Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2251

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

2251 Modelling the Yield Stress of Magnetorheological Fluids

Authors: Hesam Khajehsaeid, Naeimeh Alagheband


Magnetorheological fluids (MRF) are a category of smart materials. They exhibit a reversible change from a Newtonian-like fluid to a semi-solid state upon application of an external magnetic field. In contrast to ordinary fluids, MRFs can tolerate shear stresses up to a threshold value called yield stress which strongly depends on the strength of the magnetic field, magnetic particles volume fraction and temperature. Even beyond the yield, a magnetic field can increase MR fluid viscosity up to several orders. As yield stress is an important parameter in the design of MR devices, in this work, the effects of magnetic field intensity and magnetic particle concentration on the yield stress of MRFs are investigated. Four MRF samples with different particle concentrations are developed and tested through flow-ramp analysis to obtain the flow curves at a range of magnetic field intensity as well as shear rate. The viscosity of the fluids is determined by means of the flow curves. The results are then used to determine the yield stresses by means of the steady stress sweep method. The yield stresses are then determined by means of a modified form of the dipole model as well as empirical models. The exponential distribution function is used to describe the orientation of particle chains in the dipole model under the action of the external magnetic field. Moreover, the modified dipole model results in a reasonable distribution of chains compared to previous similar models.

Keywords: magnetorheological fluids, yield stress, particles concentration, dipole model

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2250 Predictions of Thermo-Hydrodynamic State for Single and Three Pads Gas Foil Bearings Operating at Steady-State Based on Multi-Physics Coupling Computer Aided Engineering Simulations

Authors: Tai Yuan Yu, Pei-Jen Wang


Oil-free turbomachinery is considered one of the critical technologies for future green power generation systems as rotor machinery systems. Oil-free technology allows clean, compact, and maintenance-free working, and gas foil bearings, abbreviated as GFBs, are important for the technology. Since the first applications in the auxiliary power units and air cycle machines in the 1970s, obvious improvement has been created to the computational models for dynamic rotor behavior. However, many technical issues are still poorly understood or remain unsolved, and some of those are thermal management and the pattern of how pressure will be distributed in bearing clearance. This paper presents a three-dimensional, abbreviated as 3D, fluid-structure interaction model of single pad foil bearings and three pad foil bearings to predict bearing working behavior that researchers could compare characteristics of those. The coupling analysis model involves dynamic working characteristics applied to all the gas film and mechanical structures. Therefore, the elastic deformation of foil structure and the hydrodynamic pressure of gas film can both be calculated by a finite element method program. As a result, the temperature distribution pattern could also be iteratively solved by coupling analysis. In conclusion, the working fluid state in a gas film of various pad forms of bearings working characteristic at constant rotational speed for both can be solved for comparisons with the experimental results.

Keywords: fluid-structure interaction, multi-physics simulations, gas foil bearing, oil-free, transient thermo-hydrodynamic

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2249 Improving the Flow Capacity (CV) of the Valves

Authors: Pradeep A. G, Gorantla Giridhar, Vijay Turaga, Vinod Srinivasa


The major problem in the flow control valve is of lower Cv, which will reduce the overall efficiency of the flow circuit. Designers are continuously working to improve the Cv of the valve, but they need to validate the design ideas they have regarding the improvement of Cv. The traditional method of prototyping and testing takes a lot of time. That is where CFD comes into the picture with very quick and accurate validation along with visualization, which is not possible with the traditional testing method. We have developed a method to predict Cv value using CFD analysis by iterating on various Boundary conditions, solver settings and by carrying out grid convergence studies to establish the correlation between the CFD model and Test data. The present study investigates 3 different ideas put forward by the designers for improving the flow capacity of the valves, like reducing the cage thickness, changing the port position, and using the parabolic plug to guide the flow. Using CFD, we analyzed all design changes using the established methodology that we developed. We were able to evaluate the effect of these design changes on the Valve Cv. We optimized the wetted surface of the valve further by suggesting the design modification to the lower part of the valve to make the flow more streamlined. We could find that changing cage thickness and port position has little impact on the valve Cv. The combination of optimized wetted surface and introduction of parabolic plug improved the Flow capacity (Cv) of the valve significantly.

Keywords: flow control valves, flow capacity (Cv), CFD simulations, design validation

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2248 Impact of Cell Arrangement and Medium on Acoustic Crosstalk in CMUT – A FEA Study

Authors: Dhruvin R. Darji, Nooshin Saeidi, Karman. F. R. G. M. Selvam, Maik Wiemer, Thomas Otto


This work studies the difference between the behaviors of CMUT cells located at the edges of different arrangements in contrast to those located more centrally. It extends the understanding of crosstalk in CMUTs beyond reported literature. These simulations, for the first time, have been performed for different media to study the effect of medium on the crosstalk. It also shows the change in behavior of each arrangement for varying neighboring cell pitches. Investigating immersion media dependent cell to cell crosstalk is crucial for optimum design of application specific CMUTs and to enhance their performance. The limitations with existing literature originate from two main areas. Firstly, crosstalk study is extensively dependent on the activation of the central cell in an arrangement. These resulting simulations are not realistic from a device physics perspective. Secondly, literature relies heavily on unbounded waveguide methods for simulations, which mathematically forces certain subsets of cells to behave in phase with the same amplitudes, which is again not a rigorous picture of reality. These methods, in principle, limit the ability to extract crosstalk dependency information with neighboring cells, apart from the main cells, while giving a generic picture of the overall device performance. The 3D models of CMUT in this research were created using FEM software ANSYS 19(ANSYS Inc., Canonsburg, PA). Prestressed harmonic analysis was performed on 3D models. To define immersion medium (air, oil, water, and glycerol), a sphere enclosure was used. The simulations revealed that in the 3×3 arrangement, the cell behaviors could be distinguished into 3 groups, while in the 2×2, every cell could be ascribed the exact same behavior. Similarly, for the hexagonal geometry, behavioral grouping resulted in two behavioral sets while similar behaviors were seen for the 3×1 arrangement. By comparing the 3×3 array with the hexagonal array, it was seen that the central membrane in each design has a different pressure and resonance frequency in different immersion media. The overall performance of the array was seen to vary with pitch distance, because of which simulations across varying pitches were performed, and it was seen that the crosstalk is significantly a function of immersion medium and pitch distance.

Keywords: acoustic crosstalk simulation, CMUT, pitch distance analysis, ultrasonic transducer

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2247 Study the Sloshing Phenomenon in the Tank Filled Partially with Liquid Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulation

Authors: Amit Kumar, Jaikumar V., Pradeep A. G., Shivakumar Bhavi


Amit Kumar, Jaikumar V, Pradeep AG, Shivakumar Bhavi Reducing sloshing is one of the major challenges in industries where transporting of liquid is involved. The present study investigates the sloshing effect for different liquid levels of 50% of the tank capacity. CFD simulation for two different baffle configurations has been carried out using a time-based multiphase Volume of fluid (VOF) scheme. Baffles were introduced to examine the sloshing effect inside the tank. Results were compared against the baseline case to assess the effectiveness of baffles; maximum liquid height over the period of the simulation was considered as the parameter for measuring the sloshing effect inside the tank. It was found that the addition of baffles reduced the sloshing effect inside the tank as compared to the baseline model.

Keywords: CFD, sloshing, VOF, multiphase

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2246 The Unscented Kalman Filter Implementation for the Sensorless Speed Control of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

Authors: Justas Dilys


ThispaperaddressestheimplementationandoptimizationofanUnscentedKalmanFilter(UKF) for the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) sensorless control using an ARM Cortex- M3 microcontroller. A various optimization levels based on arithmetic calculation reduction was implemented in ARM Cortex-M3 microcontroller. The execution time of UKF estimator was up to 90µs without loss of accuracy. Moreover, simulation studies on the Unscented Kalman filters are carried out using Matlab to explore the usability of the UKF in a sensorless PMSMdrive.

Keywords: unscented kalman filter, ARM, PMSM, implementation

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2245 CFD Simulation Approach for Developing New Powder Dispensing Device

Authors: Revanth Rallapalli


Manually dispensing powders can be difficult as it requires gradually pouring and checking the amount on the scale to be dispensed. Current systems are manual and non-continuous in nature and are user-dependent and difficult to control powder dispensation. Recurrent dosing of powdered medicines in precise amounts quickly and accurately has been an all-time challenge. Various new powder dispensing mechanisms are being designed to overcome these challenges. A battery-operated screw conveyor mechanism is being innovated to overcome the above problems faced. These inventions are numerically evaluated at the concept development level by employing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) of gas-solids multiphase flow systems. CFD has been very helpful in the development of such devices saving time and money by reducing the number of prototypes and testing. This paper describes a simulation of powder dispensation from the trocar’s end by considering the powder as secondary flow in the air, is simulated by using the technique called Dense Discrete Phase Model incorporated with Kinetic Theory of Granular Flow (DDPM-KTGF). By considering the volume fraction of powder as 50%, the transportation of powder from the inlet side to the trocar’s end side is done by rotation of the screw conveyor. The performance is calculated for a 1-sec time frame in an unsteady computation manner. This methodology will help designers in developing design concepts to improve the dispensation and the effective area within a quick turnaround time frame.

Keywords: multiphase flow, screw conveyor, transient, dense discrete phase model (DDPM), kinetic theory of granular flow (KTGF)

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2244 Validation of the Wind Flow and Dispersion Fields of a CFD Model Developed to Investigate the Dispersion of Emitted Pollutants from Rooftop Stacks in a Complex Urban Geometry Using two Sets of Experimental Measurements

Authors: Mohammad Reza Kavian Nezhad, Sarah Jamal Mattar, Carlos F. Lange, Brian A. Fleck


This research presents a complete validation study of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model developed to simulate the pollutant dispersion emitting from rooftop stacks around the buildings at the University of Alberta North campus. ANSYS CFX code was utilized to perform the numerical simulation of the wind regime and pollutant dispersion by solving 3D steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations on a large-scale high-resolution grid. The validation study was performed in two steps. First, the CFD model performance in 24 cases (8 wind directions and 3 wind speeds) was evaluated by comparing the predicted flow fields with the available dataset of the previous measurement campaign designed at the North campus, with the use of the Standard Deviation Method (SDM). While the estimated results of the numerical model showed maximum average percent errors of approximately 53% and 37% for wind incidents of North and Northwest, respectively, relatively good agreements with the measurements were observed for the other six directions with an average error of generally less than 25% and a few less than 30%. In the second step, the reliability of the implemented turbulence model, numerical algorithm, modeling techniques, and the grid generation scheme was further evaluated with the use of the Mock Urban Setting Test (MUST) dispersion dataset. Different statistical measures, including the Fractional Bias (FB), the Geometric Mean Bias (MG), and the Normalized Mean Square Error (NMSE), were used to assess the accuracy of the predicted dispersion field, and the CFD results were observed to be in good agreement with the field measurements.

Keywords: CFD, plume dispersion, complex urban geometry, validation study, wind flow

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2243 Scale Effects on the Wake Airflow of a Heavy Truck

Authors: Aude Pérard Lecomte, Georges Fokoua, Amine Mehel, Anne Tanière


Air quality in urban areas is deteriorated by pollution, mainly due to the constant increase of the traffic of different types of ground vehicles. In particular, particulate matter pollution with important concentrations in urban areas can cause serious health issues. Characterizing and understanding particle dynamics is therefore essential to establish recommendations to improve air quality in urban areas. To analyze the effects of turbulence on particulate pollutants dispersion, the first step is to focus on the single-phase flow structure and turbulence characteristics in the wake of a heavy truck model. To achieve this, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted with the aim of modeling the wake airflow of a full- and reduced-scale heavy truck. The Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach with the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM)as the turbulence model closure was used. The simulations highlight the apparition of a large vortex coming from the under trailer. This vortex belongs to the recirculation region, located in the near-wake of the heavy truck. These vortical structures are expected to have a strong influence on particle dynamics that are emitted by the truck.

Keywords: CDF, heavy truck, recirculation region, reduced scale

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2242 Nonlinear Dynamic Response of Helical Gear with Torque-Limiter

Authors: Ahmed Guerine, Ali El Hafidi, Bruno Martin, Philippe Leclaire


This paper investigates the nonlinear dynamic response of a mechanical torque limiter which is used to protect drive parts from overload (helical transmission gears). The system is driven by four excitations: two external excitations (aerodynamics torque and force) and two internal excitations (two mesh stiffness fluctuations). In this work, we develop a dynamic model with lumped components and 28 degrees of freedom. We use the Runge Kutta step-by-step time integration numerical algorithm to solve the equations of motion obtained by Lagrange formalism. The numerical results have allowed us to identify the sources of vibration in the wind turbine. Also, they are useful to help the designer to make the right design and correctly choose the times for maintenance.

Keywords: two-stage helical gear, lumped model, dynamic response, torque-limiter

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2241 Dynamic Response Analysis of Structure with Random Parameters

Authors: Ahmed Guerine, Ali El Hafidi, Bruno Martin, Philippe Leclaire


In this paper, we propose a method for the dynamic response of multi-storey structures with uncertain-but-bounded parameters. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by a numerical example of three-storey structures. This equation is integrated numerically using Newmark’s method. The numerical results are obtained by the proposed method. The simulation accounting the interval analysis method results are compared with a probabilistic approach results. The interval analysis method provides a mean curve that is between an upper and lower bound obtained from the probabilistic approach.

Keywords: multi-storey structure, dynamic response, interval analysis method, random parameters

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2240 Structural Strength Evaluation and Wear Prediction of Double Helix Steel Wire Ropes for Heavy Machinery

Authors: Krunal Thakar


Wire ropes combine high tensile strength and flexibility as compared to other general steel products. They are used in various application areas such as cranes, mining, elevators, bridges, cable cars, etc. The earliest reported use of wire ropes was for mining hoist application in 1830s. Over the period, there have been substantial advancement in the design of wire ropes for various application areas. Under operational conditions, wire ropes are subjected to varying tensile loads and bending loads resulting in material wear and eventual structural failure due to fretting fatigue. The conventional inspection methods to determine wire failure is only limited to outer wires of rope. However, till date, there is no effective mathematical model to examine the inter wire contact forces and wear characteristics. The scope of this paper is to present a computational simulation technique to evaluate inter wire contact forces and wear, which are in many cases responsible for rope failure. Two different type of ropes, IWRC-6xFi(29) and U3xSeS(48) were taken for structural strength evaluation and wear prediction. Both ropes have a double helix twisted wire profile as per JIS standards and are mainly used in cranes. CAD models of both ropes were developed in general purpose design software using in house developed formulation to generate double helix profile. Numerical simulation was done under two different load cases (a) Axial Tension and (b) Bending over Sheave. Different parameters such as stresses, contact forces, wear depth, load-elongation, etc., were investigated and compared between both ropes. Numerical simulation method facilitates the detailed investigation of inter wire contact and wear characteristics. In addition, various selection parameters like sheave diameter, rope diameter, helix angle, swaging, maximum load carrying capacity, etc., can be quickly analyzed.

Keywords: steel wire ropes, numerical simulation, material wear, structural strength, axial tension, bending over sheave

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2239 Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Airflow Inside Car Cabin

Authors: Mokhtar Djeddou, Amine Mehel, Georges Fokoua, Anne Tanière, Patrick Chevrier


Commuters' exposure to air pollution, particularly to particle matter, inside vehicles is a significant health issue. Assessing particles concentrations and characterizing their distribution is an important first step to understand and propose solutions to improve car cabin air quality. It is known that particles dynamics is intimately driven by particles-turbulence interactions. In order to analyze and model pollutants distribution inside the car the cabin, it is crucialto examine first the single-phase flow topology and turbulence characteristics. Within this context, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted to model airflow inside a full-scale car cabin using Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)approach combined with the first order Realizable k- εmodel to close the RANS equations. To validate the numerical model, a campaign of velocity field measurements at different locations in the front and back of the car cabin has been carried out using hot-wire anemometry technique. Comparison between numerical and experimental results shows a good agreement of velocity profiles. Additionally, visualization of streamlines shows the formation of jet flow developing out of the dashboard air vents and the formation of large vortex structures, particularly in the back seats compartment. These vortex structures could play a key role in the accumulation and clustering of particles in a turbulent flow

Keywords: car cabin, CFD, hot wire anemometry, vortical flow

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2238 Predictions of Dynamic Behaviors for Gas Foil Bearings Operating at Steady-State Based on Multi-Physics Coupling Computer Aided Engineering Simulations

Authors: Tai Yuan Yu, Pei-Jen Wang


A simulation scheme of rotational motions for predictions of bump-type gas foil bearings operating at steady-state is proposed; and, the scheme is based on multi-physics coupling computer aided engineering packages modularized with computational fluid dynamic model and structure elasticity model to numerically solve the dynamic equation of motions of a hydrodynamic loaded shaft supported by an elastic bump foil. The bump foil is assumed to be modelled as infinite number of Hookean springs mounted on stiff wall. Hence, the top foil stiffness is constant on the periphery of the bearing housing. The hydrodynamic pressure generated by the air film lubrication transfers to the top foil and induces elastic deformation needed to be solved by a finite element method program, whereas the pressure profile applied on the top foil must be solved by a finite element method program based on Reynolds Equation in lubrication theory. As a result, the equation of motions for the bearing shaft are iteratively solved via coupling of the two finite element method programs simultaneously. In conclusion, the two-dimensional center trajectory of the shaft plus the deformation map on top foil at constant rotational speed are calculated for comparisons with the experimental results.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, fluid structure interaction multi-physics simulations, gas foil bearing, load capacity

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2237 Multibody Constrained Dynamics of Y-Method Installation System for a Large Scale Subsea Equipment

Authors: Naeem Ullah, Menglan Duan, Mac Darlington Uche Onuoha


The lowering of subsea equipment into the deep waters is a challenging job due to the harsh offshore environment. Many researchers have introduced various installation systems to deploy the payload safely into the deep oceans. In general practice, dual floating vessels are not employed owing to the prevalent safety risks and hazards caused by ever-increasing dynamical effects sourced by mutual interaction between the bodies. However, while keeping in the view of the optimal grounds, such as economical one, the Y-method, the two conventional tugboats supporting the equipment by the two independent strands connected to a tri-plate above the equipment, has been employed to study multibody dynamics of the dual barge lifting operations. In this study, the two tugboats and the suspended payload (Y-method) are deployed for the lowering of subsea equipment into the deep waters as a multibody dynamic system. The two-wire ropes are used for the lifting and installation operation by this Y-method installation system. 6-dof (degree of freedom) for each body are considered to establish coupled 18-dof multibody model by embedding technique or velocity transformation technique. The fundamental and prompt advantage of this technique is that the constraint forces can be eliminated directly, and no extra computational effort is required for the elimination of the constraint forces. The inertial frame of reference is taken at the surface of the water as the time-independent frame of reference, and the floating frames of reference are introduced in each body as the time-dependent frames of reference in order to formulate the velocity transformation matrix. The local transformation of the generalized coordinates to the inertial frame of reference is executed by applying the Euler Angle approach. The spherical joints are articulated amongst the multibody as the kinematic joints. The hydrodynamic force, the two-strand forces, the hydrostatic force, and the mooring forces are taken into consideration as the external forces. The radiation force of the hydrodynamic force is obtained by employing the Cummins equation. The wave exciting part of the hydrodynamic force is obtained by using force response amplitude operators (RAOs) that are obtained by the commercial solver ‘OpenFOAM’. The strand force is obtained by considering the wire rope as an elastic spring. The nonlinear hydrostatic force is obtained by the pressure integration technique at each time step of the wave movement. The mooring forces are evaluated by using Faltinsen analytical approach. ‘The Runge Kutta Method’ of Fourth-Order is employed to evaluate the coupled equations of motion obtained for 18-dof multibody model. The results are correlated with the simulated Orcaflex Model. Moreover, the results from Orcaflex Model are compared with the MOSES Model from previous studies. The MBDS of single barge lifting operation from the former studies are compared with the MBDS of the established dual barge lifting operation. The dynamics of the dual barge lifting operation are found larger in magnitude as compared to the single barge lifting operation. It is noticed that the traction at the top connection point of the cable decreases with the increase in the length, and it becomes almost constant after passing through the splash zone.

Keywords: dual barge lifting operation, Y-method, multibody dynamics, shipbuilding, installation of subsea equipment, shipbuilding

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2236 Coupling Strategy for Multi-Scale Simulations in Micro-Channels

Authors: Dahia Chibouti, Benoit Trouette, Eric Chenier


With the development of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), understanding fluid flow and heat transfer at the micrometer scale is crucial. In the case where the flow characteristic length scale is narrowed to around ten times the mean free path of gas molecules, the classical fluid mechanics and energy equations are still valid in the bulk flow, but particular attention must be paid to the gas/solid interface boundary conditions. Indeed, in the vicinity of the wall, on a thickness of about the mean free path of the molecules, called the Knudsen layer, the gas molecules are no longer in local thermodynamic equilibrium. Therefore, macroscopic models based on the continuity of velocity, temperature and heat flux jump conditions must be applied at the fluid/solid interface to take this non-equilibrium into account. Although these macroscopic models are widely used, the assumptions on which they depend are not necessarily verified in realistic cases. In order to get rid of these assumptions, simulations at the molecular scale are carried out to study how molecule interaction with walls can change the fluid flow and heat transfers at the vicinity of the walls. The developed approach is based on a kind of heterogeneous multi-scale method: micro-domains overlap the continuous domain, and coupling is carried out through exchanges of information between both the molecular and the continuum approaches. In practice, molecular dynamics describes the fluid flow and heat transfers in micro-domains while the Navier-Stokes and energy equations are used at larger scales. In this framework, two kinds of micro-simulation are performed: i) in bulk, to obtain the thermo-physical properties (viscosity, conductivity, ...) as well as the equation of state of the fluid, ii) close to the walls to identify the relationships between the slip velocity and the shear stress or between the temperature jump and the normal temperature gradient. The coupling strategy relies on an implicit formulation of the quantities extracted from micro-domains. Indeed, using the results of the molecular simulations, a Bayesian regression is performed in order to build continuous laws giving both the behavior of the physical properties, the equation of state and the slip relationships, as well as their uncertainties. These latter allow to set up a learning strategy to optimize the number of micro simulations. In the present contribution, the first results regarding this coupling associated with the learning strategy are illustrated through parametric studies of convergence criteria, choice of basis functions and noise of input data. Anisothermic flows of a Lennard Jones fluid in micro-channels are finally presented.

Keywords: multi-scale, microfluidics, micro-channel, hybrid approach, coupling

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2235 Distribution of Dynamical and Energy Parameters in Axisymmetric Air Plasma Jet

Authors: Vitas Valinčius, Rolandas Uscila, Viktorija Grigaitienė, Žydrūnas Kavaliauskas, Romualdas Kėželis


Determination of integral dynamical and energy characteristics of high-temperature gas flows is a very important task of gas-dynamic for hazardous substances destruction systems. They are also always necessary for the investigation of high-temperature turbulent flow dynamics, heat and mass transfer. It is well known that distribution of dynamical and thermal characteristics of high-temperature flows and jets is strongly related to heat flux variation over an imposed area of heating. As is visible from numerous experiments and theoretical considerations, the fundamental properties of an isothermal jet are well investigated. However, the establishment of regularities in high-temperature conditions meets certain specific behavior comparing with moderate-temperature jets and flows. Their structures have not been thoroughly studied yet, especially in the cases of plasma ambient. It is well known that the distribution of local plasma jet parameters in high temperature and isothermal jets and flows may significantly differ. High temperature axisymmetric air jet generated by atmospheric pressure DC arc plasma torch was investigated employing enthalpy probe 3.8∙10-3 m of diameter. Distribution of velocities and temperatures were established in different cross-sections of the plasma jet outflowing from 42∙10-3 m diameter pipe at the average mean velocity of 700 m∙s-1, and averaged temperature of 4000 K. It has been found that gas heating fractionally influences shape and values of a dimensionless profile of velocity and temperature in the main zone of plasma jet and has a significant influence in the initial zone of the plasma jet. The width of the initial zone of the plasma jet has been found to be lesser than in the case of isothermal flow. The relation between dynamical thickness and turbulent number of Prandtl has been established along jet axis. Experimental results were generalized in dimensionless form. The presence of convective heating shows that heat transfer in a moving high-temperature jet also occurs due to heat transfer by moving particles of the jet. In this case, the intensity of convective heat transfer is proportional to the instantaneous value of the flow velocity at a given point in space. Consequently, the configuration of the temperature field in moving jets and flows essentially depends on the configuration of the velocity field.

Keywords: plasma jet, plasma torch, heat transfer, enthalpy probe, turbulent number of Prandtl

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2234 Turbulent Channel Flow Synthesis using Generative Adversarial Networks

Authors: John M. Lyne, K. Andrea Scott


In fluid dynamics, direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent flows require large amounts of nodes to appropriately resolve all scales of energy transfer. Due to the size of these databases, sharing these datasets amongst the academic community is a challenge. Recent work has been done to investigate the use of super-resolution to enable database sharing, where a low-resolution flow field is super-resolved to high resolutions using a neural network. Recently, Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) have grown in popularity with impressive results in the generation of faces, landscapes, and more. This work investigates the generation of unique high-resolution channel flow velocity fields from a low-dimensional latent space using a GAN. The training objective of the GAN is to generate samples in which the distribution of the generated samplesis ideally indistinguishable from the distribution of the training data. In this study, the network is trained using samples drawn from a statistically stationary channel flow at a Reynolds number of 560. Results show that the turbulent statistics and energy spectra of the generated flow fields are within reasonable agreement with those of the DNS data, demonstrating that GANscan produce the intricate multi-scale phenomena of turbulence.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, channel flow, turbulence, generative adversarial network

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2233 Vernier Motor for Power Steering Applications

Authors: Andrej Kačenka, Jana Kertzscher


This paper concerns the initial design of the permanent magnet Vernier machine (PMVM) with an outer rotor and surface-mounted permanent magnets for power steering (PS) applications. In the beginning, an analytical approach was employed for calculating the initial dimensions and parameters of the machine. The analytical approach is intrinsically limited due to several assumptions and simplified hypotheses. The study is carried out by means of numerical analysis, and the performance of the Vernier motor is evaluated with the finite element method in order to validate the analytical approach.

Keywords: vernier machine, permanent magnet synchronous machine, power steering, outer rotor, finite element method

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2232 Thermal Analysis of Induction Machine Stator

Authors: Andrej Kačenka, Jana Kertzscher


The thermal analysis is of equal importance as the electromagnetic one during the design process of electrical machines. This paper introduces a thermal modeling method for the prediction of the temperature in an induction machine stator with three-phase winding connected in a series using a lumped-parameter thermal model. The parameters of the model are calculated based on an analytical approach and experiments performed on test bench. The analytical approach study is carried out by means of numerical modeling and verified by the finite element method. For validating the numerical model, experimental results are presented and compared with the simulated ones.

Keywords: lumped thermal model, thermal analysis, numerical analysis, finite element method, induction machine

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2231 Impact Evaluation of Discriminant Analysis on Epidemic Protocol in Warships’s Scenarios

Authors: Davi Marinho de Araujo Falcão, Ronaldo Moreira Salles, Paulo Henrique Maranhão


Disruption Tolerant Networks (DTN) are an evolution of Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANET) and work good in scenarioswhere nodes are sparsely distributed, with low density, intermittent connections and an end-to-end infrastructure is not possible to guarantee. Therefore, DTNs are recommended for high latency applications that can last from hours to days. The maritime scenario has mobility characteristics that contribute to a DTN network approach, but the concern with data security is also a relevant aspect in such scenarios. Continuing the previous work, which evaluated the performance of some DTN protocols (Epidemic, Spray and Wait, and Direct Delivery) in three warship scenarios and proposed the application of discriminant analysis, as a classification technique for secure connections, in the Epidemic protocol, thus, the current article proposes a new analysis of the directional discriminant function with opening angles smaller than 90 degrees, demonstrating that the increase in directivity influences the selection of a greater number of secure connections by the directional discriminant Epidemic protocol.

Keywords: DTN, discriminant function, epidemic protocol, security, tactical messages, warship scenario

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2230 Acoustic Modeling of a Data Center with a Hot Aisle Containment System

Authors: Arshad Alfoqaha, Seth Bard, Dustin Demetriou


A new multi-physics acoustic modeling approach using ANSYS Mechanical FEA and FLUENT CFD methods is developed for modeling servers mounted to racks, such as IBM Z and IBM Power Systems, in data centers. This new approach allows users to determine the thermal and acoustic conditions that people are exposed to within the data center. The sound pressure level (SPL) exposure for a human working inside a hot aisle containment system inside the data center is studied. The SPL is analyzed at the noise source, at the human body, on the rack walls, on the containment walls, and on the ceiling and flooring plenum walls. In the acoustic CFD simulation, it is assumed that a four-inch diameter sphere with monopole acoustic radiation, placed in the middle of each rack, provides a single-source representation of all noise sources within the rack. Ffowcs Williams & Hawkings (FWH) acoustic model is employed. The target frequency is 1000 Hz, and the total simulation time for the transient analysis is 1.4 seconds, with a very small time step of 3e-5 seconds and 10 iterations to ensure convergence and accuracy. A User Defined Function (UDF) is developed to accurately simulate the acoustic noise source, and a Dynamic Mesh is applied to ensure acoustic wave propagation. Initial validation of the acoustic CFD simulation using a closed-form solution for the spherical propagation of an acoustic point source is performed.

Keywords: data centers, FLUENT, acoustics, sound pressure level, SPL, hot aisle containment, IBM

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2229 An investigation of Leading Edge and Trailing Edge Corrugation for Low Reynolds Number Application

Authors: Syed Hassan Raza Shah, Mohammad Mohammad Ali


The flow over a smoothly profiled airfoil at a low Reynolds number is highly susceptible to separate even at a very low angle of attack. An investigation was made to study the effect of leading-edge and trailing-edge corrugation with the spanwise change in the ridges resulted due to the change in the chord length for an infinite wing. The wind tunnel results using NACA0018 wings revealed that leading and trailing edge corrugation did not have any benefit in terms of aerodynamic efficiency or delayed stall. The leading edge and trailing edge corrugation didn't change the lift curve slope, with the leading edge corrugation wing stalling first in the range of Reynolds number of 50,000 to 125,000.

Keywords: leading and trailing edge corrugations, low reynolds number, wind tunnel testing, NACA0018

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2228 A Philosophical Investigation into African Conceptions of Personhood in the Fourth Industrial Revolution

Authors: Sanelisiwe Ndlovu


Cities have become testbeds for automation and experimenting with artificial intelligence (AI) in managing urban services and public spaces. Smart Cities and AI systems are changing most human experiences from health and education to personal relations. For instance, in healthcare, social robots are being implemented as tools to assist patients. Similarly, in education, social robots are being used as tutors or co-learners to promote cognitive and affective outcomes. With that general picture in mind, one can now ask a further question about Smart Cities and artificial agents and their moral standing in the African context of personhood. There has been a wealth of literature on the topic of personhood; however, there is an absence of literature on African personhood in highly automated environments. Personhood in African philosophy is defined by the role one can and should play in the community. However, in today’s technologically advanced world, a risk is that machines become more capable of accomplishing tasks that humans would otherwise do. Further, on many African communitarian accounts, personhood and moral standing are associated with active relationality with the community. However, in the Smart City, human closeness is gradually diminishing. For instance, humans already do engage and identify with robotic entities, sometimes even romantically. The primary aim of this study is to investigate how African conceptions of personhood and community interact in a highly automated environment such as Smart Cities. Accordingly, this study lies in presenting a rarely discussed African perspective that emphasizes the necessity and the importance of relationality in handling Smart Cities and AI ethically. Thus, the proposed approach can be seen as the sub-Saharan African contribution to personhood and the growing AI debates, which takes the reality of the interconnectedness of society seriously. And it will also open up new opportunities to tackle old problems and use existing resources to confront new problems in the Fourth Industrial Revolution.

Keywords: smart city, artificial intelligence, personhood, community

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2227 Numerical Analysis of Nanofluid Based Two-Phase Slug-Flow Heat Transfer in Microchannels

Authors: Anjan Mevan Rajapakse, Uvindu Eranjana Thilakarathne, Charindu Ujith Dasanayake, Geethal Chandima Siriwardana, Thilaksiri Bandara


Energy efficiency has become one of the popular subjects in past years, especially with heat transfer applications. Over the years, with the development of micro-scale devices, it is an incontrovertible fact that heat dissipation rate is the main drawback when improving miniaturized (micro-scale) devices. As the sizes reducing along with increased performance in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), the thermal management of these devices is challenging. Due to sound heat transfer enhancement along with larger heat transfer surface area per unit volume, microchannel-based cooling circuits have turned out to be an efficient solution. Furthermore, performance in the flow depends significantly on the thermal and physical properties of the working fluid. Many innovative microfluidic systems have been developed in recent years by altering the properties of the working fluid while utilizing different fluid flows such as multiphase and nanofluid flows. The present research is done on the nanofluid-based two-phase slug-flow heat transfer in microchannels. The hydrodynamics and heat transfer performance of water-mineral oil slug-flow with 50 nm alumina (Al2O3) nanoparticles were numerically analyzed in microchannels with a hydraulic diameter of 100 µm. Further, the effect of nanoparticle volume concentration on heat transfer and hydrodynamic characteristics was studied using the Eulerian mixture model as the multiphase model. According to the results, liquid film thickness had slightly decreased by 8% when the volume concentration of nanoparticles was 1% in the primary phase. This is further reduced by 24% when the same amount of volume fraction is introduced to the secondary phase. Because of the nanoparticles which are presented in the secondary phase, internal circulation has considerably increased. Also, the pressure drop had increased when the nanoparticles were dispersed in the slug-flow because of the elevated viscosity. It was identified that nanoparticles dispersion has a significant effect on the thermal conductivity and Nusselt number. Considerable increment in the local Nusselt number along the secondary phase droplets was observed compared to other regions in the flow and the presence of nanoparticles has increased the bulk thermal conductivity of the slug-flow. The results suggest that there are many opportunities for heat transfer enhancement as several controllable parameters existing in the flow.

Keywords: slug-flow, nanofluid, multiphase, hydrodynamics, heat transfer, microchannel, CFD

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2226 The Contact Behaviors of Seals Under Combined Normal and Tangential Loading: a Multiscale Finite Element Contact Analysis

Authors: Runliang Wang, Jianhua Liu, Duo Jia, Xiaoyu Ding


The contact between sealing surfaces plays a vital role in guaranteeing the sealing performance of various seals. To date, analyses of sealing structures have rarely considered both structural parameters (macroscale) and surface roughness information (microscale) of sealing surfaces due to the complex modeling process. Meanwhile, most of the contact analyses applied to seals were conducted only under normal loading, which still existssome distance from real loading conditions in engineering. In this paper, a multiscale rough contact model, which took both macrostructural parameters of seals and surface roughness information of sealing surfaces into consideration for the cone-cone seal, was established. By using the finite element method (FEM), the combined normal and tangential loading was applied to the model to simulate the assembly process of the cone-cone seal. The evolution of the contact behaviors during the assembly process, such as the real contact area (RCA), the distribution of contact pressure, and contact status, are studied in detail. The results showed the non-linear relationship between the RCA and the load, which was different from the normal loading cases. In addition, the evolution of the real contact area of cone-cone seals with isotropic and anisotropic rough surfaces are also compared quantitatively.

Keywords: contact mechanics, FEM, randomly rough surface, real contact area, sealing

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2225 Numerical Simulation of the Fractional Flow Reserve in the Coronary Artery with Serial Stenoses of Varying Configuration

Authors: Mariia Timofeeva, Andrew Ooi, Eric K. W. Poon, Peter Barlis


Atherosclerotic plaque build-up, commonly known as stenosis, limits blood flow and hence oxygen and nutrient supplies to the heart muscle. Thus, assessment of its severity is of great interest to health professionals. Numerical simulation of the fractional flow reserve (FFR) has proved to be well correlated with invasively measured FFR used for physiological assessment of the severity of coronary stenosis in arteries. Atherosclerosis may impact the diseased artery in several locations causing serial stenoses, which is a complicated subset of coronary artery disease that requires careful treatment planning. However, hemodynamic of the serial sequential stenoses in coronary arteries has not been extensively studied. The hemodynamics of the serial stenoses is complex because the stenoses in the series interact and affect the flow through each other. To address this, serial stenoses in a 3.4 mm left anterior descending (LAD) artery are examined in this study. Two diameter stenoses (DS) are considered, 30 and 50 percent of the reference diameter. Serial stenoses configurations are divided into three groups based on the order of the stenoses in the series, spacing between them, and deviation of the stenoses’ symmetry (eccentricity). A patient-specific pulsatile waveform is used in the simulations. Blood flow within the stenotic artery is assumed to be laminar, Newtonian, and incompressible. Results for the FFR are reported. Based on the simulation results, it can be deduced that the larger drop in pressure (smaller value of the FFR) is expected when the percentage of the second stenosis in the series is bigger. Varying the distance between the stenoses affects the location of the maximum drop in the pressure, while the minimal FFR in the artery remains unchanged. Eccentric serial stenoses are characterized by a noticeably larger decrease in pressure through the stenoses and by the development of the chaotic flow downstream of the stenoses. The largest drop in the pressure (about 4% difference compared to the axisymmetric case) is obtained for the serial stenoses, where both the stenoses are highly eccentric with the centerlines deflected to the different sides of the LAD. In conclusion, varying configuration of the sequential serial stenoses results in a different distribution of FFR through the LAD. Results presented in this study provide insight into the clinical assessment of the severity of the coronary serial stenoses, which is proved to depend on the relative position of the stenoses and the deviation of the stenoses’ symmetry.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, coronary artery, fractional flow reserve, serial stenoses

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2224 Integrating Wearable Devices in Real-Time Computer Applications of Petrochemical Systems

Authors: Paul B Stone, Subhashini Ganapathy, Mary E. Fendley, Layla Akilan


As notifications become more common through mobile devices, it is important to understand the impact of wearable devices on the improved user experience of man-machine interfaces. This study examined the use of a wearable device for a real-time system using a computer-simulated petrochemical system. The key research question was to determine how using the information provided by the wearable device can improve human performance through measures of situational awareness and decision making. Results indicate that there was a reduction in response time when using the watch, and there was no difference in situational awareness. Perception of using the watch was positive, with 83% of users finding value in using the watch and receiving haptic feedback.

Keywords: computer applications, haptic feedback, petrochemical systems, situational awareness, wearable technology

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2223 Estimation of Carbon Sequestration and Air Quality of Terrestrial Ecosystems Using Remote Sensing Techniques

Authors: Kanwal Javid, Shazia Pervaiz, Maria Mumtaz, Muhammad Ameer Nawaz Akram


Forests and grasslands ecosystems play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Land management activities influence both ecosystems and enable them to absorb and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2). Similarly, in Pakistan, these terrestrial ecosystems are well known to mitigate carbon emissions and have a great source to supply a variety of services such as clean air and water, biodiversity, wood products, wildlife habitat, food, recreation and carbon sequestration. Carbon sequestration is the main agenda of developed and developing nations to reduce the impacts of global warming. But the amount of carbon storage within these ecosystems can be affected by many factors related to air quality such as land management, land-use change, deforestation, over grazing and natural calamities. Moreover, the long-term capacity of forests and grasslands to absorb and sequester CO2 depends on their health, productivity, resilience and ability to adapt to changing conditions. Thus, the main rationale of this study is to monitor the difference in carbon amount of forests and grasslands of Northern Pakistan using MODIS data sets and map results using Geographic Information System. Results of the study conclude that forests ecosystems are more effective in reducing the CO2 level and play a key role in improving the quality of air.

Keywords: carbon sequestration, grasslands, global warming, climate change.

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2222 Characterising the Dynamic Friction in the Staking of Plain Spherical Bearings

Authors: Jacob Hatherell, Jason Matthews, Arnaud Marmier


Anvil Staking is a cold-forming process that is used in the assembly of plain spherical bearings into a rod-end housing. This process ensures that the bearing outer lip conforms to the chamfer in the matching rod end to produce a lightweight mechanical joint with sufficient strength to meet the pushout load requirement of the assembly. Finite Element (FE) analysis is being used extensively to predict the behaviour of metal flow in cold forming processes to support industrial manufacturing and product development. On-going research aims to validate FE models across a wide range of bearing and rod-end geometries by systematically isolating and understanding the uncertainties caused by variations in, material properties, load-dependent friction coefficients and strain rate sensitivity. The improved confidence in these models aims to eliminate the costly and time-consuming process of experimental trials in the introduction of new bearing designs. Previous literature has shown that friction coefficients do not remain constant during cold forming operations, however, the understanding of this phenomenon varies significantly and is rarely implemented in FE models. In this paper, a new approach to evaluate the normal contact pressure versus friction coefficient relationship is outlined using friction calibration charts generated via iterative FE models and ring compression tests. When compared to previous research, this new approach greatly improves the prediction of forming geometry and the forming load during the staking operation. This paper also aims to standardise the FE approach to modelling ring compression test and determining the friction calibration charts.

Keywords: anvil staking, finite element analysis, friction coefficient, spherical plain bearing, ring compression tests

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