Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 201

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Mechanical and Materials Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

201 Corrosion Behavior of Steels in Molten Salt Reactors

Authors: Jana Rejková, Marie Kudrnová

Abstract:

This paper deals with the research of materials for one of the types of reactors IV. generation - reactor with molten salts. One of the advantages of molten salts applied as a coolant in reactors is the ability to operate at relatively low pressures, as opposed to cooling with water or gases. Compared to liquid metal cooling, which also allows lower operating pressures, salt melts are less prone to chemical reactions. The service life of the construction materials used is limited by the operating temperatures of the reactor and the content of impurities in the salts. For the research of corrosion resistance, an experimental device was designed and assembled, enabling exposure at high temperatures without access to oxygen in a flowing atmosphere of inert gas. Nickel alloys Inconel 601, 617, and 625 were tested in a mixture of chloride salts LiCl – KCl (58,2 - 41,8 wt. %). The experiment showed high resistance of the materials used and based on the results and XPS analysis, other construction materials were proposed for the experiments.

Keywords: molten salt, corrosion, nuclear reactor, nickel alloy

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200 Depth Camera Aided Dead-Reckoning Localization of Autonomous Mobile Robots in Unstructured GNSS-Denied Environments

Authors: David L. Olson, Stephen B. H. Bruder, Adam S. Watkins, Cleon E. Davis

Abstract:

In global navigation satellite system (GNSS) denied settings, such as indoor environments, autonomous mobile robots are often limited to dead-reckoning navigation techniques to determine their position, velocity, and attitude (PVA). Localization is typically accomplished by employing an inertial measurement unit (IMU), which, while precise in nature, accumulates errors rapidly and severely degrades the localization solution. Standard sensor fusion methods, such as Kalman filtering, aim to fuse precise IMU measurements with accurate aiding sensors to establish a precise and accurate solution. In indoor environments, where GNSS and no other a priori information is known about the environment, effective sensor fusion is difficult to achieve, as accurate aiding sensor choices are sparse. However, an opportunity arises by employing a depth camera in the indoor environment. A depth camera can capture point clouds of the surrounding floors and walls. Extracting attitude from these surfaces can serve as an accurate aiding source, which directly combats errors that arise due to gyroscope imperfections. This new configuration for sensor fusion leads to a dramatic reduction of PVA error compared to traditional aiding sensor configurations. This paper provides the theoretical basis for the new aiding sensor method, initial expectations of performance benefit via simulation, and hardware implementation of the new algorithm verifying its veracity. Hardware implementation is performed on the Quanser Qbot 2™ mobile robot, with a Vector-Nav VN-200™ IMU and Kinect™ camera from Microsoft.

Keywords: autonomous mobile robotics, dead reckoning, depth camera, inertial navigation, Kalman filtering, localization, sensor fusion

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199 Feature Selection Approach for the Classification of Hydraulic Leakages in Hydraulic Final Inspection using Machine Learning

Authors: Christian Neunzig, Simon Fahle, Jürgen Schulz, Matthias Möller, Bernd Kuhlenkötter

Abstract:

Manufacturing companies are facing global competition and enormous cost pressure. The use of machine learning applications can help reduce production costs and create added value. Predictive quality enables the securing of product quality through data-supported predictions using machine learning models as a basis for decisions on test results. Furthermore, machine learning methods are able to process large amounts of data, deal with unfavourable row-column ratios and detect dependencies between the covariates and the given target as well as assess the multidimensional influence of all input variables on the target. Real production data are often subject to highly fluctuating boundary conditions and unbalanced data sets. Changes in production data manifest themselves in trends, systematic shifts, and seasonal effects. Thus, Machine learning applications require intensive pre-processing and feature selection. Data preprocessing includes rule-based data cleaning, the application of dimensionality reduction techniques, and the identification of comparable data subsets. Within the used real data set of Bosch hydraulic valves, the comparability of the same production conditions in the production of hydraulic valves within certain time periods can be identified by applying the concept drift method. Furthermore, a classification model is developed to evaluate the feature importance in different subsets within the identified time periods. By selecting comparable and stable features, the number of features used can be significantly reduced without a strong decrease in predictive power. The use of cross-process production data along the value chain of hydraulic valves is a promising approach to predict the quality characteristics of workpieces. In this research, the ada boosting classifier is used to predict the leakage of hydraulic valves based on geometric gauge blocks from machining, mating data from the assembly, and hydraulic measurement data from end-of-line testing. In addition, the most suitable methods are selected and accurate quality predictions are achieved.

Keywords: classification, achine learning, predictive quality, feature selection

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198 A Deep Learning Approach for the Predictive Quality of Directional Valves in the Hydraulic Final Test

Authors: Christian Neunzig, Simon Fahle, Jürgen Schulz, Matthias Möller, Bernd Kuhlenkötter

Abstract:

The increasing use of deep learning applications in production is becoming a competitive advantage. Predictive quality enables the assurance of product quality by using data-driven forecasts via machine learning models as a basis for decisions on test results. The use of real Bosch production data along the value chain of hydraulic valves is a promising approach to classifying the leakage of directional valves.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, classification, hydraulics, predictive quality, deep learning

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197 Highly Robust Crosslinked BIAN-based Binder to Stabilize High-Performance Silicon Anode in Lithium-Ion Secondary Battery

Authors: Agman Gupta, Rajashekar Badam, Noriyoshi Matsumi

Abstract:

Introduction: Recently, silicon has been recognized as one of the potential alternatives as anode active material in Li-ion batteries (LIBs) to replace the conventionally used graphite anodes. Silicon is abundantly present in the nature, it can alloy with lithium metal, and has a higher theoretical capacity (~4200 mAhg-1) that is approximately 10 times higher than graphite. However, because of a large volume expansion (~400%) upon repeated de-/alloying, the pulverization of Si particles causes the exfoliation of electrode laminate leading to the loss of electrical contact and adversely affecting the formation of solid-electrolyte interface (SEI).1 Functional polymers as binders have emerged as a competitive strategy to mitigate these drawbacks and failure mechanism of silicon anodes.1 A variety of aqueous/non-aqueous polymer binders like sodium carboxy-methyl cellulose (CMC-Na), styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), poly(acrylic acid), and other variants like mussel inspired binders have been investigated to overcome these drawbacks.1 However, there are only a few reports that mention the attempt of addressing all the drawbacks associated with silicon anodes effectively using a single novel functional polymer system as a binder. In this regard, here, we report a novel highly robust n-type bisiminoacenaphthenequinone (BIAN)-paraphenylene-based crosslinked polymer as a binder for Si anodes in lithium-ion batteries (Fig. 1). On its application, crosslinked-BIAN binder was evaluated to provide mechanical robustness to the large volume expansion of Si particles, maintain electrical conductivity within the electrode laminate, and facilitate in the formation of a thin SEI by restricting the extent of electrolyte decomposition on the surface of anode. The fabricated anodic half-cells were evaluated electrochemically for their rate capability, cyclability, and discharge capacity. Experimental: The polymerized BIAN (P-BIAN) copolymer was synthesized as per the procedure reported by our group.2 The synthesis of crosslinked P-BIAN: a solution of P-BIAN copolymer (1.497 g, 10 mmol) in N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) (150 ml) was set-up to stir under reflux in nitrogen atmosphere. To this, 1,6-dibromohexane (5 mmol, 0.77 ml) was added dropwise. The resultant reaction mixture was stirred and refluxed at 150 °C for 24 hours followed by refrigeration for 3 hours at 5 °C. The product was obtained by evaporating the NMP solvent under reduced pressure and drying under vacuum at 120 °C for 12 hours. The obtained product was a black colored sticky compound. It was characterized by 1H-NMR, XPS, and FT-IR techniques. Results and Discussion: The N 1s XPS spectrum of the crosslinked BIAN polymer showed two characteristic peaks corresponding to the sp2 hybridized nitrogen (-C=N-) at 399.6 eV of the diimine backbone in the BP and quaternary nitrogen at 400.7 eV corresponding to the crosslinking of BP via dibromohexane. The DFT evaluation of the crosslinked BIAN binder showed that it has a low lying lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) that enables it to get doped in the reducing environment and influence the formation of a thin (SEI). Therefore, due to the mechanically robust crosslinked matrices as well as its influence on the formation of a thin SEI, the crosslinked BIAN binder stabilized the Si anode-based half-cell for over 1000 cycles with a reversible capacity of ~2500 mAhg-1 and ~99% capacity retention as shown in Fig. 2. The dynamic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (DEIS) characterization of crosslinked BIAN-based anodic half-cell confirmed that the SEI formed was thin in comparison with the conventional binder-based anodes. Acknowledgement: We are thankful to the financial support provided by JST-Mirai Program, Grant Number: JP18077239

Keywords: self-healing binder, n-type binder, thin solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI), high-capacity silicon anodes, low-LUMO

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196 Evaluation of Iron Oxide-Functionalized Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Self-Standing Electrode for Symmetric Supercapacitor Application

Authors: B. V. Bhaskara Rao, Rodrigo Espinoza

Abstract:

The rapid development of renewable energy sources has drawn great attention to energy storage devices, especially supercapacitors, because of their high power density and rate performance. This work focus on Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles synthesized by reverse co-precipitation and MWCNTs functionalized by –COOH acid functionalization. The results show that Optimized 25wt% Fe₃O₄@FMWCNT show high specific capacitance 100 mF/cm² at one mA/cm² whereas 15wt% Fe₃O₄@FMWCNT showed high stability (80% retention capacity) over 5000 cycles. The electrolyte used in the coin cell is LiPF6 and the thickness of the electrode is 30 microns. The optimized Fe₃O₄@FMWCNT bucky papers coin cell electrochemical studies suggest that 25wt% Fe₃O₄@FMWCNT could be a good candidate for high-capacity supercapacitor devices. This could be further tested for flexible and planar supercapacitor device application with gel electrolytes.

Keywords: self-standing electrode, Fe₃[email protected], supercapacitor, symmetric coin-cell

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195 Determination of Stress-Strain Curve of Duplex Stainless Steel Welds

Authors: Carolina Payares-Asprino

Abstract:

Dual-phase duplex stainless steel comprised of ferrite and austenite has shown high strength and corrosion resistance in many aggressive environments. Joining duplex alloys is challenging due to several embrittling precipitates and metallurgical changes during the welding process. The welding parameters strongly influence the quality of a weld joint. Therefore, it is necessary to quantify the weld bead’s integral properties as a function of welding parameters, especially when part of the weld bead is removed through a machining process due to aesthetic reasons or to couple the elements in the in-service structure. The present study uses the existing stress-strain model to predict the stress-strain curves for duplex stainless-steel welds under different welding conditions. Having mathematical expressions that predict the shape of the stress-strain curve is advantageous since it reduces the experimental work in obtaining the tensile test. In analysis and design, such stress-strain modeling simplifies the time of operations by being integrated into calculation tools, such as the finite element program codes. The elastic zone and the plastic zone of the curve can be defined by specific parameters, generating expressions that simulate the curve with great precision. There are empirical equations that describe the stress-strain curves. However, they only refer to the stress-strain curve for the stainless steel, but not when the material is under the welding process. It is a significant contribution to the applications of duplex stainless steel welds. For this study, a 3x3 matrix with a low, medium, and high level for each of the welding parameters were applied, giving a total of 27 weld bead plates. Two tensile specimens were manufactured from each welded plate, resulting in 54 tensile specimens for testing. When evaluating the four models used to predict the stress-strain curve in the welded specimens, only one model (Rasmussen) presented a good correlation in predicting the strain stress curve.

Keywords: duplex stainless steels, modeling, stress-stress curve, tensile test, welding

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194 Structural, Magnetic, Electrical and Dielectric Properties of Pr0.8Na0.2MnO3 Manganite

Authors: H. Ben Khlifa, W. Cheikhrouhou, R. M'nassri

Abstract:

The Orthorhombic Pr0.8Na0.2MnO3 ceramic was prepared in Polycrystalline form by a Pechini sol–gel method and its structural, magnetic, electrical, and dielectric properties were investigated experimentally. A structural study confirms that the sample is a single phase. Magnetic measurements show that the sample is a charge ordered Manganite. The sample undergoes two successive magnetic phase transitions with the variation of temperature: a charge ordering transition occurred at TCO = 212 K followed by a Paramagnetic (PM) to ferromagnetic (FM) transition around TC = 115 K. From an electrical point of view, a saturation region was marked in the conductivity as a function of Temperature s(T) curves at a specific temperature. The dc-conductivity (sdc) reaches a maximum value at 240 K. The obtained results are in good agreement with the temperature dependence of the average normalized change (ANC). We found that the conduction mechanism was governed by small polaron hopping (SPH) in the high-temperature region and by variable range hopping (VRH) in the low-temperature region. Complex impedance analysis indicates the presence of a non-Debye relaxation phenomenon in the system. Also, the compound was modeled by an electrical equivalent circuit. Then, the contribution of the grain boundary in the transport properties was confirmed.

Keywords: manganites, preparation methods, magnetization, magnetocaloric effect, electrical and dielectric

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193 A Hardware-in-the-loop Simulation for the Development of Advanced Control System Design for a Spinal Joint Wear Simulator

Authors: Kaushikk Iyer, Richard M Hall, David Keeling

Abstract:

Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation is an advanced technique for developing and testing complex real-time control systems. This paper presents the benefits of HIL simulation and how it can be implemented and used effectively to develop, test, and validate advanced control algorithms used in a spinal joint Wear simulator for the Tribological testing of spinal disc prostheses. spinal wear simulator is technologically the most advanced machine currently employed For the in-vitro testing of newly developed spinal Discimplants. However, the existing control techniques, such as a simple position control Does not allow the simulator to test non-sinusoidal waveforms. Thus, there is a need for better and advanced control methods that can be developed and tested Rigorouslybut safely before deploying it into the real simulator. A benchtop HILsetupis was created for experimentation, controller verification, and validation purposes, allowing different control strategies to be tested rapidly in a safe environment. The HIL simulation aspect in this setup attempts to replicate similar spinal motion and loading conditions. The spinal joint wear simulator containsa four-Barlinkpowered by electromechanical actuators. LabVIEW software is used to design a kinematic model of the spinal wear Simulator to Validatehow each link contributes towards the final motion of the implant under test. As a result, the implant articulates with an angular motion specified in the international standards, ISO-18192-1, that define fixed, simplified, and sinusoid motion and load profiles for wear testing of cervical disc implants. Using a PID controller, a velocity-based position control algorithm was developed to interface with the benchtop setup that performs HIL simulation. In addition to PID, a fuzzy logic controller (FLC) was also developed that acts as a supervisory controller. FLC provides intelligence to the PID controller by By automatically tuning the controller for profiles that vary in amplitude, shape, and frequency. This combination of the fuzzy-PID controller is novel to the wear testing application for spinal simulators and demonstrated superior performance against PIDwhen tested for a spectrum of frequency. Kaushikk Iyer is a Ph.D. Student at the University of Leeds and an employee at Key Engineering Solutions, Leeds, United Kingdom, (e-mail: [email protected], phone: +44 740 541 5502). Richard M Hall is with the University of Leeds, the United Kingdom as a professor in the Mechanical Engineering Department (e-mail: [email protected]). David Keeling is the managing director of Key Engineering Solutions, Leeds, United Kingdom (e-mail: [email protected]). Results obtained are successfully validated against the load and motion tolerances specified by the ISO18192-1 standard and fall within limits, that is, ±0.5° at the maxima and minima of the motion and ±2 % of the complete cycle for phasing. The simulation results prove the efficacy of the test setup using HIL simulation to verify and validate the accuracy and robustness of the prospective controller before its deployment into the spinal wear simulator. This method of testing controllers enables a wide range of possibilities to test advanced control algorithms that can potentially test even profiles of patients performing various dailyliving activities.

Keywords: Fuzzy-PID controller, hardware-in-the-loop (HIL), real-time simulation, spinal wear simulator

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192 Estimation and Restoration of Ill-Posed Parameters for Underwater Motion Blurred Images

Authors: M. Vimal Raj, S. Sakthivel Murugan

Abstract:

Underwater images degrade their quality due to atmospheric conditions. One of the major problems in an underwater image is motion blur caused by the imaging device or the movement of the object. In order to rectify that in post-imaging, parameters of the blurred image are to be estimated. So, the point spread function is estimated by the properties, using the spectrum of the image. To improve the estimation accuracy of the parameters, Optimized Polynomial Lagrange Interpolation (OPLI) method is implemented after the angle and length measurement of motion-blurred images. Initially, the data were collected from real-time environments in Chennai and processed. The proposed OPLI method shows better accuracy than the existing classical Cepstral, Hough, and Radon transform estimation methods for underwater images.

Keywords: image restoration, motion blur, parameter estimation, radon transform, underwater

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191 Local Directional Encoded Derivative Binary Pattern Based Coral Image Classification Using Weighted Distance Gray Wolf Optimization Algorithm

Authors: Annalakshmi G., Sakthivel Murugan S.

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This paper presents a local directional encoded derivative binary pattern (LDEDBP) feature extraction method that can be applied for the classification of submarine coral reef images. The classification of coral reef images using texture features is difficult due to the dissimilarities in class samples. In coral reef image classification, texture features are extracted using the proposed method called local directional encoded derivative binary pattern (LDEDBP). The proposed approach extracts the complete structural arrangement of the local region using local binary batten (LBP) and also extracts the edge information using local directional pattern (LDP) from the edge response available in a particular region, thereby achieving extra discriminative feature value. Typically the LDP extracts the edge details in all eight directions. The process of integrating edge responses along with the local binary pattern achieves a more robust texture descriptor than the other descriptors used in texture feature extraction methods. Finally, the proposed technique is applied to an extreme learning machine (ELM) method with a meta-heuristic algorithm known as weighted distance grey wolf optimizer (GWO) to optimize the input weight and biases of single-hidden-layer feed-forward neural networks (SLFN). In the empirical results, ELM-WDGWO demonstrated their better performance in terms of accuracy on all coral datasets, namely RSMAS, EILAT, EILAT2, and MLC, compared with other state-of-the-art algorithms. The proposed method achieves the highest overall classification accuracy of 94% compared to the other state of art methods.

Keywords: feature extraction, local directional pattern, ELM classifier, GWO optimization

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190 Enhancement of Underwater Haze Image with Edge Reveal Using Pixel Normalization

Authors: M. Dhana Lakshmi, S. Sakthivel Murugan

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As light passes from source to observer in the water medium, it is scattered by the suspended particulate matter. This scattering effect will plague the captured images with non-uniform illumination, blurring details, halo artefacts, weak edges, etc. To overcome this, pixel normalization with an Amended Unsharp Mask (AUM) filter is proposed to enhance the degraded image. To validate the robustness of the proposed technique irrespective of atmospheric light, the considered datasets are collected on dual locations. For those images, the maxima and minima pixel intensity value is computed and normalized; then the AUM filter is applied to strengthen the blurred edges. Finally, the enhanced image is obtained with good illumination and contrast. Thus, the proposed technique removes the effect of scattering called de-hazing and restores the perceptual information with enhanced edge detail. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses are done on considering the standard non-reference metric called underwater image sharpness measure (UISM), and underwater image quality measure (UIQM) is used to measure color, sharpness, and contrast for both of the location images. It is observed that the proposed technique has shown overwhelming performance compared to other deep-based enhancement networks and traditional techniques in an adaptive manner.

Keywords: underwater drone imagery, pixel normalization, thresholding, masking, unsharp mask filter

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189 Possibility of Making Ceramic Models from Condemned Plaster of Paris (Pop) Moulds for Ceramics Production in Edo State Nigeria

Authors: Osariyekemwen, Daniel Nosakhare

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Some ceramic wastes, such as discarded (condemn) Plaster of Paris (POP) in Auchi Polytechnic, Edo State, constitute environmental hazards. This study, therefore, bridges the forgoing gaps by undertaking the use of these discarded (POP) moulds to produced ceramic models for making casting moulds for mass production. This is in line with the possibility of using this medium to properly manage the discarded (condemn) Plaster of Paris (POP) that littered our immediate environment. Presently these are major wastes disposal in the department. Hence, the study has been made to fabricate sanitary miniature models and contract fuse models, respectively. Findings arising from this study show that discarded (condemn) Plaster of Paris (POP) can be carved when to set it neither shrink nor expand; hence warping is quite unusual. Above all, it also gives good finishing with little deterioration with time when compared to clay models.

Keywords: plaster of Paris, condemn, moulds, models, production

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188 The Impact of Liquid Glass-Infused Lignin Waste Particles on Performance of Polyurethane Foam for Building Industry

Authors: Agnė Kairyte, Saulius Vaitkus

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The gradual depletion of fossil feedstock and growing environmental concerns attracted extensive attention to natural resources due to their low cost, high abundance, renewability, sustainability, and biodegradability. Lignin is a significant by-product of the pulp and paper industry, having unique functional groups. Recently it became interesting for the manufacturing of high value-added products such as polyurethane and polyisocyanurate foams. This study focuses on the development of high-performance polyurethane foams with various amounts of lignin as a filler. It is determined that the incorporation of lignin as a filler material results in brittle and hard products due to the low molecular mobility of isocyanates and the inherent stiffness of lignin. Therefore, the current study analyses new techniques and possibilities of liquid glass infusion onto the surface of lignin particles to reduce the negative aspects and improve the performance characteristics of the modified foams. The foams modified with sole lignin and liquid glass-infused lignin had an apparent density ranging from 35 kg/m3 to 45 kg/m3 and closed-cell content (80–90%). The incorporation of sole lignin reduced the compressive and tensile strengths and increased dimensional stability and water absorption, while the contrary results were observed for polyurethane foams with liquid glass-infused lignin particles. The effect on rheological parameters of lignin and liquid glass infused lignin modified polyurethane premixes and morphology of polyurethane foam products were monitored to optimize the conditions and reveal the significant influence of the interaction between particles and polymer matrix.

Keywords: filler, lignin waste, liquid glass, polymer matrix, polyurethane foam, sustainability

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187 Multi-Sensor Target Tracking Using Ensemble Learning

Authors: Bhekisipho Twala, Mantepu Masetshaba, Ramapulana Nkoana

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Multiple classifier systems combine several individual classifiers to deliver a final classification decision. However, an increasingly controversial question is whether such systems can outperform the single best classifier, and if so, what form of multiple classifiers system yields the most significant benefit. Also, multi-target tracking detection using multiple sensors is an important research field in mobile techniques and military applications. In this paper, several multiple classifiers systems are evaluated in terms of their ability to predict a system’s failure or success for multi-sensor target tracking tasks. The Bristol Eden project dataset is utilised for this task. Experimental and simulation results show that the human activity identification system can fulfill requirements of target tracking due to improved sensors classification performances with multiple classifier systems constructed using boosting achieving higher accuracy rates.

Keywords: single classifier, ensemble learning, multi-target tracking, multiple classifiers

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186 Study on Temperature Distribution throughout the Continuous Casting Process of Copper Magnesium Alloys

Authors: Paweł Strzępek, Małgorzata Zasadzińska, Szymon Kordaszewski, Wojciech Ściężor

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The constant tendency toward the materials properties improvement nowadays creates opportunities for the scientists, and furthermore the manufacturers all over the world to design, form and produce new alloys almost every day. Considering the fact that companies all over the world look for alloys with the highest values of mechanical properties coexisting with a reasonable electrical conductivity made it necessary to develop new materials based on copper, such as copper magnesium alloys with over 2 wt. % of Mg. Though, before such new material may be mass produced it must undergo a series of tests in order to determine the production technology and its parameters. The presented study is based on the numerical simulations calculated with the use of finite element method analysis, where the geometry of the cooling system, the material used to produce the cooling system and the surface quality of the graphite crystallizer at the place of contact with the cooling system and its influence on the temperatures throughout the continuous casting process is being investigated. The calculated simulations made it possible to propose the optimal set of equipment necessary for the continuous casting process to be carried out in laboratory conditions with various casting parameters and to determine basic materials properties of the obtained alloys such as hardness, electrical conductivity and homogeneity of the chemical composition. The authors are grateful for the financial support provided by The National Centre for Research and Development – Research Project No. LIDER/33/0121/L-11/19/NCBR/2020.

Keywords: CuMg alloys, continuous casting, temperature analysis, finite element method

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185 Mathematical Modeling and Optimization of Burnishing Parameters for 15NiCr6 Steel

Authors: Tarek Litim, Ouahiba Taamallah

Abstract:

The present paper is an investigation of the effect of burnishing on the surface integrity of a component made of 15NiCr6 steel. This work shows a statistical study based on regression, and Taguchi's design has allowed the development of mathematical models to predict the output responses as a function of the technological parameters studied. The response surface methodology (RSM) showed a simultaneous influence of the burnishing parameters and observe the optimal processing parameters. ANOVA analysis of the results resulted in the validation of the prediction model with a determination coefficient R=90.60% and 92.41% for roughness and hardness, respectively. Furthermore, a multi-objective optimization allowed to identify a regime characterized by P=10kgf, i=3passes, and f=0.074mm/rev, which favours minimum roughness and maximum hardness. The result was validated by the desirability of D= (0.99 and 0.95) for roughness and hardness, respectively.

Keywords: 15NiCr6 steel, burnishing, surface integrity, Taguchi, RSM, ANOVA

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184 Hardware Implementation for the Contact Force Reconstruction in Tactile Sensor Arrays

Authors: María-Luisa Pinto-Salamanca, Wilson-Javier Pérez-Holguín

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Reconstruction of contact forces is a fundamental technique for analyzing the properties of a touched object and is essential for regulating the grip force in slip control loops. This is based on the processing of the distribution, intensity, and direction of the forces during the capture of the sensors. Currently, efficient hardware alternatives have been used more frequently in different fields of application, allowing the implementation of computationally complex algorithms, as is the case with tactile signal processing. The use of hardware for smart tactile sensing systems is a research area that promises to improve the processing time and portability requirements of applications such as artificial skin and robotics, among others. The literature review shows that hardware implementations are present today in almost all stages of smart tactile detection systems except in the force reconstruction process, a stage in which they have been less applied. This work presents a hardware implementation of a model-driven reported in the literature for the contact force reconstruction of flat and rigid tactile sensor arrays from normal stress data. From the analysis of a software implementation of such a model, this implementation proposes the parallelization of tasks that facilitate the execution of matrix operations and a two-dimensional optimization function to obtain a vector force by each taxel in the array. This work seeks to take advantage of the parallel hardware characteristics of Field Programmable Gate Arrays, FPGAs, and the possibility of applying appropriate techniques for algorithms parallelization using as a guide the rules of generalization, efficiency, and scalability in the tactile decoding process and considering the low latency, low power consumption, and real-time execution as the main parameters of design. The results show a maximum estimation error of 32% in the tangential forces and 22% in the normal forces with respect to the simulation by the Finite Element Modeling (FEM) technique of Hertzian and non-Hertzian contact events, over sensor arrays of 10×10 taxels of different sizes. The hardware implementation was carried out on an MPSoC XCZU9EG-2FFVB1156 platform of Xilinx® that allows the reconstruction of force vectors following a scalable approach, from the information captured by means of tactile sensor arrays composed of up to 48 × 48 taxels that use various transduction technologies. The proposed implementation demonstrates a reduction in estimation time of x / 180 compared to software implementations. Despite the relatively high values of the estimation errors, the information provided by this implementation on the tangential and normal tractions and the triaxial reconstruction of forces allows to adequately reconstruct the tactile properties of the touched object, which are similar to those obtained in the software implementation and in the two FEM simulations taken as reference. Although errors could be reduced, the proposed implementation is useful for decoding contact forces for portable tactile sensing systems, thus helping to expand electronic skin applications in robotic and biomedical contexts.

Keywords: contact forces reconstruction, forces estimation, tactile sensor array, hardware implementation

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183 Development of Multilayer Capillary Copper Wick Structure using Microsecond CO₂ Pulsed Laser

Authors: Talha Khan, Surendhar Kumaran, Rajeev Nair

Abstract:

The development of economical, efficient, and reliable next-generation thermal and water management systems to provide efficient cooling and water management technologies is being pursued application in compact and lightweight spacecraft. The elimination of liquid-vapor phase change-based thermal and water management systems is being done due to issues with the reliability and robustness of this technology. To achieve the motive of implementing the principle of using an innovative evaporator and condenser design utilizing bimodal wicks manufactured using a microsecond pulsed CO₂ laser has been proposed in this study. Cylin drical, multilayered capillary copper wicks with a substrate diameter of 39 mm are additively manufactured using a pulsed laser. The copper particles used for layer-by-layer addition on the substrate measure in a diameter range of 225 to 450 micrometers. The primary objective is to develop a novel, high-quality, fast turnaround, laser-based additive manufacturing process that will eliminate the current technical challenges involved with the traditional manufacturing processes for nano/micro-sized powders, like particle agglomeration. Raster-scanned, pulsed-laser sintering process has been developed to manufacture 3D wicks with controlled porosity and permeability.

Keywords: liquid-vapor phase change, bimodal wicks, multilayered, capillary, raster-scanned, porosity, permeability

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182 Determination of LS-DYNA MAT162 Material Parameters for Low Velocity Impact Analysis of Layered Composites

Authors: Mustafa Albayrak, Mete Onur Kaman

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In this study, the necessary material parameters were determined to be able to conduct progressive damage analysis of layered composites under low-velocity impact by using the MAT162 material module in the LS-DYNA program. The material module MAT162 based on the Hashin damage criterion requires 34 parameters in total. Some of these parameters were obtained directly as a result of dynamic and quasi-static mechanical tests, and the remaining part was calibrated and determined by comparing numerical and experimental results. Woven glass/epoxy was used as the composite material, and it was produced by the vacuum infusion method. In the numerical model, composites are modeled as three-dimensional and layered. As a result, the acquisition of MAT162 material module parameters, which will enable progressive damage analysis, is given in detail and step by step, and the selection methods of the parameters are explained. Numerical data consistent with the experimental results are given in graphics.

Keywords: MAT162, LS-DYNA, layered composites, Hashin failure criteria, finite element method

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181 Geometric Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Cylindrical Composite Sandwich Shells Subjected to Underwater Blast Load

Authors: Mustafa Taskin, Ozgur Demir, M. Mert Serveren

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The precise study of the impact of underwater explosions on structures is of great importance in the design and engineering calculations of floating structures, especially those used for military purposes, as well as power generation facilities such as offshore platforms that can become a target in case of war. Considering that ship and submarine structures are mostly curved surfaces, it is extremely important and interesting to examine the destructive effects of underwater explosions on curvilinear surfaces. In this study, geometric nonlinear dynamic analysis of cylindrical composite sandwich shells subjected to instantaneous pressure load is performed. The instantaneous pressure load is defined as an underwater explosion and the effects of the liquid medium are taken into account. There are equations in the literature for pressure due to underwater explosions, but these equations have been obtained for flat plates. For this reason, the instantaneous pressure load equations are arranged to be suitable for curvilinear structures before proceeding with the analyses. Fluid-solid interaction is defined by using Taylor's Plate Theory. The lower and upper layers of the cylindrical composite sandwich shell are modeled as composite laminate and the middle layer consists of soft core. The geometric nonlinear dynamic equations of the shell are obtained by Hamilton's principle, taken into account the von Kàrmàn theory of large displacements. Then, time dependent geometric nonlinear equations of motion are solved with the help of generalized differential quadrature method (GDQM) and dynamic behavior of cylindrical composite sandwich shells exposed to underwater explosion is investigated. An algorithm that can work parametrically for the solution has been developed within the scope of the study.

Keywords: cylindrical composite sandwich shells, generalized differential quadrature method, geometric nonlinear dynamic analysis, underwater explosion

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180 Characterisation of the H-ZSM-5 Zeolite Samples Synthesized in Wide Range of Si/Al Ratios and with H₂SO₄ and CH₃COOH Acids Used for Transformation to H-Form

Authors: Mladen Jankovic, Biljana Djuric, Djurdja Oljaca, Vladimir Damjanovic, Radislav Filipovic, Zoran Obrenovic

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One of the key characteristics of zeolites with ZSM-5 crystalline form is the possibility of synthesis in a wide range of molar ratios, from the relatively low ratio of about 20 to highly silicate forms with a Si/Al ratio over 1000. For industrial production and commercial use of this type of zeolite, it is very important to know the influence of the molar Si/Al ratio on the characteristics of zeolite powders. In this paper, the influence of the Si/Al ratio on the characteristics of H-ZSM-5 zeolites synthesized in the presence of tetrapropylammonium bromide is questioned, including the possibility of conversion to the H-form using different acids. The quality of the samples is characterized in terms of crystallinity, chemical composition, morphology, granulometry, specific surface area (BET), pore size and acidity. XRD, FT-IR, EDX, ICP, SEM and TPD instrumental techniques were used to characterize the samples. In most of the performed syntheses, zeolite has been obtained with very good properties. It was shown that the examined conditions have a significant influence on the characteristics of the synthesized powders. The different chemical composition of the starting mixture, ie. the Si/Al ratio, has a very significant influence on the crystal structure of the synthesized powders, and thus on the other tested characteristics. It has been observed that optimal ion exchange results for powders of different Si/Al ratios are achieved by using different acids. Also, the dependence of the specific surface on the concentration of H+ or Na+ ions was confirmed.

Keywords: Characterisation, H-ZSM-5, molar ratio, synthesis, tetrapropylammonium bromide

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179 ICanny: CNN Modulation Recognition Algorithm

Authors: Jingpeng Gao, Xinrui Mao, Zhibin Deng

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Aiming at the low recognition rate on the composite signal modulation in low signal to noise ratio (SNR), this paper proposes a modulation recognition algorithm based on ICanny-CNN. Firstly, the radar signal is transformed into the time-frequency image by Choi-Williams Distribution (CWD). Secondly, we propose an image processing algorithm using the Guided Filter and the threshold selection method, which is combined with the hole filling and the mask operation. Finally, the shallow convolutional neural network (CNN) is combined with the idea of the depth-wise convolution (Dw Conv) and the point-wise convolution (Pw Conv). The proposed CNN is designed to complete image classification and realize modulation recognition of radar signal. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can reach 90.83% at 0dB and 71.52% at -8dB. Therefore, the proposed algorithm has a good classification and anti-noise performance in radar signal modulation recognition and other fields.

Keywords: modulation recognition, image processing, composite signal, improved Canny algorithm

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178 Static Output Feedback Control of a Two-Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Using Sliding Mode Technique

Authors: Yankun Yang, Xinggang Yan, Konstantinos Sirlantzis, Gareth Howells

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This paper presents a static output feedback sliding mode control method to regulate a two-wheeled inverted pendulum system with considerations of matched and unmatched uncertainties. A sliding surface is designed and the associated sliding motion stability is analysed based on the reduced-order dynamics. A static output sliding mode control law is synthesised to drive the system to the sliding surface and maintain a sliding motion afterwards. The nonlinear bounds on the uncertainties are employed in the stability analysis and control design to improve the robustness. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control.

Keywords: two-wheeled inverted pendulum, output feedback sliding mode control, nonlinear systems, robotics

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177 Hole Characteristics of Percussion and Single Pulse Laser-Incised Radiata Pine and the Effects of Wood Anatomy on Laser-Incision

Authors: Subhasisa Nath, David Waugh, Graham Ormondroyd, Morwenna Spear, Andy Pitman, Paul Mason

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Wood is one of the most sustainable and environmentally favourable materials and is chemically treated in timber industries to maximise durability. To increase the chemical preservative uptake and retention by the wood, current limiting incision technologies are commonly used. This work reports the effects of single pulse CO2 laser-incision and frequency tripled Nd:YAG percussion laser-incision on the characteristics of laser-incised holes in the Radiata Pine. The laser-incision studies were based on changing laser wavelengths, energies and focal planes to conclude on an optimised combination for the laser-incision of Radiata Pine. The laser pulse duration had a dominant effect over laser power in controlling hole aspect ratio in CO2 laser-incision. A maximum depth of ~ 30 mm was measured with a laser power output of 170 W and a pulse duration of 80 ms. However, increased laser power led to increased carbonisation of holes. The carbonisation effect was reduced during laser-incision in the ultra-violet (UV) regime. Deposition of a foamy phase on the laser-incised hole wall was evident irrespective of laser radiation wavelength and energy. A maximum hole depth of ~20 mm was measured in the percussion laser-incision in the UV regime (355 nm) with a pulse energy of 320 mJ. The radial and tangential faces had a significant effect on laser-incision efficiency for all laser wavelengths. The laser-incised hole shapes and circularities were affected by the wood anatomy (earlywoods and latewoods in the structure). Subsequently, the mechanism of laser-incision is proposed by analysing the internal structure of laser-incised holes.

Keywords: CO2 Laser, Nd: YAG laser, incision, drilling, wood, hole characteristics

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176 Copper and Aminosilane Functionalized Mesoporous Silicas as Carriers for Hydroxychloroquine Antiviral Drug

Authors: Anna Olejnik, Joanna Goscianska

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Currently, great attention has been paid to hydroxychloroquine that showed promising antiviral activity against the Ebola virus, HIV-1, poliovirus, SARS-CoV-1, and SARS-CoV-2. This drug is applied to treat malaria, discoid lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and antiphospholipid syndrome. However, it was proved that hydroxychloroquine exhibits several side effects, including gastrointestinal disorders, myopathy, retinopathy, and hepatic failure. In order to reduce them and to minimize the frequency of drug daily dosage, it is proposed to apply nanocarriers such as ordered mesoporous silicas. These materials can be recommended as ideal candidates for hosting active compounds due to their nontoxicity, high stability, well-developed surface area, and great pore volume. The main aim of this study was to apply mesoporous silicas as novel nanocarriers for hydroxychloroquine. The SBA-15 and SBA-16 materials were modified with3-aminopropyltriethoxysilaneand copper(II) chloride. The amino-functional groups were applied to enhance the sorption abilities of mesoporous silica towards the drug, while copper was selected because it exhibits antiviral and antibacterial activity. The non-modified and copper and amino silane functionalized mesoporous silica were obtained and characterized by various methods such as X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, low-temperature nitrogen sorption infrared spectroscopy, laser diffraction, and zeta potential measurement. Afterward, the influence of physicochemical parameters of materials synthesized on the adsorption and release processes of hydroxychloroquine was studied. The results proved that the mesoporous silicas were successfully obtained. Unmodified SBA-15 and SBA-16 materials had high surface area, ranging from 703 to 727 m²/g, respectively. The functionalization of materials with aminosilane and copper(II) chloride led to a significant decrease in the specific surface area and pore volume. Based on XRD diffractograms and transmission electron microscopy images, it was identified that pristine SBA-15 and SBA-16 had highly ordered mesoporous structure, while for the modified materials, the degree of mesostructure ordering decreased. The results proved that the adsorption process of hydroxychloroquine was more efficient on the surface of copper and aminosilane modified materials only at low drug concentrations. It was found that pore volume is the crucial parameter that had an influence on the sorption capacity. The mechanism of drug binding to non-modified silicas (SBA-15 and SBA-16) was based mainly on the formation of hydrogen bonds, while in the case of copper and aminosilane functionalized materials, the complexes with hydroxychloroquine molecules were formed. The obtained data proved that the release behavior of drug from mesoporous silica carriers was determined by various factors such as pH conditions, textural parameters, surface charge, and the presence of surface functional groups. Based on these studies, it is expected that functionalized mesoporous silica could be used as a smart vehicle for hydroxychloroquine that will enable the release of the antiviral drug at the chosen location of the body in a controlled manner.

Keywords: drug adsorption, mesoporous materials, release studies, surface modification

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175 Hybrid Systems Avobenzone – Mesoporous Silica Modified with Zinc Oxide as Ingredients of Sunscreen Formulations

Authors: Anna Olejnik, Joanna Goscianska

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UV radiation is the main factor that is responsible for acute adverse outcomes like sunburn, erythema, pigmentation, and chronic ones like skin cancer or photo-aging. In order to protect human skin, international health organizations have recommended the application of sunscreen products that contain UV filters (chemical or physical). On the one hand, sunscreen blockers exhibit great advantages, but on the other hand, there is a growing concern regarding the safety of some organic UV filters. The most commonly applied chemical sunscreen agents undergo photo-degradation or penetrate through the stratum corneum. It was reported that the widely applied UV filter avobenzone was photounstable, and its photodegradation products could be responsible for photoallergic and cytotoxic reactions. Therefore, there is an increased need to design innovative carriers for sunscreen agents that are important for human health. So far, mesoporous materials have found applications as catalysts, adsorbents, and drug delivery carriers due to their unique properties such as high surface area (600–1000 m2/g), great stability, and high pore volume (0.6–1.0 cm3/g). Moreover, the impregnation of silica samples with Zn precursors may enhance the photoprotective effect of nanomaterials because these metal oxides are known as physical UV filters. The main scientific aim of this study was to develop and characterize novel vehicles for selected organic UV-filter such as avobenzone that could find potential application in sunscreen formulations. Initially, the mesoporous silica materials unmodified/modified with zinc oxide were obtained and characterized by various methods, including X-ray diffraction, low-temperature nitrogen sorption, infrared spectroscopy, laser diffraction, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy. Next, these nanomaterials were applied as carriers for avobenzone. The UV filters’ loading into mesoporous silica was achieved in adsorption processes. The obtained hybrid systems were characterized and compared by spectroscopic methods elemental and thermogravimetric analyses. Afterward, the release behavior of avobenzone from unmodified and modified materials was studied. In the last step, the hybrid materials were introduced into topical formulations, and the stability of newly obtained semisolids was assessed. The results proved that the modification of mesoporous silica materials with zinc oxide changed their textural parameters. The adsorption process of avobenzone was highly dependent on the type of materials applied. The presence of zinc oxide on the surface of mesoporous silica was found to increase the amount of avobenzone released compared to non-modified samples. The semisolid formulations were stable after the introduction of the hybrid system containing inorganic silica and organic UV-filter. This study gives a potential future direction for the application of nanoporous materials in skincare products. Acknowledgments The authors acknowledge the financial support from National Science Center, Poland (project Miniatura 4 no. 2020/04/X/ST5/2020.

Keywords: drug adsorption, mesoporous materials, release studies, surface modification

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174 Halloysite Based Adsorbents for Removing Pollutants from Water Reservoirs

Authors: Agata Chelminska, Joanna Goscianska

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The rapid growth of the world’s population and the resulting economic development have had an enormous influence on the environment. Multiple industrial processes generate huge amounts of wastewater containing dangerous substances, most of which are discharged into water bodies. These contaminants include pharmaceuticals and synthetic dyes. Regardless of the presence of wastewater treatment plants, a lot of pollutants cannot be easily eliminated by well-known technologies. Hence, more effective methods of removing resistant chemicals are being developed. Due to cost-effectiveness as well as the availability of a wide range of adsorbents, a large interest in the adsorption process as an alternative way of water purification has been observed. Clay minerals, e.g., halloysite, are one of the most researched natural adsorbents because of their availability, non-toxicity, high specific surface area, porosity, layered structure, and low cost. The negatively charged surface makes them ideal for binding cations and organic compounds. Halloysite can be subjected to modifications which enhance its adsorptive properties. The aim of the presented research was to apply pure and modified halloysite in removing particular pollutants (tetracycline, tartrazine, and phosphates) from aqueous solutions. Halloysite was modified with alcoholic and aqueous solutions of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and urea in different concentrations and subsequently impregnated with lanthanum(III) chloride. Acidic and basic oxygen groups located on the surface of all materials were determined. Moreover, the adsorbents obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction, low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. The effectiveness of samples in tetracycline, tartrazine, and phosphates adsorption from the liquid phase was then studied in order to determine their potential application in eliminating contaminants from water reservoirs. Modifiers’ employment enabled obtaining materials that possess better adsorption properties, which makes them useful for removing various pollutants from water. Modifying the pure halloysite with CTAB and urea solutions and impregnating LaCl₃ led to the formation of acidic and basic oxygen functional groups on the surface. Their amount increases with an increasing percentage of lanthanum content. The acid-base properties of materials, as well as the type of functional groups that appear on their surface, have a significant influence on their sorption capacities towards antibiotics, dyes, and phosphate(V) anions. The selected contaminants adsorb onto the halloysite studied following the Langmuir type isotherm. The thermodynamic study indicated that the adsorption was a spontaneous and exothermic process. The adsorption equilibrium was rapidly attained after 120 min of contact time. Research showed that synthesized materials based on halloysite may be applied as adsorbents for antibiotics, organic dyes, and PO₄³- ions which are difficult to eliminate.

Keywords: adsorption processes, halloysite, minerals, water reservoirs pollutants

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173 Optimization of Cobalt Oxide Conversion to Co-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks

Authors: Aleksander Ejsmont, Stefan Wuttke, Joanna Goscianska

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Gaining control over particle shape, size and crystallinity is an ongoing challenge for many materials. Especially metalorganic frameworks (MOFs) are recently widely studied. Besides their remarkable porosity and interesting topologies, morphology has proven to be a significant feature. It can affect the further material application. Thus seeking new approaches that enable MOF morphology modulation is important. MOFs are reticular structures, where building blocks are made up of organic linkers and metallic nodes. The most common strategy of ensuring metal source is using salts, which usually exhibit high solubility and hinder morphology control. However, there has been a growing interest in using metal oxides as structure-directing agents towards MOFs due to their very low solubility and shape preservation. Metal oxides can be treated as a metal reservoir during MOF synthesis. Up to now, reports in which receiving MOFs from metal oxides mostly present ZnO conversion to ZIF-8. However, there are other oxides, for instance, Co₃O₄, which often is overlooked due to their structural stability and insolubility in aqueous solutions. Cobalt-based materials are famed for catalytic activity. Therefore the development of their efficient synthesis is worth attention. In the presented work, an optimized Co₃O₄transition to Co-MOFviaa solvothermal approach was proposed. The starting point of the research was the synthesis of Co₃O₄ flower petals and needles under hydrothermal conditions using different cobalt salts (e.g., cobalt(II) chloride and cobalt(II) nitrate), in the presence of urea, and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant as a capping agent. After receiving cobalt hydroxide, the calcination process was performed at various temperatures (300–500 °C). Then cobalt oxides as a source of cobalt cations were subjected to reaction with trimesic acid in solvothermal environment and temperature of 120 °C leading to Co-MOF fabrication. The solution maintained in the system was a mixture of water, dimethylformamide, and ethanol, with the addition of strong acids (HF and HNO₃). To establish how solvents affect metal oxide conversion, several different solvent ratios were also applied. The materials received were characterized with analytical techniques, including X-ray powder diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy,low-temperature nitrogen adsorption/desorption, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. It was confirmed that the synthetic routes have led to the formation of Co₃O₄ and Co-based MOF varied in shape and size of particles. The diffractograms showed receiving crystalline phase for Co₃O₄, and also for Co-MOF. The Co₃O₄ obtained from nitrates and with using low-temperature calcination resulted in smaller particles. The study indicated that cobalt oxide particles of different size influence the efficiency of conversion and morphology of Co-MOF. The highest conversion was achieved using metal oxides with small crystallites.

Keywords: Co-MOF, solvothermal synthesis, morphology control, core-shell

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172 Ordered Mesoporous Carbons of Different Morphology for Loading and Controlled Release of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

Authors: Aleksander Ejsmont, Aleksandra Galarda, Joanna Goscianska

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Smart porous carriers with defined structure and physicochemical properties are required for releasing the therapeutic drug with precise control of delivery time and location in the body. Due to their non-toxicity, ordered structure, chemical, and thermal stability, mesoporous carbons can be considered as modern carriers for active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) whose effectiveness needs frequent dosing algorithms. Such an API-carrier system, if programmed precisely, may stabilize the pharmaceutical and increase its dissolution leading to enhanced bioavailability. The substance conjugated with the material, through its prior adsorption, can later be successfully applied internally to the organism, as well as externally if the API release is feasible under these conditions. In the present study, ordered mesoporous carbons of different morphologies and structures, prepared by hard template method, were applied as carriers in the adsorption and controlled release of active pharmaceutical ingredients. In the first stage, the carbon materials were synthesized and functionalized with carboxylic groups by chemical oxidation using ammonium persulfate solution and then with amine groups. Materials obtained were thoroughly characterized with respect to morphology (scanning electron microscopy), structure (X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy), characteristic functional groups (FT-IR spectroscopy), acid-base nature of surface groups (Boehm titration), parameters of the porous structure (low-temperature nitrogen adsorption) and thermal stability (TG analysis). This was followed by a series of tests of adsorption and release of paracetamol, benzocaine, and losartan potassium. Drug release experiments were performed in the simulated gastric fluid of pH 1.2 and phosphate buffer of pH 7.2 or 6.8 at 37.0 °C. The XRD patterns in the small-angle range and TEM images revealed that functionalization of mesoporous carbons with carboxylic or amine groups leads to the decreased ordering of their structure. Moreover, the modification caused a considerable reduction of the carbon-specific surface area and pore volume, but it simultaneously resulted in changing their acid-base properties. Mesoporous carbon materials exhibit different morphologies, which affect the host-guest interactions during the adsorption process of active pharmaceutical ingredients. All mesoporous carbons show high adsorption capacity towards drugs. The sorption capacity of materials is mainly affected by BET surface area and the structure/size matching between adsorbent and adsorbate. Selected APIs are linked to the surface of carbon materials mainly by hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and electrostatic interactions. The release behavior of API is highly dependent on the physicochemical properties of mesoporous carbons. The release rate of APIs could be regulated by the introduction of functional groups and by changing the pH of the receptor medium. Acknowledgments—This research was supported by the National Science Centre, Poland (project SONATA-12 no: 2016/23/D/NZ7/01347).

Keywords: ordered mesoporous carbons, sorption capacity, drug delivery, carbon nanocarriers

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