Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2343

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

2343 Robots for City Life: Design Guidelines and Strategy Recommendations for Introducing Robots in Cities

Authors: Akshay Shenvi Rege, Maneesh Verma, Sem Carree, Abhishek Nagabhushan, Nielsen Cugito, Romir Kulshreshtha, Tony Nikolaidis, Lara Gomaa


The aim of this paper is to articulate design strategies and recommendations for introducing robots into the city life of people based on experiments conducted with robots and semi-autonomous systems in three cities in the Netherlands. This research was carried out by the Spot robotics team of Impact Lab housed within YES!Delft, a start-up accelerator located in Delft, The Netherlands. The premise of this research is to inform the development of the ‘region of the future’ by the Municipality of Rotterdam-Den Haag (MRDH). The paper starts by reporting the desktop research carried out to find and develop multiple use cases for robots to support humans in various activities. Further, the paper reports the user research carried out by crowdsourcing responses collected in public spaces of Rotterdam-Den Haag region and on the internet. Furthermore, based on the knowledge gathered in the initial research, practical experiments were carried out using robots and semi-autonomous systems in order to test and validate our initial research. These experiments were conducted in three cities in the Netherlands which were Rotterdam, The Hague, and Delft. Custom sensor box, Drone, and Boston Dynamics' Spot robot were used to conduct these experiments. Out of thirty use cases, five were tested with experiments which were skyscraper emergency evacuation, human transportation and security, bike lane delivery, mobility tracking, and robot drama. The learnings from these experiments provided us with insights into human-robot interaction and symbiosis in cities which can be used to introduce robots in cities to support human activities, ultimately enabling the transitioning from a human only city life towards a blended one where robots can play a role. Based on these understandings, we formulated design guidelines and strategy recommendations for incorporating robots in the Rotterdam-Den Haag’s region of the future. Lastly, we discuss how our insights in the Rotterdam-Den Haag region can inspire and inform the incorporation of robots in different cities of the world.

Keywords: city life, design guidelines, human-robot Interaction, robot use cases, robotic experiments, strategy recommendations, user research

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2342 Effect of Using Baffles Inside Spiral Micromixer

Authors: Delara Soltani, Sajad Alimohammadi, Tim Persoons


Microfluidic technology reveals a new area of research in drug delivery, biomedical diagnostics, and the food and chemical industries. Mixing is an essential part of microfluidic devices. There is a need for fast and homogeneous mixing in microfluidic devices. On the other hand, mixing is difficult to achieve in microfluidic devices because of the size and laminar flow in these devices. In this study, a hybrid passive micromixer of a curved channel with obstacles inside the channel is designed. The computational fluid dynamic method is employed to solve governing equations. The results show that using obstacles can improve mixing efficiency in spiral micromixers. the effects of Reynolds number, number, and position of baffles are investigated. In addition, the effect of baffles on pressure drop is presented. this novel micromixer has the potential to utilize in microfluidic devices.

Keywords: CFD, micromixer, microfluidics, spiral, reynolds number

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2341 Use of Large Eddy Simulations Model to Simulate the Flow of Heavy Oil-Water-Air through Pipe

Authors: Salim Al Jadidi, Shian Gao, Shivananda Moolya


Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) technique coupled with Sub-Grid-Scale (SGS) model is used to study the flow behavior of heavy oil-water-air flow in a horizontal pipe by adapting ANSYS Fluent CFD software. The technique suitable for the transport of water-lubricated heavy viscous oil in a horizontal pipe is the Core Annular flow (CAF) technique. The present study focuses on the numerical study of CAF adapting Large Eddy Simulations (LES). The basic objective of the present study is to gain a basic knowledge of the flow behavior of heavy oil using turbulent CAF through a conventional horizontal pipe. This work also focuses on the success and applicability of LES. The simulation of heavy oil-water-air three-phase flow and two-phase flow of heavy oil–water in a conventional horizontal pipe is performed using ANSYS Fluent 16.2 software. The influence of three-phase heavy oil-water air flow in a selected pipe is affected by gravity. It is also observed from the result that the air phase and the variation in the temperature impact the behavior of the annular stream and pressure drop. Some results obtained during the study are validated with the results gained from part of the literature experiments and simulations, and the results show reasonably good agreement between the studies.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, gravity, heavy viscous oil, three-phase flow

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2340 Numerical Investigation Including Mobility Model for the Performances of Piezoresistive Sensors

Authors: Abdelaziz Beddiaf


In this work, we present an analysis based on the study of mobility which is a very important electrical parameter of a piezoresistor and which is directly bound to the piezoresistivity effect in piezoresistive pressure sensors. We determine how the temperature affects mobility when the electric potential is applied. For this, a theoretical approach based on mobility in a p-type Silicon piezoresistor with that of a finite difference model for self-heating is developed. So, the evolution of mobility has been established versus time for different doping levels and with temperature rise provoked by self-heating using a numerical model combined with that of mobility. Furthermore, it has been calculated for some geometrical parameters of the sensor, such as membrane side length and thickness. Also, it is computed as a function of bias voltage. It was observed that mobility is strongly affected by the temperature rise induced by the applied potential when the sensor is actuated for a prolonged time as a consequence of drifting in the output response of the sensor. Finally, this work makes it possible to predict their temperature behavior due to self-heating and to improve this effect by optimizing the geometric properties of the device and by reducing the voltage source applied to the bridge.

Keywords: Sensors, Piezoresistivity, Mobility, Bias voltage

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2339 A Review of Optomechatronic Ecosystem

Authors: Sam Zhang


The landscape of Opto mechatronics is viewed along the line of light vs. matter, photonics vs. semiconductors, and optics vs. mechatronics. Optomechatronics is redefined as the integration of light and matter from the atom, device, and system to the application. The markets and megatrends in Opto mechatronics are further listed. The author then focuses on Opto mechatronic technology in the semiconductor industry as an example and reviews the practical systems, characteristics, and trends. Opto mechatronics, together with photonics and semiconductor, will continue producing the computational and smart infrastructure required for the 4th industrial revolution.

Keywords: photonics, semiconductor, optomechatronics, 4th industrial revolution

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2338 Turbulence Measurement Over Rough and Smooth Bed in Open Channel Flow

Authors: Kirti Singh, Kesheo Prasad


A 3D Acoustic Doppler velocimeter was used in the current investigation to quantify the mean and turbulence characteristics in non-uniform open-channel flows. Results are obtained from studies done in the laboratory, analysing the behavior of sand particles under turbulent open channel flow conditions flowing through rough, porous beds. Data obtained from ADV is used to calculate turbulent flow characteristics, Reynolds stresses and turbulent kinetic energy. Theoretical formulations for the distribution of Reynolds stress and the vertical velocity have been constructed using the Reynolds equation and the continuity equation of 2D open-channel flow. The measured Reynolds stress profile and the vertical velocity are comparable with the derived expressions. This study uses the Navier-Stokes equations for analysing the behavior of the vertical velocity profile in the dominant region of full-fledged turbulent flows in open channels, and it gives a new origination of the profile. For both wide and narrow open channels, this origination can estimate the time-averaged primary velocity in the turbulent boundary layer's outer region.

Keywords: turbulence, bed roughness, logarithmic law, shear stress correlations, ADV, Reynolds shear stress

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2337 Analysis of Bank Characteristics in a Hydrogen Refueling Station

Authors: Bo Hyun Kim, Sarng Woo Karng


In constructing a hydrogen refueling station, minimizing the volume and reducing the number of banks enable lessening the construction cost. This study aims at performing the dynamic simulation on 250 kg/day of a refueling station for light-duty vehicles. The primary compressor boosts hydrogen from a tube trailer of 250 to 480 bar and stores it in a medium-pressure bank. Then, additional compression of hydrogen from 480 to 900 bar is carried out and stored in a high-pressure bank. Economic analysis was conducted considering the amount of electricity consumed by compression corresponding to the volume and the number of banks (cascade system) in charging mode. NIST REFPROP was selected as the equation of state on the ASPEN HYSYS for thermodynamic analysis of the tube-trailer, the compressors, the chillers, and the banks. Compared to a single high-pressure bank system of 3000 L, the volume of the cascade high-pressure banks (bank1: 250 L and bank 2: 1850 L) was reduced by 30%, and the power consumption of the chiller for precooling was also decreased by 16%.

Keywords: light-duty vehicles, economic analysis, cascade system, hydrogen refueling station

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2336 Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Turbulence Level Influence on the Flow through the Staggered Smooth Tube Bundle

Authors: L. Adjlout, N.Benharrat, O. Ladjdel, F. Djemil, A. Adjlout, T. Yahiaoui


The present investigation is an experimental and numerical studies of the turbulence level influence on the flow in a smooth staggered tube bundle. The experiments were carried out in a closed circuit wind tunnel of subsonic type (TE44). Three turbulence levels at the inlet namely 1%, 4.6% and 6.3% and two Reynolds numbers Re = 9300 and Re = 13950 were performed. The obtained results for the central tube show that there are two minimum values for the angles 70° and 280° corresponding to the separation points. The pressure coefficient distributions seem to have constant values between 120° and 240° resulting in Von Karman street configuration in the wake. These remarks were valid for the tests carried out. The numerical study was performed by the ANSYS FLUENT code which solves the averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS). Two turbulence models (k-ε RNG and k-ε realizable), two types of grids and two levels of turbulence at the entrance of 4.6% and 6.3% for Reynolds numbers of 9300 and 13950 were considered. The obtained results for the central tube were compared with the present experimental results. It is concluded that the K-ε realizable is more suitable for the pressure distribution prediction than the K-ε RNG model compared to the present experimental results for this studied case.

Keywords: tube bundle, staggered configuration, turbulence level, numerical, experimental

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2335 Multifluid Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation for Sawdust Gasification inside an Industrial Scale Fluidized Bed Gasifier

Authors: Vasujeet Singh, Pruthiviraj Nemalipuri, Vivek Vitankar, Harish Chandra Das


For the correct prediction of thermal and hydraulic performance (bed voidage, suspension density, pressure drop, heat transfer, and combustion kinetics), one should incorporate the correct parameters in the computational fluid dynamics simulation of a fluidized bed gasifier. Scarcity of fossil fuels, and to fulfill the energy demand of the increasing population, researchers need to shift their attention to the alternative to fossil fuels. The current research work focuses on hydrodynamics behavior and gasification of sawdust inside a 2D industrial scale FBG using the Eulerian-Eulerian multifluid model. The present numerical model is validated with experimental data. Further, this model extended for the prediction of gasification characteristics of sawdust by incorporating eight heterogeneous moisture release, volatile cracking, tar cracking, tar oxidation, char combustion, CO₂ gasification, steam gasification, methanation reaction, and five homogeneous oxidation of CO, CH₄, H₂, forward and backward water gas shift (WGS) reactions. In the result section, composition of gasification products is analyzed, along with the hydrodynamics of sawdust and sand phase, heat transfer between the gas, sand and sawdust, reaction rates of different homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions is being analyzed along the height of the domain.

Keywords: devolatilization, Eulerian-Eulerian, fluidized bed gasifier, mathematical modelling, sawdust gasification

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2334 Analysis of an High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) Connection Using a Real-Time Simulator Under Various Disturbances

Authors: Mankour Mohamed, Miloudi Mohamed


A thorough and accurate simulation is necessary for the study of a High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) link system during various types of disturbances, including internal faults on both converters, either on the rectifier or on the inverter, as well as external faults, such as AC or DC faults on both converter sides inside the DC link party. In this study, we examine how an HVDC inverter responds to three different types of failures, including faults at the inverter valve, system control faults, and single-phase-to-ground AC faults at the sending end of the inverter side. As this phenomenon represents the most frequent problem that may affect inverter valves, particularly those based on thyristor valves (LCC (line-Commutated converter)), it is more precise to explore which circumstance generates and raises the commutation failure on inverter valves. Because of the techniques used to accelerate the simulation, digital real-time simulators are now the most potent tools that provide simulation results. The real-time-lab RT-LAB platform HYPERSIM OP-5600 is used to implement the Simulation in the Loop (SIL) technique, which is used to validate the results. It is demonstrated how to recover from both the internal faults and the AC problem. The simulation findings show how crucial a role the control system plays in fault recovery.

Keywords: hypersim simulator, HVDC systems, mono-polar link, AC faults, misfiring faults

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2333 Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation of the Tire-Road Separation in Quarter-car Model

Authors: Quy Dang Nguyen, Reza Nakhaie Jazar


The paper investigates vibration dynamics of tire-road separation for a quarter-car model; this separation model is developed to be close to the real situation considering the tire is able to separate from the ground plane. A set of piecewise linear mathematical models is developed and matches the in-contact and no-contact states to be considered as mother models for further investigations. The bound dynamics are numerically simulated in the time response and phase portraits. The separation analysis may determine which values of suspension parameters can delay and avoid the no-contact phenomenon, which results in improving ride comfort and eliminating the potentially dangerous oscillation. Finally, model verification is carried out in the MSC-ADAMS environment.

Keywords: quarter-car vibrations, tire-road separation, separation analysis, separation dynamics, ride comfort, ADAMS validation

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2332 Numerical Approach to Boost an Internal Combustion Engine

Authors: Mohamed Amine El Hameur, Lyes Tarabet, Mahfoudh Cerdoun, Boubkr Zebiri, Giovanni Ferrara


Due to the drastic environmental and energy regulations regarding the reduction of exhaust emissions and fuel consumption, added to the increasing demand for powerful performance, several automotive manufacturers are constantly obliged to redesign their existing products and/or develop novel powertrain techniques to respond to the aforementioned restrictions. In this aspect, an implemented approach is proposed in the present work to boost a 1.5 L, three-cylinder Diesel engine with a new turbocharger, based on 1D preliminary design codes, 3D design, and numerical assessment of a suitable radial turbine followed by an accurate selection procedure of an adequate centrifugal compressor. Furthermore, to investigate the effect of the turbine’s rotor position on the simulation convergence, stability, and calculation time; two combinations (rotor blade- volute) have been assessed. Consequently, significant results are obtained when comparing the original turbocharged engine and the new one at the engine’s full load and rated speed (@4500rpm) conditions. A maximum improvement in terms of brake-specific fuel consumption, thermal efficiency, total-to-static turbine efficiency, and total-to-total compressor efficiency equal 6.5% (corresponding to a decrease of 2.3 litre/hr in fuel consumption), 7%, 10.9%, and 19.9%, respectively.

Keywords: CFD investigation, engine boosting, turbine design, turbocharger, rotor blade positioning

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2331 Effects of Channel Orientation on Heat Transfer in a Rotating Rectangular Channel with Jet Impingement Cooling and Film Coolant Extraction

Authors: Hua Li, Hongwu Deng


The turbine blade's leading edge is usually cooled by jet impingement cooling technology due to the heaviest heat load. For a rotating turbine blade, however, the channel orientation (β, the angle between the jet direction and the rotating plane) could play an important role in influencing the flow field and heat transfer. Therefore, in this work, the effects of channel orientation (from 90° to 180°) on heat transfer in a jet impingement cooling channel are experimentally investigated. Furthermore, the investigations are conducted under an isothermal boundary condition. Both the jet-to-target surface distance and jet-to-jet spacing are three times the jet hole diameter. The jet Reynolds number is 5,000, and the maximum jet rotation number reaches 0.24. The results show that the rotation-induced variations of heat transfer are different in each channel orientation. In the cases of 90°≤β≤135°, a vortex generated in the low-radius region of the supply channel changes the mass-flowrate distribution in each jet hole. Therefore, the heat transfer in the low-radius region decreases with the rotation number, whereas the heat transfer in the high-radius region increases, indicating that a larger temperature gradient in the radial direction could appear in the turbine blade's leading edge. When 135°<β≤180°; however, the heat transfer of the entire stagnant zone decreases with the rotation number. The rotation-induced jet deflection is the primary factor that weakens the heat transfer, and jets cannot reach the target surface at high rotation numbers. For the downstream regions, however, the heat transfer is enhanced by 50%-80% in every channel orientation because the dead zone is broken by the rotation-induced secondary flow in the impingement channel.

Keywords: heat transfer, jet impingement cooling, channel orientation, high rotation number, isothermal boundary

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2330 Study of the Influence of Hole Topology on Crack Propagation Rate

Authors: Hallan Moura Ladeira, Carla Tatiana Mota Anflor


The drilling process for bolted or riveted joints of components is very common in the naval, aeronautical, mechanical, and civil industries. In this context, the present work aims to study, through computer simulation, the influence of hole geometry (through, chamfered, and rounded) on crack propagation when submitted to static and dynamic loads. For the static crack evaluation, failure was considered when the stress intensity factor (FIT) exceeds the fracture toughness of the material (KIc). In the case of fatigue, the condition of the small crack tip plastification zone and the Paris Law were considered for determining region II of the dadN x ΔK curve. Initially, a parametric analysis of the hole geometry was performed to obtain a topology that would result in less discontinuity of the stress field and, consequently, less influence on static crack growth. The best performing topology was then used to study the fatigue crack growth rate considering the Paris Law. The numerical tests were performed on a 7075-T6 aluminum specimen resulting in dadN x ΔK curves in good agreement with the literature.

Keywords: holes, cracks, loading, fracture toughness

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2329 Comparison of the Performance of Diesel Engine, Run with Diesel and Safflower Oil Methyl Esters, Using a Piston Which Has Five Grooves on Its Crown

Authors: N. Hiranmai, M. L. S. Deva Kumar


In this project, it is planned to carry out an experimental investigation on 4- stroke Direct Injection Diesel Engine, which is a single-cylinder, four-stroke, water-cooled, and constant speed engine capable of developing a power output of 3.7 kW at 1500 rpm, run with diesel fuel and also with different proportions of Safflower oil methyl esters, with a piston having five number of grooves on its crown to create turbulence. Various performance parameters, such as brake power, specific fuel consumption, and thermal efficiency, are calculated. At all the load conditions, the performance of the engine is obtained better for blend B40 (40% Safflower oil + 60% of Diesel). At different load conditions, Brake thermal Efficiency (ηbth) is comparatively more for all blends than that for Diesel. At different load conditions, ηith is less for blend B40.

Keywords: four-stroke engine, diesel, safflower oil, engine performance, emissions.

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2328 Flexible Integration of Airbag Weakening Lines in Interior Components: Airbag Weakening with Jenoptik Laser Technology

Authors: Markus Remm, Sebastian Dienert


Vehicle interiors are not only changing in terms of design and functionality but also due to new driving situations in which, for example, autonomous operating modes are possible. Flexible seating positions are changing the requirements for passive safety system behavior and location in the interior of a vehicle. With fully autonomous driving, the driver can, for example, leave the position behind the steering wheel and take a seated position facing backward. Since autonomous and non-autonomous vehicles will share the same road network for the foreseeable future, accidents cannot be avoided, which makes the use of passive safety systems indispensable. With JENOPTIK-VOTAN® A technology, the trend towards flexible predetermined airbag weakening lines is enabled. With the help of laser beams, the predetermined weakening lines are introduced from the backside of the components so that they are absolutely invisible. This machining process is sensor-controlled and guarantees that a small residual wall thickness remains for the best quality and reliability for airbag weakening lines. Due to the wide processing range of the laser, the processing of almost all materials is possible. A CO₂ laser is used for many plastics, natural fiber materials, foams, foils and material composites. A femtosecond laser is used for natural materials and textiles that are very heat-sensitive. This laser type has extremely short laser pulses with very high energy densities. Supported by a high-precision and fast movement of the laser beam by a laser scanner system, the so-called cold ablation is enabled to predetermine weakening lines layer by layer until the desired residual wall thickness remains. In that way, for example, genuine leather can be processed in a material-friendly and process-reliable manner without design implications to the components A-Side. Passive safety in the vehicle is increased through the interaction of modern airbag technology and high-precision laser airbag weakening. The JENOPTIK-VOTAN® A product family has been representing this for more than 25 years and is pointing the way to the future with new and innovative technologies.

Keywords: design freedom, interior material processing, laser technology, passive safety

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2327 A Computational Investigation of Knocking Tendency in a Hydrogen-Fueled SI Engine

Authors: Hammam Aljabri, Hong G. Im


Hydrogen is a promising future fuel to support the transition of the energy sector toward carbon neutrality. The direct utilization of H2 in Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs) is possible, and this technology faces mainly two challenges; high NOx emissions and severe knocking at mid to high loads. In this study, we numerically investigated the potential of H2 combustion in a truck-size engine operated in SI mode. To mitigate the knocking nature of H2 combustion, we have focused on studying the effects of three primary parameters; the compression ratio (CR), the air-fuel ratio, and the spark time. The baseline case was set using a CR of 16.5 and an equivalence ratio of 0.35. In simulations, the auto-ignition tendency was evaluated based on the maximum pressure rise rate and the local pressure fluctuations at the monitoring points set along the wall of the combustion chamber. To mitigate the auto-ignition tendency while enabling a wider range of engine operation, the effect of lowering the compression ratio was assessed. The results indicate that by lowering the compression ratio from 16.5:1 to 12.5:1, an indicated thermal efficiency of 47.5% can be achieved. Aiming to restrain the auto-ignition while maintaining good efficiency, a reduction in the equivalence ratio was examined under different compression ratios. The result indicates that higher compression ratios will require lower equivalence ratios, and due to practical limitations, a lower equivalence ratio of 0.25 was set as the limit. Using a compression ratio of 13.5 combined with an equivalence ratio of 0.3 resulted in an indicated thermal efficiency of 48.6%, that is, at a fixed spark time. It is found that under such lean conditions, the incomplete combustion losses and exhaust losses were high. Thus, advancing the spark time was assessed as a possible solution. The results demonstrated the advantages of advancing the spark time, where an indicated thermal efficiency exceeding 50% was achieved using a compression ratio of 14.5:1 and an equivalence ratio of 0.25.

Keywords: hydrogen, combustion, engine knock, SI engine

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2326 A Systematic Review of Situational Awareness and Cognitive Load Measurement in Driving

Authors: Aly Elshafei, Daniela Romano


With the development of autonomous vehicles, a human-machine interaction (HMI) system is needed for a safe transition of control when a takeover request (TOR) is required. An important part of the HMI system is the ability to monitor the level of situational awareness (SA) of any driver in real-time, in different scenarios, and without any pre-calibration. Presenting state-of-the-art machine learning models used to measure SA is the purpose of this systematic review. Investigating the limitations of each type of sensor, the gaps, and the most suited sensor and computational model that can be used in driving applications. To the author’s best knowledge this is the first literature review identifying online and offline classification methods used to measure SA, explaining which measurements are subject or session-specific, and how many classifications can be done with each classification model. This information can be very useful for researchers measuring SA to identify the most suited model to measure SA for different applications.

Keywords: situational awareness, autonomous driving, gaze metrics, EEG, ECG

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2325 Elastoplastic Modified Stillinger Weber-Potential Based Discretized Virtual Internal Bond and Its Application to the Dynamic Fracture Propagation

Authors: Dina Kon Mushid, Kabutakapua Kakanda, Dibu Dave Mbako


The failure of material usually involves elastoplastic deformation and fracturing. Continuum mechanics can effectively deal with plastic deformation by using a yield function and the flow rule. At the same time, it has some limitations in dealing with the fracture problem since it is a theory based on the continuous field hypothesis. The lattice model can simulate the fracture problem very well, but it is inadequate for dealing with plastic deformation. Based on the discretized virtual internal bond model (DVIB), this paper proposes a lattice model that can account for plasticity. DVIB is a lattice method that considers material to comprise bond cells. Each bond cell may have any geometry with a finite number of bonds. The two-body or multi-body potential can characterize the strain energy of a bond cell. The two-body potential leads to the fixed Poisson ratio, while the multi-body potential can overcome the limitation of the fixed Poisson ratio. In the present paper, the modified Stillinger-Weber (SW), a multi-body potential, is employed to characterize the bond cell energy. The SW potential is composed of two parts. One part is the two-body potential that describes the interatomic interactions between particles. Another is the three-body potential that represents the bond angle interactions between particles. Because the SW interaction can represent the bond stretch and bond angle contribution, the SW potential-based DVIB (SW-DVIB) can represent the various Poisson ratios. To embed the plasticity in the SW-DVIB, the plasticity is considered in the two-body part of the SW potential. It is done by reducing the bond stiffness to a lower level once the bond reaches the yielding point. While before the bond reaches the yielding point, the bond is elastic. When the bond deformation exceeds the yielding point, the bond stiffness is softened to a lower value. When unloaded, irreversible deformation occurs. With the bond length increasing to a critical value, termed the failure bond length, the bond fails. The critical failure bond length is related to the cell size and the macro fracture energy. By this means, the fracture energy is conserved so that the cell size sensitivity problem is relieved to a great extent. In addition, the plasticity and the fracture are also unified at the bond level. To make the DVIB able to simulate different Poisson ratios, the three-body part of the SW potential is kept elasto-brittle. The bond angle can bear the moment before the bond angle increment is smaller than a critical value. By this method, the SW-DVIB can simulate the plastic deformation and the fracturing process of material with various Poisson ratios. The elastoplastic SW-DVIB is used to simulate the plastic deformation of a material, the plastic fracturing process, and the tunnel plastic deformation. It has been shown that the current SW-DVIB method is straightforward in simulating both elastoplastic deformation and plastic fracture.

Keywords: lattice model, discretized virtual internal bond, elastoplastic deformation, fracture, modified stillinger-weber potential

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2324 Effect of Thermal Radiation and Chemical Reaction on MHD Flow of Blood in Stretching Permeable Vessel

Authors: Binyam Teferi


In this paper, a theoretical analysis of blood flow in the presence of thermal radiation and chemical reaction under the influence of time dependent magnetic field intensity has been studied. The unsteady non linear partial differential equations of blood flow considers time dependent stretching velocity, the energy equation also accounts time dependent temperature of vessel wall, and concentration equation includes time dependent blood concentration. The governing non linear partial differential equations of motion, energy, and concentration are converted into ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations solved numerically by applying ode45. MATLAB code is used to analyze theoretical facts. The effect of physical parameters viz., permeability parameter, unsteadiness parameter, Prandtl number, Hartmann number, thermal radiation parameter, chemical reaction parameter, and Schmidt number on flow variables viz., velocity of blood flow in the vessel, temperature and concentration of blood has been analyzed and discussed graphically. From the simulation study, the following important results are obtained: velocity of blood flow increases with both increment of permeability and unsteadiness parameter. Temperature of the blood increases in vessel wall as Prandtl number and Hartmann number increases. Concentration of the blood decreases as time dependent chemical reaction parameter and Schmidt number increases.

Keywords: stretching velocity, similarity transformations, time dependent magnetic field intensity, thermal radiation, chemical reaction

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2323 Dynamic Performance of Polymer Bearings

Authors: Nesrine Gaaliche


This paper examined the dynamic performance of polymer bearings in terms of sizes and position, of defects, loads, and speed. The vibrational spectrums of polypropylene and polyoxymethylene ball bearings are recorded by means of an accelerometer. Steel bearing vibration signatures are explored and compared to thermoplastic bearings. The results of the tests show that the polyoxymethylene bearings have lower vibration peaks than polypropylene and metallic bearings. Peak vibration amplitudes rise with applied loads , and they are observed to increase with defect sizes. Wear and smearing are the most common failure mechanisms in plastic bearings.

Keywords: dynamic, failure, vibration, polymer bearings

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2322 Effects of the Flow Direction on the Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in the Rod Bundle

Authors: Huirui Han, Chao Zhang


The rod bundle is used in the fuel assembly of the supercritical water-cooled nuclear reactor. In the rod bundle, the coolant absorbs the heat contributed by the fission process. Because of the dramatic variations in the thermophysical properties of water at supercritical conditions, it is essential to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of supercritical water in the rod bundle to ensure the safety of the nuclear power plant. In this study, the effects of the flow direction, including horizontal, upward, and downward, on the fluid flow and heat transfer of the supercritical water in the rod bundle were studied numerically. The results show the possibility of gap vortices in the flow subchannels of the rod bundle. In addition, the distributions of the circumferential wall temperature show differences in different flow direction conditions. It was also found that the circumferential cladding surface temperature distribution in the upward flow condition is extremely non-uniform, and there is a large difference between the maximum wall temperatures for different fuel rods.

Keywords: heat transfer, rod bundle, supercritical water, wall temperature

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2321 Characteristics-Based Lq-Control of Cracking Reactor by Integral Reinforcement

Authors: Jana Abu Ahmada, Zaineb Mohamed, Ilyasse Aksikas


The linear quadratic control system of hyperbolic first order partial differential equations (PDEs) are presented. The aim of this research is to control chemical reactions. This is achieved by converting the PDEs system to ordinary differential equations (ODEs) using the method of characteristics to reduce the system to control it by using the integral reinforcement learning. The designed controller is applied to a catalytic cracking reactor. Background—Transport-Reaction systems cover a large chemical and bio-chemical processes. They are best described by nonlinear PDEs derived from mass and energy balances. As a main application to be considered in this work is the catalytic cracking reactor. Indeed, the cracking reactor is widely used to convert high-boiling, high-molecular weight hydrocarbon fractions of petroleum crude oils into more valuable gasoline, olefinic gases, and others. On the other hand, control of PDEs systems is an important and rich area of research. One of the main control techniques is feedback control. This type of control utilizes information coming from the system to correct its trajectories and drive it to a desired state. Moreover, feedback control rejects disturbances and reduces the variation effects on the plant parameters. Linear-quadratic control is a feedback control since the developed optimal input is expressed as feedback on the system state to exponentially stabilize and drive a linear plant to the steady-state while minimizing a cost criterion. The integral reinforcement learning policy iteration technique is a strong method that solves the linear quadratic regulator problem for continuous-time systems online in real time, using only partial information about the system dynamics (i.e. the drift dynamics A of the system need not be known), and without requiring measurements of the state derivative. This is, in effect, a direct (i.e. no system identification procedure is employed) adaptive control scheme for partially unknown linear systems that converges to the optimal control solution. Contribution—The goal of this research is to Develop a characteristics-based optimal controller for a class of hyperbolic PDEs and apply the developed controller to a catalytic cracking reactor model. In the first part, developing an algorithm to control a class of hyperbolic PDEs system will be investigated. The method of characteristics will be employed to convert the PDEs system into a system of ODEs. Then, the control problem will be solved along the characteristic curves. The reinforcement technique is implemented to find the state-feedback matrix. In the other half, applying the developed algorithm to the important application of a catalytic cracking reactor. The main objective is to use the inlet fraction of gas oil as a manipulated variable to drive the process state towards desired trajectories. The outcome of this challenging research would yield the potential to provide a significant technological innovation for the gas industries since the catalytic cracking reactor is one of the most important conversion processes in petroleum refineries.

Keywords: PDEs, reinforcement iteration, method of characteristics, riccati equation, cracking reactor

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2320 Design, Numerical Simulation, Fabrication and Physical Experimentation of the Tesla’s Cohesion Type Bladeless Turbine

Authors: M.Sivaramakrishnaiah, D. S .Nasan, P. V. Subhanjeneyulu, J. A. Sandeep Kumar, N. Sreenivasulu, B. V. Amarnath Reddy, B. Veeralingam


Design, numerical simulation, fabrication, and physical experimentation of the Tesla’s Bladeless centripetal turbine for generating electrical power are presented in this research paper. 29 Pressurized air combined with water via a nozzle system is made to pass tangentially through a set of parallel smooth discs surfaces, which impart rotational motion to the discs fastened common shaft for the power generation. The power generated depends upon the fluid speed parameter leaving the nozzle inlet. Physically due to laminar boundary layer phenomena at smooth disc surface, the high speed fluid layers away from the plate moving against the low speed fluid layers nearer to the plate develop a tangential drag from the viscous shear forces. This compels the nearer layers to drag along with the high layers causing the disc to spin. Solid Works design software and fluid mechanics and machine elements design theories was used to compute mechanical design specifications of turbine parts like 48 mm diameter discs, common shaft, central exhaust, plenum chamber, swappable nozzle inlets, etc. Also, ANSYS CFX 2018 was used for the numerical 2 simulation of the physical phenomena encountered in the turbine working. When various numerical simulation and physical experimental results were verified, there is good agreement between them 6, both quantitatively and qualitatively. The sources of input and size of the blades may affect the power generated and turbine efficiency, respectively. The results may change if there is a change in the fluid flowing between the discs. The inlet fluid pressure versus turbine efficiency and the number of discs versus turbine power studies based on both results were carried out to develop the 8 relationships between the inlet and outlet parameters of the turbine. The present research work obtained the turbine efficiency in the range of 7-10%, and for this range; the electrical power output generated was 50-60 W.

Keywords: tesla turbine, cohesion type bladeless turbine, boundary layer theory, cohesion type bladeless turbine, tangential fluid flow, viscous and adhesive forces, plenum chamber, pico hydro systems

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2319 Component Test of Martensitic/Ferritic Steels and Nickel-Based Alloys and Their Welded Joints under Creep and Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue Loading

Authors: Daniel Osorio, Andreas Klenk, Stefan Weihe, Andreas Kopp, Frank Rödiger


Future power plants currently face high design requirements due to worsening climate change and environmental restrictions, which demand high operational flexibility, superior thermal performance, minimal emissions, and higher cyclic capability. The aim of the paper is, therefore, to investigate the creep and thermo-mechanical material behavior of improved materials experimentally and welded joints at component scale under near-to-service operating conditions, which are promising for application in highly efficient and flexible future power plants. These materials promise an increase in flexibility and a reduction in manufacturing costs by providing enhanced creep strength and, therefore, the possibility for wall thickness reduction. At the temperature range between 550°C and 625°C, the investigation focuses on the in-phase thermo-mechanical fatigue behavior of dissimilar welded joints of conventional materials (ferritic and martensitic material T24 and T92) to nickel-based alloys (A617B and HR6W) by means of membrane test panels. The temperature and external load are varied in phase during the test, while the internal pressure remains constant. At the temperature range between 650°C and 750°C, it focuses on the creep behavior under multiaxial stress loading of similar and dissimilar welded joints of high temperature resistant nickel-based alloys (A740H, A617B, and HR6W) by means of a thick-walled-component test. In this case, the temperature, the external axial load, and the internal pressure remain constant during testing. Numerical simulations are used for the estimation of the axial component load in order to induce a meaningful damage evolution without causing a total component failure. Metallographic investigations after testing will provide support for understanding the damage mechanism and the influence of the thermo-mechanical load and multiaxiality on the microstructure change and on the creep and TMF- strength.

Keywords: creep, creep-fatigue, component behaviour, weld joints, high temperature material behaviour, nickel-alloys, high temperature resistant steels

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2318 Thermodynamic Modeling of Cryogenic Fuel Tanks with a Model-Based Inverse Method

Authors: Pedro A. Marques, Francisco Monteiro, Alessandra Zumbo, Alessia Simonini, Miguel A. Mendez


Cryogenic fuels such as Liquid Hydrogen (LH₂) must be transported and stored at extremely low temperatures. Without expensive active cooling solutions, preventing fuel boil-off over time is impossible. Hence, one must resort to venting systems at the cost of significant energy and fuel mass loss. These losses increase significantly in propellant tanks installed on vehicles, as the presence of external accelerations induces sloshing. Sloshing increases heat and mass transfer rates and leads to significant pressure oscillations, which might further trigger propellant venting. To make LH₂ economically viable, it is essential to minimize these factors by using advanced control techniques. However, these require accurate modelling and a full understanding of the tank's thermodynamics. The present research aims to implement a simple thermodynamic model capable of predicting the state of a cryogenic fuel tank under different operating conditions (i.e., filling, pressurization, fuel extraction, long-term storage, and sloshing). Since this model relies on a set of closure parameters to drive the system's transient response, it must be calibrated using experimental or numerical data. This work focuses on the former approach, wherein the model is calibrated through an experimental campaign carried out on a reduced-scale model of a cryogenic tank. The thermodynamic model of the system is composed of three control volumes: the ullage, the liquid, and the insulating walls. Under this lumped formulation, the governing equations are derived from energy and mass balances in each region, with mass-averaged properties assigned to each of them. The gas-liquid interface is treated as an infinitesimally thin region across which both phases can exchange mass and heat. This results in a coupled system of ordinary differential equations, which must be closed with heat and mass transfer coefficients between each control volume. These parameters are linked to the system evolution via empirical relations derived from different operating regimes of the tank. The derivation of these relations is carried out using an inverse method to find the optimal relations that allow the model to reproduce the available data. This approach extends classic system identification methods beyond linear dynamical systems via a nonlinear optimization step. Thanks to the data-driven assimilation of the closure problem, the resulting model accurately predicts the evolution of the tank's thermodynamics at a negligible computational cost. The lumped model can thus be easily integrated with other submodels to perform complete system simulations in real time. Moreover, by setting the model in a dimensionless form, a scaling analysis allowed us to relate the tested configurations to a representative full-size tank for naval applications. It was thus possible to compare the relative importance of different transport phenomena between the laboratory model and the full-size prototype among the different operating regimes.

Keywords: destratification, hydrogen, modeling, pressure-drop, pressurization, sloshing, thermodynamics

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2317 A One-Dimensional Modeling Analysis of the Influence of Swirl and Tumble Coefficient in a Single-Cylinder Research Engine

Authors: Mateus Silva Mendonça, Wender Pereira de Oliveira, Gabriel Heleno de Paula Araújo, Hiago Tenório Teixeira Santana Rocha, Augusto César Teixeira Malaquias, José Guilherme Coelho Baeta


The stricter legislation and the greater demand of the population regard to gas emissions and their effects on the environment as well as on human health make the automotive industry reinforce research focused on reducing levels of contamination. This reduction can be achieved through the implementation of improvements in internal combustion engines in such a way that they promote the reduction of both specific fuel consumption and air pollutant emissions. These improvements can be obtained through numerical simulation, which is a technique that works together with experimental tests. The aim of this paper is to build, with support of the GT-Suite software, a one-dimensional model of a single-cylinder research engine to analyze the impact of the variation of swirl and tumble coefficients on the performance and on the air pollutant emissions of an engine. Initially, the discharge coefficient is calculated through the software Converge CFD 3D, given that it is an input parameter in GT-Power. Mesh sensitivity tests are made in 3D geometry built for this purpose, using the mass flow rate in the valve as a reference. In the one-dimensional simulation is adopted the non-predictive combustion model called Three Pressure Analysis (TPA) is, and then data such as mass trapped in cylinder, heat release rate, and accumulated released energy are calculated, aiming that the validation can be performed by comparing these data with those obtained experimentally. Finally, the swirl and tumble coefficients are introduced in their corresponding objects so that their influences can be observed when compared to the results obtained previously.

Keywords: 1D simulation, single-cylinder research engine, swirl coefficient, three pressure analysis, tumble coefficient

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2316 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of the Spark Plug Gap on Engine-Like Conditions

Authors: Fernanda Pinheiro Martins, Pedro Teixeira Lacava


The objective of this research is to analyze the effects of different spark plug conditions in engine-like conditions by applying computational fluid dynamics analysis. The 3D models applied consist of 3-Zones Extended Coherent Flame (ECFM-3Z) and Imposed Stretch Spark Ignition Model (ISSIM), respectively, for the combustion and the spark plug modelling. For this study, it was applied direct injection fuel system in a single cylinder engine operating with E0. The application of realistic operating conditions (load and speed) to the different cases studied will provide a deeper understanding of the effects of the spark plug gap, a result of parts outwearing in most of the cases, to the development of the combustion in engine-like conditions.

Keywords: engine, CFD, direct injection, combustion, spark plug

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2315 Experimental Study of the Behavior of Elongated Non-spherical Particles in Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows

Authors: Manuel Alejandro Taborda Ceballos, Martin Sommerfeld


Transport phenomena and dispersion of non-spherical particle in turbulent flows are found everywhere in industrial application and processes. Powder handling, pollution control, pneumatic transport, particle separation are just some examples where the particle encountered are not only spherical. These types of multiphase flows are wall bounded and mostly highly turbulent. The particles found in these processes are rarely spherical but may have various shapes (e.g., fibers, and rods). Although research related to the behavior of regular non-spherical particles in turbulent flows has been carried out for many years, it is still necessary to refine models, especially near walls where the interaction fiber-wall changes completely its behavior. Imaging-based experimental studies on dispersed particle-laden flows have been applied for many decades for a detailed experimental analysis. These techniques have the advantages that they provide field information in two or three dimensions, but have a lower temporal resolution compared to point-wise techniques such as PDA (phase-Doppler anemometry) and derivations therefrom. The applied imaging techniques in dispersed two-phase flows are extensions from classical PIV (particle image velocimetry) and PTV (particle tracking velocimetry) and the main emphasis was simultaneous measurement of the velocity fields of both phases. In a similar way, such data should also provide adequate information for validating the proposed models. Available experimental studies on the behavior of non-spherical particles are uncommon and mostly based on planar light-sheet measurements. Especially for elongated non-spherical particles, however, three-dimensional measurements are needed to fully describe their motion and to provide sufficient information for validation of numerical computations. For further providing detailed experimental results allowing a validation of numerical calculations of non-spherical particle dispersion in turbulent flows, a water channel test facility was built around a horizontal closed water channel. Into this horizontal main flow, a small cross-jet laden with fiber-like particles was injected, which was also solely driven by gravity. The dispersion of the fibers was measured by applying imaging techniques based on a LED array for backlighting and high-speed cameras. For obtaining the fluid velocity fields, almost neutrally buoyant tracer was used. The discrimination between tracer and fibers was done based on image size which was also the basis to determine fiber orientation with respect to the inertial coordinate system. The synchronous measurement of fluid velocity and fiber properties also allow the collection of statistics of fiber orientation, velocity fields of tracer and fibers, the angular velocity of the fibers and the orientation between fiber and instantaneous relative velocity. Consequently, an experimental study the behavior of elongated non-spherical particles in wall bounded turbulent flows was achieved. The development of a comprehensive analysis was succeeded, especially near the wall region, where exists hydrodynamic wall interaction effects (e.g., collision or lubrication) and abrupt changes of particle rotational velocity. This allowed us to predict numerically afterwards the behavior of non-spherical particles within the frame of the Euler/Lagrange approach, where the particles are therein treated as “point-particles”.

Keywords: crossflow, non-spherical particles, particle tracking velocimetry, PIV

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2314 Fatigue Crack Behaviour in a Residual Stress Field at Fillet Welds in Ship Structures

Authors: Anurag Niranjan, Michael Fitzpatrick, Yin Jin Janin, Jazeel Chukkan, Niall Smyth


Fillet welds are used in joining longitudinal stiffeners in ship structures. Welding residual stresses in fillet welds are generally distributed in a non-uniform manner, as shown in previous research the residual stress redistribution occurs under the cyclic loading that is experienced by such joints during service, and the combination of the initial residual stress, local constraints, and loading can alter the stress field in ways that are extremely difficult to predict. As the residual stress influences the crack propagation originating from the toe of the fillet welds, full understanding of the residual stress field and how it evolves is very important for structural integrity calculations. Knowledge of the residual stress redistribution in the presence of a flaw is therefore required for better fatigue life prediction. Moreover, defect assessment procedures such as BS7910 offer very limited guidance for flaw acceptance and the associated residual stress redistribution in the assessment of fillet welds. Therefore the objective of this work is to study a surface-breaking flaw at the weld toe region in a fillet weld under cyclic load, in conjunction with residual stress measurement at pre-defined crack depths. This work will provide details of residual stress redistribution under cyclic load in the presence of a crack. The outcome of this project will inform integrity assessment with respect to the treatment of residual stress in fillet welds. Knowledge of the residual stress evolution for this weld geometry will be greatly beneficial for flaw tolerance assessments (BS 7910, API 591).

Keywords: fillet weld, fatigue, residual stress, structure integrity

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