Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2488

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

2488 Assessment of Seeding and Weeding Field Robot Performance

Authors: Victor Bloch, Eerikki Kaila, Reetta Palva


Field robots are an important tool for enhancing efficiency and decreasing the climatic impact of food production. There exists a number of commercial field robots; however, since this technology is still new, the robot advantages and limitations, as well as methods for optimal using of robots, are still unclear. In this study, the performance of a commercial field robot for seeding and weeding was assessed. A research 2-ha sugar beet field with 0.5m row width was used for testing, which included robotic sowing of sugar beet and weeding five times during the first two months of the growing. About three and five percent of the field were used as untreated and chemically weeded control areas, respectively. The plant detection was based on the exact plant location without image processing. The robot was equipped with six seeding and weeding tools, including passive between-rows harrow hoes and active hoes cutting inside rows between the plants, and it moved with a maximal speed of 0.9 km/h. The robot's performance was assessed by image processing. The field images were collected by an action camera with a height of 2 m and a resolution 27M pixels installed on the robot and by a drone with a 16M pixel camera flying at 4 m height. To detect plants and weeds, the YOLO model was trained with transfer learning from two available datasets. A preliminary analysis of the entire field showed that in the areas treated by the robot, the weed average density varied across the field from 6.8 to 9.1 weeds/m² (compared with 0.8 in the chemically treated area and 24.3 in the untreated area), the weed average density inside rows was 2.0-2.9 weeds / m (compared with 0 on the chemically treated area), and the emergence rate was 90-95%. The information about the robot's performance has high importance for the application of robotics for field tasks. With the help of the developed method, the performance can be assessed several times during the growth according to the robotic weeding frequency. When it’s used by farmers, they can know the field condition and efficiency of the robotic treatment all over the field. Farmers and researchers could develop optimal strategies for using the robot, such as seeding and weeding timing, robot settings, and plant and field parameters and geometry. The robot producers can have quantitative information from an actual working environment and improve the robots accordingly.

Keywords: agricultural robot, field robot, plant detection, robot performance

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2487 Hybrid Deep Learning and FAST-BRISK 3D Object Detection Technique for Bin-Picking Application

Authors: Thanakrit Taweesoontorn, Sarucha Yanyong, Poom Konghuayrob


Robotic arms have gained popularity in various industries due to their accuracy and efficiency. This research proposes a method for bin-picking tasks using the Cobot, combining the YOLOv5 CNNs model for object detection and pose estimation with traditional feature detection (FAST), feature description (BRISK), and matching algorithms. By integrating these algorithms and utilizing a small-scale depth sensor camera for capturing depth and color images, the system achieves real-time object detection and accurate pose estimation, enabling the robotic arm to pick objects correctly in both position and orientation. Furthermore, the proposed method is implemented within the ROS framework to provide a seamless platform for robotic control and integration. This integration of robotics, cameras, and AI technology contributes to the development of industrial robotics, opening up new possibilities for automating challenging tasks and improving overall operational efficiency.

Keywords: robotic vision, image processing, applications of robotics, artificial intelligent

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2486 Effective Factors in the Management and Development of the City, Smart Buildings, and Electricity and Water Consumption

Authors: Mohsen Azarmjoo


Progression of information and communications technology has led to the appearance of communicative and information modern tools in present world.with regard to the modernity of this technology , special look of authorities and managers at this category causes the development and progression of the city in domain of smart city. the system of bulding smart management by using the most recent technologies in ideal situation along with the optimum consumption of energy in the buildings tries to from welfare for the of the basic differences of the smart network and traditional networks is the possibility of consumers conscious participation in the energy consum ption management that this will be possible only via establishment of the smart houses.

Keywords: bulding smart, consumption of energy, lighting control, control of heating and cooling systems, automation systems

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2485 Robotic Arm-Automated Spray Painting with One-Shot Object Detection and Region-Based Path Optimization

Authors: Iqraq Kamal, Akmal Razif, Sivadas Chandra Sekaran, Ahmad Syazwan Hisaburi


Painting plays a crucial role in the aerospace manufacturing industry, serving both protective and cosmetic purposes for components. However, the traditional manual painting method is time-consuming and labor-intensive, posing challenges for the sector in achieving higher efficiency. Additionally, the current automated robot path planning has been a bottleneck for spray painting processes, as typical manual teaching methods are time-consuming, error-prone, and skill-dependent. Therefore, it is essential to develop automated tool path planning methods to replace manual ones, reducing costs and improving product quality. Focusing on flat panel painting in aerospace manufacturing, this study aims to address issues related to unreliable part identification techniques caused by the high-mixture, low-volume nature of the industry. The proposed solution involves using a spray gun and a UR10 robotic arm with a vision system that utilizes one-shot object detection (OS2D) to identify parts accurately. Additionally, the research optimizes path planning by concentrating on the region of interest—specifically, the identified part, rather than uniformly covering the entire painting tray.

Keywords: aerospace manufacturing, one-shot object detection, automated spray painting, vision-based path optimization, deep learning, automation, robotic arm

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2484 Mechanical Advantage Appearances and Simple Machines Effect on Environment

Authors: Emad Wahib Youssef Basalyous


The article states that mechanical machines account for the majority of innovation in drilling and milling chuck technology. Users require faster milling speeds because they are cutting more aluminum and rely on higher speeds to avoid secondary post-processing operations. To meet these demands, milling machine designers have increased the rigidity of their machines. In addition, the cutting speed reached the level of boring bars. Cooling the internals of this car is a high-speed challenge. Another trend is the increasing use of steering axles, which allow machines to perform much more 5-sided machining without having to move or reattach the work piece. Technological advances in mechanical engineering have contributed to the development of high-speed machining equipment. With the further development of milling and drilling spindles, the need for simpler software increases. they are looking for a controller with open architecture that allows flexibility and information exchange.

Keywords: asynchronous sequential machines, parallel composition, fault diagnosis, corrective control individual replacement, group replacement, replacement time, two machines, series connection system drilling, milling, chucks, cutting edges, tools, machines

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2483 Efficient Fake News Detection Using Machine Learning and Deep Learning Approaches

Authors: Chaima Babi, Said Gadri


The rapid increase in fake news continues to grow at a very fast rate; this requires implementing efficient techniques that allow testing the re-liability of online content. For that, the current research strives to illuminate the fake news problem using deep learning DL and machine learning ML ap-proaches. We have developed the traditional LSTM (Long short-term memory), and the bidirectional BiLSTM model. A such process is to perform a training task on almost of samples of the dataset, validate the model on a subset called the test set to provide an unbiased evaluation of the final model fit on the training dataset, then compute the accuracy of detecting classifica-tion and comparing the results. For the programming stage, we used Tensor-Flow and Keras libraries on Python to support Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) that are being used for developing deep learning applications.

Keywords: machine learning, deep learning, natural language, fake news, Bi-LSTM, LSTM, multiclass classification

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2482 Intelligent System of the Grinding Robot for Spiral Welded Pipe

Authors: Getachew Demeissie Ayalew, Yang Yang


The standard for spiral welded pipes must be met during the production operations of spiral welded pipes in order to guarantee the automated grinder for welding seams. The inside and outside weld of the pipe end must be polished after welding to be weld residual height is less than 0. 5mm within 200 mm grinding length. Due to insufficient grinding quality control and equipment workers not guaranteed to control the production quality of the spiral pipe, the typical grinding equipment utilized in the spiral welded pipe sector now performs poorly. An intelligent method of automatic abrasive belt grinding machines has been developed in this study to prevent such factors. The designed grinding mechanism is connected with 6 DOF KUKA KR360 industrial robots, which can grind the spiral welded pipe from the inside and outside welds at the same time. The proposed grinding machine has an adjustable gripper grinding mechanism composed of different components, a grinding abrasive belt-tightening controller, and an inspection unit to control the surface roughness of the grinding pipe.

Keywords: intelligent systems, spiral welded pipe, grinding, industrial robot, end-effector, PLC controller system, 3D laser sensor, HMI.

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2481 Breaking Sensitivity Barriers: Perovskite Based Gas Sensors With Dimethylacetamide-Dimethyl Sulfoxide Solvent Mixture Strategy

Authors: Endalamaw Ewnu Kassa, Ade Kurniawan, Ya-Fen Wu, Sajal Biring


Perovskite-based gas sensors represent a highly promising materials within the realm of gas sensing technology, with a particular focus on detecting ammonia (NH3) due to its potential hazards. Our work conducted thorough comparison of various solvents, including dimethylformamide (DMF), DMF-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), dimethylacetamide (DMAC), and DMAC-DMSO, for the preparation of our perovskite solution (MAPbI3). Significantly, we achieved an exceptional response at 10 ppm of ammonia gas by employing a binary solvent mixture of DMAC-DMSO. In contrast to prior reports that relied on single solvents for MAPbI3 precursor preparation, our approach using mixed solvents demonstrated a marked improvement in gas sensing performance. We attained enhanced surface coverage, a reduction in pinhole occurrences, and precise control over grain size in our perovskite films through the careful selection and mixtures of appropriate solvents. This study shows a promising potential of employing binary and multi-solvent mixture strategies as a means to propel advancements in gas sensor technology, opening up new opportunities for practical applications in environmental monitoring and industrial safety.

Keywords: sensors, binary solvents, ammonia, sensitivity, grain size, pinholes, surface coverage

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2480 Study on Capability of the Octocopter Configurations in Finite Element Analysis Simulation Environment

Authors: Jeet Shende, Leonid Shpanin, Misko Abramiuk, Mattew Goodwin, Nicholas Pickett


Energy harvesting on board the Unmanned Ariel Vehicle (UAV) is one of the most rapidly growing emerging technologies and consists of the collection of small amounts of energy, for different applications, from unconventional sources that are incidental to the operation of the parent system or device. Different energy harvesting techniques have already been investigated in the multirotor drones, where the energy collected comes from the systems surrounding ambient environment and typically involves the conversion of solar, kinetic, or thermal energies into electrical energy. The energy harvesting from the vibrated propeller using the piezoelectric components inside the propeller has also been proven to be feasible. However, the impact on the UAV flight performance using this technology has not been investigated. In this contribution the impact on the multirotor drone operation has been investigated at different flight control configurations which support the efficient performance of the propeller vibration energy harvesting. The industrially made MANTIS X8-PRO octocopter frame kit was used to explore the octocopter operation which was modelled using SolidWorks 3D CAD package for simulation studies. The octocopter flight control strategy is developed through integration of the SolidWorks 3D CAD software and MATLAB/Simulink simulation environment for evaluation of the octocopter behaviour under different simulated flight modes and octocopter geometries. Analysis of the two modelled octocopter geometries and their flight performance is presented via graphical representation of simulated parameters. The possibility of not using the landing gear in octocopter geometry is demonstrated. The conducted study evaluates the octocopter’s flight control technique and its impact on the energy harvesting mechanism developed on board the octocopter. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) simulation results of the modelled octocopter in operation are presented exploring the performance of the octocopter flight control and structural configurations. Applications of both octocopter structures and their flight control strategy are discussed.

Keywords: energy harvesting, flight control modelling, object modeling, unmanned aerial vehicle

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2479 Body Shape Control of Magnetic Soft Continuum Robots with PID Controller

Authors: M. H. Korayem, N. Sangsefidi


Magnetically guided soft robots have emerged as a promising technology in minimally invasive surgery due to their ability to adapt to complex environments. However, one of the main challenges in this field is damage to the vascular structure caused by unwanted stress on the vessel wall and deformation of the vessel due to improper control of the shape of the robot body during surgery. Therefore, this article proposes an approach for controlling the form of a magnetic, soft, continuous robot body using a PID controller. The magnetic soft continuous robot is modelled using Cosserat theory in static mode and solved numerically. The designed controller adjusts the position of each part of the robot to match the desired shape. The PID controller is considered to minimize the robot's contact with the vessel wall and prevent unwanted vessel deformation. The simulation results confirmed the accuracy of the numerical solution of the static Cosserat model. Also, they showed the effectiveness of the proposed contouring method in achieving the desired shape with a maximum error of about 0.3 millimetres.

Keywords: PID, magnetic soft continuous robot, soft robot shape control, Cosserat theory, minimally invasive surgery

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2478 Artificial Steady-State-Based Nonlinear MPC for Wheeled Mobile Robot

Authors: M.H. Korayem, Sh. Ameri, N. Yousefi Lademakhi


To ensure the stability of closed-loop nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) within a finite horizon, there is a need for appropriate design terminal ingredients, which can be a time-consuming and challenging effort. Otherwise, in order to ensure the stability of the control system, it is necessary to consider an infinite predictive horizon. Increasing the prediction horizon increases computational demand and slows down the implementation of the method. In this study, a new technique has been proposed to ensure system stability without terminal ingredients. This technique has been employed in the design of the NMPC algorithm, leading to a reduction in the computational complexity of designing terminal ingredients and computational burden. The studied system is a wheeled mobile robot (WMR) subjected to non-holonomic constraints. Simulation has been investigated for two problems: trajectory tracking and adjustment mode.

Keywords: wheeled mobile robot, nonlinear model predictive control, stability, without terminal ingredients

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2477 Numerical Analysis by Computational Fluid Dynamics of the Boiling Process and the Behavior of Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles in Refrigerants R600a and R290

Authors: Jaime Salinas, Fernando Toapanta-Ramos, William Diaz


The objective of this research presents the CFD numerical analysis of nanofluids, with the intention of increasing the heat transfer coefficient of refrigerants R600a and R290 in the boiling process when aluminum oxide nanoparticles with a fraction of volume equivalent to 5 %.The study considered the boiling process in the evaporation of refrigerant fluids R600a, R290 and nanorefrigerants R600a/Al2O3, R290/Al2O3 to a temperature of -15 °C, taking into account that the fluids flow at a speed of 1.5 m/s through a heat exchanger, said exchanger has the shape of a straight tube which has an internal diameter corresponding to 7.899 mm and a length of 1000 mm, this device is subjected to a heat flow of 20 kW/m2 which will be constant along the tube wall. Consider that the inlet temperature of the fluids to the heat exchanger is -16 °C and they are in the liquid phase. The numerical analysis was feasible from the use of the ANSYS FLUENT, in this study the Eulerian model for multiphase flows and the RNG k-epsilon model were used to obtain heat transfer results on curved surfaces.

Keywords: ANSYS, CFD, FLUENT, heat transfer, nanopar- ticles, nanorefrigerants, refrigerants

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2476 Numerical Investigation of Laminar Natural Convection Heat Transfer in Square with Two Hot Inner Cylinders

Authors: Younes El Khchine, Mohammed Sriti


This study conducted two-dimensional numerical simulations of the natural convection in a square enclosure with two inner hot cylinders: one is circular and the other is elliptical at Rayleigh numbers (Ra) of 104 ≤ Ra ≤ 106 and a Prandtl number (Pr) of Pr = 0.7 (air). The aspect ratio (AR) of the elliptical cylinder ranging from 0.25 ≤ AR ≤ 4. The flow structures and heat transfer mechanism within a square enclosure were investigated with respect to the transition of the flow regime from steady to unsteady state. The thermal and flow fields reached steady state in the Rayleigh number range of 104 ≤ Ra ≤ 105, regardless of the variation in aspect ratio. However, at Ra = 106, the numerical solutions show time-dependent characteristics in the case of the lower and upper elliptical cylinders except at AR = 4. Thus, the steady or unsteady flow regime is strongly dependent on the Rayleigh number and aspect ratio of the elliptical cylinder. Thus, the variation of the aspect ratio has a significant effect on the heat transfer characteristics at the walls of the enclosure and the surface cylinders.

Keywords: heat transfer, natural convection, enclosure cavity, elliptical cylinder, rayleigh number

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2475 Three-dimensional Steady Flow in Thin Annular Pools of Silicon Melt under a Magnetic Field

Authors: Brahim Mahfoud


A three-dimensional (3D) numerical technique is used to investigate the possibility of reducing the price of manufacturing some silicon-based devices, particularly those in which minor temperature gradients can significantly reduce performance. The silicon melt under the magnetic field produces Lorentz force, which can effectively suppress the flow which is caused by temperature gradients. This might allow some silicon-based products, such as solar cells, to be manufactured using a less pure, and hence less expensive. The thermocapillary effect of the silicon melt flow in thin annular pools subjected to an externally induced magnetic field was observed. The results reveal that with a strong enough magnetic field, isothermal lines change form and become concentric circles. As the amplitude of the magnetic field (Ha) grows, the azimuthal velocity and temperature at the free surface reduce, and the asymmetric 3D flow becomes axisymmetric steady when Ha surpasses a threshold value.

Keywords: magnetic field, manufacturing, silicon melt, thermocapillary

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2474 Optimization of Bifurcation Performance on Pneumatic Branched Networks in next Generation Soft Robots

Authors: Van-Thanh Ho, Hyoungsoon Lee, Jaiyoung Ryu


Efficient pressure distribution within soft robotic systems, specifically to the pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) regions, is essential to minimize energy consumption. This optimization involves adjusting reservoir pressure, pipe diameter, and branching network layout to reduce flow speed and pressure drop while enhancing flow efficiency. The outcome of this optimization is a lightweight power source and reduced mechanical impedance, enabling extended wear and movement. To achieve this, a branching network system was created by combining pipe components and intricate cross-sectional area variations, employing the principle of minimal work based on a complete virtual human exosuit. The results indicate that modifying the cross-sectional area of the branching network, gradually decreasing it, reduces velocity and enhances momentum compensation, preventing flow disturbances at separation regions. These optimized designs achieve uniform velocity distribution (uniformity index > 94%) prior to entering the connection pipe, with a pressure drop of less than 5%. The design must also consider the length-to-diameter ratio for fluid dynamic performance and production cost. This approach can be utilized to create a comprehensive PAM system, integrating well-designed tube networks and complex pneumatic models.

Keywords: pneumatic artificial muscles, pipe networks, pressure drop, compressible turbulent flow, uniformity flow, murray's law

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2473 Improving Pneumatic Artificial Muscle Performance Using Surrogate Model: Roles of Operating Pressure and Tube Diameter

Authors: Van-Thanh Ho, Jaiyoung Ryu


In soft robotics, the optimization of fluid dynamics through pneumatic methods plays a pivotal role in enhancing operational efficiency and reducing energy loss. This is particularly crucial when replacing conventional techniques such as cable-driven electromechanical systems. The pneumatic model employed in this study represents a sophisticated framework designed to efficiently channel pressure from a high-pressure reservoir to various muscle locations on the robot's body. This intricate network involves a branching system of tubes. The study introduces a comprehensive pneumatic model, encompassing the components of a reservoir, tubes, and Pneumatically Actuated Muscles (PAM). The development of this model is rooted in the principles of shock tube theory. Notably, the study leverages experimental data to enhance the understanding of the interplay between the PAM structure and the surrounding fluid. This improved interactive approach involves the use of morphing motion, guided by a contraction function. The study's findings demonstrate a high degree of accuracy in predicting pressure distribution within the PAM. The model's predictive capabilities ensure that the error in comparison to experimental data remains below a threshold of 10%. Additionally, the research employs a machine learning model, specifically a surrogate model based on the Kriging method, to assess and quantify uncertainty factors related to the initial reservoir pressure and tube diameter. This comprehensive approach enhances our understanding of pneumatic soft robotics and its potential for improved operational efficiency.

Keywords: pneumatic artificial muscles, pressure drop, morhing motion, branched network, surrogate model

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2472 Oi̇l Absorption Behavior and Its Effect on Charpy Impact Test of Glass Reinforced Polyester Composites Used in the Manufacture of Naval Ship Hulls

Authors: Bouhafara Djaber, Menail Younes, Mesrafet Farouk, Aissaoui Mohammed Islem


This article presents results of experimental investigations of the durability of (GFRP) composite exposed to typical environments of marine industries applications,The use of fiber-glass reinforced polyester composites in marine applications such as Hulls of voyage boats and hulls of small vessels for the military navy , this type of composite is becoming attractive because of their reduced weight and improved corrosion resistance. However,a deep understating of oil ageing effect on composite structures is essential to ensure long-term performance and durability. in this work evaluate the effect of oil ageing on absorptıon behavıor and ımpact properties of glass/polyester composites manufactured with two types of fiber fabrics (fibreglass mat and fiberglass woven roving) and isophthalic polyester resin. The specimens obtained from commercial (GFRP) profiles made of unsaturated polyester resin were subjected to immersion in (i) marine oil for boats and (ii) salt water at ambient temperature for up to 1 month. The effects of such exposure conditions on this types of profile we analysed in what concerns their (i) mass change,(ii) mechanical response in impact, namely on the mechanical response – oil immersion caused a higher level of degradation, compared with salt water immersion;fracture surface examination by scanning electron microscopy revealed delamination, fiber debonding and resin crumbling due to oil effect.

Keywords: Marine Engine Oil, Absorption, Polyester, Glass Fibre

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2471 Studies on Mechanical Behavior of Kevlar/Kenaf/Graphene Reinforced Polymer Based Hybrid Composites

Authors: H. K. Shivanand, Ranjith R. Hombal, Paraveej Shirahatti, Gujjalla Anil Babu, S. ShivaPrakash


When it comes to the selection of materials the knowledge of materials science plays a vital role in selection and enhancements of materials properties. In the world of material science a composite material has the significant role based on its application. The composite materials are those in which two or more components having different physical and chemical properties are combined to create a new enhanced property substance. In this study three different materials (Kenaf, Kevlar and Graphene) been chosen based on their properties and a composite material is developed with help of vacuum bagging process. The fibers (Kenaf and Kevlar) and Resin(vinyl ester) ratio was maintained at 70:30 during the process and 0.5% 1% and 1.5% of Graphene was added during fabrication process. The material was machined to thedimension ofASTM standards(300×300mm and thickness 3mm)with help of water jet cutting machine. The composite materials were tested for Mechanical properties such as Interlaminar shear strength(ILSS) and Flexural strength. It is found that there is significant increase in material properties in the developed composite material.

Keywords: Kevlar, Kenaf, graphene, vacuum bagging process, Interlaminar shear strength test, flexural test

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2470 CFD Analysis of Ammonia/Hydrogen Combustion Performance under Partially Premixed and Non-premixed Modes with Varying Inlet Characteristics

Authors: Maria Alekxandra B. Sison, Reginald C. Mallare, Joseph Albert M. Mendoza


Ammonia (NH₃) is the alternative carbon-free fuel of the future for its promising applications. Investigations on NH₃-fuel blends recommend using hydrogen (H₂) to increase the heating value of NH3, promote combustion performance, and improve NOx efflux mitigation. To further examine the effects of this concept, the study analyzed the combustion performance, in terms of turbulence, combustion efficiency (CE), and NOx emissions, of NH3/fuel with variations of combustor diameter ratio, H2 fuel mole fraction, and fuel mass flow rate (ṁ). The simulations were performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling to represent a non-premixed (NP) and partially premixed (PP) combustion under a two-dimensional ultra-low NOx Rich-Burn, Quick-Quench, Lean-Burn (RQL) combustor. Governed by the Detached Eddy Simulation model, it was found that the diameter ratio greatly affects the turbulence in PP and NP mode, whereas ṁ in PP should be prioritized when increasing CE. The NOx emission is minimal during PP combustion, but NP combustion suggested modifying ṁ to achieve higher CE and Reynolds number without sacrificing the NO generation from the reaction.

Keywords: combustion efficiency, turbulence, dual-stage combustor, NOx emission

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2469 Augmented Reality Technology for a User Interface in an Automated Storage and Retrieval System

Authors: Wen-Jye Shyr, Chun-Yuan Chang, Bo-Lin Wei, Chia-Ming Lin


The task of creating an augmented reality technology was described in this study to give operators a user interface that might be a part of an automated storage and retrieval system. Its objective was to give graduate engineering and technology students a system of tools with which to experiment with the creation of augmented reality technologies. To collect and analyze data for maintenance applications, the students used augmented reality technology. Our findings support the evolution of artificial intelligence towards Industry 4.0 practices and the planned Industry 4.0 research stream. Important first insights into the study's effects on student learning were presented.

Keywords: augmented reality, storage and retrieval system, user interface, programmable logic controller

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2468 Autonomous Exploration, Navigation and Mapping Payload Integrated on a Quadruped Robot

Authors: Julian Y. Raheema, Michael R. Hess, Raymond C. Provost, Mark Bilinski


The world is rapidly moving towards advancing and utilizing artificial intelligence and autonomous robotics. The ground-breaking Boston Dynamics quadruped robot, SPOT, was designed for industrial and commercial tasks requiring limited autonomous navigation. Out of the box, SPOT has route memorization and playback – it can repeat a path that it has been manually piloted through, but it cannot autonomously navigate an area that has not been previously explored. The presented SPOT payload package is built on ROS framework to support autonomous navigation and mapping of an unexplored environment. The package is fully integrated with SPOT to take advantage of motor controls and collision avoidance that comes natively with the robot. The payload runs all computations onboard, takes advantage of visual odometry SLAM and uses an Intel RealSense depth camera and Velodyne LiDAR sensor to generate 2D and 3D maps while in autonomous navigation mode. These maps are fused into the navigation stack to generate a costmap to enable the robot to safely navigate the environment without causing damage to the surroundings or the robot. The operator defines the operational zone and start location and then sends the explore command to have SPOT explore, generate 2D and 3D maps of the environment and return to the start location to await the operator's next command. The benefit of the presented package is that it is much lighter weight and less expensive than previous approaches and, importantly, operates in GPS-denied scenarios, which is ideal for indoor mapping. There are numerous applications that are hazardous to humans for SPOT enhanced with the autonomy payload, including disaster response, nuclear inspection, mine inspection, and so on. Other less extreme uses cases include autonomous 3D and 2D scanning of facilities for inspection, engineering and construction purposes.

Keywords: autonomous, SLAM, quadruped, mapping, exploring, ROS, robotics, navigation

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2467 Meaningful Human-Robot Relations in the Eyes of Individuals with Upper-Limb Disabilities: A Human-Centered Exploration in a Technologically Driven Context

Authors: Susanne Frennert, Johanna Persson


In this paper, we describe an ongoing exploration of the requirements for meaningful human-robot relations for individuals with upper-limb disabilities regarding assistive robots, with a specific focus on robotic limbs. This human-centered exploration is part of an EU-funded project, HARIA (Human-Robot Sensorimotor Augmentation - Wearable Sensorimotor Interfaces and Supernumerary Robotic Limbs for Humans with Upper-limb Disabilities), which has been underway for one year but will continue for three more years. Our objectives are to demonstrate the human-centered methods used and their findings, as well as to present the challenges of conducting human-centered design in a technological driven context where the technology has already been determined. Our findings indicate that, for meaningful human-robot relations, with a particular focus on robotic limbs designed for people with upper limb disabilities, the technology must be versatile to accommodate the heterogeneous needs of the target group across various situations and contexts. Furthermore, the robotic limbs need to be mobile, easy to maneuver by the users themselves, and require minimal training and maintenance, as many in the intended user group suffer from mental and cognitive fatigue. Additionally, the interaction between the human and robotic limbs and their interfaces must function even when the user experiences spasms and involuntary movements, which frequently occur among the intended user group.

Keywords: human-robot relations, individuals with upper-limb disabilities, human-centered exploration, robotic limbs

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2466 The Design of Fire in Tube Boiler

Authors: Yoftahe Nigussie


This report presents a final year project pertaining to the design of Fire tube boiler for the purpose of producing saturated steam. The objective of the project is to produce saturated steam for different purpose with a capacity of 2000kg/h at 12bar design pressure by performing a design of a higher performance fire tube boiler that considered the requirements of cost minimization and parameters improvement. This is mostly done in selection of appropriate material for component parts, construction materials and production methods in different steps of analysis. In the analysis process, most of the design parameters are obtained by iterating with related formulas like selection of diameter of tubes with overall heat transfer coefficient optimization, and the other selections are also as like considered. The number of passes is two because of the size and area of the tubes and shell. As the analysis express by using heavy oil fuel no6 with a higher heating value of 44000kJ/kg and lower heating value of 41300kJ/kg and the amount of fuel consumed 140.37kg/hr. and produce 1610kw of heat with efficiency of 85.25%. The flow of the fluid is a cross flow because of its own advantage and the arrangement of the tube in-side the shell is welded with the tube sheet, and the tube sheet is attached with the shell and the end by using a gasket and weld. The design of the shell, using European Standard code section, is as like pressure vessel by considering the weight, including content and the supplementary accessories such as lifting lugs, openings, ends, man hole and supports with detail and assembly drawing.

Keywords: steam generation, external treatment, internal treatment, steam velocity

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2465 Analysis of a CO₂ Two-Phase Ejector Performances with Taguchi and Anova Optimization

Authors: Karima Megdouli


The ejector, a central element within the CO₂ transcritical ejection refrigeration system, holds significant importance in enhancing refrigeration capacity and minimizing compressor power usage. This study's objective is to introduce a technique for enhancing the effectiveness of the CO₂ transcritical two-phase ejector, utilizing Taguchi and ANOVA analysis. The investigation delves into the impact of geometric parameters, secondary flow temperature, and primary flow pressure on the efficiency of the ejector. Results indicate that employing a combination of Taguchi and ANOVA offers increased reliability and superior performance when optimizing the design of the CO₂ two-phase ejector.

Keywords: ejector, supersonic, Taguchi, ANOVA, optimization

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2464 The Use of Correlation Difference for the Prediction of Leakage in Pipeline Networks

Authors: Mabel Usunobun Olanipekun, Henry Ogbemudia Omoregbee


Anomalies such as water pipeline and hydraulic or petrochemical pipeline network leakages and bursts have significant implications for economic conditions and the environment. In order to ensure pipeline systems are reliable, they must be efficiently controlled. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have become a powerful network with critical infrastructure monitoring systems for water, oil and gas pipelines. The loss of water, oil and gas is inevitable and is strongly linked to financial costs and environmental problems, and its avoidance often leads to saving of economic resources. Substantial repair costs and the loss of precious natural resources are part of the financial impact of leaking pipes. Pipeline systems experts have implemented various methodologies in recent decades to identify and locate leakages in water, oil and gas supply networks. These methodologies include, among others, the use of acoustic sensors, measurements, abrupt statistical analysis etc. The issue of leak quantification is to estimate, given some observations about that network, the size and location of one or more leaks in a water pipeline network. In detecting background leakage, however, there is a greater uncertainty in using these methodologies since their output is not so reliable. In this work, we are presenting a scalable concept and simulation where a pressure-driven model (PDM) was used to determine water pipeline leakage in a system network. These pressure data were collected with the use of acoustic sensors located at various node points after a predetermined distance apart. We were able to determine with the use of correlation difference to determine the leakage point locally introduced at a predetermined point between two consecutive nodes, causing a substantial pressure difference between in a pipeline network. After de-noising the signal from the sensors at the nodes, we successfully obtained the exact point where we introduced the local leakage using the correlation difference model we developed.

Keywords: leakage detection, acoustic signals, pipeline network, correlation, wireless sensor networks (WSNs)

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2463 Machine Installation and Maintenance Management

Authors: Mohammed Benmostefa


In the industrial production of large series or even medium series, there are vibration problems. In continuous operations, technical devices result in vibrations in solid bodies and machine components, which generate solid noise and/or airborne noise. This is because vibrations are the mechanical oscillations of an object near its equilibrium point. In response to the problems resulting from these vibrations, a number of remedial acts and solutions have been put forward. These include insulation of machines, insulation of concrete masses, insulation under screeds, insulation of sensitive equipment, point insulation of machines, linear insulation of machines, full surface insulation of machines, and the like. Following this, the researcher sought not only to raise awareness on the possibility of lowering the vibration frequency in industrial machines but also to stress the significance of procedures involving the pre-installation process of machinery, namely, setting appropriate installation and start-up methods of the machine, allocating and updating imprint folders to each machine, and scheduling maintenance of each machine all year round to have reliable equipment, gain cost reduction and maintenance efficiency to eventually ensure the overall economic performance of the company.

Keywords: maintenance, vibration, efficiency, production, machinery

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2462 Tribological Behaviour of the Degradation Process of Additive Manufactured Stainless Steel 316L

Authors: Yunhan Zhang, Xiaopeng Li, Zhongxiao Peng


Additive manufacturing (AM) possesses several key characteristics, including high design freedom, energy-efficient manufacturing process, reduced material waste, high resolution of finished products, and excellent performance of finished products. These advantages have garnered widespread attention and fueled rapid development in recent decades. AM has significantly broadened the spectrum of available materials in the manufacturing industry and is gradually replacing some traditionally manufactured parts. Similar to components produced via traditional methods, products manufactured through AM are susceptible to degradation caused by wear during their service life. Given the prevalence of 316L stainless steel (SS) parts and the limited research on the tribological behavior of 316L SS samples or products fabricated using AM technology, this study aims to investigate the degradation process and wear mechanisms of 316L SS disks fabricated using AM technology. The wear mechanisms and tribological performance of these AM-manufactured samples are compared with commercial 316L SS samples made using conventional methods. Additionally, methods to enhance the tribological performance of additive-manufactured SS samples are explored. Four disk samples with a diameter of 75 mm and a thickness of 10 mm are prepared. Two of them (Group A) are prepared from a purchased SS bar using a milling method. The other two disks (Group B), with the same dimensions, are made of Gas Atomized 316L Stainless Steel (size range: 15-45 µm) purchased from Carpenter Additive and produced using Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF). Pin-on-disk tests are conducted on these disks, which have similar surface roughness and hardness levels. Multiple tests are carried out under various operating conditions, including varying loads and/or speeds, and the friction coefficients are measured during these tests. In addition, the evolution of the surface degradation processes is monitored by creating moulds of the wear tracks and quantitatively analyzing the surface morphologies of the mould images. This analysis involves quantifying the depth and width of the wear tracks and analyzing the wear debris generated during the wear processes. The wear mechanisms and wear performance of these two groups of SS samples are compared. The effects of load and speed on the friction coefficient and wear rate are investigated. The ultimate goal is to gain a better understanding of the surface degradation of additive-manufactured SS samples. This knowledge is crucial for enhancing their anti-wear performance and extending their service life.

Keywords: degradation process, additive manufacturing, stainless steel, surface features

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2461 Determination of Suitability Between Single Phase Induction Motor and Load

Authors: Nakarin Prempri


Single-phase induction motors are widely used in industry. Most manufacturing processes use capacitor-run single-phase induction motors to drive mechanical loads. The selection of a suitable motor for driving is important. The optimum operating range of the motor can help the motor operate efficiently. Thus, this paper presents an operating range analysis of capacitor-run single-phase induction motors and a determination of suitability between motor and mechanical loads. an observational study found that the optimum operating range of the motor can be used to determine the suitability between the motor and the mechanical load. Such considerations ensure that the motor uses no more current than necessary and operates efficiently.

Keywords: single phase induction motor, operating range, torque curve, efficiency curve

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2460 Fuzzy Logic Based Fault Tolerant Model Predictive MLI Topology

Authors: Abhimanyu Kumar, Chirag Gupta


This work presents a comprehensive study on the employment of Model Predictive Control (MPC) for a three-phase voltage-source inverter to regulate the output voltage efficiently. The inverter is modeled via the Clarke Transformation, considering a scenario where the load is unknown. An LC filter model is developed, demonstrating its efficacy in Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) reduction. The system, when implemented with fault-tolerant multilevel inverter topologies, ensures reliable operation even under fault conditions, a requirement that is paramount with the increasing dependence on renewable energy sources. The research also integrates a Fuzzy Logic based fault tolerance system which identifies and manages faults, ensuring consistent inverter performance. The efficacy of the proposed methodology is substantiated through rigorous simulations and comparative results, shedding light on the voltage prediction efficiency and the robustness of the model even under fault conditions.

Keywords: total harmonic distortion, fuzzy logic, renewable energy sources, MLI

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2459 Mini-Bus Vapor Absorption Air-Conditioning System

Authors: Yoftahe Nigussie


Nowadays, the air conditioning system (AC) of vehicles mainly uses a vapor compression refrigerant system (VCRS), which absorbs and removes heat from the interior of the car, that is, the space to be cooled and rejects the heat to the atmosphere. In the vapor compression refrigerant system, the system utilizes power from the engine shaft as the input power to drive the compressor of the refrigeration system; hence the engine has to produce extra work to run the compressor of the refrigerating system utilizing an extra amount of fuel. This loss of power of the vehicle for refrigeration can be neglected by utilizing another refrigeration system, i.e., a vapor absorption refrigerant system. As we know, a vapor absorption system (VAS) requires low-grade energy machines for operation. Hence in such types of systems, a physicochemical process replaces the mechanical process of the vapor compression refrigerant system by using energy in the form of heat rather than mechanical work. This heat is obtained from the exhaust of high-power internal combustion engines.

Keywords: SPACE, room, zone, thermal resistance, thermal transmittanc, heat transfer coefficient

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