Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2155

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

2155 Performance Prediction of a SANDIA 17-m Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Using Improved Double Multiple Streamtube

Authors: Abolfazl Hosseinkhani, Sepehr Sanaye

Abstract:

Different approaches have been used to predict the performance of the vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT), such as experimental, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and analytical methods. Analytical methods, such as momentum models that use streamtubes, have low computational cost and sufficient accuracy. The double multiple streamtube (DMST) is one of the most commonly used of momentum models, which divide the rotor plane of VAWT into upwind and downwind. In fact, results from the DMST method has Some discrepancy with experiment results, that is because the Darrieus turbine is a complex and aerodynamically unsteady configuration. In this study, analytical-experimental-based corrections, including dynamic stall, streamtube expansion, and finite blade length correction, are used to improve the DMST method. Results indicated that using these corrections for a SANDIA 17-m VAWT will lead to improving the results of DMST.

Keywords: Analytical, vertical axis wind turbine, double multiple streamtube, streamtube expansion model, dynamic stall model, finite blade length correction

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2154 Size Optimization of Microfluidic Polymerase Chain Reaction Devices Using COMSOL

Authors: Nikil Kapur, Foteini Zagklavara, Peter Jimack, Ozz Querin, Harvey Thompson

Abstract:

The invention and development of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology have revolutionised molecular biology and molecular diagnostics. There is an urgent need to optimise their performance of those devices while reducing the total construction and operation costs. The present study proposes a CFD-enabled optimisation methodology for continuous flow (CF) PCR devices with serpentine-channel structure, which enables the trade-offs between competing objectives of DNA amplification efficiency and pressure drop to be explored. This is achieved by using a surrogate-enabled optimisation approach accounting for the geometrical features of a CF μPCR device by performing a series of simulations at a relatively small number of Design of Experiments (DoE) points, with the use of COMSOL Multiphysics 5.4. The values of the objectives are extracted from the CFD solutions, and response surfaces created using the polyharmonic splines and neural networks. After creating the respective response surfaces, genetic algorithm, and a multi-level coordinate search optimisation function are used to locate the optimum design parameters. Both optimisation methods produced similar results for both the neural network and the polyharmonic spline response surfaces. The results indicate that there is the possibility of improving the DNA efficiency by ∼2% in one PCR cycle when doubling the width of the microchannel to 400 μm while maintaining the height at the value of the original design (50μm). Moreover, the increase in the width of the serpentine microchannel is combined with a decrease in its total length in order to obtain the same residence times in all the simulations, resulting in a smaller total substrate volume (32.94% decrease). A multi-objective optimisation is also performed with the use of a Pareto Front plot. Such knowledge will enable designers to maximise the amount of DNA amplified or to minimise the time taken throughout thermal cycling in such devices.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Optimisation, PCR, COMSOL

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2153 Experimental Characterization of the AA7075 Aluminum Alloy Using Hot Shear Tensile Test

Authors: Trunal Bhujangrao, Catherine Froustey, Fernando Veiga, Philippe Darnis, Franck Girot Mata

Abstract:

The understanding of the material behavior under shear loading has great importance for a researcher in manufacturing processes like cutting, machining, milling, turning, friction stir welding, etc. where the material experiences large deformation at high temperature. For such material behavior analysis, hot shear tests provide a useful means to investigate the evolution of the microstructure at a wide range of temperature and to improve the material behavior model. Shear tests can be performed by direct shear loading (e.g. torsion of thin-walled tubular samples), or appropriate specimen design to convert a tensile or compressive load into shear (e.g. simple shear tests). The simple shear tests are straightforward and designed to obtained very large deformation. However, many of these shear tests are concerned only with the elastic response of the material. It is becoming increasingly important to capture a plastic response of the material. Plastic deformation is significantly more complex and is known to depend more heavily on the strain rate, temperature, deformation, etc. Besides, there is not enough work is done on high-temperature shear loading, because of geometrical instability occurred during the plastic deformation. The aim of this study is to design a new shear tensile specimen geometry to convert the tensile load into dominant shear loading under plastic deformation. Design of the specimen geometry is based on FEM. The material used in this paper is AA7075 alloy, tested quasi statically under elevated temperature. Finally, the microstructural changes taking place during

Keywords: large strain, dynamic recrystallization, edge effect, AA7075 alloy, shear tensile test

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2152 Model Free Terminal Sliding Mode with Gravity Compensation: Application to an Exoskeleton-Upper Limb System

Authors: Sana Bembli, Nahla Khraief Haddad, Safya Belghith

Abstract:

This paper deals with a robust model free terminal sliding mode with gravity compensation approach used to control an exoskeleton-upper limb system. The considered system is a 2-DoF robot in interaction with an upper limb used for rehabilitation. The aim of this paper is to control the flexion/extension movement of the shoulder and the elbow joints in presence of matched disturbances. In the first part, we present the exoskeleton-upper limb system modeling. Then, we controlled the considered system by the model free terminal sliding mode with gravity compensation. A stability study is realized. To prove the controller performance, a robustness analysis was needed. Simulation results are provided to confirm the robustness of the gravity compensation combined with to the Model free terminal sliding mode in presence of uncertainties.

Keywords: Robustness Analysis, exoskeleton- upper limb system, model free terminal sliding mode, gravity compensation

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2151 Numerical Investigation on the Effect of Aluminium Nanoparticles on Characteristic Velocity of Kerosene-Oxygen Combustion

Authors: Al Ameen H., Rakesh P.

Abstract:

To improve the combustion efficiency of fuels and to reduce the emissions of pollutants as well as to improve heat transfer characteristics of fuels, both non-metallic and metallic nanoparticles can be added into it. By varying the concentration and size of nano particles added into the fuels, behaviour of droplet combustion and hence heat generated can be altered. In case of solid or liquid fuels, surface area of the fuel in contact with oxidizer(gaseous) is small because of higher density compared to gases. If the surface area of fuel exposed to the oxidizer is very small, then the combustion will not occur, because the combustion rate is proportional to the surface area of fuel droplet. To avoid such instance there is a way to increase the exposed surface area. To increase the specific surface area available for reaction, the particle size can be reduced. If the additives are solid then by reducing the particles size the specific surface area of liquid fuel can be increased. For the liquid fuels the exposed surface area available for combustion can be increased by suspending nanoparticles. Addition of non-metallic and metallic nanoparticles in fuels improves its combustion efficiency by enhancing the thermo-physical properties. The burn rate constants and temperatures of Kerosene-Oxygen combustion for fuel droplet sizes of 50μm, 75μm, 100μm and 125μm under varying concentrations of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% are studied numerically and its characteristic velocities are determined. Later the burn rate constants of fuel with concentrations of 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% by weight of aluminium nanoparticles are added. The spray combustion characteristics of such nano-fuel has improved the combustion temperature by the addition of aluminium nanoparticles. Thus, aluminium nanoparticles have improved burn rate and characteristic velocity of Kerosene-Oxygen combustion. An increase of 40% in characteristic velocity is observed.

Keywords: Combustion, thermo-physical properties, burn rate, characteristic velocity

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2150 Study of Acoustic Resonance of Model Liquid Rocket Combustion Chamber and Its Suppression

Authors: Vimal O. Kumar, C. K. Muthukumaran, P. Rakesh

Abstract:

Liquid rocket engine (LRE) combustion chamber is subjected to pressure oscillation during the combustion process. The combustion noise (acoustic noise) is a broad band, small amplitude, high frequency component pressure oscillation. They constitute only a minor fraction ( < 1%) of the entire combustion process. However, this high frequency oscillation is huge concern during the design phase of LRE combustion chamber as it would cause catastrophic failure of the chamber. Depends on the chamber geometry, certain frequencies form standing wave pattern, and they resonate with high amplitude and are known as Eigen modes. These Eigen modes could cause failures unless it is suppressed to be within safe limits. These modes are categorized into radial, tangential, and azimuthal modes, and their structure inside the combustion chamber is of interest to the researchers. In the present proposal, experimental as well as numerical simulation will be performed to obtain the frequency-amplitude characteristics of the model combustion chamber for different baffle configuration. The main objective of this study is to find effect of baffle configuration that would provide better suppression of acoustic modes. The experimental study aims at measuring the frequency amplitude characteristics at certain points in the chamber wall. The experimental measurement will be also used for scheme used in numerical simulation. In addition to experiments, numerical simulation would provide detailed structure of the Eigenmodes exhibited and their level of suppression with the aid of different baffle configurations.

Keywords: Instability, baffle, liquid rocket engine, pressure response of chamber

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2149 Gas-Liquid Flow Regimes in Vertical Venturi Downstream of Horizontal Blind-Tee

Authors: Cheng-Gang Xie, Muhammad Alif Bin Razali, Wai Lam Loh

Abstract:

A venturi device is commonly used as an integral part of a multiphase flowmeter (MPFM) in real-time oil-gas production monitoring. For an accurate determination of individual phase fraction and flowrate, a gas-liquid flow ideally needs to be well mixed in the venturi measurement section. Partial flow mixing is achieved by installing a venturi vertically downstream of the blind-tee pipework that ‘homogenizes’ the incoming horizontal gas-liquid flow. In order to study in-depth the flow-mixing effect of the blind-tee, gas-liquid flows are captured at blind-tee and venturi sections by using a high-speed video camera and a purpose-built transparent test rig, over a wide range of superficial liquid velocities (0.3 to 2.4m/s) and gas volume fractions (10 to 95%). Electrical capacitance sensors are built to measure the instantaneous holdup (of oil-gas flows) at the venturi inlet and throat. Flow regimes and flow (a)symmetry are investigated based on analyzing the statistical features of capacitance sensors’ holdup time-series data and of the high-speed video time-stacked images. The perceived homogenization effect of the blind-tee on the incoming intermittent horizontal flow regimes is found to be relatively small across the tested flow conditions. A horizontal (blind-tee) to vertical (venturi) flow-pattern transition map is proposed based on gas and liquid mass fluxes (weighted by the Baker parameters).

Keywords: flow visualization, blind-tee, gas-liquid two-phase flow, MPFM

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2148 Modeling the Effect of Scale Deposition on Heat Transfer in Desalination MED Evaporators

Authors: Karim Bourouni, Mama Chacha, Tawfiq Jaber, Abdullatif Tchantchane

Abstract:

In MED desalination evaporators, the scale deposit outside the tubes presents a barrier to heat transfers reducing the global heat transfer coefficient and causing a decrease in water production; hence a loss of efficiency and an increase in operating and maintenance costs. Scale removal (by acid cleaning) is the main maintenance operation and constitutes the main reason for periodic plant shutdowns. A better understanding of scale deposition mechanisms will lead to an accurate determination of the variation of scale thickness around the tubes and an improved accuracy of the overall heat transfer coefficient calculation. In this paper a coupled heat transfer-calcium carbonate scale deposition model on a horizontal tube bundle is presented. The developed tool is used to determine precisely the heat transfer area leading to a significant cost reduction for a given water production capacity. Simulations are carried to investigate the influence of different parameters such as water salinity, temperature, etc. on the heat transfer.

Keywords: Water desalination, heat transfer coefficient, multi-effect-evaporator, scale deposition

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2147 Evaluation of Turbulence Modelling of Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow in a Venturi

Authors: Jian-Jun Shu, Mengke Zhan, Cheng-Gang Xie

Abstract:

A venturi flowmeter is a common device used in multiphase flow rate measurement in the upstream oil and gas industry. Having a robust computational model for multiphase flow in a venturi is desirable for understanding the gas-liquid and fluid-pipe interactions and predicting pressure and phase distributions under various flow conditions. A steady Eulerian-Eulerian framework is used to simulate upward gas-liquid flow in a vertical venturi. The simulation results are compared with experimental measurements of venturi differential pressure and chord-averaged gas holdup in the venturi throat section. The choice of turbulence model is nontrivial in the multiphase flow modelling in a venturi. The performance cross-comparison of the k-ϵ model, Reynolds stress model (RSM) and shear-stress transport (SST) k-ω turbulence model is made in the study. In terms of accuracy and computational cost, the SST k-ω turbulence model is observed to be the most efficient.

Keywords: Turbulence Modelling, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), gas-liquid flow, venturi

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2146 Contributions at the Define of the Vortex Plane Cyclic Motion

Authors: Petre Stan, Marinica Stan

Abstract:

In this paper, a new way to define the vortex plane cyclic motion is exposed, starting from the physical cause of reacting the vortex. The Navier-Stokes equations are used in cylindrical coordinates for viscous fluids in laminar motion, and are integrated in case of a infinite long revolving cylinder which rotates around a pintle in a viscous fluid that occupies the entire space up to infinite. In this way, a revolving field of velocities in fluid is obtained, having the shape of a vortex in which the intensity is obtained objectively, being given by the physical phenomenon that generates this vortex.

Keywords: Navier-Stokes equations, viscous fluid, cylindrical coordinates, vortex plane

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2145 A Semantic and Concise Structure to Represent Human Actions

Authors: Tobias Strübing, Fatemeh Ziaeetabar

Abstract:

Humans usually manipulate objects with their hands. To represent these actions in a simple and understandable way, we need to use a semantic framework. For this purpose, the Semantic Event Chain (SEC) method has already been presented which is done by consideration of touching and non-touching relations between manipulated objects in a scene. This method was improved by a computational model, the so-called enriched Semantic Event Chain (eSEC), which incorporates the information of static (e.g. top, bottom) and dynamic spatial relations (e.g. moving apart, getting closer) between objects in an action scene. This leads to a better action prediction as well as the ability to distinguish between more actions. Each eSEC manipulation descriptor is a huge matrix with thirty rows and a massive set of the spatial relations between each pair of manipulated objects. The current eSEC framework has so far only been used in the category of manipulation actions, which eventually involve two hands. Here, we would like to extend this approach to a whole body action descriptor and make a conjoint activity representation structure. For this purpose, we need to do a statistical analysis to modify the current eSEC by summarizing while preserving its features, and introduce a new version called Enhanced eSEC or (e2SEC). This summarization can be done from two points of the view: 1) reducing the number of rows in an eSEC matrix, 2) shrinking the set of possible semantic spatial relations. To achieve these, we computed the importance of each matrix row in an statistical way, to see if it is possible to remove a particular one while all manipulations are still distinguishable from each other. On the other hand, we examined which semantic spatial relations can be merged without compromising the unity of the predefined manipulation actions. Therefore by performing the above analyses, we made the new e2SEC framework which has 20% fewer rows, 16.7% less static spatial and 11.1% less dynamic spatial relations. This simplification, while preserving the salient features of a semantic structure in representing actions, has a tremendous impact on the recognition and prediction of complex actions, as well as the interactions between humans and robots. It also creates a comprehensive platform to integrate with the body limbs descriptors and dramatically increases system performance, especially in complex real time applications such as human-robot interaction prediction.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Spatial Relations, enriched semantic event chain, semantic action representation

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2144 Wave Power Generation Using Oscillating Water Column and Wells Turbine

Authors: Tazin Ahmed Adri, Tanima Ahmed Hridi

Abstract:

As demand for energy is increasing day by day, eventually a time will come when the world will not only need energy, but it will also need energy obtained from renewable sources and ecologically acceptable fossil fuels that do not cause any harm to the environment such as global warming and air pollution. Ocean wave is a great resource of tremendous energy potential. Wave power devices extract energy directly from the surface motion of ocean waves. In many areas of the world, the wind blows with enough consistency and force to provide continuous waves along the shoreline. Oscillating water columns are a type of Wave Energy Converter that harness energy from the oscillation of the seawater. It generates electricity from the wave-driven rise and fall of water in a cylindrical shaft or pipe to harness the wave energy. The air is driven into and out of the top of the shaft due to the rising and falling water, powering an air-driven turbine. This work represents the prototype of an oscillating water column to generate electricity using Wells turbine, which is a low-pressure air turbine that rotates continuously in one direction independent of the direction of the airflow. Its blades feature a symmetrical airfoil with its plane of symmetry in the plane of rotation and perpendicular to the air stream. The experiment is carried out by designing two types of turbines: LWK 80-080 Symmetrical Airfoil and NACA 0020 Airfoil using SolidWorks. It is then printed using Anycubic I3 MEGA 3D printer. Afterward, an enclosure is built using acrylic after designing in SolidWorks. A long hollow pipe is mounted on one side of the enclosure in which the turbine and the motor are connected. The wave is created using a manually operated plunger, and experiments are carried out using those turbines to compare which design gives the best power output. Finally, a graph of power vs. wave height is given for different turbines. The maximum power is achieved by using NACA 0020 Airfoil turbine. This is because, this turbine is lighter than the other, hence it has more rotation. So, more power is produced with the same wave height. From the graph, it can be seen that with the increase in wave height, power also increases. The result confirms that the relationship between power and wave height is proportional.

Keywords: Airfoil, enclosure, wells turbine, oscillating water column

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2143 Cavitating Jet Design for Enhanced Drilling Performance

Authors: Abdullah Ababtain, Mouhammad El Hassan, Hassan Assoum, Anas Sakout

Abstract:

In this paper, a brief literature review on cavitation jets is presented in order to introduce the cavitation mechanism, strategies to assess when cavitation occurs, and the factors that influence cavitation in cavitating jets. The objectivity of the cavitation number often used to predict cavitation is also discussed. The results show that cavitation cannot be foreseen just using the cavitation number. Therefore, more efforts are needed to innovate and develop a self-resonating jet geometry that would be maintains the flow and the pressure in the cavitation condition just earlier than the flow acts on the target that would be used in such operating conditions. This study focused on a particular aspect related to improving drilling efficiency and the rate of penetration (ROP). In addition, a discussion on the methods used to measure cavitation and the factors that affect cavitation occurrence will be discussed. Two different types of cavitation nozzles were designed and tested. It has been shown that the self-resonating cavitation nozzle presents greater performance than standard non-resonating nozzle. It is thus concluded that a self-resonating cavitation jet present a high potential for improving drilling performance.

Keywords: erosion, cavitation number, cavitating jet, rate of penetration (ROP)

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2142 Adaptive Balancing for Low Speed Rotating Systems

Authors: Gurkan Karakaya, Caner Turker, Mete Anakli

Abstract:

Optical performance of vision systems such as a camera, is evaluated by using specially designed test equipment. This test equipment has a two-axis precise rotary stage (gimbal), which is used to orient Unit Under Test (UUT) accurately during tests. During the tests, the center of mass of the gimbal swing arm and UUT are positioned out of the rotating axis. Therefore, the off-axis payload creates a counter moment to the rotation direction. The elevation axis motor of the gimbal has to apply higher torque to drive and stabilize the system. Therefore, a balancing system is designed to reduce the applied moment on the elevation axis motor. In literature, systems such as robot arm manipulators, table lamps, and Dobsonian telescopes are balanced with the help of springs. However, these systems are balanced only for their working space. In this work, the system will be balanced for a full turn, 360 degrees. On the other hand, in this application, the acting moment on the electrical motor will be changed by different UUT and fixtures. Moreover, the preload on spring is changed with the help of a four-bar mechanism. There will be two possible methods for preloading the spring, which will be introduced, and the optimization of the balancing system will be carried out to minimize all moments created by off-axis weight.

Keywords: Mechanics, Adaptive, balancing, Gimbal, spring

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2141 Linear Parameter-Varying Control for Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems

Authors: Jihoon Lim, Patrick Kirchen, Ryozo Nagamune

Abstract:

This paper proposes a linear parameter-varying (LPV) controller capable of reducing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions with low ammonia (NH3) slip downstream of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. SCR systems are widely adopted in diesel engines due to high NOx conversion efficiency. However, the nonlinearity of the SCR system and sensor uncertainty result in a challenging control problem. In order to overcome the control challenges, an LPV controller is proposed based on gain-scheduling parameters, that is, exhaust gas temperature and exhaust gas flow rate. Based on experimentally obtained data under the non-road transient driving cycle (NRTC), the simulations firstly show that the proposed controller yields high NOx conversion efficiency with a desired low NH3 slip. The performance of the proposed LPV controller is then compared with other controllers, including a gain-scheduling PID controller and a sliding mode controller. Additionally, the robustness is also demonstrated using the uncertainties ranging from 10 to 30%. The results show that the proposed controller is robustly stable under uncertainties.

Keywords: Diesel Engine, selective catalytic reduction, gain-scheduling control, linear parameter-varying

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2140 Development of a CFD Model for PCM Based Energy Storage in a Vertical Triplex Tube Heat Exchanger

Authors: Pratibha Biswal, Suyash Morchhale, Anshuman Singh Yadav, Shubham Sanjay Chobe

Abstract:

Energy demands are increasing whereas energy sources, especially non-renewable sources are limited. Due to the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources, it has become the need of the hour to find new ways to store energy. Out of various energy storage methods, latent heat thermal storage devices are becoming popular due to their high energy density per unit mass and volume at nearly constant temperature. This work presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model using ANSYS FLUENT 19.0 for energy storage characteristics of a phase change material (PCM) filled in a vertical triplex tube thermal energy storage system. A vertical triplex tube heat exchanger, just like its name consists of three concentric tubes (pipe sections) for parting the device into three fluid domains. The PCM is filled in the middle domain with heat transfer fluids flowing in the outer and innermost domains. To enhance the heat transfer inside the PCM, eight fins have been incorporated between the internal and external tubes. These fins run radially outwards from the outer-wall of innermost tube to the inner-wall of the middle tube dividing the middle domain (between innermost and middle tube) into eight sections. These eight sections are then filled with a PCM. The validation is carried with earlier work and a grid independence test is also presented. Further studies on freezing and melting process were carried out. The results are presented in terms of pictorial representation of isotherms and liquid fraction

Keywords: CFD, Thermal Energy Storage, heat exchanger, phase change material, latent heat

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2139 Solution of S³ Problem of Deformation Mechanics for a Definite Condition and Resulting Modifications of Some Failure Theories

Authors: Ranajay Bhowmick

Abstract:

Analysis of stresses for an infinitesimal tetrahedron leads to a situation where we obtain a cubic equation consisting of three stress invariants. This cubic equation, when solved for a definite condition, gives the principal stresses directly without requiring any cumbersome and time-consuming trial and error methods or iterative numerical procedures. Since researchers, over the years have presented the failure criterion of different materials as functions of principal stresses, an attempt has been made in this study to incorporate the solutions of the cubic equation, obtained for a definite condition, into some of the established failure theories to determine their modified descriptions. It has been observed that the failure theories can be represented using the quadratic stress invariant and the orientation of the principal plane.

Keywords: principal stress, failure criterion, Explicit Solution, cubic equation, stress invariant, trigonometric

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2138 Finite Element Modelling and Analysis of Human Knee Joint

Authors: R. Ranjith Kumar

Abstract:

Computer modeling and simulation of human movement is playing an important role in sports and rehabilitation. Accurate modeling and analysis of human knee join is more complex because of complicated structure whose geometry is not easily to represent by a solid model. As part of this project, from the number of CT scan images of human knee join surface reconstruction is carried out using 3D slicer software, an open source software. From this surface reconstruction model, using mesh lab (another open source software) triangular meshes are created on reconstructed surface. This final triangular mesh model is imported to Solid Works, 3D mechanical CAD modeling software. Finally this CAD model is imported to ABAQUS, finite element analysis software for analyzing the knee joints. The results obtained are encouraging and provides an accurate way of modeling and analysis of biological parts without human intervention.

Keywords: CAD, solid works, Pro-E, CATIA

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2137 Transmission Design That Eliminates Gradual System Problems in Gearboxes

Authors: Ömer Ateş, Atilla Savaş

Abstract:

Reducers and transmission systems are power and speed transfer tools that have been used for many years in the technology world and in all engineering fields. Since today's transmissions have a threaded tap system, torque interruption occurs during tap change. besides, breakdown and manufacturing costs are high. Another problem is the limited torque and rpm setting in stepped gearbox systems. In this study, a new type of transmission system is designed to solve these problems. This new type of transmission system has been called the Continuously Variable Pulley. The most important feature of the transmission system in the study is that it can be adjusted Revolutions Per Minute-wise and torque-wise at the millimeter (precision) adjustment level. In order to make adjustments at this level, an adjustable pulley with the help of hydraulic piston is designed. The efficiency of the designed transmission system is 97 percent, the efficiency of today's transmissions is in the range of 85-95 percent. examined at the analysis and calculations, it is seen that the designed system gives realistic results and can be compared with today's transmissions and reducers. Therefore, this new type of transmission has been proven to be usable in production areas and the world of technology.

Keywords: Transmission, gearbox, torque, reducer

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2136 A Tool Tuning Approximation Method: Exploration of the System Dynamics and Its Impact on Milling Stability When Amending Tool Stickout

Authors: Robert A. Alphinas, Nikolai Bertelsen, Klaus B. Orskov

Abstract:

The shortest possible tool stickout has been the traditional go-to approach with expectations of increased stability and productivity. However, experimental studies at Danish Advanced Manufacturing Research Center (DAMRC) have proven that for some tool stickout lengths, there exist local productivity optimums when utilizing the Stability Lobe Diagrams for chatter avoidance. This contradicts with traditional logic and the best practices taught to machinists. This paper explores the vibrational characteristics and behaviour of a milling system over the tool stickout length. The experimental investigation has been conducted by tap testing multiple endmills where the tool stickout length has been varied. For each length, the modal parameters have been recorded and mapped to visualize behavioural tendencies. Furthermore, the paper explores the correlation between the modal parameters and the Stability Lobe Diagram to outline the influence and importance of each parameter in a multi-mode system. The insights are conceptualized into a tool tuning approximation solution. It builds on an almost linear change in the natural frequencies when amending tool stickout, which results in changed positions of the Chatter-free Stability Lobes. Furthermore, if the natural frequency of two modes become too close, it will onset of the dynamic absorber effect phenomenon. This phenomenon increases the critical stable depth of cut, allowing for a more stable milling process. Validation tests on the tool tuning approximation solution have shown varying success of the solution. This outlines the need for further research on the boundary conditions of the solution to understand at which conditions the tool tuning approximation solution is applicable. If the conditions get defined, the conceptualized tool tuning approximation solution outlines an approach for quick and roughly approximating tool stickouts with the potential for increased stiffness and optimized productivity.

Keywords: Milling, Modal Parameters, Stability lobes, tap testing, tool tuning

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2135 Simulation of Active Controlled Vibration Isolation System for Astronaut's Exercise Platform

Authors: Shield B. Lin, Sameer Abdali

Abstract:

Computer simulations were performed using MATLAB/Simulink for a vibration isolation system for astronaut’s exercise platform. Simulation parameters initially were based on an on-going experiment in a laboratory at NASA Johnson Space Center. The authors expanded later simulations to include other parameters. A discrete proportional-integral-derivative controller with a low-pass filter commanding a linear actuator served as the active control unit to push and pull a counterweight in balancing the disturbance forces. A spring-damper device is used as an optional passive control unit. Simulation results indicated such design could achieve near complete vibration isolation with small displacements of the exercise platform.

Keywords: Control, Vibration, Isolation, counterweight

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2134 Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis and Optimization of the Coanda Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Platform

Authors: Jin Lee, Nigel Kelly, Zaid Saddiqi

Abstract:

Research shows that using Coanda aero surfaces can drastically augment the lift forces when applied to an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platform. By directing the flow of air from a propeller over a convex surface, a negative pressure gradient forms, resulting in additional lift generated. In theory, the direct thrust from the propeller in the gravity direction is then augmented by this additional lift force. However, Coanda saucer UAVs, which commonly use a dish-like, radially-extending structure, have shown no significant increases in thrust/lift force and therefore have never been commercially successful: the additional thrust/lift generated by the Coanda surface diminishes since the airstreams emerging from the rotor compartment expand radially causing serious loss of momentums and therefore a net loss of total thrust/lift. To overcome this technical weakness, we propose to examine the Coanda surface design and optimize its geometry for the highest thrust/lift. A typical Coanda UAV has flow directed radially outwards from an orifice and finally vectored in the direction of Coanda curvature. This behavior is highly influenced by the height, h, of the airstream emerging from the orifice preceding the Coanda surface and the radius of curvature, R, of the Coanda surface. The goal of this study is to: (1) determine what ratio of h/R will produce the highest lift coefficient for a Coanda surface of 2-dimensional geometry when applied to a newly designed cylindrical configuration and (2) compare the lift generated from a 4-sided cylindrical Coanda design vs. a conventional radial Coanda surface. To accomplish these objectives, the Buckingham Pi theorem is used to generate non-dimensional variables h/R, Reynold’s number, and Lift Coefficient. Our preliminary study shows that the airstream separates from the Coanda surface at certain conditions, resulting in near-complete loss of thrust/lift from the platform. Ideally, we aim to avoid these conditions to maximize thrust/lift. With these constraints in mind, a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software, ANSYS Fluent®, is used to simulate the flow characteristics with suitable ranges of h/R ratios and orifice velocities. The results of this numerical study indicate that flow-separation occurs at h/R > 0.3, and the highest lift coefficient occurs at a range just before this flow-separation. To validate this approach, the Streamline Curvature Theorem is applied to the airstream, revealing a good agreement with the pressure gradient seen in our simulations. Additionally, a mathematical model in literature compares well with our estimation of the flow-separation angle. We conclude that the proposed 4-sided cylindrical configuration shows an average 25% increase in total thrust, compared with conventional radial-design Coanda platforms. It is also evident that flow-separation is heavily influenced by the h/R ratio. Moreover, an h/R ratio has been identified, which will produce the highest lift coefficient for a Coanda UAV, according to our simulations. This result, coupled with a 4-sided cylindrical Coanda configuration, is deemed to be a very efficient design for enhancing thrust/lift of a Coanda UAV platform. This venture integrates with an ongoing research project where a Coanda prototype is being assembled. Additionally, a custom thrust-stand has been constructed for thrust/lift measurement.

Keywords: CFD, UAV, lift, Coanda

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2133 Data Centers’ Temperature Profile Simulation Optimized by Finite Elements and Discretization Methods

Authors: Jose Alberto Garcia Fernandez, Zhimin Du, Xinqiao Jin

Abstract:

Nowadays, data center industry faces strong challenges for increasing the speed and data processing capacities while at the same time is trying to keep their devices a suitable working temperature without penalizing that capacity. Consequently, the cooling systems of this kind of facilities use a large amount of energy to dissipate the heat generated inside the servers, and developing new cooling techniques or perfecting those already existing would be a great advance in this type of industry. The installation of a temperature sensor matrix distributed in the structure of each server would provide the necessary information for collecting the required data for obtaining a temperature profile instantly inside them. However, the number of temperature probes required to obtain the temperature profiles with sufficient accuracy is very high and expensive. Therefore, other less intrusive techniques are employed where each point that characterizes the server temperature profile is obtained by solving differential equations through simulation methods, simplifying data collection techniques but increasing the time to obtain results. In order to reduce these calculation times, complicated and slow computational fluid dynamics simulations are replaced by simpler and faster finite element method simulations which solve the Burgers‘ equations by backward, forward and central discretization techniques after simplifying the energy and enthalpy conservation differential equations. The discretization methods employed for solving the first and second order derivatives of the obtained Burgers‘ equation after these simplifications are the key for obtaining results with greater or lesser accuracy regardless of the characteristic truncation error.

Keywords: Data center, FEM simulation, CFD simulation, temperature profile, Burgers' equations, discretization methods

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2132 Evaluation of Sloshing in Process Equipment for Floating Cryogenic Application

Authors: Bo Jin

Abstract:

A variety of process equipment having flow in and out is widely used in industrial land-based cryogenic facilities. In some of this equipment, such as vapor-liquid separator, a liquid level is established during the steady operation. As the implementation of such industrial processes extends to off-shore floating facilities, it is important to investigate the effect of sea motion on the process equipment partially filled with liquid. One important aspect to consider is the occurrence of sloshing therein. The flow characteristics are different from the classical study of sloshing, where the fluid is enclosed inside a vessel (e.g., storage tank) with no flow in or out. Liquid inside process equipment continuously flows in and out of the system. To understand this key difference, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model is developed to simulate the liquid motion inside a partially filled cylinder with and without continuous flow in and out. For a partially filled vertical cylinder without any continuous flow in and out, the CFD model is found to be able to capture the well-known sloshing behavior documented in the literature. For the cylinder with a continuous steady flow in and out, the CFD simulation results demonstrate that the continuous flow suppresses sloshing. Given typical cryogenic fluid has very low viscosity, an analysis based on potential flow theory is developed to explain why flow into and out of the cylinder changes the natural frequency of the system and thereby suppresses sloshing. This analysis further validates the CFD results.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, CFD, Sloshing, cryogenic process equipment, off-shore floating processes

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2131 Numerical Investigation of Fluid Flow, Characteristics of Thermal Performance and Enhancement of Heat Transfer of Corrugated Pipes with Various Geometrical Configurations

Authors: Ahmed Ramadhan Al-Obaidi, Jassim Alhamid

Abstract:

In this investigation, the flow pattern, characteristics of thermal-hydraulic, and improvement of heat transfer performance are evaluated using a numerical technique in three dimensions corrugated pipe heat exchanger. The modification was made under different corrugated pipe geometrical parameters, including corrugated ring angle (CRA), distance between corrugated ring (DBCR), and corrugated diameter (CD), the range of Re number from 2000 to 12000. The numerical results are validated with available experimental data. The numerical outcomes reveal that there is an important change in flow field behaviour and a significant increase in friction factor and improvement in heat transfer performance owing to the use of the corrugated shape in the heat exchanger pipe as compared to the conventional smooth pipe. Using corrugated pipe with different configurations makes the flow more turbulence, flow separation, boundary layer distribution, flow mixing, and that leads to augmenting the performance of heat transfer. Moreover, the value of pressure drop, and the Nusselt number increases as the corrugated pipe geometrical parameters increase. Furthermore, the corrugation configuration shapes have an important influence on the thermal evaluation performance factor, and the maximum value was more than 1.3. Numerical simulation can be performed to predict the various geometrical configurations effects on fluid flow, thermal performance, and heat transfer enhancement.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, nusselt number, corrugated ring angle, corrugated diameter

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2130 Cracks Detection and Measurement Using VLP-16 LiDAR and Intel Depth Camera D435 in Real-Time

Authors: Xinwen Zhu, Xingguang Li, Sun Yi

Abstract:

Crack is one of the most common damages in buildings, bridges, roads and so on, which may pose safety hazards. However, cracks frequently happen in structures of various materials. Traditional methods of manual detection and measurement, which are known as subjective, time-consuming, and labor-intensive, are gradually unable to meet the needs of modern development. In addition, crack detection and measurement need be safe considering space limitations and danger. Intelligent crack detection has become necessary research. In this paper, an efficient method for crack detection and quantification using a 3D sensor, LiDAR, and depth camera is proposed. This method works even in a dark environment, which is usual in real-world applications. The LiDAR rapidly spins to scan the surrounding environment and discover cracks through lasers thousands of times per second, providing a rich, 3D point cloud in real-time. The LiDAR provides quite accurate depth information. The precision of the distance of each point can be determined within around  ±3 cm accuracy, and not only it is good for getting a precise distance, but it also allows us to see far of over 100m going with the top range models. But the accuracy is still large for some high precision structures of material. To make the depth of crack is much more accurate, the depth camera is in need. The cracks are scanned by the depth camera at the same time. Finally, all data from LiDAR and Depth cameras are analyzed, and the size of the cracks can be quantified successfully. The comparison shows that the minimum and mean absolute percentage error between measured and calculated width are about 2.22% and 6.27%, respectively. The experiments and results are presented in this paper.

Keywords: Real-time, Lidar, depth camera, detection and measurement

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2129 Augmented ADRC for Trajectory Tracking of a Novel Hydraulic Spherical Motion Mechanism

Authors: Liang Wang, Bin Bian

Abstract:

A hydraulic spherical motion mechanism (HSMM) is proposed. Unlike traditional systems using serial or parallel mechanisms for multi-DOF rotations, the HSMM is capable of implementing continuous 2-DOF rotational motions in a single joint without the intermediate transmission mechanisms. It has some advantages of compact structure, low inertia and high stiffness. However, as HSMM is a nonlinear and multivariable system, it is very complicate to realize accuracy control. Therefore, an augmented active disturbance rejection controller (ADRC) is proposed in this paper. Compared with the traditional PD control method, three compensation items, i.e., dynamics compensation term, disturbance compensation term and nonlinear error elimination term, are added into the proposed algorithm to improve the control performance. The ADRC algorithm aims at offsetting the effects of external disturbance and realizing accurate control. Euler angles are applied to describe the orientation of rotor. Lagrange equations are utilized to establish the dynamic model of the HSMM. The stability of this algorithm is validated with detailed derivation. Simulation model is formulated in Matlab/Simulink. The results show that the proposed control algorithm has better competence of trajectory tracking in the presence of uncertainties.

Keywords: trajectory tracking, active disturbance rejection control, dynamic model, hydraulic spherical motion mechanism

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2128 Optimization of E-motor Control Parameters for Electrically Propelled Vehicles by Integral Squared Method

Authors: Melike Nikbay, Ibrahim Cicek

Abstract:

Electrically propelled vehicles, either road or aerial vehicles are studied on contemporarily for their robust maneuvers and cost-efficient transport operations. The main power generating systems of such vehicles electrified by selecting proper components and assembled as e-powertrain. Generally, e-powertrain components selected considering the target performance requirements. Since the main component of propulsion is the drive unit, e-motor control system is subjected to achieve the performance targets. In this paper, the optimization of e-motor control parameters studied by Integral Squared Method (ISE). The overall aim is to minimize power consumption of such vehicles depending on mission profile and maintaining smooth maneuvers for passenger comfort. The sought-after values of control parameters are computed using the Optimal Control Theory. The system is modeled as a closed-loop linear control system with calibratable parameters.

Keywords: Optimization, Electric Vehicles, Optimal Control, e-powertrain

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2127 Hydraulic Optimization of an Adjustable Spiral-Shaped Evaporator

Authors: Matthias Feiner, Francisco Javier Fernandez Garcia, Martin Kipfmüller

Abstract:

To ensure reliability in miniaturized devices or processes with increased heat fluxes, decreasing available cooling surfaces have to be met by adjusted cooling methods. To address this problem, a certain type of evaporator/heat exchanger was developed. Due to its flow characteristic, it is called a swirl evaporator. The swirl evaporator consists of a concentrically eroded screw geometry in which a capillary tube is guided, which is inserted into a pocket hole in components with high heat load. The liquid refrigerant R32 is sprayed through the capillary tube to the end face of the blind hole and is sucked off against the injection direction in the screw geometry. Its inner diameter is between one and three millimeters. The refrigerant is sprayed into the pocket hole via a small tube aligned in the center of the bore hole and is sucked off on the front side of the hole against the direction of injection. The refrigerant is sucked off in a helical geometry (twisted flow) so that it is accelerated against the hot wall (centrifugal acceleration). This results in an increase in the critical heat flux of up to 40 %. In this way, more heat can be dissipated on the same surface/available installation space. This enables a wide range of technical applications. To optimize the design for the needs in various fields of the industry, a correlation-based model of the swirl-evaporator was developed. The model is separated into 3 subgroups with overall 5 regimes. The pressure drop and heat transfer are calculated separately. An approach to determine the locality of phase change in the capillary and the swirl was implemented. A test stand has been developed to verify the simulation.

Keywords: helically-shaped, oil-free, R-32, swirl-evaporator, twist-flow

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2126 Simulation and Characterization of Stretching and Folding in Microchannel Electrokinetic Flows

Authors: Justo Rodriguez, Daming Chen, Amador M. Guzman

Abstract:

The detection, treatment, and control of rapidly propagating, deadly viruses such as COVID-19, require the development of inexpensive, fast, and accurate devices to address the urgent needs of the population. Microfluidics-based sensors are amongst the different methods and techniques for detection that are easy to use. A micro analyzer is defined as a microfluidics-based sensor, composed of a network of microchannels with varying functions. Given their size, portability, and accuracy, they are proving to be more effective and convenient than other solutions. A micro analyzer based on the concept of “Lab on a Chip” presents advantages concerning other non-micro devices due to its smaller size, and it is having a better ratio between useful area and volume. The integration of multiple processes in a single microdevice reduces both the number of necessary samples and the analysis time, leading the next generation of analyzers for the health-sciences. In some applications, the flow of solution within the microchannels is originated by a pressure gradient, which can produce adverse effects on biological samples. A more efficient and less dangerous way of controlling the flow in a microchannel-based analyzer is applying an electric field to induce the fluid motion and either enhance or suppress the mixing process. Electrokinetic flows are characterized by no less than two non-dimensional parameters: the electric Rayleigh number and its geometrical aspect ratio. In this research, stable and unstable flows have been studied numerically (and when possible, will be experimental) in a T-shaped microchannel. Additionally, unstable electrokinetic flows for Rayleigh numbers higher than critical have been characterized. The flow mixing enhancement was quantified in relation to the stretching and folding that fluid particles undergo when they are subjected to supercritical electrokinetic flows. Computational simulations were carried out using a finite element-based program while working with the flow mixing concepts developed by Gollub and collaborators. Hundreds of seeded massless particles were tracked along the microchannel from the entrance to exit for both stable and unstable flows. After post-processing, their trajectories, the folding and stretching values for the different flows were found. Numerical results show that for supercritical electrokinetic flows, the enhancement effects of the folding and stretching processes become more apparent. Consequently, there is an improvement in the mixing process, ultimately leading to a more homogenous mixture.

Keywords: microchannel, stretching and folding, electro kinetic flow mixing, micro-analyzer

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