Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5689

Search results for: operational scale

5689 Impacts of Financial Development and Operational Scale on Bank Efficiencies in Taiwan

Authors: Ying-Hsiu Chen, Pao-Peng Hsu

Abstract:

This paper adopts a two-stage data envelopment analysis to explore the impacts of financial development and bank operational scale on bank efficiencies. The sample comprises of unbalanced panel data of 32 Taiwanese enlisted in domestic commercial banks over the period 1998 to 2013. Empirical results show that technical efficiency is positively related to financial development, whereas the effect of financial development on scale efficiency is insignificant. The effect of operational scale exerts a significantly positive effect on bank efficiencies, but the gain of efficiency is decreased gradually when operational scale increases. Furthermore, increase in capital adequacy ratio and market power of banks leads to a growth of bank efficiencies.

Keywords: financial development, operational scale, efficiency, DEA

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
5688 Efficiency and Scale Elasticity in Network Data Envelopment Analysis: An Application to International Tourist Hotels in Taiwan

Authors: Li-Hsueh Chen

Abstract:

Efficient operation is more and more important for managers of hotels. Unlike the manufacturing industry, hotels cannot store their products. In addition, many hotels provide room service, and food and beverage service simultaneously. When efficiencies of hotels are evaluated, the internal structure should be considered. Hence, based on the operational characteristics of hotels, this study proposes a DEA model to simultaneously assess the efficiencies among the room production division, food and beverage production division, room service division and food and beverage service division. However, not only the enhancement of efficiency but also the adjustment of scale can improve the performance. In terms of the adjustment of scale, scale elasticity or returns to scale can help to managers to make decisions concerning expansion or contraction. In order to construct a reasonable approach to measure the efficiencies and scale elasticities of hotels, this study builds an alternative variable-returns-to-scale-based two-stage network DEA model with the combination of parallel and series structures to explore the scale elasticities of the whole system, room production division, food and beverage production division, room service division and food and beverage service division based on the data of international tourist hotel industry in Taiwan. The results may provide valuable information on operational performance and scale for managers and decision makers.

Keywords: efficiency, scale elasticity, network data envelopment analysis, international tourist hotel

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
5687 Operational Measures for Greenhouse Gas Reduction from Ships

Authors: Gorana Jelic Mrcelic

Abstract:

In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from ships, technical and operational measures can be used. Operational measures are easier and cheaper compared to technical measures, so are well recommended. One of the most cost-effective operational measure is fuel consumption. Fuel consumption can be reduced by various options but it sometimes needs investments in new equipment, new procedures and crew education. In order to implement operational measures in everyday procedures and routines on board, good understanding of the mechanisms by which these measures work is essential for the seamen.

Keywords: green shipping, gas emission reduction, operational measures, seamen

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5686 Research on Measuring Operational Risk in Commercial Banks Based on Internal Control

Authors: Baobao Li

Abstract:

Operational risk covers all operations of commercial banks and has a close relationship with the bank’s internal control. But in the commercial banks' management practice, internal control is always separated from the operational risk measurement. With the increasing of operational risk events in recent years, operational risk is paid more and more attention by regulators and banks’ managements. The paper first discussed the relationship between internal control and operational risk management and used CVaR-POT model to measure operational risk, and then put forward a modified measurement method (to use operational risk assessment results to modify the measurement results of the CVaR-POT model). The paper also analyzed the necessity and rationality of this method. The method takes into consideration the influence of internal control, improves the accuracy and effectiveness of operational risk measurement and save the economic capital for commercial banks, avoiding the drawbacks of using some mainstream models one-sidedly.

Keywords: commercial banks, internal control, operational risk, risk measurement

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5685 Measurement of Operational and Environmental Performance of the Coal-Fired Power Plants in India by Using Data Envelopment Analysis

Authors: Vijay Kumar Bajpai, Sudhir Kumar Singh

Abstract:

In this study, the performance analyses of the twenty five coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) used for electricity generation are carried out through various data envelopment analysis (DEA) models. Three efficiency indices are defined and pursued. During the calculation of the operational performance, energy and non-energy variables are used as input, and net electricity produced is used as desired output. CO2 emitted to the environment is used as the undesired output in the computation of the pure environmental performance while in Model-3 CO2 emissions is considered as detrimental input in the calculation of operational and environmental performance. Empirical results show that most of the plants are operating in increasing returns to scale region and Mettur plant is efficient one with regards to energy use and environment. The result also indicates that the undesirable output effect is insignificant in the research sample. The present study will provide clues to plant operators towards raising the operational and environmental performance of CFPPs.

Keywords: coal fired power plants, environmental performance, data envelopment analysis, operational performance

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5684 Short-Term Operation Planning for Energy Management of Exhibition Hall

Authors: Yooncheol Lee, Jeongmin Kim, Kwang Ryel Ryu

Abstract:

This paper deals with the establishment of a short-term operational plan for an air conditioner for efficient energy management of exhibition hall. The short-term operational plan is composed of a time series of operational schedules, which we have searched using genetic algorithms. Establishing operational schedule should be considered the future trends of the variables affecting the exhibition hall environment. To reflect continuously changing factors such as external temperature and occupant, short-term operational plans should be updated in real time. But it takes too much time to evaluate a short-term operational plan using EnergyPlus, a building emulation tool. For that reason, it is difficult to update the operational plan in real time. To evaluate the short-term operational plan, we designed prediction models based on machine learning with fast evaluation speed. This model, which was created by learning the past operational data, is accurate and fast. The collection of operational data and the verification of operational plans were made using EnergyPlus. Experimental results show that the proposed method can save energy compared to the reactive control method.

Keywords: exhibition hall, energy management, predictive model, simulation-based optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
5683 Operational Guidelines for Six-Sigma Implementation: Survey of Indian Medium Scale Automotive Industries

Authors: Rajeshkumar U. Sambhe

Abstract:

Large scale Indian manufacturers started implementing Six Sigma to their supply core to fulfill the endless need of high quality products. As well, they initiated encouraging their suppliers to apply the well-ascertain SS management practice and kept no resource for supplier enterprises, generally small midsized enterprises to think for the admittance of Six Sigma as a quality promotion drive. There are many issues to study for requisite changes before the introduction of Six Sigma in auto SMEs. This paper converges on impeding factors while implementing SS drive and also pinpoints the gains achieved through successful implementation. The result of this study suggest some operational guidelines for effective implementation of Six Sigma from evidences acquired through research questionnaire and interviews with industrial professionals, apportioned to assort auto sector mid-sized enterprises (MSEs) in India.

Keywords: indian automotive SMEs, quality management practices, six sigma imperatives, problems faced in six sigma implementation, benefits, some guidelines for implementation

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
5682 Modelling Operational Risk Using Extreme Value Theory and Skew t-Copulas via Bayesian Inference

Authors: Betty Johanna Garzon Rozo, Jonathan Crook, Fernando Moreira

Abstract:

Operational risk losses are heavy tailed and are likely to be asymmetric and extremely dependent among business lines/event types. We propose a new methodology to assess, in a multivariate way, the asymmetry and extreme dependence between severity distributions, and to calculate the capital for Operational Risk. This methodology simultaneously uses (i) several parametric distributions and an alternative mix distribution (the Lognormal for the body of losses and the Generalized Pareto Distribution for the tail) via extreme value theory using SAS®, (ii) the multivariate skew t-copula applied for the first time for operational losses and (iii) Bayesian theory to estimate new n-dimensional skew t-copula models via Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation. This paper analyses a newly operational loss data set, SAS Global Operational Risk Data [SAS OpRisk], to model operational risk at international financial institutions. All the severity models are constructed in SAS® 9.2. We implement the procedure PROC SEVERITY and PROC NLMIXED. This paper focuses in describing this implementation.

Keywords: operational risk, loss distribution approach, extreme value theory, copulas

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5681 The Role of Social and Technical Lean Implementation in Improving Operational Performance: Insights from the Pharmaceutical Industry

Authors: Bernasconi Matteo, Grothkopp Mark, Friedli Thomas

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to examine the relationships between technical and social lean bundles as well as operational performance in the context of the pharmaceutical industry. We investigate the direct and mediating effects of the lean bundles total productive maintenance (TPM), total quality management (TQM), Just-In-Time (JIT), and human resource management (HRM) on operational performance. Our analysis relies on 113 manufacturing facilities from the St.Gallen OPEX benchmarking database. The results show that HRM has a positive indirect effect on operational performance mediated by the technical lean bundles.

Keywords: human resource management, operational performance, pharmaceutical industry, technical lean practices

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5680 A Mixed Approach to Assess Information System Risk, Operational Risk, and Congolese Microfinance Institutions Performance

Authors: Alfred Kamate Siviri, Angelus Mafikiri Tsongo, Jean Robert Kala Kamdjoug

Abstract:

Digitalization and information systems well organized have been selected as relevant measures to mitigate operational risks within organizations. Unfortunately, information system comes with new threats that can cause severe damage and quick organization lockout. This study aims to measure perceived information system risks and their effects on operational risks within the microfinance institution in D.R. Congo. Also, the factors influencing the operational risk are identified, and the link between operational risk with other risks and performance is to be assessed. The study proposes a research model drawn on the combination of Resources-Based-View, dynamic capabilities, the agency theory, the Information System Security Model, and social theories of risk. Therefore, we suggest adopting a mixed methods research with the sole aim of increasing the literature that already exists on perceived operational risk assessment and its link with other risk and performance, a focus on IT risk.

Keywords: Democratic Republic Congo, information system risk, microfinance performance, operational risk

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
5679 The Influence of Operational Changes on Efficiency and Sustainability of Manufacturing Firms

Authors: Dimitrios Kafetzopoulos

Abstract:

Nowadays, companies are more concerned with adopting their own strategies for increased efficiency and sustainability. Dynamic environments are fertile fields for developing operational changes. For this purpose, organizations need to implement an advanced management philosophy that boosts changes to companies’ operation. Changes refer to new applications of knowledge, ideas, methods, and skills that can generate unique capabilities and leverage an organization’s competitiveness. So, in order to survive and compete in the global and niche markets, companies should incorporate the adoption of operational changes into their strategy with regard to their products and their processes. Creating the appropriate culture for changes in terms of products and processes helps companies to gain a sustainable competitive advantage in the market. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the role of both incremental and radical changes into operations of a company, taking into consideration not only product changes but also process changes, and continues by measuring the impact of these two types of changes on business efficiency and sustainability of Greek manufacturing companies. The above discussion leads to the following hypotheses: H1: Radical operational changes have a positive impact on firm efficiency. H2: Incremental operational changes have a positive impact on firm efficiency. H3: Radical operational changes have a positive impact on firm sustainability. H4: Incremental operational changes have a positive impact on firm sustainability. In order to achieve the objectives of the present study, a research study was carried out in Greek manufacturing firms. A total of 380 valid questionnaires were received while a seven-point Likert scale was used to measure all the questionnaire items of the constructs (radical changes, incremental changes, efficiency and sustainability). The constructs of radical and incremental operational changes, each one as one variable, has been subdivided into product and process changes. Non-response bias, common method variance, multicollinearity, multivariate normal distribution and outliers have been checked. Moreover, the unidimensionality, reliability and validity of the latent factors were assessed. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were applied to check the factorial structure of the constructs and the factor loadings of the items. In order to test the research hypotheses, the SEM technique was applied (maximum likelihood method). The goodness of fit of the basic structural model indicates an acceptable fit of the proposed model. According to the present study findings, radical operational changes and incremental operational changes significantly influence both efficiency and sustainability of Greek manufacturing firms. However, it is in the dimension of radical operational changes, meaning those in process and product, that the most significant contributors to firm efficiency are to be found, while its influence on sustainability is low albeit statistically significant. On the contrary, incremental operational changes influence sustainability more than firms’ efficiency. From the above, it is apparent that the embodiment of the concept of the changes into the products and processes operational practices of a firm has direct and positive consequences for what it achieves from efficiency and sustainability perspective.

Keywords: incremental operational changes, radical operational changes, efficiency, sustainability

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5678 Correlation between Fuel Consumption and Voyage Related Ship Operational Energy Efficiency Measures: An Analysis from Noon Data

Authors: E. Bal Beşikçi, O. Arslan

Abstract:

Fuel saving has become one of the most important issue for shipping in terms of fuel economy and environmental impact. Lowering fuel consumption is possible for both new ships and existing ships through enhanced energy efficiency measures, technical and operational respectively. The limitations of applying technical measures due to the long payback duration raise the potential of operational changes for energy efficient ship operations. This study identifies operational energy efficiency measures related voyage performance management. We use ‘noon’ data to examine the correlation between fuel consumption and operational parameters- revolutions per minute (RPM), draft, trim, (beaufort number) BN and relative wind direction, which are used as measures of ship energy efficiency. The results of this study reveal that speed optimization is the most efficient method as fuel consumption depends heavily on RPM. In conclusion, this study will provide ship operators with the strategic approach for evaluating the priority of the operational energy efficiency measures against high fuel prices and carbon emissions.

Keywords: ship, voyage related operational energy Efficiency measures, fuel consumption, pearson's correlation coefficient

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5677 Leadership in Future Operational Environment

Authors: M. Şimşek

Abstract:

Rapidly changing factors that affect daily life also affect operational environment and the way military leaders fulfill their missions. With the help of technological developments, traditional linearity of conflict and war has started to fade away. Furthermore, mission domain has broadened to include traditional threats, hybrid threats and new challenges of cyber and space. Considering the future operational environment, future military leaders need to adapt themselves to the new challenges of the future battlefield. But how to decide what kind of features of leadership are required to operate and accomplish mission in the new complex battlefield? In this article, the main aim is to provide answers to this question. To be able to find right answers, first leadership and leadership components are defined, and then characteristics of future operational environment are analyzed. Finally, leadership features that are required to be successful in redefined battlefield are explained.

Keywords: future operational environment, leadership, leadership components

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
5676 Cyber Operational Design and Military Decision Making Process

Authors: M. Karaman, H. Catalkaya

Abstract:

Due to the complex nature of cyber attacks and their effects ranging from personal to governmental level, it becomes one of the priority tasks for operation planners to take into account the risks, influences and effects of cyber attacks. However it can also be embedded or integrated technically with electronic warfare planning, cyber operation planning is needed to have a sole and broadened perspective. This perspective embodies itself firstly in operational design and then military decision making process. In order to find out the ill-structured problems, understand or visualize the operational environment and frame the problem, operational design can help support cyber operation planners and commanders. After having a broadened and conceptual startup with cyber operational design, military decision making process will follow the principles of design into more concrete elements like reaching results after risk management and center of gravity analysis of our and the enemy. In this paper we tried to emphasize the importance of cyber operational design, cyber operation planning and its integration to military decision making problem. In this foggy, uncertain and unaccountable cyber security environment, it is inevitable to stay away from cyber attacks. Therefore, a cyber operational design should be formed with line of operations, decisive points and end states in cyber then a tactical military decision making process should be followed with cyber security focus in order to support the whole operation.

Keywords: cyber operational design, military decision making process (MDMP), operation planning, end state

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5675 Treatment of Municipal Wastewater by Means of Uv-Assisted Irradiation Technologies: Fouling Studies and Optimization of Operational Parameters

Authors: Tooba Aslam, Efthalia Chatzisymeon

Abstract:

UV-assisted irradiation technologies are well-established for water and wastewater treatment. UVC treatments are widely used at large-scale, while UVA irradiation has more often been applied in combination with a catalyst (e.g. TiO₂ or FeSO₄) in smaller-scale systems. A technical issue of these systems is the formation of fouling on the quartz sleeves that houses the lamps. This fouling can prevent complete irradiation, therefore reducing the efficiency of the process. This paper investigates the effects of operational parameters, such as the type of wastewater, irradiation source, H₂O₂ addition, and water pH on fouling formation and, ultimately, the treatment of municipal wastewater. Batch experiments have been performed at lab-scale while monitoring water quality parameters including: COD, TS, TSS, TDS, temperature, pH, hardness, alkalinity, turbidity, TOC, UV transmission, UV₂₅₄ absorbance, and metal concentrations. The residence time of the wastewater in the reactor was 5 days in order to observe any fouling formation on the quartz surface. Over this period, it was observed that chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased by 30% and 59% during photolysis (Ultraviolet A) and photo-catalysis (UVA/Fe/H₂O₂), respectively. Higher fouling formation was observed with iron-rich and phosphorous-rich wastewater. The highest rate of fouling was developed with phosphorous-rich wastewater, followed by the iron-rich wastewater. Photo-catalysis (UVA/Fe/H₂O₂) had better removal efficiency than photolysis (UVA). This was attributed to the Photo-Fenton reaction, which was initiated under these operational conditions. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurements of fouling formed on the quartz sleeves showed that particles vary in size, shape, and structure; some have more distinct structures and are generally larger and have less compact structure than the others. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) results showed that the major metals present in the fouling cake were iron, phosphorous, and calcium. In conclusion, iron-rich wastewaters are more suitable for UV-assisted treatment since fouling formation on quartz sleeves can be minimized by the formation of oxidizing agents during treatment, such as hydroxyl radicals.

Keywords: advanced oxidation processes, photo-fenton treatment, photo-catalysis, wastewater treatment

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5674 Support for Planning of Mobile Personnel Tasks by Solving Time-Dependent Routing Problems

Authors: Wlodzimierz Ogryczak, Tomasz Sliwinski, Jaroslaw Hurkala, Mariusz Kaleta, Bartosz Kozlowski, Piotr Palka

Abstract:

Implementation concepts of a decision support system for planning and management of mobile personnel tasks (sales representatives and others) are discussed. Large-scale periodic time-dependent vehicle routing and scheduling problems with complex constraints are solved for this purpose. Complex nonuniform constraints with respect to frequency, time windows, working time, etc. are taken into account with additional fast adaptive procedures for operational rescheduling of plans in the presence of various disturbances. Five individual solution quality indicators with respect to a single personnel person are considered. This paper deals with modeling issues corresponding to the problem and general solution concepts. The research was supported by the European Union through the European Regional Development Fund under the Operational Programme ‘Innovative Economy’ for the years 2007-2013; Priority 1 Research and development of modern technologies under the project POIG.01.03.01-14-076/12: 'Decision Support System for Large-Scale Periodic Vehicle Routing and Scheduling Problems with Complex Constraints.'

Keywords: mobile personnel management, multiple criteria, time dependent, time windows, vehicle routing and scheduling

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5673 A Test Methodology to Measure the Open-Loop Voltage Gain of an Operational Amplifier

Authors: Maninder Kaur Gill, Alpana Agarwal

Abstract:

It is practically not feasible to measure the open-loop voltage gain of the operational amplifier in the open loop configuration. It is because the open-loop voltage gain of the operational amplifier is very large. In order to avoid the saturation of the output voltage, a very small input should be given to operational amplifier which is not possible to be measured practically by a digital multimeter. A test circuit for measurement of open loop voltage gain of an operational amplifier has been proposed and verified using simulation tools as well as by experimental methods on breadboard. The main advantage of this test circuit is that it is simple, fast, accurate, cost effective, and easy to handle even on a breadboard. The test circuit requires only the device under test (DUT) along with resistors. This circuit has been tested for measurement of open loop voltage gain for different operational amplifiers. The underlying goal is to design testable circuits for various analog devices that are simple to realize in VLSI systems, giving accurate results and without changing the characteristics of the original system. The DUTs used are LM741CN and UA741CP. For LM741CN, the simulated gain and experimentally measured gain (average) are calculated as 89.71 dB and 87.71 dB, respectively. For UA741CP, the simulated gain and experimentally measured gain (average) are calculated as 101.15 dB and 105.15 dB, respectively. These values are found to be close to the datasheet values.

Keywords: Device Under Test (DUT), open loop voltage gain, operational amplifier, test circuit

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5672 Industrial Revolution: Army Production

Authors: M. Şimşek

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing (AM) or generally known as three dimensional (3D) printing provides great opportunities for both civilian and military applications by which 3D has become the biggest nominee of breakthrough of 21th century. When properly used, it has a wide spectrum of applications that make production easier and more profitable. Considering the advantages of AM, every firm has an intention of catching up with this new trend. As well as reducing costs and thus increasing benefits, 3D printing provides opportunities for national armies by reducing maintenance and repair time and increasing operational readiness.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, operational cost, operational readiness, supply chain, three dimensional printing

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
5671 Developing of Attitude towards Using Complementary Treatments Scale in Turkey

Authors: Ayşegül Bilge, Merve Uğuryol, Şeyda Dülgerler, Mustafa Yıldız

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to prove the Attitude towards Using Complementary Treatments Scale reliability and validity. The research is a methodological type of research that has been planned to determine the validity and reliability of the Attitude towards Using Complementary Treatments Scale. The scale has been developed by the researchers. In the scale, there are 23 questions including complementary and modern therapies individuals apply when they have health problems 4-item Likert-type evaluation has been carried out in preparing the questionnaire. High score obtained from the scale indicates a positive attitude towards complementary therapies. In the course of validity assessment of the scale, expert opinion has been received, and the content validity of the scale has been determined by using Kendall coefficient correlation test (Wa=0.200, p = 0.460). In the course of the reliability assessment of the scale, total score correlations of 23 materials have been examined, and those under 0.20 correlation limit has been removed from the scale correlation. As a result, the scale was left to be 13 items. In the internal consistency tests of the analyses, Cronbach's alpha value has been found to be 0.79. As a result, of the validity analyses of the Attitude towards Using Complementary Treatments Scale, the content and language validity analyses has been found to be at the expected level. It has been determined to be a highly reliable scale as the result of the reliability analyses. In conclusion, Attitude towards Using Complementary Treatments Scale is a valid and reliable scale.

Keywords: alternative health care, complementary treatment, instrument development, nursing practice

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5670 Investigation on Optical Performance of Operational Shutter Panels for Transparent Displays

Authors: Jaehong Kim, Sunhee Park, HongSeop Shin, Kyongho Lim, Suhyun Kwon, Don-Gyou Lee, Pureum Kim, Moojong Lim, JongSang Baek

Abstract:

Transparent displays with OLEDs are the most commonly produced forms of see-through displays on the market or in development. In order to block the visual interruption caused by the light coming from the background, the special panel is combined with transparent displays with OLEDs. There is, however, few studies optical performance of operational shutter panel for transparent displays until now. This paper, therefore, describes the optical performance of operational shutter panels. The novel evaluation method was developed by measuring the amount of light which can form a transmitted background image. The new proposed method could tell how recognize transmitted background images cannot be seen, and is consistent with viewer’s perception.

Keywords: transparent display, operational shutter panel, optical performance, OLEDs

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5669 Banking Risk Management between the Prudential and the Operational Approaches

Authors: Mustapha Achibane, Imane Allam

Abstract:

Since the nineties, all Moroccan banking institutions have to respect an arsenal of prudential ratios. The respect of these prudential measures aims to ensure the financial system stability. In order to do so, regulatory authorities tried to reduce the financial and operational risks incurred by the banking entities. Meanwhile, regulatory authorities demanded a balance sheet management work from banks. They also asked them to establish a management control system to manage operational risk, as well as an effort in terms of incurred risk-based commitments. Therefore, the prudential approach has a macroeconomic nature and it is presented as a determinant of the operational, microeconomic approach. This operational approach takes the form of a strategy that each banking entity must develop to manage the different banking risks. This study seeks to analyze the problem of risk management between the prudential and the operational approaches. It was processed through a literature review followed by an analysis of the Moroccan banking sector’s performance. At first, we will reconcile the inductive logic and then, the analytical one. The first approach consists of analyzing the phenomenon from a normative and conceptual perspective, while the second one will consist of considering the Moroccan banking system and analyzing the behavior of Moroccan banking entities in terms of risk management and performance. The results identified a favorable growth in terms of performance, despite the huge provisioning effort made to meet the international standards and the harmonization of the regulations.

Keywords: banking performance, financial intermediation, operational approach, prudential standards, risk management

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5668 Pharmaceutical Scale up for Solid Dosage Forms

Authors: A. Shashank Tiwari, S. P. Mahapatra

Abstract:

Scale-up is defined as the process of increasing batch size. Scale-up of a process viewed as a procedure for applying the same process to different output volumes. There is a subtle difference between these two definitions: batch size enlargement does not always translate into a size increase of the processing volume. In mixing applications, scale-up is indeed concerned with increasing the linear dimensions from the laboratory to the plant size. On the other hand, processes exist (e.g., tableting) where the term ‘scale-up’ simply means enlarging the output by increasing the speed. To complete the picture, one should point out special procedures where an increase of the scale is counterproductive and ‘scale-down’ is required to improve the quality of the product. In moving from Research and Development (R&D) to production scale, it is sometimes essential to have an intermediate batch scale. This is achieved at the so-called pilot scale, which is defined as the manufacturing of drug product by a procedure fully representative of and simulating that used for full manufacturing scale. This scale also makes it possible to produce enough products for clinical testing and to manufacture samples for marketing. However, inserting an intermediate step between R&D and production scales does not, in itself, guarantee a smooth transition. A well-defined process may generate a perfect product both in the laboratory and the pilot plant and then fail quality assurance tests in production.

Keywords: scale up, research, size, batch

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5667 Investigation of Beam Defocusing Impact in Millisecond Laser Drilling for Variable Operational Currents

Authors: Saad Nawaz, Yu Gang, Baber Saeed Olakh, M. Bilal Awan

Abstract:

Owing to its exceptional performance and precision, laser drilling is being widely used in modern manufacturing industries. This experimental study mainly addressed the defocusing of laser beam along with different operational currents. The performance has been evaluated in terms of tapering phenomena, entrance and exit diameters etc. The operational currents have direct influence on laser power which ultimately affected the shape of the drilled hole. Different operational currents in low, medium and high ranges are used for laser drilling of 18CrNi8. Experiment results have depicted that there is an increase in entrance diameter with an increase in defocusing distance. However, the exit diameter first decreases and then increases with respect to increasing defocusing length. The evolution of drilled hole from tapered to straight hole has been explained with defocusing at different levels. The optimum parametric combinations for attaining perfect shape of drilled hole is proposed along with lower heat treatment effects for higher process efficiency.

Keywords: millisecond laser, defocusing beam, operational current, keyhole profile, recast layer

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5666 Delamination of Scale in a Fe Carbon Steel Surface by Effect of Interface Roughness and Oxide Scale Thickness

Authors: J. M. Lee, W. R. Noh, C. Y. Kim, M. G. Lee

Abstract:

Delamination of oxide scale has been often discovered at the interface between Fe carbon steel and oxide scale. Among several mechanisms of this delamination behavior, the normal tensile stress to the substrate-scale interface has been described as one of the main factors. The stress distribution at the interface is also known to be affected by thermal expansion mismatch between substrate and oxide scale, creep behavior during cooling and the geometry of the interface. In this study, stress states near the interface in a Fe carbon steel with oxide scale have been investigated using FE simulations. The thermal and mechanical properties of oxide scales are indicated in literature and Fe carbon steel is measured using tensile testing machine. In particular, the normal and shear stress components developed at the interface during bending are investigated. Preliminary numerical sensitivity analyses are provided to explain the effects of the interface geometry and oxide thickness on the delamination behavior.

Keywords: oxide scale, delamination, Fe analysis, roughness, thickness, stress state

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5665 Formulating Model of Green Supply Chain Impact on Chain Operational Performance, Case Study: Rahbaran Foolad Aria, Steel Industry

Authors: Seyedeh Mersedeh Banijamali, Ali Rajabzadeh

Abstract:

Industrial development in recent centuries has been replaced by a sustainable development. The industry executives, particularly in the development countries are looking for procedures to protect the environment, improve their organization's performance. One of these approaches is the green supply chain management. Green supply chain management approach as a comprehensive approach to environmental management that contains all flows from suppliers to producers and ultimately to consumers, in many industries, particularly in the Steel industry, which has a strategic role in the country's industrial and economic development, has been receiving significant attention. The purpose of this study is examining the impact of green supply chain on chain operational performance in the Steel industry and formulating model for it. In this way, first the components of green supply chain (in 5 dimensions, planning, sourcing, making, delivery and return) have been prioritized through TOPSIS decision technique and then impact of these components on operational performance has been modeled with model dynamic systems and Vensim software. This research shows that green supply chain has a positive impact on operational performance and improve it.

Keywords: green supply chain, the dimensions of the green supply chain, operational performance, steel industry, dynamical systems

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5664 Development of the ‘Teacher’s Counselling Competence Self-Efficacy Scale’

Authors: Riin Seema

Abstract:

Guidance and counseling as a whole-school responsibility is a global trend. Counseling is a specific competence, that consist of cognitive, emotional, attitudinal, and behavioral components. To authors best knowledge, there are no self-assessment scales for teachers in the whole world to measure teachers’ counseling competency. In 2016 an Estonian scale on teachers counseling competence was developed during an Interdisciplinary Project at Tallinn University. The team consisted of 10 interdisciplinary students (psychology, nursery school, special and adult education) and their supervisor. In 2017 another international Interdisciplinary Project was carried out for adapting the scale in English for international students. Firstly, the Estonian scale was translated by 2 professional translators, and then a group of international Erasmus students (again from psychology, nursery school, special and adult education) selected the most suitable translation for the scale. The developed ‘Teacher’s Counselling Competence Self-Efficacy Scale’ measures teacher’s self-efficacy beliefs in their own competence to perform different counseling tasks (creating a counseling relationship, using different reflection techniques, etc.). The scale consists of 47 questions in a 5-point numeric scale. The scale is created based on counseling theory and scale development and validation theory. The scale has been used as a teaching and learning material for counseling courses by 174 Estonian and 10 international student teachers. After filling out the scale, the students also reflected on the scale and their own counseling competencies. The study showed that the scale is unidimensional and has an excellent Cronbach alpha coefficient. Student’s qualitative feedback on the scale has been very positive, as the scale supports their self-reflection. In conclusion, the developed ‘Teacher’s Counselling Competence Self-Efficacy Scale’ is a useful tool for supporting student teachers’ learning.

Keywords: competency, counseling, self-efficacy, teacher students

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5663 Experimental Investigation of Fluid Dynamic Effects on Crystallisation Scale Growth and Suppression in Agitation Tank

Authors: Prasanjit Das, M. M. K. Khan, M. G. Rasul, Jie Wu, I. Youn

Abstract:

Mineral scale formation is undoubtedly a more serious problem in the mineral industry than other process industries. To better understand scale growth and suppression, an experimental model is proposed in this study for supersaturated crystallised solutions commonly found in mineral process plants. In this experiment, surface crystallisation of potassium nitrate (KNO3) on the wall of the agitation tank and agitation effects on the scale growth and suppression are studied. The new quantitative scale suppression model predicts that at lower agitation speed, the scale growth rate is enhanced and at higher agitation speed, the scale suppression rate increases due to the increased flow erosion effect. A lab-scale agitation tank with and without baffles were used as a benchmark in this study. The fluid dynamic effects on scale growth and suppression in the agitation tank with three different size impellers (diameter 86, 114, 160 mm and model A310 with flow number 0.56) at various ranges of rotational speed (up to 700 rpm) and solution with different concentration (4.5, 4.75 and 5.25 mol/dm3) were investigated. For more elucidation, the effects of the different size of the impeller on wall surface scale growth and suppression rate as well as bottom settled scale accumulation rate are also discussed. Emphasis was placed on applications in the mineral industry, although results are also relevant to other industrial applications.

Keywords: agitation tank, crystallisation, impeller speed, scale

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5662 The Development of the Self-concept Scale for Elders in Taiwan

Authors: Ting-Chia Lien, Tzu-Yin Yen, Szu-Fan Chen, Tai-chun Kuo, Hung-Tse Lin, Yi-Chen Chung, Hock-Sen Gwee

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to explore the result of the survey by developing “Self-Concept Scale for Elders”, which could provide community counseling and guidance institution for practical application. The sample of this study consisted of 332 elders in Taiwan (male: 33.4%; female: 66.6%). The mean age of participants was 65-98 years. The measurements applied in this study is “Self-Concept Scale for Elders”. After item and factor analyses, the preliminary version of the Self-Concept Scale for Elders was revised to the final version. The results were summarized as follows: 1) There were 10 items in Self-Concept Scale for Elders. 2) The variance explained for the scale accounted for 77.15%, with corrected item-total correlations Cronbach’s alpha=0.87. 3) The content validity, criterion validity and construct validity have been found to be satisfactory. Based on the findings, the implication and suggestions are offered for reference regarding counselor education and future research.

Keywords: self-concept, elder, development scale, applied psychology

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5661 Impact of Design Choices on the Life Cycle Energy of Modern Buildings

Authors: Mahsa Karimpour, Martin Belusko, Ke Xing, Frank Bruno

Abstract:

Traditionally the embodied energy of design choices which reduce operational energy were assumed to have a negligible impact on the life cycle energy of buildings. However with new buildings having considerably lower operational energy, the significance of embodied energy increases. A life cycle assessment of a population of house designs was conducted in a mild and mixed climate zone. It was determined not only that embodied energy dominates life cycle energy, but that the impact on embodied of design choices was of equal significance to the impact on operational energy.

Keywords: building life cycle energy, embodied energy, energy design measures, low energy buildings

Procedia PDF Downloads 666
5660 Grating Scale Thermal Expansion Error Compensation for Large Machine Tools Based on Multiple Temperature Detection

Authors: Wenlong Feng, Zhenchun Du, Jianguo Yang

Abstract:

To decrease the grating scale thermal expansion error, a novel method which based on multiple temperature detections is proposed. Several temperature sensors are installed on the grating scale and the temperatures of these sensors are recorded. The temperatures of every point on the grating scale are calculated by interpolating between adjacent sensors. According to the thermal expansion principle, the grating scale thermal expansion error model can be established by doing the integral for the variations of position and temperature. A novel compensation method is proposed in this paper. By applying the established error model, the grating scale thermal expansion error is decreased by 90% compared with no compensation. The residual positioning error of the grating scale is less than 15um/10m and the accuracy of the machine tool is significant improved.

Keywords: thermal expansion error of grating scale, error compensation, machine tools, integral method

Procedia PDF Downloads 277