Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 127

Search results for: pig manure

127 Manure Management Systems in Sheep and Goat Farms in Konya, Türkiye

Authors: Selda Uzal Seyfi

Abstract:

Goat and sheep milk is quite significant in human nutrition. It is considered as more important day by day. This study was carried out in order to determine applied manure management system and their possibilities of improvement in goat and sheep farm in between 2012 and 2013 years. In the study, it was investigated manure management systems of 25 pieces of sheep and goat farms. It was analyzed the manure collecting, storage and treatment features of farms and whether or not they are suitable for animal breeding. As a result of the study, it was determined that the applied manure management systems in the farm were insufficient. Planning the manure management systems in goat and sheep breeding is appropriate technical criteria is useful in respect of the animal welfare, animal health, the health of workers in the barn and environmental pollution.

Keywords: Manure Management, goat farm, sheep farm, manure storage

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
126 The Effects of Cow Manure Treated by Fruit Beetle Larvae, Waxworms and Tiger Worms on Plant Growth in Relation to Its Use as Potting Compost

Authors: Waleed S. Alwaneen

Abstract:

Dairy industry is flourishing in world to provide milk and milk products to local population. Besides milk products, dairy industries also generate a substantial amount of cow manure that significantly affects the environment. Moreover, heat produced during the decomposition of the cow manure adversely affects the crop germination. Different companies are producing vermicompost using different species of worms/larvae to overcome the harmful effects using fresh manure. Tiger worm treatment enhanced plant growth, especially in the compost-manure ratio (75% compost, 25% cow manure), followed by a ratio of 50% compost, 50% cow manure.  Results also indicated that plant growth in Waxworm treated manure was weak as compared to plant growth in compost treated with Fruit Beetle (FB), Waxworms (WW), and Control (C) especially in the compost (25% compost, 75% cow manure) and 100% cow manure where there was no growth at all. Freshplant weight, fresh leaf weight and fresh root weight were significantly higher in the compost treated with Tiger worms in (75% compost, 25% cow manure); no evidence was seen for any significant differences in the dry root weight measurement between FB, Tiger worms (TW), WW, Control (C) in all composts. TW produced the best product, especially at the compost ratio of 75% compost, 25% cow manure followed by 50% compost, 50% cow manure.

Keywords: Control, fruit beetle, waxworms, tiger worms

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
125 Analyzing the Effect of Biomass and Cementitious Materials on Air Content in Concrete

Authors: Mohammed Albahttiti, Eliana Aguilar

Abstract:

A push for sustainability in the concrete industry is increasing. Cow manure itself is becoming a problem and having the potential solution to use it in concrete as a cementitious replacement would be an ideal solution. For cow manure ash to become a well-rounded substitute, it would have to meet the right criteria to progress in becoming a more popular idea in the concrete industry. This investigation primarily focuses on how the replacement of cow manure ash affects the air content and air void distribution in concrete. In order to assess these parameters, the Super Air Meter (SAM) was used to test concrete in this research. In addition, multiple additional tests were performed, which included the slump test, temperature, and compression test. The strength results of the manure ash in concrete were promising. The manure showed compression strength results that are similar to that of the other supplementary cementitious materials tested. On the other hand, concrete samples made with cow manure ash showed 2% air content loss and an increasing SAM number proportional to cow manure content starting at 0.38 and increasing to 0.8. In conclusion, while the use of cow manure results in loss of air content, it results in compressive strengths similar to other supplementary cementitious materials.

Keywords: Supplementary Cementitious Materials, biomass ash, air content, cow manure ash, super air meter

Procedia PDF Downloads 6
124 Effect of Organic Manure on Production of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

Authors: R. Behrooz, D. Jahanfar, D. Reza

Abstract:

Organic farming is a fundamental principle in sustainable agriculture. Preventing excessive contamination of water and soil with pesticides and chemical fertilizers is important in order to produce healthy food. For this purpose, two potato cultivars (Sante and Marfona) and seven levels of fertilizer (non-fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, granulated chicken manure, common manure, compost, vermicompost and tea compost) were evaluated by factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. According to the results, the effect of different manure was significant on number of tubers per plant, tuber weight per plant and tuber yield. The highest value of these traits was obtained by using of chicken manure which was significantly superior to other treatments. However, there was no significant difference between the two varieties. According to the results, the use of chicken manure has produced the highest potato yield even in comparison with the use of chemical fertilizer.

Keywords: Organic Farming, potato, organic manure, tuber yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 16
123 Soil Properties and Yam Performance as Influenced by Poultry Manure and Tillage on an Alfisol in Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: E. O. Adeleye

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Field experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of soil tillage techniques and poultry manure application on the soil properties and yam (Dioscorea rotundata) performance in Ondo, southwestern Nigeria for two farming seasons. Five soil tillage techniques, namely ploughing (P), ploughing plus harrowing (PH), manual ridging (MR), manual heaping (MH) and zero-tillage (ZT) each combined with and without poultry manure at the rate of 10 tha-1 were investigated. Data were obtained on soil properties, nutrient uptake, growth and yield of yam. Soil moisture content, bulk density, total porosity and post harvest soil chemical characteristics were significantly (p>0.05) influenced by soil tillage-manure treatments. Addition of poultry manure to the tillage techniques in the study increased soil total porosity, soil moisture content and reduced soil bulk density. Poultry manure improved soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, exchangeable Ca, k, leaf nutrients content of yam, yam growth and tuber yield relative to tillage techniques plots without poultry manure application. It is concluded that the possible deleterious effect of tillage on soil properties, growth and yield of yam on an alfisol in southwestern Nigeria can be reduced by combining tillage with poultry manure.

Keywords: tillage, Yield, Soil Chemical Properties, poultry manure

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
122 Biodiesel Synthesis Using Animal Excreta-Based Biochar and Waste Cooking Oil

Authors: Sang-Ryong Lee, Min-Woon Jung, Deugwoo Han, Kiyong Kim

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This study laid an emphasis on the possible employment of biochar generated from pyrolysis of animal excreta to establish a green platform for producing biodiesel. To this end, the pseudo-catalytic transesterification reaction using chicken manure biochar and waste cooking oil was investigated. Compared with a commercial porous material (SiO2), chicken manure biochar generated from 350 C showed better performance, resulting in 95.6% of the FAME yield at 350C. The Ca species in chicken manure biochar imparted strong catalytic capability by providing the basicity for transesterification. The identified catalytic effect also led to the thermal cracking of unsaturated FAMEs, which decreased the overall FAME yield. For example, 40–60% of converted FAMEs were thermally degraded. To avoid undesirable thermal cracking arising from the high content of the Ca species in chicken manure biochar, the fabrication of chicken manure biochar at temperatures ≥350C was highly recommended.

Keywords: Biochar, fame, Trasesterification, Animal excreta, Chicken manure

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
121 Investigation of Biogas from Slaughterhouse and Dairy Farm Waste

Authors: Saadelnour Abdueljabbar Adam

Abstract:

Wastes from slaughterhouses in most towns in Sudan are often poorly managed and sometimes discharged into adjoining streams due to poor implementation of standards, thus causing environmental and public health hazards and also there is a large amount of manure from dairy farms. This paper presents a solution of organic waste from cow dairy farms and slaughterhouse. We present the findings of experimental investigation of biogas production using cow manure, blood and rumen content were mixed at three proportions :72.3%, 61%, 39% manure, 6%, 8.5%, 22% blood; and 21.7%, 30.5%, 39% rumen content in volume for bio-digester 1,2,3 respectively. This paper analyses the quantitative and qualitative composition of biogas: gas content, and the concentration of methane. The highest biogas output 0.116L/g dry matter from bio-digester1 together with a high-quality biogas of 85% methane Was from the mixture of cow manure with blood and rumen content were mixed at 72.3%manure, 6%blood and 21.7%rumen content which is useful for combustion and energy production. While bio-digester 2 and 3 gave 0.012L/g dry matter and 0.013L/g dry matter respectively with the weak concentration of methane (50%).

Keywords: Blood, Anaerobic Digestion, rumen content, bio-digester, cow manure

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
120 Changes in Physical Soil Properties and Crop Status on Soil Enriched With Treated Manure

Authors: Vaclav Novak, Katerina Krizova, Petr Sarec

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Modern agriculture has to face many issues from which soil degradation and lack of organic matter in the soil are only a few of them. Apart from Climate Change, human utilization of landscape is the cause of a majority part of these problems. Cattle production in Czechia has been reduced by more than half in recent 30 years. However, cattle manure is considered as staple organic fertilizer, and its role in attempts for sustainable agriculture is irreplaceable. This study aims to describe the impact of so-called activators of biological manure transformation (Z´fix, Olmix Group) mainly on physical soil properties but also on crop status. The experiment has been established in 2017; nevertheless, initial measurements of implement draft have been performed before the treated manure application. In 2018, the physical soil properties and crop status (sugar beet) has been determined and compared with the untreated manure and control variant. Significant results have been observed already in the first year, where the implement draft decreased by 9.2 % within the treated manure variant in comparison with the control variant.

Keywords: sugar beet, vegetation index, field experiment, implement draft

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
119 Evaluation of Biofertilizer and Manure Effects on Quantitative Yield of Nigella Sativa L.

Authors: Mohammad Reza Haj Seyed Hadi, Fereshteh Ghanepasand, Mohammad Taghi Darzi

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The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of Nitrogen fixing bacteria and manure application on the seed yield and yield components in black cumin (Nigella sativa L.). The experiment was carried out at the RAN Research Station in Firouzkouh in 2012. A 4×4 factorial experiment, arranged in a randomized complete blocks designed with three replications. The treatments consisted of 4 level of nitrogen fixing bacteria (control, Azotobacter, Azospirillum and Azotobacter + Azospirillum) and 4 level of manure (0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5 ton ha-1). The present results have shown that the highest height, 1000 seeds weight, seed number per follicle, follicle yield, seed yield and harvest index were obtained after using Azotobacter and Azospirillum, simultaneously. Manure application only affects on follicle yield and by 5ton manure ha-1 the highest follicle yield obtained. Results of this investigation showed that the maximum seed yield obtained when Aotobacter+Azospirillum inoculated with black cumin seeds and 5 ton manure ha-1 applied. Combined application of nitrogen fixing bacteria and manure can be helpful in developing of production and yield in Black cumin.

Keywords: Yield, yield components, black cumin, azotobacter, azospirillum

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
118 Renewable Energy Potential of Diluted Poultry Manure during Ambient Anaerobic Stabilisation

Authors: Cigdem Yangin-Gomec, Aigerim Jaxybayeva, Orhan Ince

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In this study, the anaerobic treatability of chicken manure diluted with tap water (with an influent feed ratio of 1 kg of fresh chicken manure to 6 liter of tap water) was investigated in a lab-scale anaerobic sludge bed (ASB) reactor inoculated with the granular sludge already adapted to chicken manure. The raw waste digested in this study was the manure from laying-hens having average total solids (TS) of about 30% with ca. 60% volatile content. The ASB reactor was fed semi-continuously at ambient operating temperature range (17-23C) at a HRT of 13 and 26 days for about 6 months, respectively. The respective average total and soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals were ca. 90% and 75%, whereas average biomethane production rate was calculated ca. 180 lt per kg of CODremoved from the ASB reactor at an average HRT of 13 days. Moreover, total suspended solids (TSS) and volatile suspended solids (VSS) in the influent were reduced more than 97%. Hence, high removals of the organic compounds with respective biogas production made anaerobic stabilization of the diluted chicken manure by ASB reactor at ambient operating temperatures viable. By this way, external heating up to 35C (i.e. anaerobic processes have been traditionally operated at mesophilic conditions) could be avoided in the scope of this study.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, poultry manure, ambient anaerobic digestion, biogas recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
117 Effect of Manure Treatment on Furrow Erosion: A Case Study of Sagawika Irrigation Scheme in Kasungu, Malawi

Authors: Abel Mahowe

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Furrow erosion is the major problem menacing sustainability of irrigation in Malawi and polluting water bodies resulting in death of many aquatic animals. Many rivers in Malawi are drying due to some poor practices that are being practiced around these water bodies, furrow erosion is one of the cause of sedimentation in these rivers although it has gradual effect on deteriorating of these rivers hence neglected, but has got long term disastrous effect on water bodies. Many aquatic animals also suffer when these sediments are taken into these water bodies. An assessment of effect of manure treatment on furrow erosion was carried out in Sagawika irrigation scheme located in Kasungu District north part of Malawi. The soil on the field was clay loam and had just been tilled. The average furrow slope of 0.2% and was divided into two blocks, A and B. Each block had 20V-shaped furrow having a length of 10 m. Three different manure were used to construct these furrows by mixing it with soil which was moderately moist and 5 furrows from each block were constructed without manure. In each block 5furrow were made using a specific type of manure, and one set of five furrows in each block was made without manure treatment. The types of manure that were used were goat manure, pig manure, and manure from crop residuals. The manure application late was 5 kg/m. The furrow was constructed at a spacing of 0.6 m. Tomato was planted in the two blocks at spacing of 0.15 m between rows and 0.15 m between planting stations. Irrigation water was led from feeder canal into the irrigation furrows using siphons. The siphons discharge into each furrow was set at 1.86 L/S. The ¾ rule was used to determine the cut-off time for the irrigation cycles in order to reduce the run-off at the tail end. During each irrigation cycle, samples of the runoff water were collected at one-minute intervals and analyzed for total sediment concentration for use in estimating the total soil sediment loss. The results of the study have shown that a significant amount of soil is lost in soils without many organic matters, there was a low level of erosion in furrows that were constructed using manure treatment within the blocks. In addition, the results have shown that manure also differs in their ability to control erosion since pig manure proved to have greater abilities in binding the soil together than other manure since they were reduction in the amount of sediments at the tail end of furrows constructed by this type of manure. The results prove that manure contains organic matters which helps soil particles to bind together hence resisting the erosive force of water. The use of manure when constructing furrows in soil with less organic matter can highly reduce erosion hence reducing also pollution of water bodies and improve the conditions of aquatic animals.

Keywords: Aquatic, Soil, erosion, furrow

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
116 The Effects of Sewage Sludge Usage and Manure on Some Heavy Metals Uptake in Savory (Satureja Hortensis L.)

Authors: Abbas Hani

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In recent decades with the development of technology and lack of food sources, sewage sludge in production of human foods is inevitable. Various sources of municipal and industrial sewage sludge that is produced can provide the requirement of plant nutrients. Soils in arid, semi-arid climate of central Iran that most affected by water drainage, iron and zinc deficiencies, using of sewage sludge is helpful. Therefore, the aim of this study is investigation of sewage sludge and manure application on Ni and Zn uptake by Savory. An experiment in a randomized complete block design with three replications was performed. Sewage sludge treatments consisted of four levels, control, 15, 30, 80 tons per hectares, the manure was used in four levels of control, 20, 40 and 80 tons per hectare. Results showed that the wet and dry weights was not affected by sewage sludge using, while, manure has significant effect on them. The effect of sewage sludge on the cadmium and lead concentrations were significant. Interactions of sewage sludge and manure on dry weight values were not significant. Compare mean analysis showed that increasing the amount of sewage sludge had no significant effect on cadmium concentration and it reduced when sewage sludge usage increased. This is probably due to increased plant growth and reduced concentrations of these elements in the plant.

Keywords: Manure, Sewage Sludge, cadmium, lead, savory

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
115 Biogas Production from Zebra Manure and Winery Waste Co-Digestion

Authors: Wicleffe Musingarimi

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Currently, the rising energy demand as a result of an increase in the world’s population and the sustainable use of abundant natural resources are key issues facing many developed and developing countries including South Africa. Most of the energy to meet this growing demand comes from fossil fuel. Use of fossil fuels has led to environmental problems such air pollution, climate change, and acid rain. In addition, fossil fuels are facing continual depletion, which has led to the rise in oil prices, leading to the global economies melt down. Hence development of alternative clean and renewable energy source is a global priority. Renewable biomass from forest products, agricultural crops, and residues, as well as animal and municipal waste are promising alternatives. South Africa is one of the leading wine producers in the world; leading to a lot of winery waste (ww) being produced which can be used in anaerobic digestion (AD) to produce biogas. Biogas was produced from batch anaerobic digestion of zebra manure (zm) and batch anaerobic co-digestion of winery waste (ww) and zebra manure through water displacement. The batch digester with slurry of winery waste and zebra manure in the weight ratio of 1:2 was operated in a 1L container at 37°C for 30days. Co-digestion of winery waste and zebra manure produced higher amount of biogas as compared to zebra manure alone and winery waste alone. No biogas was produced by batch anaerobic digestion of winery waste alone. Chemical analysis of C/N ratio and total solids (TS) of zebra manure was 21.89 and 25.2 respectively. These values of C/N ratio and TS were quite high compared to values of other studied manures. Zebra manure also revealed unusually high concentration of Fe reaching 3600pm compared to other studies of manure. PCR with communal DNA of the digestate gave a positive hit for the presence of archaea species using standard archea primers; suggesting the presence of methanogens. Methanogens are key microbes in the production of biogas. Therefore, this study demonstrated the potential of zebra manure as an inoculum in the production of biogas.

Keywords: Biogas, Anaerobic Digestion, Methanogens, co-digestion

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
114 Co-Composting of Poultry Manure with Different Organic Amendments

Authors: M. E. Silva, I. Brás

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To study the influence of different organic amendments on the quality of poultry manure compost, three pilot composting trials were carried out with different mixes: poultry manure/carcasse meal/ashes/grape pomace (Pile 1), poultry manure/ cellulosic sludge (Pile 2) and poultry manure (Pile 3). For all piles, wood chips were applied as bulking agent. The process was monitored, over time, by evaluating standard physical and chemical parameters, such as, pH, electric conductivity, moisture, organic matter and ash content, total carbon and total nitrogen content, carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) and content in mineral elements. Piles 1 and 2 reached a thermophilic phase, however having different trends. Pile 1 reached this phase earlier than Pile 2. For both, the pH showed a slight alkaline character and the electric conductivity was lower than 2 mS/cm. Also, the initial C/N value was 22 and reached values lower than 15 at the end of composting process. The total N content of the Pile 1 increased slightly during composting, in contrast with the others piles. At the end of composting process, the phosphorus content ranged between 54 and 236 mg/kg dry matter, for Pile 2 and 3, respectively. Generally, the Piles 1 and 3 exhibited similar heavy metals content. This study showed that organic amendments can be used as carbon source, given that the final composts presented parameters within the range of those recommended in the 2nd Draft of EU regulation proposal (DG Env.A.2 2001) for compost quality.

Keywords: co-composting, poultry manure, compost quality, organic ammendment

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
113 Enhancing of Biogas Production from Slaughterhouse and Dairy Farm Waste with Pasteurization

Authors: Mahmoud Hassan Onsa, Saadelnour Abdueljabbar Adam

Abstract:

Wastes from slaughterhouses in most towns in Sudan are often poorly managed and sometimes discharged into adjoining streams due to poor implementation of standards, thus causing environmental and public health hazards and also there is a large amount of manure from dairy farms. This paper presents solution of organic waste from cow dairy farms and slaughterhouse the anaerobic digestion and biogas production. The paper presents the findings of experimental investigation of biogas production with and without pasteurization using cow manure, blood and rumen content were mixed at two proportions, 72.3% manure, 21.7%, rumen content and 6% blood for bio digester1with 62% dry matter at the beginning and without pasteurization and 72.3% manure, 21.7%, rumen content and 6% blood for bio-digester2 with 10% dry matter and pasteurization. The paper analyses the quantitative and qualitative composition of biogas: gas content, the concentration of methane. The highest biogas output 2.9 mL/g dry matter/day (from bio-digester2) together with a high quality biogas of 87.4% methane content which is useful for combustion and energy production and healthy bio-fertilizer but biodigester1 gave 1.68 mL/g dry matter/day with methane content 85% which is useful for combustion, energy production and can be considered as new technology of dryer bio-digesters.

Keywords: Blood, Anaerobic Digestion, rumen content, bio-digester, cow manure

Procedia PDF Downloads 574
112 Effects of Tillage and Poultry Manure on Soil Properties and Yam Performance on Alfisol in Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Adeleye Ebenezer Omotayo

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The main effects of tillage, poultry manure and interaction effects of tillage-poultry manure combinations on soil characteristics and yam yield were investigated in a factorial experiment involving four tillage techniques namely (ploughing (p), ploughing plus harrowing (PH), manual ridging (MR), manual heaping (MH) and poultry manure at two levels 0 t ha-1 and 10 t ha-1 arranged in split-plot design. Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) Institute Package. Soil moisture content, bulk density and total porosity were significantly (p>0.05) influenced by soil tillage techniques. Manually heaped and ridged plots had the lowest soil bulk density, moisture content and highest total porosity. The soil total N, exchangeable Mg, k, base saturation and CEC were better enhanced in manually tilled plots. Soil nutrients status declined at the end of the second cropping for all the tillage techniques in the order PH>P>MH>MR. Yam tuber yields were better enhanced in manually tilled plots than mechanically tilled plots. Poultry manure application reduced soil bulk density, temperature, increased total porosity and soil moisture content. It also improved soil organic matter, total N, available P, exchangeable Mg, Ca, K and lowered exchange acidity. It also increased yam tuber yield significantly. Tillage techniques plots amended with poultry manure enhanced yam tuber yield relative to tillage techniques plots without poultry manure application. It is concluded that yam production on alfisol in Southwest Nigeria requires loose soil structure for tuber development and that the use of poultry manure in combination with tillage is recommended as it will ensure stability of soil structure, improve soil organic matter status, nutrient availability and high yam tuber yield. Also, it will help to reduce the possible deleterious effects of tillage on soil properties and yam performance.

Keywords: Yield, ploughing, poultry manure, yam

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
111 Biogas Production from Lake Bottom Biomass from Forest Management Areas

Authors: Dessie Tegegne Tibebu, Kirsi Mononen, Ari Pappinen

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In areas with forest management, agricultural, and industrial activity, sediments and biomass are accumulated in lakes through drainage system, which might be a cause for biodiversity loss and health problems. One possible solution can be utilization of lake bottom biomass and sediments for biogas production. The main objective of this study was to investigate the potentials of lake bottom materials for production of biogas by anaerobic digestion and to study the effect of pretreatment methods for feed materials on biogas yield. In order to study the potentials of biogas production lake bottom materials were collected from two sites, Likokanta and Kutunjärvi lake. Lake bottom materials were mixed with straw-horse manure to produce biogas in a laboratory scale reactor. The results indicated that highest yields of biogas values were observed when feeds were composed of 50% lake bottom materials with 50% straw horse manure mixture-while with above 50% lake bottom materials in the feed biogas production decreased. CH4 content from Likokanta lake materials with straw-horse manure and Kutunjärvi lake materials with straw-horse manure were similar values when feed consisted of 50% lake bottom materials with 50% straw horse manure mixtures. However, feeds with lake bottom materials above 50%, the CH4 concentration started to decrease, impairing gas process. Pretreatment applied on Kutunjärvi lake materials showed a slight negative effect on the biogas production and lowest CH4 concentration throughout the experiment. The average CH4 production (ml g-1 VS) from pretreated Kutunjärvi lake materials with straw horse manure (208.9 ml g-1 VS) and untreated Kutunjärvi lake materials with straw horse manure (182.2 ml g-1 VS) were markedly higher than from Likokanta lake materials with straw horse manure (157.8 ml g-1 VS). According to the experimental results, utilization of 100% lake bottom materials for biogas production is likely to be impaired negatively. In the future, further analyses to improve the biogas yields, assessment of costs and benefits is needed before utilizing lake bottom materials for the production of biogas.

Keywords: Biogas, Sediments, Pretreatment, Anaerobic Digestion, lake bottom materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
110 Effects of Organic Manure on the Growth of Jatropha curcas in Kogi State North Central Nigeria

Authors: S. O. Amhakhian, M. Idenyi

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A pot experiment was conducted to assess the effects of organic manure on the growth of Jatropha curcas L seedlings at the Faculty of Agriculture, Kogi State University, Anyigba. There were seven treatments, namely, three (3) levels of poultry droppings (PD) (20g, 40g and 60g/kg soil) designated as T1, T2 and T3 respectively, three (3) levels of solid cattle dung (CD) (40g, 80g and 120g/kg soil designated as T4, T5, and T6) respectively, and control (no organic manure) designated as T7. All the treatments were replicated three (3) times. Jathopha curcas L seeds were sown into the polythene pot and observed for the period of six (6) weeks. Growth parameters measured were plant height, leaf count, stem girth, numbers of branches, and fresh weight. Mean separation using F-LSD0.05 showed that 120g cow dung/kg soil (T6) gave optional level of organic manure required for Jatropha curcas throughout the growth period of the seedlings. All the treatments having organic manure were significantly better than the control (P < 0.05) except at two weeks after planting where all the treatments gave the same number of leaves and at the sixth week after planting where only 120g cow dung/kg soil (T6) showed significant difference (P <0.05) in the number of branches. As a result, 120g cow dung/kg soil (T6) is therefore recommended for raising Jatrophus curcas L seedlings in Anyigba, Kogi State.

Keywords: jatropha curcas, seedlings, cow-dungs, poultry dropping, polythene-pot

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
109 Response of Canola Traits to Integrated Fertilization Systems

Authors: Khosro Mohammadi

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In order to study the effect of different resources of farmyard manure, compost and biofertilizers on grain yield and quality of canola (Talaieh cultivar), an experiment was conducted at Kurdistan region. Experimental units were arranged in split-split plots design based on randomized complete blocks with three replications. Main plots consisted of two locations with difference in soil texture (L1): Agricultural Research Center of Sanandaj and (L2): Islamic Azad University of Sanandaj, as location levels. Also, five strategies for obtaining the base fertilizer requirement including (N1): farmyard manure; (N2): compost; (N3): chemical fertilizers; (N4): farm yard manure + compost and (N5): farm yard manure + compost + chemical fertilizers were considered in split plots. Four levels of biofertilizers were (B1): Bacillus lentus and Pseudomonas putida; (B2): Trichoderma harzianum; (B3): Bacillus lentus and Pseudomonas putida & Trichoderma harzianum; and (B4): control. Results showed that location, different resources of fertilizer and interactions of them have a significant effect on grain yield. The highest grain yield (4660 kg/ha) was obtained from treatment, that farmyard manure, compost and biofertilizers were co application in clay loam soil (Gerizeh station). Different methods of fertilization have a significant effect on leaf chlorophyll. Highest amount of chlorophyll (38 Spad) was obtained from co application of farmyard manure, chemical fertilizers and compost (N5 treatment). Location, basal fertilizers and biofertilizers have a significant effect on N, S and N/S of canola seed. Oil content was decreased in Gerizeh station, but oil yield had a significant increasing than Azad University station. Co application of compost and farmyard manure produced highest percent of oleic acid (61.5 %) and linoleic acid (22.9 %). Co application of compost and farmyard manure has a significant increase in oleic acid and linoleic acid. Finally, L1N5B3 treatment, that compost, farmyard manure and biofertilizers were co application in Gerizeh station in compare to other treatments, selected as a best treatment of experiment.

Keywords: Oil, soil texture, organic fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, Canola

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
108 Effect of Vermicompost and Vermitea on the Growth and Yield of Selected Vegetable Crops

Authors: Josephine R. Migalbin, Jurhamid C. Imlan, Evelyn P. Esteban

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A study was conducted to determine the effect of vermicompost and vermitea as organic fertilizers on the growth and yield of selected vegetable crops specifically eggplant, tomatoes and sweet pepper. The study was laid-out in Randomized Complete Block Design with 4 treatments replicated 4 times. The treatments were as follows: Treatment I (control), Treatment II (vermitea), Treatment III (vermicompost with buffalo manure), and Treatment IV (vermicompost with goat and sheep manure). In all the vegetable crops, almost all parameters significantly increased compared with the control except for number of fruits in eggplant and plant height in tomatoes where no significant difference was observed among treatments. The highest marketable fruit yield (tons/ha) was obtained from plants applied with vermicompost with goat and sheep manure but comparable with plants applied with vermicompost with buffalo manure and vermitea while the control plots received the lowest yield. The 28 spotted beetle (Epilachna philippinensis), and shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis) were the serious pests observed in the study on eggplant.

Keywords: vegetable crops, vermicompost, marketable fruit yield, vermitea

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
107 Effects of Soil Organic Amendment Types and Rates on Growth and Yield of Amaranthus cruentus, Southern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria

Authors: S. Yussuf Abdulmaliq

Abstract:

Experiment was conducted for two years (2013 and 2014) at Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Teaching and Research Farm to study the effects of soil organic amendment types and rates on soil chemical fertility improvement, growth and yield of Amarathus cruentus in the southern guinea savannah, lapai, Niger state, Nigeria. Soil and manure samples were collected and analysed for physical and chemical components. The experiments were laid out in 3 x 4 factorial in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Consisting of three (3) levels of soil amendment types (Poultry manure, goat manure and cowdung) and four (4) levels of amendment rates (0, 6, 12 and 18 t ha-1). Data collected include plant height/plant (cm), number of leaves/plant, leaf area/ plant (cm2) at 2, 4, 6 and 8WAT, fresh vegetable yield/plant, fresh vegetable yield/plot and fresh vegetable yield in tons ha-1. The result obtained showed that, Amaranthus cruentus height, number of leaves and leaf area were not significantly affected by the type of organic amendment and rates at 2WAT in 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons. However, at 4, 6 and 8 WAT, significant differences were observed among the types of amendment and their rates. Application of poultry manure as soil amendment supported taller, large number of leaves and wider leaf area, and higher marketable vegetable yield in 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons (Pα 0.05) which was closely followed by goat manure in the two (2) cropping seasons. In addition, the application of 18 t ha-1 was superior to 12, 6 and the control by producing tallest amaranthus plants, higher number of leaves, wider leaf area and higher marketable vegetable yield in 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons (Pα 0.05). In conclusion, the use of 18 t ha-1poultry manure is therefore recommended as soil amendment for Amaranthus cruentus in southern guinea savannah of Nigeria.

Keywords: Soil Amendment, poultry manure, Amaranthus cruentus, cowdung, goat manure

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106 The Effect of Parameter Controls for Manure Composting in Waste Recycling Process

Authors: Junyoung Kim, Shangwha Cha, Soomee Kang, Jake S. Byun

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This study shows the effect of parameter controls for livestock manure composting in waste recycling process for the development of a new design of a microorganism-oriented- composting system. Based on the preliminary studies, only the temperature control by changing mechanical mixing can reduce microorganisms’ biodegradability from 3 to 6 months to 15 days, saving the consumption of energy and manual labor. The final degree of fermentation in just 5 days of composting increased to ‘3’ comparing the compost standard level ‘4’ in Korea, others standards were all satisfied. This result shows that the controlling the optimum microorganism parameter using an ICT device connected to mixing condition can increase the effectiveness of fermentation system and reduce odor to nearly zero, and lead to upgrade the composting method than the conventional

Keywords: Waste Recycling, manure composting, odor removal, parameter control

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105 Development of Automatic Farm Manure Spreading Machine for Orchards

Authors: Barış Ozluoymak, Emin Guzel, Ahmet İnce

Abstract:

Since chemical fertilizers are used for meeting the deficiency of plant nutrients, its many harmful effects are not taken into consideration for the structure of the earth. These fertilizers are hampering the work of the organisms in the soil immediately after thrown to the ground. This interference is first started with a change of the soil pH and micro organismic balance is disrupted by reaction in the soil. Since there can be no fragmentation of plant residues, organic matter in the soil will be increasingly impoverished in the absence of micro organismic living. Biological activity reduction brings about a deterioration of the soil structure. If the chemical fertilization continues intensively, soils will get worse every year; plant growth will slow down and stop due to the intensity of chemical fertilizers, yield decline will be experienced and farmer will not receive an adequate return on his investment. In this research, a prototype of automatic farm manure spreading machine for orange orchards that not just manufactured in Turkey was designed, constructed, tested and eliminate the human drudgery involved in spreading of farm manure in the field. The machine comprised several components as a 5 m3 volume hopper, automatic controlled hydraulically driven chain conveyor device and side delivery conveyor belts. To spread the solid farm manure automatically, the machine was equipped with an electronic control system. The hopper and side delivery conveyor designs fitted between orange orchard tree row spacing. Test results showed that the control system has significant effects on reduction in the amount of unnecessary solid farm manure use and avoiding inefficient manual labor.

Keywords: Automatic Control System, orchard, conveyor belt application, solid farm manure

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104 Effects of Poultry Manure Rates on Some Growth and Yield Attributes of Cucumber in Owerri, South Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Chinwe Pearl Poly-Mbah, Evelyn Obioma, Juliet Amajuoyi

Abstract:

The investigation here reported examined growth and yield responses of Cucumber to manure rates in Owerri, Southeastern Nigeria. Fruit vegetables are widely cultivated and produced in Northern Nigeria but greatly consumed in Southern Nigeria where cucumbers command high demand and price but are minimally cultivated. Unfortunately, farmers in northern Nigeria incur lots of losses because cucumber is a perishable vegetable and is transported all the way from the northern Nigeria where cucumbers are produced to Southern Nigeria where cucumbers are consumed, hence the high cost of cucumber fruits in Southern Nigeria. There is a need, therefore, to evolve packages that will enhance cucumber production in Southern Nigeria. The main objective of this study was to examine the effects of poultry manure rates on the growth and yield of cucumber in Owerri, South Eastern Nigeria. Specifically, this study was designed to assess the effect of poultry manure rates on number of days to 50% seedling emergence, vine length/plant, leaf area per plant and the number of leaves produced per plant. The design used for the experiment was Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three blocks (replications). Treatment consisted of four rates of well-decomposed poultry manure at the rate of 0 tons/ha, 2 tons/ha, 4 tons/ha and 6 tons/ha. Data were collected on number of days to 50% seedling emergence, vine length per plant at two weeks interval, leaf number per plant at two weeks interval, leaf area per plant at two weeks interval, number of fruits produced per plant, and fresh weight of fruits per plant at harvest. Results from the analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there were highly significant effects (P=0.05) of poultry manure on growth and yield parameters studied which include number of days to 50% seedling emergence, vine length per plant, leaf number per plant, leaf area per plant, fruit number and fruit weight per plant such that increase in poultry manure rates lead to increase in growth and yield parameters studied. Therefore, the null hypothesis (Ho) was rejected, while the alternative hypothesis was accepted. Farmers should be made to know that growing cucumber with poultry manure in southeastern Nigeria agro ecology is a successful enterprise

Keywords: Manure, effects, cucumber, growth and yield

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103 Investigation of the Effects of the Whey Addition on the Biogas Production of a Reactor Using Cattle Manure for Biogas Production

Authors: Behnam Mahdiyan Nasl

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In a lab-scale research, the effects of feeding whey into the biogas system and how to solve the probable problems arising were analysed. In the study a semi-continuous glass reactor, having a total capacity of 13 liters and having a working capacity of 10 liters, was placed in an incubator, and the temperature was tried to be held at 38 °C. At first, the reactor was operated by adding 5 liters of animal manure and water with a ratio of 1/1. By passing time, the production rate of the gas reduced intensively that on the fourth day there was no production of gas and the system stopped working. In this condition, the pH was adjusted and by adding NaOH, it was increased from 5.4 to 7. On 48th day, the first gas measurement was done and an amount of 12.07 % of CH₄ was detected. After making buffer in the ambient, the number of bacteria existing in the cattle’s manure and contributing to the gas production was thought to be not adequate, and up to 20 % of its volume 2 liters of mud was added to the reactor. 7 days after adding the anaerobic mud, second gas measurement was carried out, and biogas including 43 % CH₄ was obtained. From the 61st day of the study, the cheese whey with the animal manure was started to be added with an amount of 40 mL per day. However, by passing time, the raising of the microorganisms existed in the whey (especially Ni and Co), the percent of methane in the biogas decreased. In fact, 2 weeks after adding PAS, the gas measurement was done and 36,97 % CH₄ was detected. 0,06 mL Ni-Co (to gain a concentration of 0.05 mg/L in the reactor’s mixture) solution was added to the system for 15 days. To find out the effect of the solution on archaea, 7 days after stopping addition of the solution, methane gas was found to have a 9,03 % increase and reach 46 %. Lastly, the effects of adding molasses to the reactor were investigated. The effects of its activity on the bacteria was analysed by adding 4 grams of it to the system. After adding molasses in 10 days, according to the last measurement, the amount of methane gas reached up to 49%.

Keywords: Energy, Biogas, cattle manure, cheese whey

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102 Valorization of Beer Brewing Wastes by Composting

Authors: M. E. Silva, I. Brás

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The aim of this work was to study the viability of recycling the residual yeast and diatomaceous earth (RYDE) slurry generated by the beer brewing industry by composting with animal manures, as well as to evaluate the quality of the composts obtained. Two pilot composting trials were carried out with different mixes: cow manure/RYDE slurry (Pile CM) and sheep manure/RYDE slurry (Pile SM). For all piles, wood chips were applied as bulking agent. The process was monitored by evaluating standard physical and chemical parameters. The compost quality was assessed by the heavy metals content and phytotoxicity. Both piles reached a thermophilic phase in the first day, however having different trends. The pH showed a slight alkaline character. The C/N reached values lower than 19 at the end of composting process. Generally, all the piles exhibited absence of heavy metals. However, the pile SM exhibited phytotoxicity. This study showed that RYDE slurry can be valorized by composting with cow manure.

Keywords: Quality, Valorization, compost, beer brewing wastes

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101 Effect of Windrow Management on Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Swine Manure Composting

Authors: Nanh Lovanh, John Loughrin, Kimberly Cook, Phil Silva, Byung-Taek Oh

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In the era of sustainability, utilization of livestock wastes as soil amendment to provide micronutrients for crops is very economical and sustainable. It is well understood that livestock wastes are comparable, if not better, nutrient sources for crops as chemical fertilizers. However, the large concentrated volumes of animal manure produced from livestock operations and the limited amount of available nearby agricultural land areas necessitated the need for volume reduction of these animal wastes. Composting of these animal manures is a viable option for biomass and pathogenic reduction in the environment. Nevertheless, composting also increases the potential loss of available nutrients for crop production as well as unwanted emission of anthropogenic air pollutants due to the loss of ammonia and other compounds via volatilization. In this study, we examine the emission of ammonia and nitrous oxide from swine manure windrows to evaluate the benefit of biomass reduction in conjunction with the potential loss of available nutrients. The feedstock for the windrows was obtained from swine farm in Kentucky where swine manure was mixed with wood shaving as absorbent material. Static flux chambers along with photoacoustic gas analyzer were used to monitor ammonia and nitrous oxide concentrations during the composting process. The results show that ammonia and nitrous oxide fluxes were quite high during the initial composting process and after the turning of each compost pile. Over the period of roughly three months of composting, the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) decreased by about 90%. Although composting of animal waste is quite beneficial for biomass reduction, composting may not be economically feasible from an agronomical point of view due to time, nutrient loss (N loss), and potential environmental pollution (ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions). Therefore, additional studies are needed to assess and validate the economics and environmental impact of animal (swine) manure composting (e.g., crop yield or impact on climate change).

Keywords: Management, fluxes, Ammonia, Nitrous Oxide, windrow, swine manure

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100 Improvement Anaerobic Digestion Performance of Sewage Sludge by Co-Digestion with Cattle Manure

Authors: Raouf Hassan

Abstract:

Biogas energy production from sewage sludge is an economically feasible and eco-friendly in nature. Sewage sludge is considered nutrient-rich substrates, but had lower values of carbone which consider an energy source for anaerobic bacteria. The lack or lower values of carbone-to-nitrogen ratio (C/N) reduced biogas yield and fermentation rate. Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge offers several benefits over mono-digestion such as optimize nutrient balance, increased cost-efficiency and increased degradation rate. The high produced amounts of animal manures, which reach up to 90% of the total collected organic wastes, are recommended for the co-digestion with sewage sludge, especially with the limitations of industrial substrates. Moreover, cattle manures had high methane production potential (500 m3/t vsadded). When mixed with sewage sludge the potential methane production increased with increasing cattle manure content. In this paper, the effect of cattle manure (CM) addition as co-substrates on the sewage sludge (SS) anaerobic digestion performance was investigated under mesophilic conditions (35°C) using anaerobic batch reactors. The batch reactors were operated with a working volume 0.8 liter, and a hydraulic retention time of 30 days. The research work focus on studying two main parameters; the biogas yield (expressed as VSS) and pH values inside the reactors.

Keywords: Sewage Sludge, Anaerobic Digestion, cattle manure, mesophilic, biogas yield

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99 Genome of Bio-Based Construction Adhesives and Complex Rheological Behavior

Authors: Ellie Fini, Mahour Parast, Daniel Oldham, Shahrzad Hosseinnezhad

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This paper investigates the relationship between molecular species of four different bio-based adhesives (made from Swine Manure, Miscanthus Pellet, Corn Stover, and Wood Pellet) and their rheological behavior before and after they undergo extensive oxidative aging. To study the effect of oxidative aging on the chemical structure of bio-adhesives, Infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance Spectroscopy (Fourier transform infrared) was utilised. In addition, a Drop Shape Analyser, Rotational Viscometer, and Dynamic Shear Rheometer were used to evaluate the surface properties and rheological behaviour of each bio-adhesive. Overall, bio-adhesives were found to be significantly different in terms of their ageing characteristics. Accordingly, their surface and rheological properties were found to be ranked differently before and after ageing. The results showed that the bio-adhesive from swine manure is less susceptible to aging compared to plant-based bio-oils. This can be further attributed to the chemical structure and the high lipid contents of the bio-adhesive from swine manure, making it less affected by oxidative ageing.

Keywords: Rheology, bio-adhesive, bio-mass, material genome

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98 Effect of Poultry Manure and Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium (15:15:15) Soil Amendment on Growth and Yield of Carrot (Daucus carota)

Authors: Benjamin Osae Agyei, Hypolite Bayor

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This present experiment was carried out during the 2012 cropping season, at the Farming for the Future Experimental Field of the University for Development Studies, Nyankpala Campus in the Northern Region of Ghana. The objective of the experiment was to determine the carrot growth and yield responses to poultry manure and N.P.K (15:15:15). Six treatments (Control (no amendment), 20 t/ha poultry manure (PM), 40 t/ha PM, 70 t/ha PM, 35 t/ha PM + 0.11t/ha N.P.K and 0.23 t/ha N.P.K) with three replications for each were laid in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Data were collected on plant height, number of leaves per plant, canopy spread, root diameter, root weight, and root length. Microsoft Excel and Genstat Statistical Package (9th edition) were used for the data analysis. The treatment means were compared by using Least Significant Difference at 10%. Generally, the results showed that there were no significant differences (P>0.1) among the treatments with respect to number of leaves per plant, root diameter, root weight, and root length. However, significant differences occurred among plant heights and canopy spreads. Plant height treated with 40 t/ha PM at the fourth week after planting and canopy spread at eight weeks after planting and ten weeks after planting by 70 t/ha PM and 20 t/ha PM respectively showed significant difference (P<0.1). The study recommended that any of the amended treatments can be applied at their recommended rates to plots for carrot production, since there were no significant differences among the treatments.

Keywords: Growth, Yield, Soil Amendment, poultry manure, carrot, N.P.K

Procedia PDF Downloads 325