Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1467

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Architectural and Environmental Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1467 The Hubs of Transformation Dictated by the Innovation Wave: Boston as a Case Study. Exploring How Design is Emerging as an Essential Feature in the Process of Laboratorisation of Cities

Authors: Luana Parisi, Sohrab Donyavi

Abstract:

Cities have become the nodes of global networks, standing at the intersection points of the flows of capital, goods, workers, businesses and travellers, making them the spots where innovation, progress and economic development occur. The primary challenge for them is to create the most fertile ecosystems for triggering innovation activities. Design emerges as an essential feature in this process of laboratorisation of cities. This paper aims at exploring the spatial hubs of transformation within the knowledge economy, providing an overview of the current models of innovation spaces, before focusing on the innovation district of one of the cities that are riding the innovation wave, namely, Boston, USA. Useful lessons will be drawn from the case study of the innovation district in Boston, allowing to define precious tools for policymakers, in the form of a range of factors that define the broad strategy able to implement the model successfully. A mixed methodology is implemented, including information from observations, exploratory interviews to key stakeholders and on-desk data.

Keywords: Innovation District, innovation ecosystem, economic development, urban regeneration

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1466 Individual Physiological and Psycho-Physical Response on Predicting Thermal Comfort in Transient Environments: A Literature Review

Authors: Fatemeh Deldarabdolmaleki, Nur Dalilah Dahlan, Farzad Hejazi

Abstract:

Human individual physiological and psycho-physical responses widely affect thermal comfort and preferences. They should be carefully researched to help improve the design and comfort of indoor environments. This paper aims to explore and test the degree and importance of individual physiological and psycho-physical differences, reviewing the most preferred, neutral, and comfortable temperature in previous studies conducted across the world. Basic individual physiological differences like gender, age, BMI and etc., have been the focus of this research. There is no unique consensus in the literature to date in regard to providing a universal thermal comfort formula that meets all individual physiological and psycho-physical needs. In order to achieve a balanced, thermally comfortable indoor environment, studying and evaluating individual needs in different parts of the world could be helpful. Even though personalized comfort systems in indoor environments sound promising, they might not be easily achieved in bigger office interiors, considering the cost and current open-plan office trends.

Keywords: thermal comfort, indoor environments, occupants' physiological response, occupants psycho-physical response

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1465 Modular Housing, the Perfect Solution

Authors: Eng. Mina Fawzy Ishak Gad Elsaid

Abstract:

The residential sector is not the only sector where this solution is needed. Healthcare, education, and, increasingly, retail all have their own constraints, and the modular design is ideally suited to providing both permanent and temporary solutions. Pre-engineered components that can be fitted to windows, doors, and many interior fixtures and fittings significantly reduce the time spent on site, which is particularly important if the goal is to minimize disruption to occupants and users. One such area is education. For health and safety reasons, to protect children, and to maintain a learning environment, school premises simply cannot be destructively built during school hours. Schools must therefore plan for maintenance and new construction during the holiday season, which, even in the summer, lasts only six weeks or less, making traditional building almost impossible. Reducing on-site time by 70% or more is, therefore, the key to solving this logistical nightmare. The modular design is the preferred option. Anyone who has attended school in Britain at a certain age remembers a prefab classroom: rickety, square, draughty rooms on stilts that boiled over in summer and froze over in winter and, despite their temporary nature, were mostly a fixed appointment. Modular buildings have come a long way since then and have worked hard to change their image of second-rate living. The main goals of this facility are to maximize off-site assembly; and to minimize interference with the website. Perhaps the greatest benefit is the speed of construction and health and safety, as the process essentially eliminates many on-site operations. One of the biggest health and safety hazards on construction sites is working at height - moving to an eco-friendly factory makes it a lot safer. The company can install eight to ten modules per day, meaning a typical school with around 100 modules could be installed over the Easter holidays. Logistically, the transport effort was drastically reduced. This is limited to a very small number, unlike traditional construction, where continuous deliveries would disrupt site operations. Only what is needed is brought to site, significantly reducing waste. As for the inconveniences, the main obstacle is transportation restrictions

Keywords: impact of modular construction, construction practices, housing market, earnings and profits, construction decisions, big data projects, new trends, projecting value chain

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1464 A Case for Strategic Landscape Infrastructure: South Essex Estuary Park

Authors: Alexandra Steed

Abstract:

Alexandra Steed URBAN was commissioned to undertake the South Essex Green and Blue Infrastructure Study (SEGBI) on behalf of the Association of South Essex Local Authorities (ASELA): a partnership of seven neighboring councils within the Thames Estuary. Located on London’s doorstep, the 70,000-hectare region is under extraordinary pressure for regeneration, further development, and economic expansion, yet faces extreme challenges: sea-level rise and inadequate flood defenses, stormwater flooding and threatened infrastructure, loss of internationally important habitats, significant existing community deprivation, and lack of connectivity and access to green space. The brief was to embrace these challenges in the creation of a document that would form a key part of ASELA’s Joint Strategic Framework and feed into local plans and master plans. Thus, helping to tackle climate change, ecological collapse, and social inequity at a regional scale whilst creating a relationship and awareness between urban communities and the surrounding landscapes and nature. The SEGBI project applied a ‘land-based’ methodology, combined with a co-design approach involving numerous stakeholders, to explore how living infrastructure can address these significant issues, reshape future planning and development, and create thriving places for the whole community of life. It comprised three key stages, including Baseline Review; Green and Blue Infrastructure Assessment; and the final Green and Blue Infrastructure Report. The resulting proposals frame an ambitious vision for the delivery of a new regional South Essex Estuary (SEE) Park – 24,000 hectares of protected and connected landscapes. This unified parkland system will drive effective place-shaping and “leveling up” for the most deprived communities while providing large-scale nature recovery and biodiversity net gain. Comprehensive analysis and policy recommendations ensure best practices will be embedded within planning documents and decisions guiding future development. Furthermore, a Natural Capital Account was undertaken as part of the strategy showing the tremendous economic value of the natural assets. This strategy sets a pioneering precedent that demonstrates how the prioritisation of living infrastructure has the capacity to address climate change and ecological collapse, while also supporting sustainable housing, healthier communities, and resilient infrastructures. It was only achievable through a collaborative and cross-boundary approach to strategic planning and growth, with a shared vision of place, and a strong commitment to delivery. With joined-up thinking and a joined-up region, a more impactful plan for South Essex was developed that will lead to numerous environmental, social, and economic benefits across the region, and enhancing the landscape and natural environs on the periphery of one of the largest cities in the world.

Keywords: climate change, green and blue infrastructure, landscape architecture, master planning, regional planning, social equity

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1463 The Multiaxial Load Proportionality Effect on the Fracture Surface Topography of Forged Magnesium Alloys

Authors: Andrew Gryguć, Seyed Behzad Behravesh, Hamid Jahed, Mary Wells, Wojciech Macek, Bruce Williams

Abstract:

This extended abstract investigates the influence of the multiaxial loading on the fatigue behavior of forged magnesium through quantitative analysis of its fracture surface topography and mesoscopic cracking orientation. Fatigue tests were performed on hollow tubular sample geometries extracted from closed-die forged AZ80 Mg components, with three different multiaxial strain paths (axial/shear), proportional, 45° out of phase, and 90° out of phase. Regardless of the strain path, fatigue cracks are initiated at the outer surface of the specimen where the combined stress state is largest. Depending on the salient mode of deformation, distinctive features in the fracture surface manifested themselves with different topographic amplitudes, surface roughness, and mesoscopic cracking orientation in the vicinity of the initiation site. The dominant crack propagation path was in the circumferential direction of the hollow tubular specimen (i.e., cracking transverse to the sample axis, with little to no branching), which is congruent with previous findings of low to moderate shear strain energy density (SED) multiaxial loading. For proportional loading, the initiation zone surface morphology was largely flat and striated, whereas, at phase angles of 45° and 90°, the initiation surface became more faceted and inclined. Overall, both a qualitative and quantitative link was developed between the fracture surface morphology and the level of non-proportionality in the loading providing useful insight into the fracture mechanics of forged magnesium as a relevant focus for future study.

Keywords: fatigue, fracture, magnesium, forging, fractography, anisotropy, strain energy density, asymmetry, multiaxial fatigue

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1462 Modern Architecture and the Scientific World Conception

Authors: Sean Griffiths

Abstract:

Introduction: This paper examines the expression of ‘objectivity’ in architecture in the context of the post-war rejection of this concept. It aims to re-examine the question in light of the assault on truth characterizing contemporary culture and of the unassailable truth of the climate emergency. The paper analyses the search for objective truth as it was prosecuted in the Modern Movement in the early 20th century, looking at the extent to which this quest was successful in contributing to the development of a radically new, politically-informed architecture and the extent to which its particular interpretation of objectivity, limited that development. The paper studies the influence of the Vienna Circle philosophers Rudolph Carnap and Otto Neurath on the pedagogy of the Bauhaus and the architecture of the Neue Sachlichkeit in Germany. Their logical positivism sought to determine objective truths through empirical analysis, expressed in an austere formal language as part of a ‘scientific world conception’ which would overcome metaphysics and unverifiable mystification. These ideas, and the concurrent prioritizing of measurement as the determinant of environmental quality, became key influences in the socially-driven architecture constructed in the 1920s and 30s by Bauhaus architects in numerous German Cities. Methodology: The paper reviews the history of the early Modern Movement and summarizes accounts of the relationship between the Vienna Circle and the Bauhaus. It looks at key differences in the approaches Neurath and Carnap took to the achievement of their shared philosophical and political aims. It analyses how the adoption of Carnap’s foundationalism influenced the architectural language of modern architecture and compares, through a close reading of the structure of Neurath’s ‘protocol sentences,’ the latter’s alternative approach, speculating on the possibility that its adoption offered a different direction of travel for Modern Architecture. Findings: The paper finds that the adoption of Carnap’s foundationalism, while helping Modern Architecture forge a new visual language, ultimately limited its development and is implicated in its failure to escape the very metaphysics against which it had set itself. It speculates that Neurath’s relational language-based approach to the issue of establishing objectivity has its architectural corollary in the process of revision and renovation that offers new ways an ‘objective’ language of architecture might be developed in a manner that is more responsive to our present-day crisis. Conclusion: The philosophical principles of the Vienna Circle and the architects of the Modern Movement had much in common. Both contributed to radical historical departures which sought to instantiate a world scientific conception in their respective fields, which would attempt to banish mystification and metaphysics and would align itself with socialism. However, in adopting Carnap’s foundationalism as the theoretical basis for the new architecture, Modern Architecture not only failed to escape metaphysics but arguably closed off new avenues of development to itself. The adoption of Neurath’s more open-ended and interactive approach to objectivity offers possibilities for new conceptions of the expression of objectivity in architecture that might be more tailored to the multiple crises we face today.

Keywords: Bauhaus, logical positivism, Neue Sachlichkeit, rationalism, Vienna Circle

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1461 The Concept of Female Beauty in Contemporary (2000-2020) Fine Arts and Design

Authors: Maria Ukolova

Abstract:

Social and cultural processes over the past decades have largely affected the understanding of conventional female beauty all over the world. Fine arts and design tendencies could not remain unchanged and show a dynamic interplay with female rights, gender equality, and other social processes. As of now, the area lacks comprehensive academic research on the tendencies of understanding female beauty in contemporary art. This article makes an attempt to outline and analyse the main tendencies of contemporary works of art that turn to the image of a woman, including photography, digital art, and various forms of design. The research bases itself on paintings, performing arts, photography, digital art, and various forms of design, mainly on the principle of the most broadly resonated in society, as an empirical basis, and on existing researches in the sphere. The results of the research show a general trend that the concept of female beauty in art is either challenged as such or its understanding has shifted to individuality, diversity, and the state of mental health. However, some categories of art, such as digital art in the gaming industry, remain resistant to change and retain the appearance-based understanding of beauty. Specific tendencies are, firstly, aestheticization of all types of appearances; secondly, a ubiquitous interest in mental health issues and understanding the state of mental health as a part of beauty; thirdly, a certain infantilization of the image of the woman is observed as compared to previous decades. The significance of the findings of the research is to contribute to a scientific understanding of the concept of beauty in contemporary art and to give ground for prospective further related research in sociology, phycology, etc. The findings might be perceived not only by academics but also by artists and practitioners in the spheres of art and society.

Keywords: fine arts, history of art, contemporary art, concept of beauty

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1460 The History of the Residential Care Environments for the Elderly in Iran

Authors: Saeed Haghnia

Abstract:

This paper traces the back history of environments in which the elderly who could not stay in private dwellings were accommodated and taken care of in Iran in the 19th century. It investigates the factors impacting on the establishment of the first nursing homes in Iran in 1973. Today in 2020, the nursing home is the only available model of residential care environment for the elderly who cannot stay in private dwellings in Iran. Understanding the evolution of these environments from a socio-political perspective is crucial before studying nursing homes’ response to the elderly and society in Iran and seeking any alternative model specific to the context. However, no study on the evolution of these environments in Iran was found. Thus, this paper, by going through primary and secondary resources and from a socio-political perspective, investigates how the elderly who could not stay in private dwellings were accommodated and taken care of in Iran in the 19th century. Maristan, in the early 19th century in Egypt as a part of Islamic territory, is an example of such spaces in which homeless elderly were kept and taken care of. This study suggests that in the 19th century in Iran in lack of significant governmental influence over people’s social affairs, any potential environments accommodating and taking care of the elderly who could not stay in private dwellings (mainly homeless) in Iran were probably regulated or supported by local figures, specifically clergies, as a response to the need for taking care of the vulnerable members of society.

Keywords: nursing home, ageing, Iran, middle east, Qajar, Pahlavi

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1459 Sustainable Management Practices in Facilities Management for Housing Estates: Literature Review - Case of South Africa

Authors: Chidozie Celestine Uzoigwe, Thabelo Ramantswana

Abstract:

Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to review the current state of knowledge in Sustainable Management (SM) practices in Facilities Management (FM) for housing estates with a view to identifying gaps and drawbacks in the existing body of knowledge. Integrating SM practices in housing estates is understood and applied in some developed countries, but little is known about the concept by practitioners in developing nations like South Africa. Indeed, South African housing studies and policy documents emphasize the significance of sustainability practices in housing estates, but regrettably, it still remains in unsustainable housing for decades. Method: This is done through a comprehensive literature review in combination with the “Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses” (PRISMA) guidelines and the Recursive Content Abstraction (RCA) analytical approach. Finding: Findings revealed there are significant challenges to the integration of SM practices in FM for housing estates in South Africa, such as lack of understanding and expertise by practitioners, absence of support from top-level management, lack of appropriate sustainability management framework as well as people management. The review further suggests the need for an enabler to guide practitioners in integrating the SM concept in housing estates. Originality: Integrating SM principles in facilities management for housing estates are required to eliminate the detrimental impact the built environment exerts on the well-being of individuals and organizations. Thus, the study underlines the need for an enabler that will facilitate practitioners embedding sustainable management measures in the management of housing estates in South Africa.

Keywords: facilities management, housing estates, sustainable facilities management, sustainable management, south africa

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1458 Digital Twins an Overarching Framework for the Built Environment

Authors: Bagireanu Astrid, Bros Williamson Julio, Duncheva Mila, Currie John

Abstract:

Digital Twins (DT) have entered the built environment from more established industries like aviation and manufacturing, although there has never been a common goal for utilizing DT at scale. Defined as the cyber-physical integration of data between an asset and its virtual counterpart, DT has been identified in literature from an operational standpoint – in addition to monitoring the performance of a built asset. However, this has never translated into how DT should be implemented into a project and what responsibilities each project stakeholder holds in the realization of a DT. What is needed is a framework for translating these requirements into actionable DT dimensions. For the purposes of this research, the UK widely used the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) Plan of Works from 2020 is used as a basis for itemizing project stages. The RIBA Plan of Works consists of eight stages designed to inform on the definition, briefing, design, coordination, construction, handover and use of a built asset. Similar project stages are utilized in other countries; therefore, the recommendations for developing this framework are applicable internationally. Simultaneously, there is not a single mainstream software resource that leverages DT abilities. This ambiguity meets an unparalleled ambition from governments and industry worldwide to achieve a national grid of interconnected DT – yet how can the construction industry tap into the benefits of DT without a starting point? This research aims to provide the basis for a conceptual framework for Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) following a conventional project timeline. First, the research focuses on a review of relevant literature. Although there is a shortage of publications referencing the applications that defer to the earlier stages of a project, DT is envisioned to aid decision-making through design simulation, improve asset management, coordinate collaborative procurement and underpin the long-term value of design decisions. This is particularly relevant as a response to decarbonization objectives, such as achieving net zero or understanding its impact on the social value or economic metrics. This research focused on creating a framework that combines standard project core tasks undertaken by AEC as identified in literature from an environmental perspective, following the timeline of a project and the responsibilities of project stakeholders. To create this framework, a qualitative study compiling the views of 14 DT experts is presented, which resulted in an inductive and deductive analysis of the interview findings - ultimately highlighting the barriers and strengths of DT. The research connected these interview findings with literature into an overarching framework that demonstrated a method to highlight the potential of DT iteratively across project stages, a method that matches the potential of DT identified across literature and in other industries. As parallel developments aim to progress net-zero-centered design and improve project efficiencies across the built environment, the limited resources available to support DT should be leveraged to propel the industry to reach its digitalization era, in which AEC stakeholders have a fundamental role in understanding this, from the earliest stages of a project.

Keywords: digital twins, decision making, design, net-zero

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1457 Evaluating the Administrative Buildings from the Perspective of Democratic Architecture

Authors: Tajuddin Mohamad Rasdi, Chung Ming Zhe, Nurul Anida Mohamad

Abstract:

This research paper aims to examine the lack of the idea of democracy and its concept among Malaysia’s citizens. In fact, all civil servants, whether federal or state departments, are the machinery of citizens. The objective of this research is to evaluate the administrative buildings in Selangor from the perspective of democratic architecture. The methodology used in this research is by reviewing and evaluating the selected administrative building, Majlis Bandaraya Petaling Jaya, as a case study, and the interview was conducted. The data collection was recorded based on a few criteria of the following architectural characteristic and management principles (public square, town hall, meeting rooms, convenient parking space, humanitarian spaces, public spaces) and architectural design elements (scale and massing, ornament, elevational language, accessibility, and spatial hierarchy). The analysis result shows that the administrative building elements which show the idea of democracy are not reflected well in some of the criteria that restrict the public, but those setbacks could be improved.

Keywords: democratic architecture, case study, design elements, administrative buildings

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1456 Religious and Architectural Transformations of Kourion in Cyprus between the 1st and 6th Centuries AD The Case of Trypiti Bay and its Topographical Relationships to Coastal Sanctuaries

Authors: Argyroula Argyrou

Abstract:

The purpose of my current research, of which this paper form’s part, is to explore the architectural and religious transformations of Trypiti Bay in the region of Kourion, Cyprus, between the 1st and 6th centuries AD. This research aims to explore and analyse three different stages in the religious and architectural transformations of the ancient port, with evidence supporting these transformations from the main city of Kourion and the Sanctuary of Apollo Hylates between the 1st and 6th centuries. In addition, the research is using historical and archaeological comparisons with coastal sites in the Levant, North Africa, Lebanon, and Europe in an attempt to identify a pattern of development in the religious topography of Kourion and how these contributed to change in the use and symbolism of Trypiti bay as an important passageway to religious sanctuaries in the vicinity of the coast. The construction of Trypiti Bay has been proven, according to archaeological and historical evidence, gathered throughout Kourion’s fieldwork and archival research, that it served as a natural port for cargos that needed to be protected from the strong west winds of the area. The construction of Trypiti Bay is believed to be unique to the island as no similar structure has yet been discovered.

Keywords: architecture, heritage, perservation, transformation, unique

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1455 Governance and Local Planning for Sustainability: Need for Change - Implications of Legislation on Local Planning

Authors: Rahaf Suleiman Altallaa

Abstract:

City planning involves making plans, organizing and dealing with cities, cities and urban areas. It attempts to organize socio-spatial relationships at exceptional ranges of governance and governance. Urban planning offers the social, monetary and environmental effects of defining spatial obstacles and the influence on the spatial distribution of resources. The dreams and methods of reaching such dissemination vary extensively traditionally and geographically and are often challenged through traditional strategies that expose the political nature of application interventions and the bounds of technical know-how claims. Space, network, argument, and postcolonial debates address how present-day socio-spatial organization is formed, what needs to or shouldn't trade, and the way it underscores whether or not a good plan will contribute to a given situation. Inside the absence of an agreed-upon technical justification for the planning exercise, the planning idea has a tendency to focus on normative processes, positioning making plans as an area for participatory democracy.

Keywords: environmental governance, environmental planning, environmental management, sustainable competitiveness, sustainability

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1454 Examination of Wall Art in Slums to Prevent Crime Case Study: Jabal Al-Natheef

Authors: Dana Jaber, Lilian Mansor, Lilan Al-Nablsi, Lujain Arabiat, Mariam Attoun

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Preventing crime through environmental designs (CPTED) and situational crime prevention methods (SCP) are used to prevent crimes before they occur by anticipating people's actions and behavior in social situations. Many theories focused on wall art in preventing crimes, Graffiti, and situational crime prevention. The main aim of this research is to assess the wall art in slums and how it could avoid crimes by increasing surveillance by studying Jabal Al-Natheef—using a quantitative methodology to study the social life in the site and accumulate the intended actions to prevent crimes by using art. It was shown that the crimes in the area are severe, and they occur in slums due to the bad conditions, maintenance, and lack of surveillance. A finding of how people in the area would react to the art was a positive conclusion to how it could prevent the crimes. The research findings revealed that implementing wall art in slums would decrease the crimes in the area. This research concluded with a proposal to recommend implementing such skills to deter crimes.

Keywords: CPTED, Situational crime prevention, wall art, slums

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1453 Effects of The CPTED Study on Female University Students in Bus Stations

Authors: Malaak Abdulrahman, Rama Al Zaben, Marah Mafalha, Dania Samir, Dima Hussein

Abstract:

A study on the effects of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) on female university students is conducted in the former Zarqa complex. This study's primary goal is to learn in-depth information about creating a safe public transportation environment. The research findings aim to simulate safety in the old Zarqa bus station and provide a comprehensive view of the factors contributing to increasing crime rates. As should be clear, girls are the group in the complex most at risk of harm and crime. This can be attributed to several factors, such as surveillance, poor lighting, and a lack of natural surveillance in the complex. Particular research findings account for numerous entrances and exits, which may make it challenging to restrict criminals' movement inside the Bus Station and increase its vulnerability. In addition, maintenance and a general lack of interest in the location serve as an open invitation for criminal activity at the bus station because it gets no care or upkeep. Finally, the study's conclusion discusses additional potential ways to address the issues raised in the Bus Station Area and lessen the likelihood of occurring in society. Additionally, it offered suggestions for further studies.

Keywords: CPTED, social disorganization theory, surveillance, maintenance, access control, bus station, safety, spatial mapping, defendable space, broken windows, routine activities, geographical juxtaposition, crime pattern theory

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1452 Geometry, the language of Manifestation of Tabriz School’s Mystical Thoughts in Architecture (Case Study: Dome of Soltanieh)

Authors: Lida Balilan, Dariush Sattarzadeh, Rana Koorepaz

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In the Ilkhanid era, the mystical school of Tabriz manifested itself as an art school in various aspects, including miniatures, architecture, urban planning and design, simultaneously with the expansion of the many sciences of its time. In this era, mysticism, both in form and in poetry and prose, as well as in works of art reached its peak. Mysticism, as an inner belief and thought, brought the audience to the artistic and aesthetical view using allegorical and symbolic expression of the religion and had a direct impact on the formation of the intellectual and cultural layers of the society. At the same time, Mystic school of Tabriz could create a symbolic and allegorical language to create magnificent works of architecture with the expansion of science in various fields and using various sciences such as mathematics, geometry, science of numbers and by Abjad letters. In this era, geometry is the middle link between mysticism and architecture and it is divided into two categories, including intellectual and sensory geometry and based on its function. Soltaniyeh dome is one of the prominent buildings of the Tabriz school with the shrine land use. In this article, information is collected using a historical-interpretive method and the results are analyzed using an analytical-comparative method. The results of the study suggest that the designers and builders of the Soltaniyeh dome have used shapes, colors, numbers, letters and words in the form of motifs, geometric patterns as well as lines and writings in levels and layers ranging from plans to decorations and arrays for architectural symbolization and encryption to express and transmit mystical ideas.

Keywords: geometry, Tabriz school, mystical thoughts, dome of Soltaniyeh

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1451 The Sustainable Design Approaches of Vernacular Architecture in Anatolia

Authors: Mine Tanaç Zeren

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The traditional architectural style or the vernacular architecture can be considered modern and permanent in terms of reflecting the community’s lifestyle, reasonable interpretation of the material and the structure, and the building and the environment relationship’s integrity. When vernacular architecture is examined, it is seen that sustainable building design approaches are achieved at the very beginning by adapting to climate conditions. The aim of the sustainable design approach is to maintain to adapt to the characteristics of the topography of the land and to the climatic conditions, minimizing the energy use by the building material and structural elements. Traditional Turkish House, as one of the representatives of the traditional and vernacular architecture in Anatolia, has a sustainable building design approach as well, which can be read both from the space organization, the section, the volume, and the building components and building details. The only effective factor that human beings cannot change and have to adapt their constructions and settlements to is climate. The vernacular settlements of vernacular architecture in Anatolia, “Traditional Turkish Houses,” are generally formed as concentric settlements in desert conditions and climates or separate and dependently formations according to the wind and the sun in moist areas. They obtain the sustainable building design criteria. This paper aims to put forward the sustainable building design approaches of vernacular architecture in Anatolia. There are four main different climatic conditions depending on the regional differentiations in Anatolia. Taking these different climatic and topographic conditions into account, it has been seen that the vernacular housing features shape and differentiate from each other due to the changing conditions. What is differentiating is the space organization, design of the shelter of the building, material, and structural system used. In this paper, the sustainable building design approaches of Anatolian vernacular architecture will be examined within these four different vernacular settlements located in Aegean Region, Marmara Region, Black Sea Region, and Eastern Region. These differentiated features and how these features differentiate in order to maintain the sustainability criteria will be the main discussion part of the paper. The methodology of this paper will briefly define these differentiations and the sustainable design criteria. The sustainable design approaches and these differentiated items will be read through the design criteria of the shelter of the building and the material selection criteria according to climatic conditions. The methods of preventing energy loss will be examined. At the end of this research, it is going to be seen that the houses located in different parts of Anatolia, depending on climate and topographic conditions to be able to adapt to the environment and maintain sustainability, differ from each other in terms of space organization, structural system, and material use, design of the shelter of the building

Keywords: sustainability of vernacular architecture, sustainable design criteria of traditional Turkish houses, Turkish houses, vernacular architecture

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1450 The Four Pillars of Islamic Design: A Methodology for an Objective Approach to the Design and Appraisal of Islamic Urban Planning and Architecture Based on Traditional Islamic Religious Knowledge

Authors: Azzah Aldeghather, Sara Alkhodair

Abstract:

In the modern urban planning and architecture landscape, with western ideologies and styles becoming the mainstay of experience and definitions globally, the Islamic world requires a methodology that defines its expression, which transcends cultural, societal, and national styles. This paper will propose a methodology as an objective system to define, evaluate and apply traditional Islamic knowledge to Islamic urban planning and architecture, providing the Islamic world with a system to manifest its approach to design. The methodology is expressed as Four Pillars which are based on traditional meanings of Arab words roughly translated as Pillar One: The Principles (Al Mabade’), Pillar Two: The Foundations (Al Asas), Pillar Three: The Purpose (Al Ghaya), Pillar Four: Presence (Al Hadara). Pillar One: (The Principles) expresses the unification (Tawheed) pillar of Islam: “There is no God but God” and is comprised of seven principles listed as: 1. Human values (Qiyam Al Insan), 2. Universal language as sacred geometry, 3. Fortitude© and Benefitability©, 4. Balance and Integration: conjoining the opposites, 5. Man, time, and place, 6. Body, mind, spirit, and essence, 7. Unity of design expression to achieve unity, harmony, and security in design. Pillar Two: The Foundations is based on two foundations: “Muhammad is the Prophet of God” and his relationship to the renaming of Medina City as a prototypical city or place, which defines a center space for collection conjoined by an analysis of the Medina Charter as a base for the humanistic design. Pillar Three: The Purpose (Al Ghaya) is comprised of four criteria: The naming of the design as a title, the intention of the design as an end goal, the reasoning behind the design, and the priorities of expression. Pillar Four: Presence (Al Hadara) is usually translated as a civilization; in Arabic, the root of Hadara is to be present. This has five primary definitions utilized to express the act of design: Wisdom (Hikma) as a philosophical concept, Identity (Hawiya) of the form, and Dialogue (Hiwar), which are the requirements of the project vis-a-vis what the designer wishes to convey, Expression (Al Ta’abeer) the designer wishes to apply, and Resources (Mawarid) available. The Proposal will provide examples, where applicable, of past and present designs that exemplify the manifestation of the Pillars. The proposed methodology endeavors to return Islamic urban planning and architecture design to its a priori position as a leading design expression adaptable to any place, time, and cultural expression while providing a base for analysis that transcends the concept of style and external form as a definition and expresses the singularity of the esoteric “Spiritual” aspects in a rational, principled, and logical manner clearly addressed in Islam’s essence.

Keywords: Islamic architecture, Islamic design, Islamic urban planning, principles of Islamic design

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1449 Laying the Proto-Ontological Conditions for Floating Architecture as a Climate Adaptation Solution for Rising Sea Levels: Conceptual Framework and Definition of a Performance Based Design

Authors: L. Calcagni, A. Battisti, M. Hensel, D. S. Hensel

Abstract:

Since the beginning of the 21st century, we have seen a dynamic growth of water-based (WB) architecture, mainly due to the increasing threat of floods caused by sea level rise and heavy rains, all correlated with climate change. At the same time, the shortage of land available for urban development also led architects, engineers, and policymakers to reclaim the seabed or to build floating structures. Furthermore, the drive to produce energy from renewable resources has expanded the sector of offshore research, mining, and energy industry which seeks new types of WB structures. In light of these considerations, the time is ripe to consider floating architecture as a full-fledged building typology. Currently, there is no universally recognized academic definition of a floating building. Research on floating architecture lacks a proper, commonly shared vocabulary and typology distinction. Moreover, there is no global international legal framework for urban development on water, and there is no structured performance based building design (PBBD) approach for floating architecture in most countries, let alone national regulatory systems. Thus, first of all, the research intends to overcome the semantic and typological issues through the conceptualization of floating architecture, laying the proto-ontological conditions for floating development, and secondly to identify the parameters to be considered in the definition of a specific PBBD framework, setting the scene for national planning strategies. The theoretical overview and re-semanticization process involve the attribution of a new meaning to the term floating architecture. This terminological work of semantic redetermination is carried out through a systematic literature review and involves quantitative and historical research as well as logical argumentation methods. As it is expected that floating urban development is most likely to take place as an extension of coastal areas, the needs and design criteria are definitely more similar to those of the urban environment than to those of the offshore industry. Therefore, the identification and categorization of parameters –looking towards the potential formation of a PBBD framework for floating development– takes the urban and architectural guidelines and regulations as the starting point, taking the missing aspects, such as hydrodynamics (i.e. stability and buoyancy) from the offshore and shipping regulatory frameworks. This study is carried out through an evidence-based assessment of regulatory systems that are effective in different countries around the world, addressing on-land and on-water architecture as well as offshore and shipping industries. It involves evidence-based research and logical argumentation methods. Overall, inhabiting water is proposed not only as a viable response to the problem of rising sea levels, thus as a resilient frontier for urban development, but also as a response to energy insecurity, clean water, and food shortages, environmental concerns, and urbanization, in line with Blue Economy principles and the Agenda 2030. This review shows how floating architecture is to all intents and purposes, an urban adaptation measure and a solution towards self-sufficiency and energy-saving objectives. Moreover, the adopted methodology is, to all extents, open to further improvements and integrations, thus not rigid and already completely determined. Along with new designs and functions that will come into play in the practice field, eventually, life on water will seem no more unusual than life on land, especially by virtue of the multiple advantages it provides not only to users but also to the environment.

Keywords: adaptation measures, building typology, floating architecture, performance based building design, rising sea levels

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1448 Factors Influencing the Use of Green Building Practices in the South African Residential Apartment Construction

Authors: Mongezi Nene, Emma Ayesu-Koranteng, Christopher Amoah, Ayo Adeniran

Abstract:

Although its use has been criticized over the years as being unencouraging, the green building concept is quickly overtaking other concepts, particularly in the construction of commercial properties. The goal of the study is to identify the variables influencing the use of green building practices when developing residential structures. A qualitative methodology, using interviews with semi-structured open-ended questions to 35 property practitioners operating residential apartments in Bloemfontein, South Africa, was used to collect primary data which was analysed using thematic content analysis. The findings show that while respondents have a good understanding of green building principles, they are not being used in the construction of residential buildings in South Africa due to issues with green building approval procedures, the potential for tenant rent increases, the cost of materials, technical issues, contractual issues, and a lack of awareness, among others. This paper recommends among others an urgent need to implement measures by stakeholders towards enhancing the adoption of green building concepts in the construction of residential buildings as well as incentivising its construction through lowered property rates.

Keywords: green building, residential apartments, construction, South Africa

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1447 Issues in Implementation of Vertical Greenery System on Existing Government Building in Malaysia

Authors: Jamilah Halina Abdul Halim, Norsiah Hassan, Azlina Aziz, Norhayati Mat Wajid, Mohd Saipul Asrafi

Abstract:

There are various types of vertical greenery system (VGS) in Malaysia, but none is installed at government buildings, although the government is looking into energy efficient building design. This is due to lack of technical information that focus on the maintenance and care, issues, and challenges face by vertical greenery system under tropical climate conditions. This research aim to identify issues in implementation of vertical greenery system on existing government building in Malaysia. The methodology used are literature reviews (desktop study), observation on sites, and case studies. Initial findings indicates that design and maintenance issues of vertical greenery system are the main challenges faced mainly by designer, especially those who involved in decision-making process. It can be concluded that orientation, openings, maintenance, performance, longevity, structural load, access, wind resistance, design failure, system failure, and lack of maintenance foresight are the main factors that need to be considered. These factors should be holistically aligned towards the economic cost, effective time, and quality design in implementation of vertical greenery system on existing government building. A comprehensive implementation of vertical greenery system will lead to greater sustainable investment for government buildings and responsive action to climate change.

Keywords: issues, government building, maintenance, vertical greenery system

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1446 The Misconception Terminology of ‘Marseilles’ Clay Roof Tiles in Malaysia’s Conservation Work

Authors: Masyitah Abd Aziz, Mohd Sabere Sulaiman, Norsiah Hassan, Jamilah Halina Abdul Halim, Mohd Saipul Asrafi Haron

Abstract:

A well-defined terminology of ‘Marseilles’ clay roof tiles in conservation works will easily characterize the communication delivery between expert and layperson, which will help people effectively understand to such specific knowledge areas. While it reduces ambiguity and increases clarity, the communication will translate very fast as it encourage an important factor in quality of the preservation of cultural heritage for future generations. The experts in conservation works faces many important terms, and indeed the very basic terminology in conservation areas were misunderstood. Thus, there were such terminology that being taken for granted and just follow seriously the tradition of the common practitioner without having any precise knowledge of what it entails. This study aims to investigate on the misconception of the terminology of ‘Marseilles’ clay roof tiles that being used in Malaysia’s conservation work. To avoid confusion of the terminology of ‘Marseilles’ clay roof tiles that will be followed through by the next generation, observation, interviews, and readings from the literature reviews on the terminology of the roof tiles has been done. It shows some evidence that ‘Marseilles’ were referring specific to French type roof tiles that developed by the Gilardoni Brothers in 1851. It was also found in Mangalore as the pioneered manufacturer in the 1860s by The Common Wealth Trust Ltd (Basel Mission tile factory). The interlocking clay roof types that has been used in Malaysia have the similarity and are influenced by both Europe and India. However, ‘Marseilles’ terminology was commonly used in Malaysia’s conservation works which led to the misconception of the real interpretation of all interlocking clay roof tiles type. The future generations will found that the well-defined terminology will gives a specific impact on conservation method and techniques. These range of applications to which roof tiles terminology will direct the future experts to make realistic suggestion for a future sustainable conservation approaches. Furthermore, it should contributes value added to conservation knowledge as well as holistic references for next generation.

Keywords: interlocking roof tiles, marseilles, misconception, terminology

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1445 Societal Acceptance of Trombe Wall in Buildings in Mediterranean Region: A Case Cyprus

Authors: Soad Abokhamis Mousavi

Abstract:

The Trombe wall is an ancient technique that continues to serve as an effective feature of a passive solar system. However, in practice, architects and their clients are not opting for the Trombe wall because of the view of the Trombe wall on the facades of the buildings. Therefore, this study has two main goals, and one of the goals is to find out why the Trombe wall is not considered in the buildings in the Mediterranean region. And the second goal is to find a solution to facilitate the societal acceptance of the Trombe walls in buildings. To cover the goals, the present work attempts to develop and design a different Trombe Wall with different Materials and views in the facades of the buildings. A qualitative data method was used in this article. The qualitative method was developed based on observation and questionnaires with different clients and expert architects in the selected region. Results indicate that the view of the Trombe wall in the facade of buildings can be used with different designs in order to not affect the beauty of the buildings.

Keywords: trombe wall, societal acceptance, building, energy efficacy

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1444 Investigation of Sick Building Syndrome in Student Dormitories

Authors: Maryam Ghasemi

Abstract:

Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) occurs when residents experience negative health impacts linked to their time spent there. Nevertheless, no single symptom or cause can be identified immediately. The confinement may be concentrated or localized in a particular room or area or spread throughout the building. Often, predicaments appear when a building is determined or maintained differently from its original design or intended operating procedures or purposes. Sometimes indoor air problems result from poor building design and occupant activities. This is a case study about a problem that is still going on in the Alfam Studios Dormitory. The goal is to find out if there is a case of SBS at the Eastern Mediterranean University (EMU). The methodology used in this article is both qualitative and quantitative. The information was gathered through a review of the literature, observations, a questionnaire, and interviews with the students' neighbors. There are twelve studio rooms, and in each studio room, two students live. The questionnaires and discussions took place with all twenty-four students. This study showed that in the dormitory design, ventilation and lighting in terms of sick building syndrome might not have been considered.

Keywords: sick building, lighting, ventilation, illness, humidity

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1443 Thermo-Mechanical Behavior of Steel-Wood Connections of Wooden Structures Under the Effect of a Fire

Authors: Ahmed Alagha, Belkacem Lamri, Abdelhak Kada.

Abstract:

Steel-wood assemblies often have complex geometric configurations whose overall behavior under the effect of a fire is conditioned by the thermal response, by combining the two materials steel and wood, whose thermal characteristics are greatly influenced by high temperatures. The objective of this work is to study the thermal behavior of a steel-wood connection, with or without insulating material, subjected to an ISO834 standard fire model. The analysis is developed by the analytical approach using the Eurocode, and numerically, by the finite element method, through the ANSYS calculation code. The design of the connections is evaluated at room temperature taking the cases of single shear and double shear. The thermal behavior of the connections is simulated in transient state while taking into account the modes of heat transfer by convection and by radiation. The variation of temperature as a function of time is evaluated in different positions of the connections while talking about the heat produced and the formation of the carbon layer. The results relate to the temperature distributions in the connection elements as a function of the duration of the fire. The results of the thermal analysis show that the temperature increases rapidly and reaches more than 260 °C in the steel material for an hour of exposure to fire. The temperature development in wood material is different from that in steel because of its thermal properties. Wood heats up on the outside and burns, its surface can reach very high temperatures in points on the surface.

Keywords: Eurocode 5, finite elements, ISO834, simple shear, thermal behaviour, wood-steel connection

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1442 Reviewing the Effect of Healing Design on Mental Health Establishments in the Context of India

Authors: Aratrika Sarkar, Jayita Guha Niyogi

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the application of general healing design theories to modulate them into case-specific and contextual design considerations. Existing literature focuses on the relationship between architecture and mental health. Primary case studies are selected in India to focus on the effect of a specific location on design considerations. They are qualitatively analysed to further contextualise the inferences from the literature study. An academic project is cited as an example to apply the learnings from the study and understand the influence of various parameters on the design process for further conclusion. Literature studies, case studies and hypothetical design applications helped in finding the different ways of achieving the similar goal of a sensitive approach toward mental health. Along with salutogenic parameters, category of establishment, age group, location of the site and user preference plays a crucial role in the design process. Design of mental health establishments, especially in India, has to involve transparency between stakeholders and users. Owing to different climatic zones and diverse sociocultural traditions, the approach toward healing should adapt accordingly. It should be an effort towards striking a balance between contradictory elements of healing design and resolving the dilemmas with sensitivity and consensus. Lastly, the design should not force a person towards communication or companionship but rather let the person realise that naturally through the healing process.

Keywords: contextual healing design, deinstitutionalisation, Indian mental healthcare establishments, environmental psychology, salutogenesis, therapeutic design

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1441 Associated Problems with the Open Dump Site and Its Possible Solutions

Authors: Pangkaj Kumar Mahanta, Md. Rafizul Islam

Abstract:

The rapid growth of the population causes a substantial amount of increase in household waste all over the world. Waste management is becoming one of the most challenging phenomena in the present day. The most environmentally friendly final disposal process of waste is sanitary landfilling, which is practiced in most developing countries. However, in Southeast Asia, most of the final disposal point is an open dump site. Due to the ignominy of proper management of waste and monitoring, the surrounding environment gets polluted more by the open dump site in comparison with a sanitary landfill. Khulna is 3rd largest metropolitan city in Bangladesh, having a population of around 1.5 million and producing approximately 450 tons per day of Municipal Solid Waste. The Municipal solid waste of Khulna city is disposed of in Rajbandh open dump site. The surrounding air is being polluted by the gas produced in the open dump site. Also, the open dump site produces leachate, which contains various heavy metals like Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Lead (Pb), Manganese (Mn), Mercury (Hg), Strontium (Sr), etc. Leachate pollutes the soil as well as the groundwater of the open dump site and also the surrounding area through seepage. Moreover, during the rainy season, the surface water is polluted by leachate runoff. Also, the plastic waste flowing out from the open dump site through various drivers pollutes the nearby environment. The health risk assessment associated with heavy metals was carried out by computing the chronic daily intake (CDI), hazard quotient (HQ), and hazard index (HI) via different exposure pathways following the USEPA guidelines. For ecological risk, potential contamination index (Cp), Contamination factor (CF), contamination load index (PLI), numerical integrated contamination factor (NICF), enrichment factor (EF), ecological risk index (ER), and potential ecological risk index (PERI) were computed. The health risk and ecological risk assessment results reveal that some heavy metals possess strong health and ecological risk. In addition, the child faces higher harmful health risks from several heavy metals than the adult for all the exposure pathways and media. The conversion of an open dump site into a sanitary landfill and a proper management system can reduce the problems associated with an open dump site. In the sanitary landfill, the produced gas will be managed properly to save the surrounding atmosphere from being polluted. The seepage of leachate can be minimized by installing a compacted clay layer (CCL) as a baseline and leachate collection in a sanitary landfill to save the underlying soil layer and surrounding water bodies from leachate. Another important component of a sanitary landfill is the conversion of plastic waste to energy will minimize the plastic pollution in the landfill area and also the surrounding soil and water bodies. Also, in the sanitary landfill, the bio-waste can be used to make compost to reduce the volume of bio-waste and proper utilization of the landfill area.

Keywords: ecological risk, health risk, open dump site, sanitary landfill

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1440 Investigation of the Space in Response to the Conditions Caused by the Pandemics and Presenting Five-Scale Design Guidelines to Adapt and Prepare to Face the Pandemics

Authors: Sara Ramezanzadeh, Nashid Nabian

Abstract:

Historically, pandemics in different periods have caused compulsory changes in human life. In the case of Covid-19, according to the limitations and established care instructions, spatial alignment with the conditions is important. Following the outbreak of Covid-19, the question raised in this study is how to do spatial design in five scales, namely object, space, architecture, city, and infrastructure, in response to the consequences created in the realms under study. From the beginning of the pandemic until now, some changes in the spatial realm have been created spontaneously or by space users. These transformations have been mostly applied in modifiable parts such as furniture arrangement, especially in work-related spaces. To implement other comprehensive requirements, flexibility and adaptation of space design to the conditions resulting from the pandemics are needed during and after the outbreak. Studying the effects of pandemics from the past to the present, this research covers eight major realms, including three categories of ramifications, solutions, and paradigm shifts, and analytical conclusions about the solutions that have been created in response to them. Finally, by the consideration of epidemiology as a modern discipline influencing the design, spatial solutions in the five scales mentioned (in response to the effects of the eight realms for spatial adaptation in the face of pandemics and their following conditions) are presented as a series of guidelines. Due to the unpredictability of possible pandemics in the future, the possibility of changing and updating the provided guidelines is considered.

Keywords: pandemics, Covid 19, spatial design, ramifications, solutions, paradigm shifts, guidelines

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1439 The Effect of Photovoltaic Integrated Shading Devices on the Energy Performance of Apartment Buildings in a Mediterranean Climate

Authors: Jenan Abu Qadourah

Abstract:

With the depletion of traditional fossil resources and the growing human population, it is now more important than ever to reduce our energy usage and harmful emissions. In the Mediterranean region, the intense solar radiation contributes to summertime overheating, which raises energy costs and building carbon footprints, alternatively making it suitable for the installation of solar energy systems. In urban settings, where multi-story structures predominate and roof space is limited, photovoltaic integrated shading devices (PVSD) are a clean solution for building designers. However, incorporating photovoltaic (PV) systems into a building's envelope is a complex procedure that, if not executed correctly, might result in the PV system failing. As a result, potential PVSD design solutions must be assessed based on their overall energy performance from the project's early design stage. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate and compare the possible impact of various PVSDs on the energy performance of new apartments in the Mediterranean region, with a focus on Amman, Jordan. To achieve the research aim, computer simulations were performed to assess and compare the energy performance of different PVSD configurations. Furthermore, an energy index was developed by taking into account all energy aspects, including the building's primary energy demand and the PVSD systems' net energy production. According to the findings, the PVSD system can meet 12% to 43% of the apartment building's electricity needs. By highlighting the potential interest in PVSD systems, this study aids the building designer in producing more energy-efficient buildings and encourages building owners to install PV systems on the façade of their buildings.

Keywords: photovoltaic integrated shading device, solar energy, architecture, energy performance, simulation, overall energy index, Jordan

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1438 Software Architecture Implications on Development Productivity: A Case of Malawi Point of Care Electronic Medical Records

Authors: Emmanuel Mkambankhani, Tiwonge Manda

Abstract:

Software platform architecture includes system components, their relationships, and design, as well as evolution principles. Software architecture and documentation affect a platform's customizability and openness to external innovators, thus affecting developer productivity. Malawi Point of Care (POC) Electronic Medical Records System (EMRS) follows some architectural design standards, but it lacks third-party innovators and is difficult to customize as compared to CommCare and District Health Information System 2 (DHIS2). Improving software architecture and documentation for the Malawi POC will increase productivity and third-party contributions. A conceptual framework based on Generativity and Boundary Resource Model (BRM) was used to compare the three platforms. Interviews, observations, and document analysis were used to collect primary and secondary data. Themes were found by analyzing qualitative and quantitative data, which led to the following results. Configurable, flexible, and cross-platform software platforms and the availability of interfaces (Boundary Resources) that let internal and external developers interact with the platform's core functionality, hence boosting developer productivity. Furthermore, documentation increases developer productivity, while its absence inhibits the use of resources. The study suggests that the architecture and openness of the Malawi POC EMR software platform will be improved by standardizing web application program interfaces (APIs) and making interfaces that can be changed by the user. In addition, increasing the availability of documentation and training will improve the use of boundary resources, thus improving internal and third-party development productivity.

Keywords: health systems, configurable platforms, software architecture, software documentation, software development productivity

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