Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5814

Search results for: lake bottom materials

5814 Biogas Production from Lake Bottom Biomass from Forest Management Areas

Authors: Dessie Tegegne Tibebu, Kirsi Mononen, Ari Pappinen

Abstract:

In areas with forest management, agricultural, and industrial activity, sediments and biomass are accumulated in lakes through drainage system, which might be a cause for biodiversity loss and health problems. One possible solution can be utilization of lake bottom biomass and sediments for biogas production. The main objective of this study was to investigate the potentials of lake bottom materials for production of biogas by anaerobic digestion and to study the effect of pretreatment methods for feed materials on biogas yield. In order to study the potentials of biogas production lake bottom materials were collected from two sites, Likokanta and Kutunjärvi lake. Lake bottom materials were mixed with straw-horse manure to produce biogas in a laboratory scale reactor. The results indicated that highest yields of biogas values were observed when feeds were composed of 50% lake bottom materials with 50% straw horse manure mixture-while with above 50% lake bottom materials in the feed biogas production decreased. CH4 content from Likokanta lake materials with straw-horse manure and Kutunjärvi lake materials with straw-horse manure were similar values when feed consisted of 50% lake bottom materials with 50% straw horse manure mixtures. However, feeds with lake bottom materials above 50%, the CH4 concentration started to decrease, impairing gas process. Pretreatment applied on Kutunjärvi lake materials showed a slight negative effect on the biogas production and lowest CH4 concentration throughout the experiment. The average CH4 production (ml g-1 VS) from pretreated Kutunjärvi lake materials with straw horse manure (208.9 ml g-1 VS) and untreated Kutunjärvi lake materials with straw horse manure (182.2 ml g-1 VS) were markedly higher than from Likokanta lake materials with straw horse manure (157.8 ml g-1 VS). According to the experimental results, utilization of 100% lake bottom materials for biogas production is likely to be impaired negatively. In the future, further analyses to improve the biogas yields, assessment of costs and benefits is needed before utilizing lake bottom materials for the production of biogas.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas, lake bottom materials, sediments, pretreatment

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5813 Assessment of the Ecological Tragedy on Lake Chad

Authors: Luke Onyekakeyah, Cynthia Onyekakeyah

Abstract:

The conflict in Northeastern Nigeria could mar local and international efforts to salvage the drying Lake Chad, which at present is merely 20 per cent of its original size. The conflict which began in 2009, assumed a monstrous dimension to the extent that any prospects of a redeeming action on the Lake is bleak. The concern of the authorities in the basin countries is how to bring the conflict to an end in the interest of the ecologically-dependent riparian population. Lake Chad is Africa’s fourth largest lake. From a previous 388,500 km2 some 600, 000 years ago, the Lake has shrunk to a maximum length of 25,000 km2. During the last four decades, the Lake has been susceptible to increasing variability and irregular rainfall. Dry spell, excessive evaporation and sandstorm have adversely affected the Lake, such that a 2001 estimate put the Lake to a meager 19,000 km2. Given the critical importance of the Lake as a source of livelihood for over 20 million people, there is mounting concern that an unprecedented human and ecological catastrophe is unfolding, should the Lake eventually dries up. The study evaluates the Lake Chad and how the conflict has adversely impacted it.

Keywords: lake chad, conflict, salvage, Nigeria

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5812 Seasonal Profile of the Feeding Ecology of Auchenoglanis Occidentalis from Tagwai Lake, Minna Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: V. I. Chukwuemeka, S. M. Tsadu, R. O. Ojutiku, R. J. Kolo

Abstract:

The food and feeding habits of Auchenoglanis occidentalis, which is commonly called the “BuBu” cat fish or the giraffe cat fish from Tagwai Lake Minna, was analysed from January to June, 2013. A total of 216 fish specimen were used for the study which were obtained from the local fishermen operating in Tagwai Lake Minna. Fishing gears used include cast nets and gills nets of various sizes. They also use hook and lines. The frequency of occurrence and dominance method were used to analyse the food in the gut. Auchenoglanis occidentalis from Tagwai Lake, Minna had a broad spectrum of food items in the gut, ranging from insects, fish, plant materials to protozoan. The percentage of insects was (31.75%), fish (12.70%), Chyme (20.63%), plant materials (20.63%), protozoa (1.59%) and soil (12.70%). The presence of different food items in the gut of the Auchenoglanis occidentalis which ranged from animal to plant and soil made it to be considered as an omnivore bottom feeder. The food habits of this fish showed no remarkable difference between the dry season months and the rainy season months. The broad food spectrum of the fish makes them a good aquaculture candidate. It also suggests that the specie feed both in surface water and near the substratum (sand).

Keywords: Auchenoglanis occidentalis, ecology, Tagwai Lake, Nigeria

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5811 Effect of Weathering on the Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Sediments of the Hyper Saline Urmia Salt Lake, Iran

Authors: Samad Alipour, Khadije Mosavi Onlaghi

Abstract:

Urmia Salt Lake (USL) is a hypersaline lake in the northwest of Iran. It contains halite as main dissolved and precipitated mineral and the major mineral mixed with lake bed sediments. Other detrital minerals such as calcite, aragonite, dolomite, quartz, feldspars, augite are forming lake sediments. This study examined the impact of weathering of this sediments collected from 1.5 meters depth and augite placers. The study indicated that weathering of tephritic and adakite rocks of the Islamic Island at the immediate boundary of the lake play a main control of lake bed sediments and has produced a large volume of augite placer along the lake bank. Weathering increases from south to toward north with increasing distance from Islamic Island. Geochemistry of lake sediments demonstrated the enrichment of MgO, CaO, Sr with an elevated anomaly of Eu, possibly due to surface absorbance of Mn and Fe associated Sr elevation originating from adakite volcanic rocks in the vicinity of the lake basin. The study shows the local geology is the major factor in origin of lake sediments than chemical and biochemical produced mineral during diagenetic processes.

Keywords: Urmia Lake, weathering, mineralogy, augite, Iran

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5810 Assessing the Eutrophication Risk in the Suat Uğurlu Dam Lake by Evaluation of Trophic Variables

Authors: Bilge Aydın Er, Yuksel Ardalı

Abstract:

In Ayvacık village, 80-90% of the population is engaged in agriculture. The pollution was adversely affecting the properties of agricultural origin of the lake. This study is to determine pollution caused by unwanted changes in the Suat Ugurlu Dam Lake has been launched to monitor. Yesilirmak basin is located in the proximal part of the Black Sea. Therefore it was exposed to impact many pollution. In this study, sediment samples from selected points along the lake was made on the analysis. This work was supported by the results of water analyzes. It is clear that urgent measures should be taken to the area of water management

Keywords: eutrophication, Black sea, lake, pollution

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5809 Optimization of Horticultural Crops by Using the Peats from Rawa Pening Lake as Soil Conditioner

Authors: Addharu Eri, Ningsih P. Lestari, Setyorini Adheliya, Syaiputri Khaidifah

Abstract:

Rawa Pening is a lake at the Ambarawa Basin in Central Java, Indonesia. It serves as a source of power (hydroelectricity), irrigation, and flood control. The potential of this lake is getting worse by the presence of aquatic plants (Eichhornia crassipes) that grows wild, and it can make the lake covered by the cumulation of rotten E. crassipes. This cumulation causes the sediment formation which has high organic material composition. Sediment formation will be lead into a shallowing of the lake and affect water’s quality. The deposition of organic material produces methane gas and hydrogen sulfide, which in rain would turn the water muddy and decompose. Decomposition occuring in the water due to microbe activity in lake's water. The shallowing of Rawa Pening Lake not only will physically can reduce water discharge, but it also has ecologically major impact on water organism. The condition of Rawa Pening Lake peats can not be considered as unimportant issue. One of the solutions that can be applied is by using the peats as a compound materials on growing horticultural crops because the organic materials content on the mineral soil is low, particularly on an old soils. The horticultural crops required organic materials for growth promoting. The horticultural crops that use in this research is mustard cabbage (Brassica sp.). Using Rawa Pening's peats as the medium of plants with high organic materials that also can ameliorate soil’s physical properties, and indirectly serves as soil conditioner. Research will be focus on the peat’s contents and mustard cabbage product’s content. The contents that will be examined is the N-available, Ca, Mg, K, P, and C-organic. The analysis of Ca, Mg, and K is use soil base saturation measurement method and extracting soil is use NH4OAC solution. The aim of this study is to use the peats of Rawa Pening Lake as soil conditioner and increase the productivity of Brassica sp.

Keywords: Brassica sp., peats, rawa pening lake, soil conditioner

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5808 Spatial REE Geochemical Modeling at Lake Acıgöl, Denizli, Turkey: Analytical Approaches on Spatial Interpolation and Spatial Correlation

Authors: M. Budakoglu, M. Karaman, A. Abdelnasser, M. Kumral

Abstract:

The spatial interpolation and spatial correlation of the rare earth elements (REE) of lake surface sediments of Lake Acıgöl and its surrounding lithological units is carried out by using GIS techniques like Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) techniques. IDW technique which makes the spatial interpolation shows that the lithological units like Hayrettin Formation at north of Lake Acigol have high REE contents than lake sediments as well as ∑LREE and ∑HREE contents. However, Eu/Eu* values (based on chondrite-normalized REE pattern) show high value in some lake surface sediments than in lithological units and that refers to negative Eu-anomaly. Also, the spatial interpolation of the V/Cr ratio indicated that Acıgöl lithological units and lake sediments deposited in in oxic and dysoxic conditions. But, the spatial correlation is carried out by GWR technique. This technique shows high spatial correlation coefficient between ∑LREE and ∑HREE which is higher in the lithological units (Hayrettin Formation and Cameli Formation) than in the other lithological units and lake surface sediments. Also, the matching between REEs and Sc and Al refers to REE abundances of Lake Acıgöl sediments weathered from local bedrock around the lake.

Keywords: spatial geochemical modeling, IDW, GWR techniques, REE, lake sediments, Lake Acıgöl, Turkey

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5807 Dynamic Evaluation of Shallow Lake Habitat Quality Based on InVEST Model: A Case in Baiyangdian Lake

Authors: Shengjun Yan, Xuan Wang

Abstract:

Water level changes in a shallow lake always introduce dramatic land pattern changes. To achieve sustainable ecosystem service, it is necessary to evaluate habitat quality dynamic and its spatio-temporal variation resulted from water level changes, which can provide a scientific basis for protection of biodiversity and planning of wetland ecological system. Landsat data in the spring was chosen to obtain landscape data at different times based on the high, moderate and low water level of Baiyangdian Shallow Lake. We used the InVEST to evaluate the habitat quality, habitat degradation, and habitat scarcity. The result showed that: 1) the water level of shallow lake changes from high to low lead to an obvious landscape pattern changes and habitat degradation, 2) the most change area occurred in northwestward and southwest of Baiyangdian Shallow Lake, which there was a 21 percent of suitable habitat and 42 percent of moderately suitable habitat lost. Our findings show that the changes of water level in the shallow lake would have a strong relationship with the habitat quality.

Keywords: habitat quality, habitat degradation, water level changes, shallow lake

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5806 Impact of Flood on Phytoplankton Biochemical Composition in Subtropical Reservoir, Lake Nasser

Authors: Shymaa S. Zaher, Howayda Abd El-Hady, Nehad Khalifa

Abstract:

Lake Nasser is vital to Egypt as it is the main Nile water reservoir. One of the major challenges in ecological flood is to establish how environmental enrichment in nutrients availability may affect both the biochemical composition of phytoplankton and the species communities. Samples were collected from twenty sites representing different lake sectors along the main channel of the lake during 2017. Generally, phytoplankton distribution during flood season in Lake Nasser indicates the predominance of Cyanophyceae at all lake sectors. Increases in NO₂ (9.31 µg/l) and PO₄ (7.11µg/l) at the Abu-Simble sector are associated with changes in community structure and biochemical composition of phytoplankton, where Cyanophyceae blooming occur associated with retardation in biopolymeric particulate organic carbon. The maximum total biochemical contents (91.29 mg/l) and biopolymeric particulate organic carbon (37.15 mg/l) was found at El-Madiq sector where there was optimum nutrients (NO₂ 0.479 µg/l and PO₄ 5.149µg/l), a highly positive correlation was found between Cyanophyceae and NO₂ in the lake (r = 0.956). A highly positive correlation was detected between carbohydrates and both transparency and pH in the lake (r = 0.974 and 0.787). Also carbohydrates had a positive relation with Bacillariophyceae (r = 0.610). Flood positively alter the water quality of the lake by increasing dissolved oxygen and nutrients enrichment to the aquatic ecosystem, affecting other aquatic organisms of higher trophic levels as economic fishes inhabiting the lake.

Keywords: aquatic microalgae, Aswan high dam lake, biochemical composition, fresh water

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5805 Future Projection of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods Hazard: A Hydrodynamic Study of the Highest Lake in the Dhauliganga Basin, Uttarakhand

Authors: Ashim Sattar, Ajanta Goswami, Anil V. Kulkarni

Abstract:

Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOF) highly contributes to mountain hazards in the Himalaya. Over the past decade, high altitude lakes in the Himalaya has been showing notable growth in their size and number. The key reason is rapid retreat of its glacier front. Hydrodynamic modeling GLOF using shallow water equations (SWE) would result in understanding its impact in the downstream region. The present study incorporates remote sensing based ice thickness modeling to determine the future extent of the Dhauliganga Lake to map the over deepening extent around the highest lake in the Dhauliganga basin. The maximum future volume of the lake calculated using area-volume scaling is used to model a GLOF event. The GLOF hydrograph is routed along the channel using one dimensional and two dimensional model to understand the flood wave propagation till it reaches the 1st hydropower station located 72 km downstream of the lake. The present extent of the lake calculated using SENTINEL 2 images is 0.13 km². The maximum future extent of the lake, mapped by investigating the glacier bed has a calculated scaled volume of 3.48 x 106 m³. The GLOF modeling releasing the future volume of the lake resulted in a breach hydrograph with a peak flood of 4995 m³/s at just downstream of the lake. Hydraulic routing

Keywords: GLOF, glacial lake outburst floods, mountain hazard, Central Himalaya, future projection

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5804 Phyto Diversity and Conservation of Pulicat Lake-Andhra Pradesh

Authors: S. K. M. Basha

Abstract:

Pulicat Lake is the second largest brackish water lagoon after Chilika Lake of Orissa along the east coast of India. Estuaries and lagoons have brackish water which shows high biological productivity than fresh or sea water. Hence it has wide range of aquatic, terrestrial flora and fauna. The World Wide Fund for Nature declared that it is a protected area. Present study aims to explore the flora and fauna of the lagoon along with the various threats for its eco-degradation which helps to plan necessary conservation methods.

Keywords: phytodiversity, Pulicat Lake, threats, conservation

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5803 The Effect of Urmia-Lake Water on Tensional Strength Concrete with Various Admixtures

Authors: Hadi Barghlame, M. A. Lotfollahi-Yaghin, Mehdi Mohammad Rezaei

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of admixtures on the tensional strength of concrete in Urmia-lake water have been investigated. We made different types of concretes with the ratio of w/c and replaced different percentages of micro-silica, air-entraining, super plasticizer, corrosion-inhibiting, and caulk with two types of cement I and II as well as investigating in both ordinary water and Urmia-lake water. The tensional strength was investigated on these samples.

Keywords: Urmia-lake water, tensional strength, concrete, admixtures

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5802 Fatty Acid Composition of Muscle Lipids of Cyprinus carpio L. Living in Different Dam Lake, Turkey

Authors: O. B. Citil, V. Sariyel, M. Akoz

Abstract:

In this study, total fatty acid composition of muscle lipids of Cyprinus carpio L. living in Suğla Dam Lake, Altinapa Dam Lake, Eğirdir Lake and Burdur Lake were determined using GC. During this study, for the summer season of July was taken from each region of the land and they were stored in deep-freeze set to -20 degrees until the analysis date. At the end of the analyses, 30 different fatty acids were found in the composition of Cyprinus carpio L. which lives in different lakes. Cyprinus carpio Suğla Dam Lake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), were higher than other lakes. Cyprinus carpio L. was the highest in the major SFA palmitic acid. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of carp, the most abundant fish species in all lakes, were found to be higher than those of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in all lakes. Palmitic acid was the major SFA in all lakes. Oleic acid was identified as the major MUFA. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was the most abundant in all lakes. ω3 fatty acid composition was higher than the percentage of the percentage ω6 fatty acids in all lake. ω3/ω6 rates of Cyprinus carpio L. Suğla Dam Lake, Altinapa Dam Lake, Eğirdir Lake and Burdur Lake, 2.12, 1.19, 2.15, 2.87, and 2.82, respectively. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was the major PUFA in Eğirdir and Burdur lakes, whereas linoleic acid (LA) was the major PUFA in Altinapa and Suğla Dam Lakes. It was shown that the fatty acid composition in the muscle of carp was significantly influenced by different lakes.

Keywords: Cyprinus carpio L., fatty acid, composition, gas chromatography

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5801 Lake Bardawil Water Quality

Authors: Mohamed Elkashouty, Mohamed Elkammar, Mohamed Gomma, Menal Elminiami

Abstract:

Lake Bardawil is considered as one of the major morphological features of northern Sinai. It represents the largest fish production lake for export in Egypt. Nineteen and thirty one samples were collected from lake water during winter and summer (2005). TDS, cations, anions, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Co and Pb concentrations were measured within winter and summer seasons. During summer, in the eastern sector of the lake, TDS concentration is decreased due northeastern part (38000 ppm), it is attributed to dilution from seawater through Boughaz II. The TDS concentration increased generally in the central and southern parts of the lake (44000 and 42000 ppm, respectively). It is caused by they are far from dilution from seawater, disconnected water body, shallow depth (mean 2 m), and high evaporation rate. In the western sector, the TDS content ranged from low (38000 ppm) in the northeastern part to high (50000 ppm) in the western part. Generally, the TDS concentration in the western sector is higher than those in the eastern. It is attributed to low volume of water body for the former, high evaporation rate, and therefore increase in TDS content in the lake water.During winter season, in the eastern sector, the wind velocity is high which enhance the water current to inflow into the lake through Boughaz I and II. The resultant water lake is diluted by seawater and rainfall in the winter season. The TDS concentration increased due southern part of the lake (42000 ppm) and declined in the northern part (36000 ppm). The concentration of Co, Ni, Pb, Fe, Cd, Zn, Cu, Mn and Pb within winter and summery seasons, in lake water are low, which considered as background concentrations with respect to seawater. Therefore, there are no industrial, agricultural and sanitary wastewaters dump into the lake. This confirms the statement that has been written at the entrance of Lake Bardawil at El-Telool area "Lake Bardawil, one of the purest lakes in the world". It indicate that the Lake Bardawil is excellent area for fish production for export (current state) and is the second main fish source in Egypt after the Mediterranean Sea after the illness of Lake Manzala.

Keywords: lake Bardawil, water quality, major ions, toxic metals

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5800 Scientific Expedition to Understand the Crucial Issues of Rapid Lake Expansion and Moraine Dam Instability Phenomena to Justify the Lake Lowering Effort of Imja Lake, Khumbu Region of Sagarmatha, Nepal

Authors: R. C. Tiwari, N. P. Bhandary, D. B. Thapa Chhetri, R. Yatabe

Abstract:

The research enlightens the various issues of lake expansion and stability of the moraine dam of Imja lake. The Imja lake considered that the world highest altitude lake (5010m from m.s.l.), located in the Khumbu, Sagarmatha region of Nepal (27.90 N and 86.90 E) was reported as one of the fast growing glacier lakes in the Nepal Himalaya. The research explores a common phenomenon of lake expansion and stability issues of moraine dam to justify the necessity of lake lowering efforts if any in future in other glacier lakes in Nepal Himalaya. For this, we have explored the root causes of rapid lake expansion along with crucial factors responsible for the stability of moraine mass. This research helps to understand the structure of moraine dam and the ice, water and moraine interactions to the strength of moraine dam. The nature of permafrost layer and its effects on moraine dam stability is also studied here. The detail Geo-Technical properties of moraine mass of Imja lake gives a clear picture of the strength of the moraine material and their interactions. The stability analysis of the moraine dam under the consideration of strong ground motion of 7.8Mw 2015 Barpak-Gorkha and its major aftershock 7.3Mw Kodari, Sindhupalchowk-Dolakha border, Nepal earthquakes have also been carried out here to understand the necessity of lake lowering efforts. The lake lowering effort was recently done by Nepal Army by constructing an open channel and lowered 3m. And, it is believed that the entire region is now safe due to continuous draining of lake water by 3m. But, this option does not seem adequate to offer a significant risk reduction to downstream communities in this much amount of volume and depth, lowering as in the 75 million cubic meter water impounded with an average depth of 148.9m.

Keywords: finite element method, glacier, moraine, stability

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5799 Monitoring and Evaluation of the Water Quality of Taal Lake, Talisay, Batangas, Philippines

Authors: Felipe B. Martinez, Imelda C. Galera

Abstract:

This paper presents an update on the physico-chemical properties of the Taal Lake for local government officials and representatives of non-government organizations by monitoring and evaluating a total of nine (9) water quality parameters. The study further shows that the Taal Lakes surface temperature, pH, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, color, and dissolved oxygen content conform to the standards set by the Department of Environment and Natural resources (DENR); while phosphate, chlorine, and 5-Day 20°C BOD are below the standard. Likewise, the T-test result shows no significant difference in the overall average of the two sites at the Taal Lake (P > 0.05). Based on the data, the Lake is safe for primary contact recreation such as bathing, swimming and skin diving, and can be used for aqua culture purposes.

Keywords: cool dry season, hot dry season, rainy season, Taal Lake, water quality

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5798 Improvement of Water Quality of Al Asfar Lake Using Constructed Wetland System

Authors: Jamal Radaideh

Abstract:

Al-Asfar Lake is located about 14 km east of Al-Ahsa and is one of the most important wetland lakes in the Al Ahsa/Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Al-Ahsa is may be the largest oasis in the world, having an area of 20,000 hectares, in addition, it is of the largest and oldest agricultural centers in the region. The surplus farm irrigation water beside additional water supplied by treated wastewater from Al-Hofuf sewage station is collected by a drainage network and discharged into Al-Asfar Lake. The lake has good wetlands, sand dunes as well as large expanses of open and shallow water. Salt tolerant vegetation is present in some of the shallow areas around the lake, and huge stands of Phragmites reeds occur around the lake. The lake presents an important habitat for wildlife and birds, something not expected to find in a large desert. Although high evaporation rates in the range of 3250 mm are common, the water remains in the evaporation lakes during all seasons of the year is used to supply cattle with drinking water and for aquifer recharge. Investigations showed that high concentrations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and salinity discharge to Al Asfar Lake from the D2 drain exist. It is expected that the majority of BOD, COD and N originates from wastewater discharge and leachate from surplus irrigation water which also contribute to the majority of P and salinity. The significant content of nutrients and biological oxygen demand reduces available oxygen in the water. The present project aimed to improve the water quality of the lake using constructed wetland trains which will be built around the lake. Phragmites reeds, which already occur around the lake, will be used.

Keywords: Al Asfar lake, constructed wetland, water quality, water treatment

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5797 Forecasting Lake Malawi Water Level Fluctuations Using Stochastic Models

Authors: M. Mulumpwa, W. W. L. Jere, M. Lazaro, A. H. N. Mtethiwa

Abstract:

The study considered Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) processes to select an appropriate stochastic model to forecast the monthly data from the Lake Malawi water levels for the period 1986 through 2015. The appropriate model was chosen based on SARIMA (p, d, q) (P, D, Q)S. The Autocorrelation function (ACF), Partial autocorrelation (PACF), Akaike Information Criteria (AIC), Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), Box–Ljung statistics, correlogram and distribution of residual errors were estimated. The SARIMA (1, 1, 0) (1, 1, 1)12 was selected to forecast the monthly data of the Lake Malawi water levels from August, 2015 to December, 2021. The plotted time series showed that the Lake Malawi water levels are decreasing since 2010 to date but not as much as was the case in 1995 through 1997. The future forecast of the Lake Malawi water levels until 2021 showed a mean of 474.47 m ranging from 473.93 to 475.02 meters with a confidence interval of 80% and 90% against registered mean of 473.398 m in 1997 and 475.475 m in 1989 which was the lowest and highest water levels in the lake respectively since 1986. The forecast also showed that the water levels of Lake Malawi will drop by 0.57 meters as compared to the mean water levels recorded in the previous years. These results suggest that the Lake Malawi water level may not likely go lower than that recorded in 1997. Therefore, utilisation and management of water-related activities and programs among others on the lake should provide room for such scenarios. The findings suggest a need to manage the Lake Malawi jointly and prudently with other stakeholders starting from the catchment area. This will reduce impacts of anthropogenic activities on the lake’s water quality, water level, aquatic and adjacent terrestrial ecosystems thereby ensuring its resilience to climate change impacts.

Keywords: forecasting, Lake Malawi, water levels, water level fluctuation, climate change, anthropogenic activities

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5796 A Particle Image Velocimetric (PIV) Experiment on Simplified Bottom Hole Flow Field

Authors: Heqian Zhao, Huaizhong Shi, Zhongwei Huang, Zhengliang Chen, Ziang Gu, Fei Gao

Abstract:

Hydraulics mechanics is significantly important in the drilling process of oil or gas exploration, especially for the drill bit. The fluid flows through the nozzles on the bit and generates a water jet to remove the cutting at the bottom hole. In this paper, a simplified bottom hole model is established. The Particle Image Velocimetric (PIV) is used to capture the flow field of the single nozzle. Due to the limitation of the bottom and wellbore, the potential core is shorter than that of the free water jet. The velocity magnitude rapidly attenuates when fluid close to the bottom is lower than about 5 mm. Besides, a vortex zone appears near the middle of the bottom beside the water jet zone. A modified exponential function can be used to fit the centerline velocity well. On the one hand, the results of this paper can provide verification for the numerical simulation of the bottom hole flow field. On the other hand, it also can provide an experimental basis for the hydraulic design of the drill bit.

Keywords: oil and gas, hydraulic mechanic of drilling, PIV, bottom hole

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5795 Production of Geopolymers for Structural Applications from Fluidized Bed Combustion Bottom Ash

Authors: Thapelo Aubrey Motsieng

Abstract:

Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) is a clean coal technology used in the combustion of low-grade coals for power generation. The production of large solid wastes such as bottom ashes from this process is a problem. The bottom ash contains some toxic elements which can leach out soils and contaminate surface and ground water; for this reason, they can neither be disposed of in landfills nor lagoons anymore. The production of geopolymers from bottom ash for structural and concrete applications is an option for their disposal. In this study, the waste bottom ash obtained from the combustion of three low grade South African coals in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor was used to produce geopolymers. The geopolymers were cured in a household microwave. The results showed that the microwave curing enhanced the reactivity and strength of the geopolymers.

Keywords: bottom ash, geopolymers, coal, compressive strength

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5794 Microwave Production of Geopolymers Using Fluidized Bed Combustion Bottom Ash

Authors: Osholana Tobi Stephen, Rotimi Emmanuel Sadiku, Bilainu Oboirien.o

Abstract:

Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) is a clean coal technology used in the combustion of low-grade coals for power generation. The production of large solid wastes such as bottom ashes from this process is a problem. The bottom ash contains some toxic elements which can leach out soils and contaminate surface and ground water; for this reason, they can neither be disposed in landfills nor lagoons anymore. The production of geopolymers from bottom ash for structural and concrete applications is an option for their disposal. In this study, the waste bottom ash obtained from the combustion of three low grade South African coals in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor was used to produce geopolymers. The geopolymers were cured in a household microwave. The results showed that the microwave curing enhanced the reactivity and strength of the geopolymers.

Keywords: bottom ash, coal, fluidized bed combustion (FBC) geopolymer, compressive strength

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5793 Macroinvertebrates of Paravani and Saghamo Lakes, South Georgia

Authors: Bella Japoshvili, Zhanetta Shubitidze, Ani Bikashvili, Sophio Gabelashvili, Marina Gioshvili, Levan Mumladze

Abstract:

Paravani and Saghamo Lakes are oligotrophic lentic systems located in Javakheti plateau (South Georgia) at 2073 m and 1996 m a.s.l. respectively. Javakheti plateau is known as a lakes region as there are located almost 60 small and medium size lakes. Paravani Lake is the biggest lake by its surface area in Georgia, 37 km 2. The Saghamo Lake is smaller and its surface area consists 4.58 km2. These two lakes are connected with Paravani River, because of this the main hydrobiological and ichthyological features are the same. More than 15-30 years were not studied macroinvertebrates of these lakes. Even the existing information is lack and very limited. The aim of our study was to identify main macroinvertebrate groups inhabiting both lakes and to compare obtaining results to existing information. Our investigation was carried out during 2014 and 2015, in 3 seasons of the year, in winter because of severe condition samples were not taken. Kick-net and Petersen grab were used for material collecting, 4 sites from Paravani Lake and 3–from Saghamo Lake were sampled. Collected invertebrates were fixed in ethanol and late taken to the laboratory, where organisms were identified to the lowest taxon possible, usually family. By our results identified 14 taxa for Paravani Lake and 12 taxa for Saghamo Lake. Our results differ from previous information; for Saghamo Lake previously 13 taxa and for Paravani Lake 12 taxa were described. The percentage of the groups also differ from existing information. Our investigation showed that in Paravani Lake most abundant are Apmhipoda, Hydrachnidae, and Hemiptera, in our samples the number of individuals for those 3 taxa was more than thousand, in each. For Saghamo Lake numerous taxon was Amphipoda-36.3%, following by Ephemeroptera-11.37%, Chironomidae-10.5% and Hydrachnidae-7.03% respectively. We also identified the dominant taxon for all studied seasons. Autumn is the period when the diversity of macroinvertebrates are higher in both lakes.

Keywords: Georgia, lakes, macroinvertebrates, monitoring

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5792 Annual Water Level Simulation Using Support Vector Machine

Authors: Maryam Khalilzadeh Poshtegal, Seyed Ahmad Mirbagheri, Mojtaba Noury

Abstract:

In this paper, by application of the input yearly data of rainfall, temperature and flow to the Urmia Lake, the simulation of water level fluctuation were applied by means of three models. According to the climate change investigation the fluctuation of lakes water level are of high interest. This study investigate data-driven models, support vector machines (SVM), SVM method which is a new regression procedure in water resources are applied to the yearly level data of Lake Urmia that is the biggest and the hyper saline lake in Iran. The evaluated lake levels are found to be in good correlation with the observed values. The results of SVM simulation show better accuracy and implementation. The mean square errors, mean absolute relative errors and determination coefficient statistics are used as comparison criteria.

Keywords: simulation, water level fluctuation, urmia lake, support vector machine

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5791 Urban Development from the Perspective of Lou Gang Polder System: Taihu Lake, Huzhou as an Example

Authors: Wei Bin Shen

Abstract:

Lou Gang world irrigation project heritage in Taihu Lake is a systematic irrigation project integrating water conservancy, ecology and culture. Through the methods of historical documents and field investigation, this paper deeply analyzes the formation history, connotation and value of Lou Gang polder system: Lou Gang heritage, describes in detail the relationship between Lou Gang polder system in Taihu Lake and the development and evolution of Huzhou City, and initially explores the protection and Utilization Strategies of Lou Gang water conservancy cultural heritage resources in Taihu Lake from the current situation.

Keywords: Lou Gang, protection strategy, urban evolution, waterconservancyculturalheritage

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5790 A Descriptive Preference Analysis on Waterfront Parks Neighboring Lake Shihwa

Authors: J. H. Ahn, J. W. Moon, S. J. Noh, H. K. Kim

Abstract:

Nowadays, as the ecology of Lake Shihwa has been restored significantly, the urban development is in progress around Lake Shihwa areas. Each development project includes a plan on utilizing waterfront areas, but there exist a difference on waterfront design criteria between experts and users. Therefore, it is significant to analyze preferences in design elements of existing waterfront parks around Lake Shihwa (Ansan Waterfront Park, Shihwa Reed Wetland Park, and T-Light Park) based on users’ perspectives and to reflect the result on upcoming waterfront developments. This study derives design elements on waterfront parks from literature reviews. The survey questionnaires are created based on these classified elements and the surveys are conducted to experts and users with in-depth interviews. For all three parks, several park facilities appear to be not recognized by users. Therefore, the circulation path should be introduced in guide maps and information activities and furthermore in disposition of park facilities.

Keywords: design elements, lake Shihwa, preference, waterfront park

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5789 Gravity and Geodetic Control of Geodynamic Activity near Aswan Lake, Egypt

Authors: Anwar H. Radwan, Jan Mrlina, El-Sayed A. Issawy, Ali Rayan, Salah M. Mahmoud

Abstract:

Geodynamic investigations in the Aswan Lake region were started after the M=5.5 earthquake in 1981, triggered by the lake water fluctuations. Besides establishing the seismological networks, also the geodetic observations focused on the Kalabsha and Sayal fault zones were started. It was found that the Kalabsha fault is an active dextral strike-slip with normal component indicating uplift on its southern side. However, the annual velocity rates in both components do not exceed 2 mm/y, and do not therefore represent extremely active faulting. We also launched gravity monitoring in 1997, and performed another two campaigns in 2000 and 2002. The observed non- tidal temporal gravity changes indicate rather the flood water infiltration into the porous Nubian sandstone, than tectonic stress effect. The station nearest to the lake exhibited about 60 μGal positive gravity change within the 1997-2002 period.

Keywords: gravity monitoring, surface movements, Lake Aswan, groundwater change

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5788 Spatio-Temporal Data Mining with Association Rules for Lake Van

Authors: Tolga Aydin, M. Fatih Alaeddinoğlu

Abstract:

People, throughout the history, have made estimates and inferences about the future by using their past experiences. Developing information technologies and the improvements in the database management systems make it possible to extract useful information from knowledge in hand for the strategic decisions. Therefore, different methods have been developed. Data mining by association rules learning is one of such methods. Apriori algorithm, one of the well-known association rules learning algorithms, is not commonly used in spatio-temporal data sets. However, it is possible to embed time and space features into the data sets and make Apriori algorithm a suitable data mining technique for learning spatio-temporal association rules. Lake Van, the largest lake of Turkey, is a closed basin. This feature causes the volume of the lake to increase or decrease as a result of change in water amount it holds. In this study, evaporation, humidity, lake altitude, amount of rainfall and temperature parameters recorded in Lake Van region throughout the years are used by the Apriori algorithm and a spatio-temporal data mining application is developed to identify overflows and newly-formed soil regions (underflows) occurring in the coastal parts of Lake Van. Identifying possible reasons of overflows and underflows may be used to alert the experts to take precautions and make the necessary investments.

Keywords: apriori algorithm, association rules, data mining, spatio-temporal data

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
5787 Research on the Transformation of Bottom Space in the Teaching Area of Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University

Authors: Jia Xu

Abstract:

There is a lot of bottom space in the teaching area of Zijingang Campus of Zhejiang University, which benefits to the ventilation, heat dissipation, circulation, partition of quiet and noisy areas and diversification of spaces. Hangzhou is hot in summer but cold in winter, so teachers and students spend much less time in the bottom space of buildings in winter than in summer. Recently, depending on the teachers and students’ proposals, the school transformed the bottom space in the teaching area to provide space for relaxing, chatting and staying in winter. Surveying and analyzing the existing ways to transform, the paper researches deeply on the transformation projects of bottom space in the teaching buildings. It is believed that this paper can be a salutary lesson to make the bottom space in the teaching areas of universities richer and bring more diverse activities for teachers and students.

Keywords: bottom space, teaching area, transformation, Zijingang Campus of Zhejiang University

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
5786 Case Studies of Mitigation Methods against the Impacts of High Water Levels in the Great Lakes

Authors: Jennifer M. Penton

Abstract:

Record high lake levels in 2017 and 2019 (2017 max lake level = 75.81 m; 2018 max lake level = 75.26 m; 2019 max lake level = 75.92 m) combined with a number of severe storms in the Great Lakes region, have resulted in significant wave generation across Lake Ontario. The resulting large wave heights have led to erosion of the natural shoreline, overtopping of existing revetments, backshore erosion, and partial and complete failure of several coastal structures, which in turn have led to further erosion of the shoreline and damaged existing infrastructure. Such impacts can be seen all along the coast of Lake Ontario. Three specific locations have been chosen as case studies for this paper, each addressing erosion and/or flood mitigation methods, such as revetments and sheet piling with increased land levels. Varying site conditions and the resulting shoreline damage are compared herein. The results are reflected in the case-specific design components of the mitigation and adaptation methods and are presented in this paper.

Keywords: erosion mitigation, flood mitigation, great lakes, high water levels

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5785 Impacts of Hydrologic and Topographic Changes on Water Regime Evolution of Poyang Lake, China

Authors: Feng Huang, Carlos G. Ochoa, Haitao Zhao

Abstract:

Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China, is located at the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin. It has great value in socioeconomic development and is internationally recognized as an important lacustrine and wetland ecosystem with abundant biodiversity. Impacted by ongoing climate change and anthropogenic activities, especially the regulation of the Three Gorges Reservoir since 2003, Poyang Lake has experienced significant water regime evolution, resulting in challenges for the management of water resources and the environment. Quantifying the contribution of hydrologic and topographic changes to water regime alteration is necessary for policymakers to design effective adaption strategies. Long term hydrologic data were collected and the back-propagation neural networks were constructed to simulate the lake water level. The impacts of hydrologic and topographic changes were differentiated through scenario analysis that considered pre-impact and post-impact hydrologic and topographic scenarios. The lake water regime was characterized by hydrologic indicators that describe monthly water level fluctuations, hydrologic features during flood and drought seasons, and frequency and rate of hydrologic variations. The results revealed different contributions of hydrologic and topographic changes to different features of the lake water regime.Noticeable changes were that the water level declined dramatically during the period of reservoir impoundment, and the drought was enhanced during the dry season. The hydrologic and topographic changes exerted a synergistic effect or antagonistic effect on different lake water regime features. The findings provide scientific reference for lacustrine and wetland ecological protection associated with water regime alterations.

Keywords: back-propagation neural network, scenario analysis, water regime, Poyang Lake

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