Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 82

Search results for: Iqra Zafar

82 Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols in Vehicular Adhoc Networks

Authors: Salman Naseer, Usman Zafar, Iqra Zafar

Abstract:

This study explores the implication of Vehicular Adhoc Network (VANET) - in the rural and urban scenarios that is one domain of Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET). VANET provides wireless communication between vehicle to vehicle and also roadside units. The Federal Commission Committee of United States of American has been allocated 75 MHz of the spectrum band in the 5.9 GHz frequency range for dedicated short-range communications (DSRC) that are specifically designed to enhance any road safety applications and entertainment/information applications. There are several vehicular related projects viz; California path, car 2 car communication consortium, the ETSI, and IEEE 1609 working group that have already been conducted to improve the overall road safety or traffic management. After the critical literature review, the selection of routing protocols is determined, and its performance was well thought-out in the urban and rural scenarios. Numerous routing protocols for VANET are applied to carry out current research. Its evaluation was conceded with the help of selected protocols through simulation via performance metric i.e. throughput and packet drop. Excel and Google graph API tools are used for plotting the graphs after the simulation results in order to compare the selected routing protocols which result with each other. In addition, the sum of the output from each scenario was computed to undoubtedly present the divergence in results. The findings of the current study present that DSR gives enhanced performance for low packet drop and high throughput as compared to AODV and DSDV in an urban congested area and in rural environments. On the other hand, in low-density area, VANET AODV gives better results as compared to DSR. The worth of the current study may be judged as the information exchanged between vehicles is useful for comfort, safety, and entertainment. Furthermore, the communication system performance depends on the way routing is done in the network and moreover, the routing of the data based on protocols implement in the network. The above-presented results lead to policy implication and develop our understanding of the broader spectrum of VANET.

Keywords: AODV, DSDV, DSR, Adhoc network

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81 The Development of Private Housing Schemes to Address the Housing Problem: A Case Study of Islamabad

Authors: Zafar Iqbal Zafar, Abdul Waheed

Abstract:

The Capital Development Authority (CDA) Ordinance 1960 requires CDA to acquire land for the provision of housing in Islamabad. However, the pace of residential development was slow and the demand for housing was increasing rapidly. To resolve the growing housing problem, CDA involved the private sector in the development of housing schemes. Detailed bye-laws for regulation of private housing schemes were prepared and these bylaws were called “Modalities & Procedures”. This paper explains how the Modalities and Procedures of CDA have been successful in regulating the development of private housing schemes in Islamabad.

Keywords: housing schemes, master plan, development works, zoning regulations

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
80 Software Architectural Design Ontology

Authors: Muhammad Irfan Marwat, Sadaqat Jan, Syed Zafar Ali Shah

Abstract:

Software architecture plays a key role in software development but absence of formal description of software architecture causes different impede in software development. To cope with these difficulties, ontology has been used as artifact. This paper proposes ontology for software architectural design based on IEEE model for architecture description and Kruchten 4+1 model for viewpoints classification. For categorization of style and views, ISO/IEC 42010 has been used. Corpus method has been used to evaluate ontology. The main aim of the proposed ontology is to classify and locate software architectural design information.

Keywords: semantic-based software architecture, software architecture, ontology, software engineering

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79 Emotional Stroop Task, Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Personality Assessment in Sexually Abused Children

Authors: Rabia Iftikhar, Iqra Tariq

Abstract:

The current study examined the parental acceptance-rejection and personality assessment of sexually abused children. A sample of 50 control (25 girls and 25 boys) and 50 abused (25 girls and 25 boys) were drawn through the process of purposive sampling (N = 100). The sample consisted of school going children between the ages of 8-16. The sample was taken from non-governmental schools and NGO. Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire, Personality Assessment Questionnaire and Emotional STROOP task, were used to explore the relationship between the variables. The results showed that girls showed greater parental rejection than boys, were less psychologically and emotionally adjusted than boys. The results also showed that boys were high on psychological abuse while girls were high on physical and sexual abuse. The results of STROOP showed that sexually abused children showed more reaction time than non-abused children.

Keywords: abused, adjustment, Pakistani, stroop

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78 Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment: A Study on Young Doctors of Pakistan

Authors: Aisha Khalid, Talha Aftab, Fareeha Zafar

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This paper investigates the impact of emotional intelligence on job satisfaction and organizational commitment at workplace in the doctors; age ranging from 25 to 32 years. Job satisfaction and organizational commitment have been considered as important issue in terms of high quality services and superior performance. This paper presents a field survey conducted in 9 different public sector hospitals which operate in Punjab, Pakistan. 250 questionnaires were distributed out of which 180 returned back were showing 72% response rate, confirming the significant positive relationship between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction and emotional intelligence and organizational commitment.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, young doctors

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77 Simulation of Internal Flow Field of Pitot-Tube Jet Pump

Authors: Iqra Noor, Ihtzaz Qamar

Abstract:

Pitot-tube Jet pump, single-stage pump with low flow rate and high head, consists of a radial impeller that feeds water to rotating cavity. Water then enters stationary pitot-tube collector (diffuser), which discharges to the outside. By means of ANSYS Fluent 15.0, the internal flow characteristics for Pitot-tube Jet pump with standard pitot and curved pitot are studied. Under design condition, realizable k-e turbulence model and SIMPLEC algorithm are used to calculate 3D flow field inside both pumps. The simulation results reveal that energy is imparted to the flow by impeller and inside the rotor, forced vortex type flow is observed. Total pressure decreases inside pitot-tube whereas static pressure increases. Changing pitot-tube from standard to curved shape results in minimum flow circulation inside pitot-tube and leads to a higher pump performance.

Keywords: CFD, flow circulation, high pressure pump, impeller, internal flow, pickup tube pump, rectangle channels, rotating casing, turbulence

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
76 The Fashion Fiesta: An Approach for Creating an Environment of Celebration by Uniting Two Art Forms; Fashion and Dance

Authors: Iqra Khan, Ghousia Saeed, Salman Jamil

Abstract:

Fashion is the soul of styles. People of all times want to look trendy, eye catching and unique among all. For this reason, people always adopt different flairs in their outfits including their clothes, shoes, bags and other accessories. However, unfortunately, there is lack of opportunity for accommodating the fashion exposure activities expressed with the folk dances of different regions so as to exhibit the fashion of Pakistan to the world. The paper focuses on the vibrant setting of the whole building according to the social patterns, folk and local trends and existing environment of Lahore. This is done by studying each of the aspect obtained from objectives through research questions evolved from the objectives. The answers to these questions are found through case studies and the existing theories in the world in relevance to the topic. The paper finds out how the geometry of dance works with design principles to create transparent geometry of fashion building. This all creates the fiesta environment taken from the locality of the region from the local and cultural lifestyles of the locals and then assembling it together to create a full festivity experience throughout the building.

Keywords: fashion, folk dance, geometry, local trends, social patterns, transparent

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75 Ontology-Based Representation of Islamic Rules to Perform Salah

Authors: Hamza Zafar, Quratulain Rajput

Abstract:

Salah (نماز ) is one of five pillars of Islam and obligatory for every Muslims. However, due to the lack of Islamic knowledge it might be very difficult for a layperson to perform it correctly. This paper presents an ontology based representation of Islamic rules to perform Salah. The Salah ontology has been built under the guidance of domain expert in light of Quran and Hadith. The ontology consists of basic concepts as well as relationship among concepts and constraints on them. The basic concepts include cleanness, body cover, Salah timing and steps to perform Salah. The SWRL rule language has been used to represent rule to determine whether the Salah performed correctly or it should be repeated. Finally, we evaluate the use of the Salat ontology through user’s example queries using SPARQL queries.

Keywords: prayer, salah, ontology, SPARQL queries, reasoning

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74 Mutational Analysis of DNase I Gene in Diabetic Patients

Authors: Hateem Zafar Kayani, Nageen Hussain

Abstract:

The main aim is to analyze the mutations of DNASE I gene in diabetic patients. A total of 120 diabetes patients and 120 controls were sampled. The total number of male diabetic patients included in the study was 79 (66%) while female patients were 41 (34%) in number. Exon 8 of the DNASE I gene was amplified by using thermo cycler. The possible band of interest was located at 165 base pairs. Two samples showed similar missense mutations at 127th position of exon 8 which replaced amino acid Arginine (Arg) to Glutamine (Gln). All controls showed no mutations. The association of diabetes with different levels of blood pressure and body mass index (BMI) were found to be significant.

Keywords: deoxyribonuclease I, polymerase chain reaction, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

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73 Differential Antibrucella Activity of Bovine and Murine Macrophages

Authors: Raheela Akhtar, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary, Yongqun Oliver He, Muhammad Younus, Aftab Ahmad Anjum

Abstract:

Brucella abortus is an intracellular pathogen affecting macrophages. Macrophages release some components such as lysozymes (LZ), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrite intermediates (RNI) which are important tools against intracellular survival of Brucella. The antibrucella activity of bovine and murine macrophages was compared following stimulation with Brucella abortus lipopolysaccharides. Our results revealed that murine macrophages were ten times more potent to produce antibrucella components than bovine macrophages. The differential production of these components explained the differential Brucella killing ability of these species that was measured in terms of intramacrophagic survival of Brucella in murine and bovine macrophages.

Keywords: bovine macrophages, Brucella abortus, cell stimulation, cytokines, Murine macrophages

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72 Chemical Bath Deposition Technique (CBD) of Cds Used in Closed Space Sublimation (CSS) of CdTe Solar Cell

Authors: Zafar Mahmood, Fahimullah Babar, Surriyia Naz, Hafiz Ur Rehman

Abstract:

Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) was deposited on a Tec 15 glass substrate with the help of CBD (chemical bath deposition process) and then cadmium telluride CdTe was deposited on CdS with the help of CSS (closed spaced sublimation technique) for the construction of a solar cell. The thicknesses of all the deposited materials were measured with the help of Elipsometry. The IV graphs were drawn in order to observe the current voltage output. The efficiency of the cell was graphed with the fill factor as well (graphs not given here).The efficiency came out to be approximately 16.5 % and the CIGS (copper- indium –gallium- selenide) maximum efficiency is 20 %.The efficiency of a solar cell can further be enhanced by adapting quality materials, good experimental devices and proper procedures. The grain size was analyzed with the help of scanning electron microscope using RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy).

Keywords: CBD, CdS, CdTe, CSS

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71 Predictive Value of Coagulopathy in Patients with Isolated Blunt Traumatic Brain Injury: A Cohort of Pakistani Population

Authors: Muhammad Waqas, Shahan Waheed, Mohsin Qadeer, Ehsan Bari, Salman Ahmed, Iqra Patoli

Abstract:

Objective: To determine the value of aPTT, platelets and INR as the predictor of unfavorable outcomes in patients with blunt isolated traumatic brain injury. Methods: This was an observational cohort study conducted in a tertiary care facility from 1st January 2008 to 31st December 2012. All the patients with isolated traumatic brain injury presenting within 24 hours of injury were included in the study. Coagulation parameters at presentation were recorded and Glasgow Outcome Scale calculated on last follow up. Outcomes were dichotomized into favorable and unfavorable outcomes. Relationship of coagulopathy with GOS and unfavorable outcomes was calculated using Spearman`s correlation and area under curve ROC analysis. Results: 121 patients were included in the study. The incidence of coagulopathy was found to be 6 %. aPTT was found to a significantly associated with unfavorable outcomes with an AUC = 0.702 (95%CI = 0.602-0.802). Predictive value of platelets and INR was not found to be significant. Conclusion: Incidence of coagulopathy was found to be low in current population compared to data from the West. aPTT was found to be a good predictor of unfavorable outcomes compared with other parameters of coagulation.

Keywords: aPTT, coagulopathy, unfavorable outcomes, parameters

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70 Evidence on Scale Economies in National Bank of Pakistan

Authors: Sohail Zafar, Sardar Javaid Iqbal Khan

Abstract:

We use a parametric approach within a translog cost function framework to estimate the economies of scale in National Bank of Pakistan from 1997 to 2013. The results indicate significant economies of scale throughout the sample at aggregates and disaggregates taking in account size subject to stipulation ownership. The factor markets often produce scale inefficiencies in the banking of developing countries like Pakistan such inefficiencies are common due to distortion in factor markets leading to the use of inappropriate factor proportions. The findings suggest that National Bank of Pakistan diversify their asset portfolios that it has cost advantage, therefore, expansion in size should be encouraged under current technology because it appears to be cost effective. In addition, our findings support the implementation of universal banking model in Pakistan.

Keywords: scale economies, cost function, disaggregates, aggregates

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69 Varietal Screening of Watermelon against Powdery Mildew Disease and Its Management

Authors: Asim Abbasi, Amer Habib, Sajid Hussain, Muhammad Sufyan, Iqra, Hasnain Sajjad

Abstract:

Except for few scattered cases, powdery mildew disease was not a big problem for watermelon in the past but with the outbreaks of its pathotypes, races 1W and 2W, this disease becomes a serious issue all around the globe. The severe outbreak of this disease also increased the rate of fungicide application for its proper management. Twelve varieties of watermelon were screened in Research Area of Department of Plant pathology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad to check the incidence of powdery mildew disease. Disease inoculum was prepared and applied with the help of foliar spray method. Fungicides and plants extracts were also applied after the disease incidence. Percentage leaf surface area diseased was assessed visually with a modified Horsfall-Barratt scale. The results of the experiment revealed that among all varieties, WT2257 and Zcugma F1 were highly resistant showing less than 5% disease incidence while Anar Kali and Sugar baby were highly susceptible with disease incidence of more than 65%. Among botanicals neem extract gave best results with disease incidence of less than 20%. Besides neem, all other botanicals also gave significant control of powdery mildew disease than the untreated check. In case of fungicides, Gemstar showed least disease incidence i.e. < 10%, however besides control maximum disease incidence was observed in Curzate (> 30%).

Keywords: botanicals, fungicides, pathotypes, powdery mildew

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68 Physico-Chemical Analysis of the Reclaimed Land Area of Kasur

Authors: Shiza Zafar

Abstract:

The tannery effluents contaminated about 400 acres land area in Kasur, Pakistan, has been reclaimed by removing polluted water after the long term effluent logging from the nearby tanneries. In an effort to describe the status of reclaimed soil for agricultural practices, the results of physicochemical analysis of the soil are reported in this article. The concentrations of the parameters such as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Organic Matter (OM), Organic Carbon (OC), Available Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), and Sodium (Na) were determined by standard methods of analysis and results were computed and compared with various international standards for agriculture recommended by international organizations, groups of experts and or individual researchers. The results revealed that pH, EC, OM, OC, K, and Na are in accordance with the prescribed limits but P in soil exceeds the satisfactory range of P in agricultural soil. Thus, the reclaimed soil in Kasur can be inferred fit for the purpose of agricultural activities.

Keywords: soil toxicity, agriculture, reclaimed land, physico-chemical analysis

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67 Telecom Infrastructure Outsourcing: An Innovative Approach

Authors: Irfan Zafar

Abstract:

Over the years the Telecom Industry in the country has shown a lot of progress in terms of infrastructure development coupled with the availability of telecom services. This has however led to the cut throat completion among various operators thus leading to reduced tariffs to the customers. The profit margins have seen a reduction thus leading the operators to think of other avenues by adopting new models while keeping the quality of service intact. The outsourcing of the network and the resources is one such model which has shown promising benefits which includes lower costs, less risk, higher levels of customer support and engagement, predictable expenses, access to the emerging technologies, benefiting from a highly skilled workforce, adaptability, focus on the core business while reducing capital costs. A lot of research has been done on outsourcing in terms of reasons of outsourcing and its benefits. However this study is an attempt to analyze the effects of the outsourcing on an organizations performance (Telecommunication Sector) considering the variables (1) Cost Reduction (2) Organizational Performance (3) Flexibility (4) Employee Performance (5) Access to Specialized Skills & Technology and the (6) Outsourcing Risks.

Keywords: outsourcing, ICT, telecommunication, IT, networking

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66 Morphometric Relationships of Unfarmed Puntius sophore, Collected from Chenab River, Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Alina Zafar

Abstract:

In this particular research, various morphometric characters such as total length (TL), wet weight (WW), standard length (SL), fork length (FL), head length (HL), head width (HW), body depth (BD), body girth (BG), dorsal fin length (DFL), pelvic fin length (PelFL), pectoral fin length (PecFL), anal fin length (AFL), dorsal fin base (DFB), anal fin base (AFB), caudal fin length (CFL) and caudal fin width (CFW) of wild collected Puntius sophore were studied, to know the types of growth patterns and correlations in reference to length and weight, however, high significant relationships were recorded between total length and wet weight, as the correlation coefficient (r) possessed value of 0.989. The growth pattern was observed to be positively allometric as the value of ‘b’ was 3.22 (slightly higher than the ideal value, 3) with 95% confidence intervals ranging from 3.076 to 3.372. Wet weight and total length parameters showed high significant correlations (p < 0.001) with all other morphometric characters.

Keywords: Puntius sophore, length and weight relation, morphometrics, small indigenous species

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65 Performance Analysis of Routing Protocols for WLAN Based Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)

Authors: Noman Shabbir, Roheel Nawaz, Muhammad N. Iqbal, Junaid Zafar

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the performance evaluation of routing protocols in WLAN based Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). A comparative analysis of routing protocols such as Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing System (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) is been made against different network parameters like network load, end to end delay and throughput in small, medium and large-scale sensor network scenarios to identify the best performing protocol. Simulation results indicate that OLSR gives minimum network load in all three scenarios while AODV gives the best throughput in small scale network but in medium and large scale networks, DSR is better. In terms of delay, OLSR is more efficient in small and medium scale network while AODV is slightly better in large networks.

Keywords: WLAN, WSN, AODV, DSR, OLSR

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64 Paucity of Trauma Literature from a Highly Burdened Developing Country

Authors: Rizwan Sultan, Hasnain Zafar

Abstract:

Trauma is the leading cause of death among young population not only in USA but Pakistan as well. The high prevalence of disease should result in larger amount of data and larger number of publications resulting in exploring room for improvement in the field. We aimed to review trauma literature generated from Pakistan in journals indexed with PubMed from January 2010 to December 2014. Search using term “Trauma AND Pakistan” filtering for relevant dates and species human was done on Pubmed. The abstracts and articles were reviewed by the authors to collect data on a preformed performa. 114 articles were published from Pakistan during these 5 years. 64% articles were published in international journals. 63% articles were published in journals with impact factor less than 1. 54% articles were published from one of the four provinces of Pakistan. 64% of articles provided level 4 while 14% articles provided level 5 evidence on the topic. 55% articles discussed epidemiology in non-representative populations. Trauma literature from Pakistan is not only lacking significantly but is also of poor quality and is unable to offer conclusions on this particular subject. There is a lot of space for improvement in the upcoming years.

Keywords: trauma, literature, Pakistan, level of evidence

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63 Socio-Demographic Predictors of Divorce Adjustment in Pakistani Women

Authors: Rukhsana Kausar, Nida Zafar

Abstract:

The present research investigated socio-demographic predictors of divorce adjustment in Pakistani women. The sample comprised of 80 divorced women from different areas of Lahore. Self developed Socio-Demographic predictor scale and Divorce Adjustment Scale by (Fisher, 2001) was used for assessment. Analyses showed that working divorced women living with joint family system are more adjusted as compared to non-working divorced women living with joint family system. Women having one child are more adjusted as compared to women having more than one child. Findings highlight importance of presence of father for healthy development of adolescents. Adjustment of divorcee women was positively associated with income, social support from the family, having favorable attitudes toward marital dissolution prior to divorce, and being the partner who initiated the divorce. In addition, older women showed some evidence of poorer adjustment than did younger women. Findings highlight importance of support for divorce adjustment.

Keywords: socio-demographic, adjustment, women, divorce

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62 Analyzing the Impact of Spatio-Temporal Climate Variations on the Rice Crop Calendar in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Imran, Iqra Basit, Mobushir Riaz Khan, Sajid Rasheed Ahmad

Abstract:

The present study investigates the space-time impact of climate change on the rice crop calendar in tropical Gujranwala, Pakistan. The climate change impact was quantified through the climatic variables, whereas the existing calendar of the rice crop was compared with the phonological stages of the crop, depicted through the time series of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from Landsat data for the decade 2005-2015. Local maxima were applied on the time series of NDVI to compute the rice phonological stages. Panel models with fixed and cross-section fixed effects were used to establish the relation between the climatic parameters and the time-series of NDVI across villages and across rice growing periods. Results show that the climatic parameters have significant impact on the rice crop calendar. Moreover, the fixed effect model is a significant improvement over cross-sectional fixed effect models (R-squared equal to 0.673 vs. 0.0338). We conclude that high inter-annual variability of climatic variables cause high variability of NDVI, and thus, a shift in the rice crop calendar. Moreover, inter-annual (temporal) variability of the rice crop calendar is high compared to the inter-village (spatial) variability. We suggest the local rice farmers to adapt this change in the rice crop calendar.

Keywords: Landsat NDVI, panel models, temperature, rainfall

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61 A Critical Study of Gender Identity Issues in Daniyal Mueenuddin’s Short Story “Saleema”

Authors: Zafar Ali

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to highlight problems that are faced by women at the hands of men. Males in Pakistani society have power and use this power for the exploitation of women. Further, the purpose of the study is to make societies, like Pakistan and especially the young generation, aware and enable them to resist such issues, and the role of discourse in the regard is to minimize its political and social repercussions. The study finds out different discursive techniques and manipulative language used in the short story to construct gender identity. The study also investigates socio-economic roles in the construction of gender identity. This study has been completed with the help of Critical Discourse Analysis principles. CDA principles have been applied to the text of the selected short story Saleem from DaniyalMueenuddin’s collection In Other Rooms, Other Wonders. Related passages, structures, expressions, and text are analyzed from the point of view of CDA, especially Norman Fairclough’s CDA approach. It was found from the analysis that women have no identity of their own in patriarchal societies like Pakistan. Further, it was found women are mistreated, and they have a very limited and defined role in Pakistan. They cannot go beyond the limit defined to them by men.

Keywords: gender issues, resourceful groups, CDA, exploitation

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60 Role of Medicinal Plants in Treatment of Diseases and Drug Discovery in Azad Kashmir, Pakistan

Authors: Neelam Rashid, Muhammad Zafar, Mushtaq Ahmad, Khafsa Malik, Syed Nasar Shah

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to study the role of medicinal plants used to cure different ailments in Azad Kashmir. Various ethno medicinal surveys were carried out during 2016 to enlist the uses of plants against various ailments by rural communities of the area. Information was obtained from 60 local people including 45 males (10 traditional health practitioners) and 15 females by semi structured interviews and group discussions. 65 plant species belonging to 45 families were reported. The dominant plant habit was herbaceous (56%) while decoction was the most common method of utilization (40%). The most cited turmoil was the gastrointestinal disorders. The data obtained were analyzed using ethno medicinal indices such as FL, UV, ICF, FC, and RFC. Results revealed that various species had numerous uses in curing of diseases. So conservation of biodiversity of these medicinal plants and traditional knowledge can play important role in improving the local health conditions of rural people and modern drug discovery and development.

Keywords: medicinal plants, ailments, drug, health, traditional

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59 Case for Simulating Consumer Response to Feed in Tariff Based on Socio-Economic Parameters

Authors: Fahad Javed, Tasneem Akhter, Maria Zafar, Adnan Shafique

Abstract:

Evaluation and quantification of techniques is critical element of research and development of technology. Simulations and models play an important role in providing the tools for such assessments. When we look at technologies which impact or is dependent on an average Joe consumer then modeling the socio-economic and psychological aspects of the consumer also gain an importance. For feed in tariff for home consumers which is being deployed for average consumer may force many consumers to be adapters of the technology. Understanding how consumers will adapt this technologies thus hold as much significance as evaluating how the techniques would work in consumer agnostic scenarios. In this paper we first build the case for simulators which accommodate socio-economic realities of the consumers to evaluate smart grid technologies, provide a glossary of data that can aid in this effort and present an abstract model to capture and simulate consumers' adaptation and behavioral response to smart grid technologies. We provide a case study to express the power of such simulators.

Keywords: smart grids, simulation, socio-economic parameters, feed in tariff (FiT), forecasting

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58 Bilateral Trade Costs Analysis of Policy Barriers for Growth Oriented Strategies in Exports

Authors: Shabana Noureen, Zafar Mahmood

Abstract:

Economies consistently engage in trade across borders and face tariff, non-tariff barriers and other quotas that constitute trade costs. The trade costs imposed by policy barriers on exports are considered an impediment in the export growth rate. This work aims to measure over-year trends in total and bilateral trade costs and their trends in relevance to policy barriers (tariff and non-tariff). The analysis through the micro-founded theoretically based gravity model showed that the total trade costs have a general decreasing trend in the world while in the case of developing countries, the rate by which these trends decline is very low. Bilateral trade cost estimates associated with the policy barriers represent that the non-tariff barriers in a developing country have a major role in sustaining the high trade costs as compared to the tariff barriers. This ultimately leads to a low net declining rate. This work emphasizes that for developing countries the non-tariff barriers are a major factor that renders their exports and to be uncompetitive in the world market.

Keywords: trade costs, policy barriers, tariff barriers, non-tariff barriers, trade policies, export growth

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57 Attitude Towards E-Learning: A Case of University Teachers and Students

Authors: Muhamamd Shahid Farooq, Maazan Zafar, Rizawana Akhtar

Abstract:

E-learning technologies are the blessings of advancements in science and technology. These facilitate the learners to get information at any place and any time by improving their self-confidence, self-efficacy and effectiveness in teaching learning process. E-learning provides an individualized learning experience for learners and remove barriers faced by students during new and creative ways of gaining information. It provides a wide range of facilities to enable the teachers and students for effective and purposeful learning. This study was conducted to explore the attitudes of university students and teachers towards e-learning working in a metropolitan university of Pakistan. The personal, institutional and technological characteristics of the teachers and students of higher education institution effect the adoption of e-learning. For this descriptive study 449 students and 35 university teachers were surveyed by using a Likert scale type questionnaire consisting of 52 statements relating to six factors "perceived usefulness, intention to adopt e-learning, ease of e-learning use, availability resources, e-learning stressors, and pressure to use e-learning". Data were analyzed by making comparisons on the basis of different demographic factors. The findings of the study show that both type of respondents have positive attitude towards e-learning. However, the male and female respondents differ in their opinion for e-learning implementation.

Keywords: e-learning, ICT, e-sources of learning, questionnaire

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56 Recovery of Helicobacter Pylori from Stagnant and Moving Water Biofilms

Authors: Maryam Zafar, Sajida Rasheed, Imran Hashmi

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Water as an environmental reservoir is reported to act as a habitat and transmission route to microaerophilic bacteria such as Heliobacter pylori. It has been studied that in biofilms are the predominant dwellings for the bacteria to grow in water and protective reservoir for numerous pathogens by protecting them against harsh conditions, such as shear stress, low carbon concentration and less than optimal temperature. In this study, influence of these and many other parameters was studied on H. pylori in stagnant and moving water biofilms both in surface and underground aquatic reservoirs. H. pylori were recovered from pipe of different materials such as Polyvinyl Chloride, Polypropylene and Galvanized iron pipe cross sections from an urban water distribution network. Biofilm swabbed from inner cross section was examined by molecular biology methods coupled with gene sequencing and H. pylori 16S rRNA peptide nucleic acid probe showing positive results for H. pylori presence. Studies showed that pipe material affect growth of biofilm which in turn provide additional survival mechanism for pathogens like H. pylori causing public health concerns.

Keywords: biofilm, gene sequencing, heliobacter pylori, pipe materials

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55 Cost Comparison between R.C.C. Structures and Composite Columns Structures

Authors: Assad Rashid, Umair Ahmed, Zafar Baig

Abstract:

A new trend in construction is widely influenced by the use of Steel-Concrete Composite Columns. The rapid growth in Steel-Concrete Composite construction has widely decreased the conventional R.C.C structures. Steel Concrete composite construction has obtained extensive receiving around the globe. It is considering the fact that R.C.C structures construction is most suitable and economical for low-rise construction, so it is used in farming systems in most of the buildings. However, increased dead load, span restriction, less stiffness and risky formwork make R.C.C construction uneconomical and not suitable when it comes to intermediate to high-rise buildings. A Base + Ground +11 storey commercial building was designed on ETABS 2017 and made a comparison between conventional R.C.C and encased composite column structure. After performing Equivalent Static non-linear analysis, it has been found that construction cost is 13.01% more than R.C.C structure but encased composite column building has 7.7% more floor area. This study will help in understanding the behavior of conventional R.C.C structure and Encased Composite column structure.

Keywords: composite columns structure, equivalent static non-linear analysis, comparison between R.C.C and encased composite column structures, cost-effective structure

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54 Model Based Fault Diagnostic Approach for Limit Switches

Authors: Zafar Mahmood, Surayya Naz, Nazir Shah Khattak

Abstract:

The degree of freedom relates to our capability to observe or model the energy paths within the system. Higher the number of energy paths being modeled leaves to us a higher degree of freedom, but increasing the time and modeling complexity rendering it useless for today’s world’s need for minimum time to market. Since the number of residuals that can be uniquely isolated are dependent on the number of independent outputs of the system, increasing the number of sensors required. The examples of discrete position sensors that may be used to form an array include limit switches, Hall effect sensors, optical sensors, magnetic sensors, etc. Their mechanical design can usually be tailored to fit in the transitional path of an STME in a variety of mechanical configurations. The case studies into multi-sensor system were carried out and actual data from sensors is used to test this generic framework. It is being investigated, how the proper modeling of limit switches as timing sensors, could lead to unified and neutral residual space while keeping the implementation cost reasonably low.

Keywords: low-cost limit sensors, fault diagnostics, Single Throw Mechanical Equipment (STME), parameter estimation, parity-space

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53 (Re)Framing the Muslim Subject: Studying the Artistic Representation of Guantanamo and Abu Ghraib Detainees

Authors: Iqra Raza

Abstract:

This paper attempts to conceptualize the (de)humanization of the Muslim subject in Karen J. Greenberg and Janet Hamlin’s transmedia Sketching Guantanamo through a close study of the aesthetics and semiotics of the text. The Muslim experience, the paper shall argue, is mediated through a (de)humanization confined and incarcerated within the chains of artistic representation. Hamlin’s reliance on the distortions offered by stereotypes is reminiscent of the late Victorian epistemology on criminality, as evidenced most starkly in the sketch of Khalid Sheikh Mohammad. The position of the white artist thus becomes suspect in the enterprise of neo-Victorian ethnography. The visual stories of movement from within Guantanamo become potent; the paper shall argue, especially in juxtaposition with the images of stillness that came out from the detention centers, which portrayed the enactment of violence on individual bodies with a deliberate erasure of faces. So, while art becomes a way for reclaiming subjectivity or humanizing these identifiable bodies, the medium predicates itself on their objectification. The paper shall explore various questions about what it means for the (criminal?) subjects to be rendered into art rather than being photographed. Does art entail a necessary departure from the assumed objectivity of the photographic images? What makes art the preferred medium for (de)humanization of the violated Muslim bodies? What happens when art is produced without a recognition of the ‘precariousness’ of the life being portrayed? Rendering the detainees into art becomes a slippery task complicated by Hamlin’s privileged position outside the glass walls of the court. The paper shall adjourn analysis at the many dichotomies that exist in the text viz. between the White men and the brown, the Muslims and the Christians, Occident and the Orient problematized by Hamlin’s politics, that of a ‘neutral outsider’ which quickly turns on its head and becomes complicity in her deliberate erasure of the violence that shaped and still shapes Guantanamo.

Keywords: Abu Ghraib, Derrida, Guantanamo, graphic journalism, Muslimness, orient, spectrality

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