Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2086

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

2086 Effect of Viscous Dissipation and Axial Conduction in Thermally Developing Region of the Channel Partially Filled with a Porous Material Subjected to Constant Wall Heat Flux

Authors: D Bhargavi, J. Sharath Kumar Reddy

Abstract:

The present investigation has been undertaken to assess the effect of viscous dissipation and axial conduction on forced convection heat transfer in the entrance region of a parallel plate channel with the porous insert attached to both walls of the channel. The flow field is unidirectional. Flow in the porous region corresponds to Darcy-Brinkman model and the clear fluid region to that of plane Poiseuille flow. The effects of the parameters Darcy number, Da, Peclet number, Pe, Brinkman number, Br and a porous fraction γp on the local heat transfer coefficient are analyzed graphically. Effects of viscous dissipation employing the Darcy model and the clear fluid compatible model have been studied.

Keywords: porous material, channel partially filled with a porous material, axial conduction, viscous dissipation

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2085 Towards Accurate Velocity Profile Models in Turbulent Open-Channel Flows: Improved Eddy Viscosity Formulation

Authors: W. Meron Mebrahtu, R. Absi

Abstract:

Velocity distribution in turbulent open-channel flows is organized in a complex manner. This is due to the large spatial and temporal variability of fluid motion resulting from the free-surface turbulent flow condition. This phenomenon is complicated further due to the complex geometry of channels and the presence of solids transported. Thus, several efforts were made to understand the phenomenon and obtain accurate mathematical models that are suitable for engineering applications. However, predictions are inaccurate because oversimplified assumptions are involved in modeling this complex phenomenon. Therefore, the aim of this work is to study velocity distribution profiles and obtain simple, more accurate, and predictive mathematical models. Particular focus will be made on the acceptable simplification of the general transport equations and an accurate representation of eddy viscosity. Wide rectangular open-channel seems suitable to begin the study; other assumptions are smooth-wall, and sediment-free flow under steady and uniform flow conditions. These assumptions will allow examining the effect of the bottom wall and the free surface only, which is a necessary step before dealing with more complex flow scenarios. For this flow condition, two ordinary differential equations are obtained for velocity profiles; from the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation and equilibrium consideration between turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) production and dissipation. Then different analytic models for eddy viscosity, TKE, and mixing length were assessed. Computation results for velocity profiles were compared to experimental data for different flow conditions and the well-known linear, log, and log-wake laws. Results show that the model based on the RANS equation provides more accurate velocity profiles. In the viscous sublayer and buffer layer, the method based on Prandtl’s eddy viscosity model and Van Driest mixing length give a more precise result. For the log layer and outer region, a mixing length equation derived from Von Karman’s similarity hypothesis provides the best agreement with measured data except near the free surface where an additional correction based on a damping function for eddy viscosity is used. This method allows more accurate velocity profiles with the same value of the damping coefficient that is valid under different flow conditions. This work continues with investigating narrow channels, complex geometries, and the effect of solids transported in sewers.

Keywords: accuracy, eddy viscosity, sewers, velocity profile

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2084 Numerical Investigation of the Boundary Conditions at Liquid-Liquid Interfaces in the Presence of Surfactants

Authors: Bamikole J. Adeyemi, Prashant Jadhawar, Lateef Akanji

Abstract:

Liquid-liquid interfacial flow is an important process that has applications across many spheres. One such applications are residual oil mobilization, where crude oil and low salinity water are emulsified due to lowered interfacial tension under the condition of low shear rates. The amphiphilic components (asphaltenes and resins) in crude oil are considered to assemble at the interface between the two immiscible liquids. To justify emulsification, drag and snap-off suppression as the main effects of low salinity water, mobilization of residual oil is visualized as thickening and slip of the wetting phase at the brine/crude oil interface which results in the squeezing and drag of the non-wetting phase to the pressure sinks. Meanwhile, defining the boundary conditions for such a system can be very challenging since the interfacial dynamics do not only depend on interfacial tension but also the flow rate. Hence, understanding the flow boundary condition at the brine/crude oil interface is an important step towards defining the influence of low salinity water composition on residual oil mobilization. This work presents a numerical evaluation of three slip boundary conditions that may apply at liquid-liquid interfaces. A mathematical model was developed to describe the evolution of a viscoelastic interfacial thin liquid film. The base model is developed by the asymptotic expansion of the full Navier-Stokes equations for fluid motion due to gradients of surface tension. This model was upscaled to describe the dynamics of the film surface deformation. Subsequently, Jeffrey’s model was integrated into the formulations to account for viscoelastic stress within a long wave approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations. To study the fluid response to a prescribed disturbance, a linear stability analysis (LSA) was performed. The dispersion relation and the corresponding characteristic equation for the growth rate were obtained. Three slip (slip, 1; locking, -1; and no-slip, 0) boundary conditions were examined using the resulted characteristic equation. Also, the dynamics of the evolved interfacial thin liquid film were numerically evaluated by considering the influence of the boundary conditions. The linear stability analysis shows that the boundary conditions of such systems are greatly impacted by the presence of amphiphilic molecules when three different values of interfacial tension were tested. The results for slip and locking conditions are consistent with the fundamental solution representation of the diffusion equation where there is film decay. The interfacial films at both boundary conditions respond to exposure time in a similar manner with increasing growth rate which resulted in the formation of more droplets with time. Contrarily, no-slip boundary condition yielded an unbounded growth and it is not affected by interfacial tension.

Keywords: boundary conditions, liquid-liquid interfaces, low salinity water, residual oil mobilization

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2083 Numerical Investigation of the Effects of Surfactant Concentrations on the Dynamics of Liquid-Liquid Interfaces

Authors: Bamikole J. Adeyemi, Prashant Jadhawar, Lateef Akanji

Abstract:

Theoretically, there exist two mathematical interfaces (fluid-solid and fluid-fluid) when a liquid film is present on solid surfaces. These interfaces overlap if the mineral surface is oil-wet or mixed wet, and therefore, the effects of disjoining pressure are significant on both boundaries. Hence, dewetting is a necessary process that could detach oil from the mineral surface. However, if the thickness of the thin water film directly in contact with the surface is large enough, disjoining pressure can be thought to be zero at the liquid-liquid interface. Recent studies show that the integration of fluid-fluid interactions with fluid-rock interactions is an important step towards a holistic approach to understanding smart water effects. Experiments have shown that the brine solution can alter the micro forces at oil-water interfaces, and these ion-specific interactions lead to oil emulsion formation. The natural emulsifiers present in crude oil behave as polyelectrolytes when the oil interfaces with low salinity water. Wettability alteration caused by low salinity waterflooding during Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) process results from the activities of divalent ions. However, polyelectrolytes are said to lose their viscoelastic property with increasing cation concentrations. In this work, the influence of cation concentrations on the dynamics of viscoelastic liquid-liquid interfaces is numerically investigated. The resultant ion concentrations at the crude oil/brine interfaces were estimated using a surface complexation model. Subsequently, the ion concentration parameter is integrated into a mathematical model to describe its effects on the dynamics of a viscoelastic interfacial thin film. The film growth, stability, and rupture were measured after different time steps for three types of fluids (Newtonian, purely elastic and viscoelastic fluids). The interfacial films respond to exposure time in a similar manner with an increasing growth rate, which resulted in the formation of more droplets with time. Increased surfactant accumulation at the interface results in a higher film growth rate which leads to instability and subsequent formation of more satellite droplets. Purely elastic and viscoelastic properties limit film growth rate and consequent film stability compared to the Newtonian fluid. Therefore, low salinity and reduced concentration of the potential determining ions in injection water will lead to improved interfacial viscoelasticity.

Keywords: liquid-liquid interfaces, surfactant concentrations, potential determining ions, residual oil mobilization

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2082 Simulation of a Three-Link, Six-Muscle Musculoskeletal Arm Activated by Hill Muscle Model

Authors: Nafiseh Ebrahimi, Amir Jafari

Abstract:

The study of humanoid character is of great interest to researchers in the field of robotics and biomechanics. One might want to know the forces and torques required to move a limb from an initial position to the desired destination position. Inverse dynamics is a helpful method to compute the force and torques for an articulated body limb. It enables us to know the joint torques required to rotate a link between two positions. Our goal in this study was to control a human-like articulated manipulator for a specific task of path tracking. For this purpose, the human arm was modeled with a three-link planar manipulator activated by Hill muscle model. Applying a proportional controller, values of force and torques applied to the joints were calculated by inverse dynamics, and then joints and muscle forces trajectories were computed and presented. To be more accurate to say, the kinematics of the muscle-joint space was formulated by which we defined the relationship between the muscle lengths and the geometry of the links and joints. Secondary, the kinematic of the links was introduced to calculate the position of the end-effector in terms of geometry. Then, we considered the modeling of Hill muscle dynamics, and after calculation of joint torques, finally, we applied them to the dynamics of the three-link manipulator obtained from the inverse dynamics to calculate the joint states, find and control the location of manipulator’s end-effector. The results show that the human arm model was successfully controlled to take the designated path of an ellipse precisely.

Keywords: arm manipulator, hill muscle model, six-muscle model, three-link lodel

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2081 Numerical Analysis of Flow in the Gap between a Simplified Tractor-Trailer Model and Cross Vortex Trap Device

Authors: Terrance Charles, Zhiyin Yang, Yiling Lu

Abstract:

Heavy trucks are aerodynamically inefficient due to their un-streamlined body shapes, leading to more than of 60% engine power being required to overcome the aerodynamics drag at 60 m/hr. There are many aerodynamics drag reduction devices developed and this paper presents a study on a drag reduction device called Cross Vortex Trap Device (CVTD) deployed in the gap between the tractor and the trailer of a simplified tractor-trailer model. Numerical simulations have been carried out at Reynolds number 0.51×106 based on inlet flow velocity and height of the trailer using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach. Three different configurations of CVTD have been studied, ranging from single to three slabs, equally spaced on the front face of the trailer. Flow field around three different configurations of trap device have been analysed and presented. The results show that a maximum of 12.25% drag reduction can be achieved when a triple vortex trap device is used. Detailed flow field analysis along with pressure contours are presented to elucidate the drag reduction mechanisms of CVTD and why the triple vortex trap configuration produces the maximum drag reduction among the three configurations tested.

Keywords: aerodynamic drag, cross vortex trap device, truck, Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes, RANS

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2080 Kinetic Parameter Estimation from Thermogravimetry and Microscale Combustion Calorimetry

Authors: Rhoda Afriyie Mensah, Lin Jiang, Solomon Asante-Okyere, Xu Qiang, Cong Jin

Abstract:

Flammability analysis of extruded polystyrene (XPS) has become crucial due to its utilization as an insulation material for energy-efficient buildings. Using the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods, the degradation kinetics of two pure XPS from the local market, red and grey ones, were obtained from the results of thermogravimetry analysis (TG) and microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC) experiments performed under the same heating rates. From the experiments, it was discovered that red XPS released more heat than grey XPS and both materials showed two mass loss stages. Consequently, the kinetic parameters for red XPS were higher than the grey XPS. A comparative evaluation of activation energies from MCC and TG showed an insignificant degree of deviation, signifying equivalent apparent activation energy from both methods. However, different activation energy profiles as a result of the different chemical pathways were presented when the dependencies of the activation energies on the extent of conversion for TG and MCC were compared.

Keywords: flammability, microscale combustion calorimetry, thermogravity analysis, thermal degradation, kinetic analysis

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2079 A Geometric Interpolation Scheme in Overset Meshes for the Piecewise Linear Interface Calculation Volume of Fluid Method in Multiphase Flows

Authors: Yanni Chang, Dezhi Dai, Albert Y. Tong

Abstract:

Piecewise linear interface calculation (PLIC) schemes are widely used in the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method to capture interfaces in numerical simulations of multiphase flows. Dynamic overset meshes can be especially useful in applications involving component motions and complex geometric shapes. In the present study, the VOF value of an acceptor cell is evaluated in a geometric way that transfers the fraction field between the meshes precisely with reconstructed interfaces from the corresponding donor elements. The acceptor cell value is evaluated by using a weighted average of its donors for most of the overset interpolation schemes for continuous flow variables. The weighting factors are obtained by different algebraic methods. Unlike the continuous flow variables, the VOF equation is a step function near the interfaces, which ranges from zero to unity rapidly. A geometric interpolation scheme of the VOF field in overset meshes for the PLIC-VOF method has been proposed in the paper. It has been tested successfully in quadrilateral/hexahedral overset meshes by employing several VOF advection tests with imposed solenoidal velocity fields. The proposed algorithm has been shown to yield higher accuracy in mass conservation and interface reconstruction compared with three other algebraic ones.

Keywords: interpolation scheme, multiphase flows, overset meshes, PLIC-VOF method

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2078 Evaluation of the Power Generation Effect Obtained by Inserting a Piezoelectric Sheet in the Backlash Clearance of a Circular Arc Helical Gear

Authors: Barenten Suciu, Yuya Nakamoto

Abstract:

Power generation effect, obtained by inserting a piezo- electric sheet in the backlash clearance of a circular arc helical gear, is evaluated. Such type of screw gear is preferred since, in comparison with the involute tooth profile, the circular arc profile leads to reduced stress-concentration effects, and improved life of the piezoelectric film. Firstly, geometry of the circular arc helical gear, and properties of the piezoelectric sheet are presented. Then, description of the test-rig, consisted of a right-hand thread gear meshing with a left-hand thread gear, and the voltage measurement procedure are given. After creating the tridimensional (3D) model of the meshing gears in SolidWorks, they are 3D-printed in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) resin. Variation of the generated voltage versus time, during a meshing cycle of the circular arc helical gear, is measured for various values of the center distance. Then, the change of the maximal, minimal, and peak-to-peak voltage versus the center distance is illustrated. Optimal center distance of the gear, to achieve voltage maximization, is found and its significance is discussed. Such results prove that the contact pressure of the meshing gears can be measured, and also, the electrical power can be generated by employing the proposed technique.

Keywords: circular arc helical gear, contact problem, optimal center distance, piezoelectric sheet, power generation

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2077 Uniform and Controlled Cooling of a Steel Block by Multiple Jet Impingement and Airflow

Authors: E. K. K. Agyeman, P. Mousseau, A. Sarda, D. Edelin

Abstract:

During the cooling of hot metals by the circulation of water in canals formed by boring holes in the metal, the rapid phase change of the water due to the high initial temperature of the metal leads to a non homogenous distribution of the phases within the canals. The liquid phase dominates towards the entrance of the canal while the gaseous phase dominates towards the exit. As a result of the different thermal properties of both phases, the metal is not uniformly cooled. This poses a problem during the cooling of moulds, where a uniform temperature distribution is needed in order to ensure the integrity of the part being formed. In this study, the simultaneous use of multiple water jets and an airflow for the uniform and controlled cooling of a steel block is investigated. A circular hole is bored at the centre of the steel block along its length and a perforated steel pipe is inserted along the central axis of the hole. Water jets that impact the internal surface of the steel block are generated from the perforations in the steel pipe when the water within it is put under pressure. These jets are oriented in the opposite direction to that of gravity. An intermittent airflow is imposed in the annular space between the steel pipe and the surface of hole bored in the steel block. The evolution of the temperature with respect to time of the external surface of the block is measured with the help of thermocouples and an infrared camera. Due to the high initial temperature of the steel block (350 °C), the water changes phase when it impacts the internal surface of the block. This leads to high heat fluxes. The strategy used to control the cooling speed of the block is the intermittent impingement of its internal surface by the jets. The intervals of impingement and of non impingement are varied in order to achieve the desired result. An airflow is used during the non impingement periods as an additional regulator of the cooling speed and to improve the temperature homogeneity of the impinged surface. After testing different jet positions, jet speeds and impingement intervals, it’s observed that the external surface of the steel block has a uniform temperature distribution along its length. However, the temperature distribution along its width isn’t uniform with the maximum temperature difference being between the centre of the block and its edge. Changing the positions of the jets has no significant effect on the temperature distribution on the external surface of the steel block. It’s also observed that reducing the jet impingement interval and increasing the non impingement interval slows down the cooling of the block and improves upon the temperature homogeneity of its external surface while increasing the duration of jet impingement speeds up the cooling process.

Keywords: cooling speed, homogenous cooling, jet impingement, phase change

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2076 Modelling of Heat Generation in a 18650 Lithium-Ion Battery Cell under Varying Discharge Rates

Authors: Foo Shen Hwang, Thomas Confrey, Stephen Scully, Barry Flannery

Abstract:

Thermal characterization plays an important role in battery pack design. Lithium-ion batteries have to be maintained between 15-35 °C to operate optimally. Heat is generated (Q) internally within the batteries during both the charging and discharging phases. This can be quantified using several standard methods. The most common method of calculating the batteries heat generation is through the addition of both the joule heating effects and the entropic changes across the battery. In addition, such values can be derived by identifying the open-circuit voltage (OCV), nominal voltage (V), operating current (I), battery temperature (T) and the rate of change of the open-circuit voltage in relation to temperature (dOCV/dT). This paper focuses on experimental characterization and comparative modelling of the heat generation rate (Q) across several current discharge rates (0.5C, 1C, and 1.5C) of a 18650 cell. The analysis is conducted utilizing several non-linear mathematical functions methods, including polynomial, exponential, and power models. Parameter fitting is carried out over the respective function orders; polynomial (n = 3~7), exponential (n = 2) and power function. The generated parameter fitting functions are then used as heat source functions in a 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver under natural convection conditions. Generated temperature profiles are analyzed for errors based on experimental discharge tests, conducted at standard room temperature (25°C). Initial experimental results display low deviation between both experimental and CFD temperature plots. As such, the heat generation function formulated could be easier utilized for larger battery applications than other methods available.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, curve fitting, lithium-ion battery, voltage drop

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2075 Investigating Viscous Surface Wave Propagation Modes in a Finite Depth Fluid

Authors: Arash Ghahraman, Gyula Bene

Abstract:

The object of this study is to investigate the effect of viscosity on the propagation of free-surface waves in an incompressible viscous fluid layer of arbitrary depth. While we provide a more detailed study of properties of linear surface waves, the description of fully nonlinear waves in terms of KdV-like (Korteweg-de Vries) equations is discussed. In the linear case, we find that in shallow enough fluids, no surface waves can propagate. Even in any thicker fluid layers, propagation of very short and very long waves is forbidden. When wave propagation is possible, only a single propagating mode exists for any given horizontal wave number. The numerical results show that there can be two types of non-propagating modes. One type is always present, and there exist still infinitely many of such modes at the same parameters. In contrast, there can be zero, one or two modes belonging to the other type. Another significant feature is that KdV-like equations. They describe propagating nonlinear viscous surface waves. Since viscosity gives rise to a new wavenumber that cannot be small at the same time as the original one, these equations may not exist. Nonetheless, we propose a reasonable nonlinear description in terms of 1+1 variate functions that make possible successive approximations.

Keywords: free surface wave, water waves, KdV equation, viscosity

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2074 Investigating the Effect of VR, Time Study and Ergonomics on the Design of Industrial Workstations

Authors: Aydin Azizi, Poorya Ghafoorpoor Yazdi

Abstract:

This paper presents the review of the studies on the ergonomics, virtual reality, and work measurement (time study) at the industrial workstations because each of these three individual techniques can be used to improve the design of workstations and task position. The objective of this paper is to give an overall literature review that if there is any relation between these three different techniques. Therefore, it is so important to review the scientific studies to find a better and effective way for improving design of workstations. On the other hand, manufacturers found that instead of using one of the approaches, utilizing the combination of these individual techniques are more effective to reduce the cost and production time.

Keywords: ergonomics, time study, virtual reality, workplace

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2073 Investigation of Flow Characteristics on Upstream and Downstream of Orifice Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: War War Min Swe, Aung Myat Thu, Khin Cho Thet, Zaw Moe Htet, Thuzar Mon

Abstract:

The main parameter of the orifice hole diameter was designed according to the range of throttle diameter ratio which gave the required discharge coefficient. The discharge coefficient is determined by difference diameter ratios. The value of discharge coefficient is 0.958 occurred at throttle diameter ratio 0.5. The throttle hole diameter is 80 mm. The flow analysis is done numerically using ANSYS 17.0, computational fluid dynamics. The flow velocity was analyzed in the upstream and downstream of the orifice meter. The downstream velocity of non-standard orifice meter is 2.5% greater than that of standard orifice meter. The differential pressure is 515.379 Pa in standard orifice.

Keywords: CFD-CFX, discharge coefficients, flow characteristics, inclined

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2072 Clean Truck Propulsion Solutions Using NG-Diesel Hybrid Electric or Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Powertrains: Modeling, Design and Control Optimization

Authors: Zuomin Dong, Yanbiao Feng, Li Chen

Abstract:

Hybrid electric propulsion has served as an advantageous powertrain solution for improving the performance, fuel efficiency and emissions of passenger vehicles using well-established fueling infrastructure of gasoline and diesel, and with low conversion cost. Natural gas (NG) presents as a promising alternative fuel to replace diesel for heavy-duty vehicles with prominent potentials of fuel cost and emissions reduction, but its wide adoption still faces a number of technical challenges, including weaker engine performance, and sharply increased hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions at certain engine operation states. This work first introduces an approach to integrate the NG-diesel compression ignited (CI) engine, hybrid electric powertrain system, and optimal powertrain control and energy management to address these issues. The introduction of a global optimization problem ensures the NG engine to operate within its ideal speed and torque zone with high fuel-efficiency, low overall emissions, and improved propulsion system performance. The mining vehicle’s hybrid powertrain system and component models, including NG engine fuel efficiency and emission models, have been introduced to support the work. An advanced surrogate model-based global optimization method is extended to solve the computational intensive, black-box optimization problem for optimal power control and energy management. The results of the optimization have been incorporated into control rules for the real-time control operation of the vehicle. The method integrates NG engine, hybrid electric powertrain, and the globally optimal control strategies, considering both fuel efficiency and HC/CO/NOx emissions jointly. Significant reductions of fuel cost, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and other pollutants have been achieved in comparison to its conventional diesel counterpart. Hydrogen fuel cell system is also emerging as a much more energy-efficient and cleaner proportion technology. Its wide adoption faces a number of technical challenges too, including high initial investment cost and limited operating life. The combination of fuel cell power system, battery energy storage system (ESS), and optimal control of the hybrid electric powertrain system can reduce the size of a fuel cell system and extend its operational life, thus lowering the lifecycle cost of the propulsion system. Applications of the state of art proton electrode membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack technology to small commercial trucks have been studied through integrated modeling of fuel cell engine and hybrid powertrain system, as well as system design and control optimizations. The energy efficiency, emissions, and costs of the two cleaner truck propulsion solutions are compared with the trucks with a diesel engine and mechanical propulsion. The results showed the benefits of emerging clean propulsion technologies in fuel efficiency improvement and emission reduction. The studies formed the foundation for further researches in these areas.

Keywords: hybrid electric powertrain, NG engine, fuel cell system, mining truck, WTW (well-to-wheel) emissions, powertrain design optimization, optimal control and energy management

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2071 Application of Lattice Boltzmann Method to Different Boundary Conditions in a Two Dimensional Enclosure

Authors: Jean Yves Trepanier, Sami Ammar, Sagnik Banik

Abstract:

Lattice Boltzmann Method has been advantageous in simulating complex boundary conditions and solving for fluid flow parameters by streaming and collision processes. This paper includes the study of three different test cases in a confined domain using the method of the Lattice Boltzmann model. 1. An SRT (Single Relaxation Time) approach in the Lattice Boltzmann model is used to simulate Lid Driven Cavity flow for different Reynolds Number (100, 400 and 1000) with a domain aspect ratio of 1, i.e., square cavity. A moment-based boundary condition is used for more accurate results. 2. A Thermal Lattice BGK (Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook) Model is developed for the Rayleigh Benard convection for both test cases - Horizontal and Vertical Temperature difference, considered separately for a Boussinesq incompressible fluid. The Rayleigh number is varied for both the test cases (10^3 ≤ Ra ≤ 10^6) keeping the Prandtl number at 0.71. A stability criteria with a precise forcing scheme is used for a greater level of accuracy. 3. The phase change problem governed by the heat-conduction equation is studied using the enthalpy based Lattice Boltzmann Model with a single iteration for each time step, thus reducing the computational time. A double distribution function approach with D2Q9 (density) model and D2Q5 (temperature) model are used for two different test cases-the conduction dominated melting and the convection dominated melting. The solidification process is also simulated using the enthalpy based method with a single distribution function using the D2Q5 model to provide a better understanding of the heat transport phenomenon. The domain for the test cases has an aspect ratio of 2 with some exceptions for a square cavity. An approximate velocity scale is chosen to ensure that the simulations are within the incompressible regime. Different parameters like velocities, temperature, Nusselt number, etc. are calculated for a comparative study with the existing works of literature. The simulated results demonstrate excellent agreement with the existing benchmark solution within an error limit of ± 0.05 implicates the viability of this method for complex fluid flow problems.

Keywords: BGK, Nusselt, Prandtl, Rayleigh, SRT

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2070 Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations and Analysis of Air Bubble Rising in a Column of Liquid

Authors: Baha-aldeen S. Algmati, Ahmed R. Balli

Abstract:

Multiphase flows occur widely in many engineering and industrial processes as well as in the environment we live in. In particular, bubbly flows are considered to be crucial phenomena in fluid flow applications and can be studied and analyzed experimentally, analytically, and computationally. In the present paper, the dynamic motion of an air bubble rising within a column of liquid is numerically simulated using an open-source CFD modeling tool 'OpenFOAM'. An interface tracking numerical algorithm called MULES algorithm, which is built-in OpenFOAM, is chosen to solve an appropriate mathematical model based on the volume of fluid (VOF) numerical method. The bubbles initially have a spherical shape and starting from rest in the stagnant column of liquid. The algorithm is initially verified against numerical results and is also validated against available experimental data. The comparison revealed that this algorithm provides results that are in a very good agreement with the 2D numerical data of other CFD codes. Also, the results of the bubble shape and terminal velocity obtained from the 3D numerical simulation showed a very good qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental data. The simulated rising bubbles yield a very small percentage of error in the bubble terminal velocity compared with the experimental data. The obtained results prove the capability of OpenFOAM as a powerful tool to predict the behavior of rising characteristics of the spherical bubbles in the stagnant column of liquid. This will pave the way for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of the rise of bubbles in liquids.

Keywords: CFD simulations, multiphase flows, OpenFOAM, rise of bubble, volume of fluid method, VOF

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2069 Quasi-Photon Monte Carlo on Radiative Heat Transfer: An Importance Sampling and Learning Approach

Authors: Utkarsh A. Mishra, Ankit Bansal

Abstract:

At high temperature, radiative heat transfer is the dominant mode of heat transfer. It is governed by various phenomena such as photon emission, absorption, and scattering. The solution of the governing integrodifferential equation of radiative transfer is a complex process, more when the effect of participating medium and wavelength properties are taken into consideration. Although a generic formulation of such radiative transport problem can be modeled for a wide variety of problems with non-gray, non-diffusive surfaces, there is always a trade-off between simplicity and accuracy of the problem. Recently, solutions of complicated mathematical problems with statistical methods based on randomization of naturally occurring phenomena have gained significant importance. Photon bundles with discrete energy can be replicated with random numbers describing the emission, absorption, and scattering processes. Photon Monte Carlo (PMC) is a simple, yet powerful technique, to solve radiative transfer problems in complicated geometries with arbitrary participating medium. The method, on the one hand, increases the accuracy of estimation, and on the other hand, increases the computational cost. The participating media -generally a gas, such as CO₂, CO, and H₂O- present complex emission and absorption spectra. To model the emission/absorption accurately with random numbers requires a weighted sampling as different sections of the spectrum carries different importance. Importance sampling (IS) was implemented to sample random photon of arbitrary wavelength, and the sampled data provided unbiased training of MC estimators for better results. A better replacement to uniform random numbers is using deterministic, quasi-random sequences. Halton, Sobol, and Faure Low-Discrepancy Sequences are used in this study. They possess better space-filling performance than the uniform random number generator and gives rise to a low variance, stable Quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) estimators with faster convergence. An optimal supervised learning scheme was further considered to reduce the computation costs of the PMC simulation. A one-dimensional plane-parallel slab problem with participating media was formulated. The history of some randomly sampled photon bundles is recorded to train an Artificial Neural Network (ANN), back-propagation model. The flux was calculated using the standard quasi PMC and was considered to be the training target. Results obtained with the proposed model for the one-dimensional problem are compared with the exact analytical and PMC model with the Line by Line (LBL) spectral model. The approximate variance obtained was around 3.14%. Results were analyzed with respect to time and the total flux in both cases. A significant reduction in variance as well a faster rate of convergence was observed in the case of the QMC method over the standard PMC method. However, the results obtained with the ANN method resulted in greater variance (around 25-28%) as compared to the other cases. There is a great scope of machine learning models to help in further reduction of computation cost once trained successfully. Multiple ways of selecting the input data as well as various architectures will be tried such that the concerned environment can be fully addressed to the ANN model. Better results can be achieved in this unexplored domain.

Keywords: radiative heat transfer, Monte Carlo Method, pseudo-random numbers, low discrepancy sequences, artificial neural networks

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2068 Early Phase Design Study of a Sliding Door with Multibody Simulations

Authors: Erkan Talay, Mustafa Yigit Yagci

Abstract:

For the systems like sliding door, designers should predict not only strength but also dynamic behavior of the system and this prediction usually becomes more critical if design has radical changes refer to previous designs. Also, sometimes physical tests could cost more than expected, especially for rail geometry changes, since this geometry affects design of the body. The aim of the study is to observe and understand the dynamics of the sliding door in virtual environment. For this, multibody dynamic model of the sliding door was built and then affects of various parameters like rail geometry, roller diameters, or center of mass detected. Also, a design of experiment study was performed to observe interactions of these parameters.

Keywords: design of experiment, minimum closing effort, multibody simulation, sliding door

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2067 Implementation of Part Tolerances for Existing Process Simulations for Sheet Metal Assemblies

Authors: Hanchen Zheng, Martin Bohn, Kristin Paetzold

Abstract:

As high complexity and diversity of digitalization requirements, today the development process of new cars is a collaboration of several technical departments. To optimize the product development life-cycle, which reduces the cost for hardware prototypes, process simulation, as well as digital tolerance analysis, are widely applied to analyze the manufacturability of complex assemblies in an early design stage. However, the process simulation models are constructed based on the nominal geometry, and various boundary conditions are modified manually. The tolerance simulation calculates the deviation of the parts based on Monte Carlo Method, which does not consider the process influences. Modern Computer Aided Tolerancing (CAT) and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) tools already offer the possibility to simulate the joining process statistically. In this paper, a methodology is proposed to implement the part tolerances of sheet metal assemblies in the existing process simulation to improve the prediction accuracy. Mesh morphing approach is applied to create the simulation model with geometrical variations according to the tolerance specification. The joining processes of the generated model, such as clinching and roller hemming, are simulated using FEA based on the positioning, clamping, fastening, releasing (PCFR) cycle. A sensitivity analysis of the tolerance terms, as well as process parameters, is derived from the simulation results, which ranks the influence of the single part tolerance on the assembly deviation. The proposed method is illustrated by applying to the manufacturing process for body-in-white parts in automobile industry and validated with the real measurement data. By applying the proposed methodology, an optimization strategy for the pre-defined single part tolerances and the manufacturing processes are developed accordingly.

Keywords: process simulation, tolerance analysis, robust design, process optimization

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2066 Wind Turbine Wake Prediction and Validation under a Stably-Stratified Atmospheric Boundary Layer

Authors: Yilei Song, Linlin Tian, Ning Zhao

Abstract:

Turbulence energetics and structures in the wake of large-scale wind turbines under the stably-stratified atmospheric boundary layer (SABL) can be complicated due to the presence of low-level jets (LLJs), a region of higher wind speeds than the geostrophic wind speed. With a modified one-k-equation, eddy viscosity model specified for atmospheric flows as the sub-grid scale (SGS) model, a realistic atmospheric state of the stable ABL is well reproduced by large-eddy simulation (LES) techniques. Corresponding to the precursor stably stratification, the detailed wake properties of a standard 5-MW wind turbine represented as an actuator line model are provided. An engineering model is proposed for wake prediction based on the simulation statistics and gets validated. Results confirm that the proposed wake model can provide good predictions for wind turbines under the SABL.

Keywords: large-eddy simulation, stably-stratified atmospheric boundary layer, wake model, wind turbine wake

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2065 Numerical Study of Bubbling Fluidized Beds Operating at Sub-atmospheric Conditions

Authors: Lanka Dinushke Weerasiri, Subrat Das, Daniel Fabijanic, William Yang

Abstract:

Fluidization at vacuum pressure has been a topic that is of growing research interest. Several industrial applications (such as drying, extractive metallurgy, and chemical vapor deposition (CVD)) can potentially take advantage of vacuum pressure fluidization. Particularly, the fine chemical industry requires processing under safe conditions for thermolabile substances, and reduced pressure fluidized beds offer an alternative. Fluidized beds under vacuum conditions provide optimal conditions for treatment of granular materials where the reduced gas pressure maintains an operational environment outside of flammability conditions. The fluidization at low-pressure is markedly different from the usual gas flow patterns of atmospheric fluidization. The different flow regimes can be characterized by the dimensionless Knudsen number. Nevertheless, hydrodynamics of bubbling vacuum fluidized beds has not been investigated to author’s best knowledge. In this work, the two-fluid numerical method was used to determine the impact of reduced pressure on the fundamental properties of a fluidized bed. The slip flow model implemented by Ansys Fluent User Defined Functions (UDF) was used to determine the interphase momentum exchange coefficient. A wide range of operating pressures was investigated (1.01, 0.5, 0.25, 0.1 and 0.03 Bar). The gas was supplied by a uniform inlet at 1.5Umf and 2Umf. The predicted minimum fluidization velocity (Umf) shows excellent agreement with the experimental data. The results show that the operating pressure has a notable impact on the bed properties and its hydrodynamics. Furthermore, it also shows that the existing Gorosko correlation that predicts bed expansion is not applicable under reduced pressure conditions.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, fluidized bed, gas-solid flow, vacuum pressure, slip flow, minimum fluidization velocity

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2064 Variation of Manning’s Coefficient in a Meandering Channel with Emergent Vegetation Cover

Authors: Spandan Sahu, Amiya Kumar Pati, Kishanjit Kumar Khatua

Abstract:

Vegetation plays a major role in deciding the flow parameters in an open channel. It enhances the aesthetic view of the revetments. The major types of vegetation in river typically comprises of herbs, grasses, weeds, trees, etc. The vegetation in an open channel usually consists of aquatic plants with complete submergence, partial submergence, floating plants. The presence of vegetative plants can have both benefits and problems. The major benefits of aquatic plants are they reduce the soil erosion, which provides the water with a free surface to move on without hindrance. The obvious problems are they retard the flow of water and reduce the hydraulic capacity of the channel. The degree to which the flow parameters are affected depends upon the density of the vegetation, degree of submergence, pattern of vegetation, vegetation species. Vegetation in open channel tends to provide resistance to flow, which in turn provides a background to study the varying trends in flow parameters having vegetative growth in the channel surface. In this paper, an experiment has been conducted on a meandering channel having sinuosity of 1.33 with rigid vegetation cover to investigate the effect on flow parameters, variation of manning’s n with degree of the denseness of vegetation, vegetation pattern and submergence criteria. The measurements have been carried out in four different cross-sections two on trough portion of the meanders, two on the crest portion. In this study, the analytical solution of Shiono and knight (SKM) for lateral distributions of depth-averaged velocity and bed shear stress have been taken into account. Dimensionless eddy viscosity and bed friction have been incorporated to modify the SKM to provide more accurate results. A mathematical model has been formulated to have a comparative analysis with the results obtained from Shiono-Knight Method.

Keywords: bed friction, depth averaged velocity, eddy viscosity, SKM

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2063 Vibration Energy Harvesting from Aircraft Structure Using Piezoelectric Transduction

Authors: M. Saifudin Ahmed Atique, Santosh Paudyal, Caixia Yang

Abstract:

In an aircraft, a great portion of energy is wasted due to its inflight structural vibration. Structural components vibrate due to aeroelastic instabilities, gust perturbations and engine rotation at very high rpm. Energy losses due to mechanical vibration can be utilized by harvesting energy from aircraft structure as electrical energy. This harvested energy can be stored in battery panels built into aircraft fuselage and can be used to power inflight auxiliary accessories i.e., lighting and entertainment systems. Moreover, this power can be used for wireless Structural Health Monitoring System (SHM) for aircraft and as an excellent replacement of aircraft Ground Power Unit (GPU)/Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) during passenger onboard time to power aircraft cabin accessories to reduce aircraft ground operation cost significantly. In this paper, we propose the design of a noble aircraft wing in which Piezoelectric panels placed under the composite skin of aircraft wing will generate electrical charges from any inflight aerodynamics or mechanical vibration and store it into battery to power auxiliary inflight systems/accessories as per requirement. Experimental results show that a well-engineered piezoelectric energy harvester based aircraft wing can produce adequate energy to support in-flight lighting and auxiliary cabin accessories.

Keywords: vibration energy, aircraft wing, piezoelectric material, inflight accessories

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2062 A User-Friendly Approach for Design and Economic Analysis of Standalone PV System for the Electrification of Rural Area of Eritrea

Authors: Tedros Asefaw Gebremeskel, Xaoyi Yang

Abstract:

The potential of solar energy in Eritrea is relatively high, based on this truth, there are a number of isolated and remote villages situated far away from the electrical national grid which don’t get access to electricity. The core objective of this work is to design a most favorable and cost-effective power by means of standalone PV system for the electrification of a single housing in the inaccessible area of Eritrea. The sizing of the recommended PV system is achieved, such as radiation data and electrical load for the typical household of the selected site is also well thought-out in the design steps. Finally, the life cycle cost (LCC) analysis is conducted to evaluate the economic viability of the system. The outcome of the study promote the use of PV system for a residential building and show that PV system is a reasonable option to provide electricity for household applications in the rural area of Eritrea.

Keywords: electrification, inaccessible area, life cycle cost, residential building, stand-alone PV system

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2061 Numerical Investigation on the Influence of Incoming Flow Conditions on the Rotating Stall in Centrifugal Pump

Authors: Wanru Huang, Fujun Wang, Chaoyue Wang, Yuan Tang, Zhifeng Yao, Ruofu Xiao, Xin Chen

Abstract:

Rotating stall in centrifugal pump is an unsteady flow phenomenon that causes instabilities and high hydraulic losses. It typically occurs at low flow rates due to large flow separation in impeller blade passage. In order to reveal the influence of incoming flow conditions on rotating stall in centrifugal pump, a numerical method for investigating rotating stall was established. This method is based on a modified SST k-ω turbulence model and a fine mesh model was adopted. The calculated flow velocity in impeller by this method was in good agreement with PIV results. The effects of flow rate and sealing-ring leakage on stall characteristics of centrifugal pump were studied by using the proposed numerical approach. The flow structures in impeller under typical flow rates and typical sealing-ring leakages were analyzed. It is found that the stall vortex frequency and circumferential propagation velocity increase as flow rate decreases. With the flow rate decreases from 0.40Qd to 0.30Qd, the stall vortex frequency increases from 1.50Hz to 2.34Hz, the circumferential propagation velocity of the stall vortex increases from 3.14rad/s to 4.90rad/s. Under almost all flow rate conditions where rotating stall is present, there is low frequency of pressure pulsation between 0Hz-5Hz. The corresponding pressure pulsation amplitude increases with flow rate decreases. Taking the measuring point at the leading edge of the blade pressure surface as an example, the flow rate decreases from 0.40Qd to 0.30Qd, the pressure fluctuation amplitude increases by 86.9%. With the increase of leakage, the flow structure in the impeller becomes more complex, and the 8-shaped stall vortex is no longer stable. On the basis of the 8-shaped stall vortex, new vortex nuclei are constantly generated and fused with the original vortex nuclei under large leakage. The upstream and downstream vortex structures of the 8-shaped stall vortex have different degrees of swimming in the flow passage, and the downstream vortex swimming is more obvious. The results show that the proposed numerical approach could capture the detail vortex characteristics, and the incoming flow conditions have significant effects on the stall vortex in centrifugal pumps.

Keywords: centrifugal pump, rotating stall, numerical simulation, flow condition, vortex frequency

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2060 Melting and Making Zn-Based Alloys and Examine Their Biodegradable and Biocompatible Properties

Authors: Abdulrahman Sumayli

Abstract:

Natural Zinc has many significant biological functions, including developments and sustainable of bones and wound healing. Metallic zinc has recently been explored as potential biomaterials that have preferable biodegradable, biocompatible, and mechanical properties. Pure metal zinc has a preferable physical and mechanical properties for biodegradable and biocompatible applications such as density and modulus of elasticity. The aim of the research is to make different Zn-based metallic alloys and test them effectively to be used as biocompatible and biodegradable materials in the field biomedical application. Microstructure study of the as-cast alloys will be examined using SEM (scanning electron microscope) followed by X-ray diffraction investigated so as to evaluate phase constitution of the designed alloys. After that, immersion test and electrochemical test will be applied to the designed alloys so as to study bio corrosion behaviour of the proposed alloys. Finally, in vitro cytocompatibility well conducted to study biocompatibility of the made alloys.

Keywords: Zn-based alloys, biodegradable and biocompatible materials, cytotoxicity test, neutron synchrotron imaging

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2059 Prediction of Boundary Shear Stress with Flood Plains Enlargements

Authors: Spandan Sahu, Amiya Kumar Pati, Kishanjit Kumar Khatua

Abstract:

The river is our main source of water which is a form of open channel flow and the flow in the open channel provides with many complex phenomena of sciences that need to be tackled such as the critical flow conditions, boundary shear stress, and depth-averaged velocity. The development of society, more or less solely depends upon the flow of rivers. The rivers are major sources of many sediments and specific ingredients which are much essential for human beings. During floods, part of a river is carried by the simple main channel and rest is carried by flood plains. For such compound asymmetric channels, the flow structure becomes complicated due to momentum exchange between the main channel and adjoining flood plains. Distribution of boundary shear in subsections provides us with the concept of momentum transfer between the interface of the main channel and the flood plains. Experimentally, to get better data with accurate results are very complex because of the complexity of the problem. Hence, CES software has been used to tackle the complex processes to determine the shear stresses at different sections of an open channel having asymmetric flood plains on both sides of the main channel, and the results are compared with the symmetric flood plains for various geometrical shapes and flow conditions. Error analysis is also performed to know the degree of accuracy of the model implemented.

Keywords: depth average velocity, non prismatic compound channel, relative flow depth, velocity distribution

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2058 Back to Basics: Redefining Quality Measurement for Hybrid Software Development Organizations

Authors: Satya Pradhan, Venky Nanniyur

Abstract:

As the software industry transitions from a license-based model to a subscription-based Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) model, many software development groups are using a hybrid development model that incorporates Agile and Waterfall methodologies in different parts of the organization. The traditional metrics used for measuring software quality in Waterfall or Agile paradigms do not apply to this new hybrid methodology. In addition, to respond to higher quality demands from customers and to gain a competitive advantage in the market, many companies are starting to prioritize quality as a strategic differentiator. As a result, quality metrics are included in the decision-making activities all the way up to the executive level, including board of director reviews. This paper presents key challenges associated with measuring software quality in organizations using the hybrid development model. We introduce a framework called Prevention-Inspection-Evaluation-Removal (PIER) to provide a comprehensive metric definition for hybrid organizations. The framework includes quality measurements, quality enforcement, and quality decision points at different organizational levels and project milestones. The metrics framework defined in this paper is being used for all Cisco systems products used in customer premises. We present several field metrics for one product portfolio (enterprise networking) to show the effectiveness of the proposed measurement system. As the results show, this metrics framework has significantly improved in-process defect management as well as field quality.

Keywords: quality management system, quality metrics framework, quality metrics, agile, waterfall, hybrid development system

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2057 Deep Learning Application for Object Image Recognition and Robot Automatic Grasping

Authors: Shiuh-Jer Huang, Chen-Zon Yan, C. K. Huang, Chun-Chien Ting

Abstract:

Since the vision system application in industrial environment for autonomous purposes are required intensely; the image recognition technique becomes an important research topic. Here, deep learning algorithm is employed in image system to recognize the industrial object and integrate with a 7A6 Series Manipulator for object automatic gripping task. PC and Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) are chosen to construct the 3D Vision Recognition System. Depth Camera (Intel RealSense SR300) is employed to extract the image for object recognition and coordinate derivation. The YOLOv2 scheme is adopted in convolution neural network (CNN) structure for object classification and center point prediction. In addition, image processing strategy is used to find the object contour for calculating the object orientation angle. Then, the specified object location and orientation information are sent to robotic controller. Finally, a 6 axis manipulator can grasp the specific object in a random environment based on the user command and the extracted image information. The experimental results show that YOLOv2 has been successfully employed to detect the object location and category with confidence near 0.9 and 3D position error less than 0.4 mm. It is useful for future intelligent robotic application in industrial 4.0 environment.

Keywords: deep learning, image processing, convolution neural network, YOLOv2, 7A6 series manipulator

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