor coliforms in water samples collected from Wadi Hanifa and neighboring wells, Riyadh governorate, kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which is used for irrigation and industrial purposes. Samples were taken from different locations for 8 months consecutively, chlorine concentration ranging from 0.1- 0.4 mg/l, was determined using the DPD FREE CHLORINE HACH kit. Water samples were then analyzed following the ISO protocol which relies on the membrane filtration technique (0.45µm, pore size membrane filter) and a chromogenic medium TTC, a lactose based medium used for the detection and enumeration of total coliforms and E.coli. Data showed that the number of bacterial isolates ranged from 60 to 300 colonies/100ml for well and surface water samples respectively; where higher numbers were attributed to the surface samples. Organisms which apparently ferment lactose on TTC agar plates, appearing as orange colonies, were selected and additionally cultured on EMB and MacConkey agar for a further differentiation among E.coli and coliform bacteria. Two additional biochemical tests (Cytochrome oxidase and indole from tryptophan) were also investigated to detect and differentiate the presence of E.coli from other coliforms, E. coli was identified in an average of 5 to 7colonies among 25 selected colonies.On the other hand, a more rapid, specific and sensitive analytical molecular detection namely single colony PCR was also performed targeting hha gene to sensitively detect E.coli, giving more accurate and time consuming identification of colonies considered presumptively as E.coli. Comparative methodologies, such as ultrafiltration and direct DNA extraction from membrane filters (MoBio, Grermany) were also applied; however, results were not as accurate as the membrane filtration, making it a technique of choice for the detection and enumeration of water coliforms, followed by sufficiently specific enzymatic confirmatory stage.

Keywords: coliform, cytochrome oxidase, hha primer, membrane filtration, single colony PCR

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1 Distribution, Seasonal Phenology and Infestation Dispersal of the Chickpea Leafminer Liriomyza cicerina (Diptera: Agromizidae) on Two Winter and Spring Chickpea Varieties

Authors: Abir Soltani, Moez Amri, Jouda Mediouni Ben Jemâa


In North Africa, the chickpea leafminer Liriomyza cicerina (Rondani) (Diptera: Agromizidae) is one of the major damaging pests affecting both spring and winter-planted chickpea. Damage is caused by the larvae which feed in the leaf mesophyll tissue, resulting in desiccation and premature leaf fall that can cause severe yield losses. In the present work, the distribution and the seasonal phenology of L. cicerina were studied on two chickpea varieties; a winter variety Beja 1 which is the most cultivated variety in Tunisia and a spring-sown variety Amdoun 1. The experiment was conducted during the cropping season 2015-2016. In the experimental research station Oued Beja, in the Beja region (36°44’N; 9°13’E). To determine the distribution and seasonal phenology of L. cicerina in both studied varieties Beja 1 and Amdoun 1, respectively 100 leave samples (50 from the top and 50 from the base) were collected from 10 chickpea plants randomly chosen from each field. The sampling was done during three development stages (i) 20-25 days before flowering (BFL), (ii) at flowering (FL) and (ii) at pod setting stage (PS). For each plant, leaves were checked from the base till the upper ones for the insect infestation progress into the plant in correlation with chickpea growth Stages. Fly adult populations were monitored using 8 yellow sticky traps together with weekly leaves sampling in each field. The traps were placed 70 cm above ground. Trap catches were collected once a week over the cropping season period. Results showed that L. cicerina distribution varied among both studied chickpea varieties and crop development stage all with seasonal phenology. For the winter chickpea variety Beja 1, infestation levels of 2%, 10.3% and 20.3% were recorded on the bases plant part for BFL, FL and PS stages respectively against 0%, 8.1% and 45.8% recorded for the upper plant part leaves for the same stages respectively. For the spring-sown variety Amdoun 1 the infestation level reached 71.5% during flowering stage. Population dynamic study revealed that for Beja 1 variety, L. cicerina accomplished three annual generations over the cropping season period with the third one being the most important with a capture level of 85 adult/trap by mid-May against a capture level of 139 adult/trap at the end May recorded for cv. Amdoun 1. Also, results showed that L. cicerina field infestation dispersal depends on the field part and on the crop growth stage. The border areas plants were more infested than the plants placed inside the plots. For cv. Beja 1, border areas infestations were 11%, 28% and 91.2% for BFL, FL and PS stages respectively, against 2%, 10.73% and 69.2% recorded on the on the inside plot plants during the for the same growth stages respectively. For the cv. Amdoun1 infestation level of 90% was observed on the border plants at FL and PS stages against an infestation level less than 65% recorded inside the plot.

Keywords: leaf miner, liriomyza cicerina, chickpea, distribution, seasonal phenology, Tunisia

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