Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1190

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Architectural and Environmental Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1190 Healing Architecture and Evidence Based Design: An Interior Design Example in Medicana KızıLtoprak Hospital

Authors: Yunus Emre Kara, Atilla Kuzu, Levent Cirpici

Abstract:

Recently, in the interior design of hospitals, the effect of the physical environment on the healing process has been frequently emphasized, and the importance of psychological and behavioral factors has increased day by day. When designing new hospital interiors, it became important to create spaces that not only meet medical requirements but also support the healing process of patients with interior design. In this study, the patient rooms, corridor, atrium area, waiting area, and entrance counter in a hospital were handled with patient-centered design, evidence-based design, and remedial architectural approaches, and it was seen that the healing and reassuring elements in hospitals were extremely important.

Keywords: hospital, Parametric Design, evidence based design, healing architecture, organic design

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1189 Knowledge Management for Competitiveness and Performances in Higher Educational Institutes

Authors: Jeyarajan Sivapathasundram

Abstract:

Knowledge management has been recognised as an emerging factor for being competitive among institutions and performances in firms. As such, being recognised as knowledge rich institution, higher education institutes have to be recognised knowledge management based resources for achieving competitive advantages. Present research picked result out of postgraduate research conducted in knowledge management at non-state higher educational institutes of Sri Lanka. Besides, the present research aimed to discover knowledge management for competition and firm performances of higher educational institutes out of the result produced by the postgraduate study. Besides, the results are found in a pair that developed out of knowledge management practices and the reason behind the existence of the practices. As such, the present research has developed a filter to pick the pairs that satisfy its condition of competition and performance of the firm. As such, the pair, such as benchmarking is practised to be ethically competing through conducting courses. As the postgraduate research tested results of foreign researches in a qualitative paradigm, the finding of the present research are generalise fact for knowledge management for competitiveness and performances in higher educational institutes. Further, the presented research method used attributes which explain competition and performance in its filter to discover the pairs relevant to competition and performances. As such, the fact in regards to knowledge management for competition and performances in higher educational institutes are presented in the publication that the presentation is out of the generalised result. Therefore, knowledge management for competition and performance in higher educational institutes are generalised.

Keywords: competition in and among higher educational institutes, performances of higher educational institutes, noun based filtering, production out of generalisation of a research

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1188 The Tariffs of Water Service for Productive Users: A Model for Defining Fare Classes

Authors: M. Macchiaroli, V. Pellecchia, L. Dolores

Abstract:

The water supply for production users (craft, commercial, industrial), understood as the set of water supply and wastewater collection services becomes an increasingly felt problem in a water scarcity regime. In fact, disputes are triggered between the different social parties for the fair and efficient use of water resources. Within this aspect, the problem arises of the different pricing of services between civil users and production users. Of particular interest is the question of defining the tariff classes depending on consumption levels. If for civil users, this theme is strongly permeated by social profiles (a topic dealt with by the author in a forthcoming research contribution) connected with the inalienability of the right to have water and with the reconciliation of the needs of the weakest groups of the population, for consumers in the production sector the logic adopted by the manager may be inspired by criteria of greater corporate rationality. This work illustrates the Italian regulatory framework and shows an optimization model of tariff classes in the production sector that reconciles the public objective of sustainable use of the resource and the needs of a production system in search of recovery after the depressing effects caused by COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: Decision Making, Urban Water Management, Economic Evaluation, water tariff

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1187 The Interaction between the Green Urban Water Supply Infrastructure and the Shape and the Size of the Cities: The Case of Iranian Cities Supplied by Qanat System

Authors: Samira Eskandari

Abstract:

Iran is mostly located in arid and semi–arid region of the globe. So, most of the big cities in Iran such as Tehran, Shiraz, Yazd and Neyshabur are located at the foot of a mountain to have access to the water resources. In Iranian cities, the system of Qanats had been working effectively for hundreds of years. By development of modern constructs, a city like Tehran exposed to development pressures which adversely affected the green water supply system. In recent decades, most of the Qanats were demolished and the green system replaced with a modern water supply system which is incompatible with the nature and ecology of the city. The modern system increases the rate of water consumption, whereas a consistent current of clean and qualified water is moving under the ground. Qanat System’s life in other cities of Iran, which are confronted with development pressure, is at stake too. In turn, this extensive current of taking distance from green water infrastructures in country is going to be so problematic in case of water supply. This research aims at developing a process to improve this critical situation in water supply systems in Iran by the tool of re-reading the archetype of garden cities in Iran. For this purpose, a study was conducted on Tehran, Shiraz, Yazd and Neyshabur with focus of the morphology of the garden cities. The methodology is based on a qualitative approach associated with analytical methods and in-depth surveys and interviews with citizens, authorities and experts and referring to the oral history of Tehran, Shiraz, Yazd and Neyshabur in order to learn about the archetypes and physical features of the cities. According to the outputs of the research, it is noticed that: Firstly, the size of the cities must be limited in proportion with the qanat system. So, the system would not be able to continue its life effectively after the city’s unexpected expansions accordingly. Secondly, the growth pattern of the cities, which are supplied by qanats, is linear as the city form should follow the watershed, which is determined in accordance with the Mountain- City line and the slope of the ground. Eventually, the shape and the size of the cities are two indispensable factors that must be modified in proportion with the green water supply system of the city.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Garden Cities, Qanat, cities’ shape and size

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1186 Integration Between Seismic Planning and Urban Planning for Improving the City Image of Tehran - Case of Tajrish

Authors: Samira Eskandari

Abstract:

The image of Tehran has been impacted in recent years due to poor urban management and fragmented governance. There is no cohesive urban beautification framework in Tehran to enforce builders take aesthetic factors seriously when design and construct new buildings. The existing guidelines merely provide people with recommendations, not regulations. Obviously, Tehran needs a more comprehensive and strict urban beautification framework to restore its image. The damaged image has impacted the city’s social, economic and environmental growth. This research aims to find and examine a solution by which the employment of urban beautification regulation would be guaranteed, and city image would be organized. The methodology is based on a qualitative approach associated with analytical methods, in-depth surveys and interviews with Tehran citizens, authorities and experts, and use of academic resources as well as simulation. As a result, one practical solution is to incorporate aesthetic guidelines into a survival-related framework like a seismic guideline. Tehran is a seismic site, and all the buildings in Tehran have to be retrofitted against earthquake during construction. Hence, by integrating seismic regulations and aesthetic disciplines, urban beautification will be somehow guaranteed. Besides, the seismic image can turn into Tehran’s brand and enhances city identity. This research is trying to increase the social, environmental, and economic interconnectedness between urban planning and seismic planning by the usage of landscape architecture methods. As a case study, the potential outcomes are simulated in Tajrish, a suburb located in the north of Tehran. The result is that, by the redefinition of the morphology of seismic retrofitting systems, used in the significant city image elements, and re-function them in accordance with the Iranian culture and traditions, the city image would become more harmonized and legible.

Keywords: Earthquake, retrofitting systems, Tehran image, urban beautification

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1185 A Review of Protocols and Guidelines Addressing the Exposure of Occupants to Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Radiation in Buildings

Authors: Shabnam Monadizadeh, Charles Kibert, Jiaxuan Li, Janghoon Woo, Ashish Asutosh, Samira Roostaei, Maryam Kouhirostami

Abstract:

A significant share of the technology that has emerged over the past several decades produces electromagnetic field (EMF) radiation. Communications devices, household appliances, industrial equipment, and medical devices all produce EMF radiation with a variety of frequencies, strengths, and ranges. Some EMF radiation, such as Extremely Low Frequency (ELF), Radio Frequency (RF), and the ionizing range have been shown to have harmful effects on human health. Depending on the frequency and strength of the radiation, EMF radiation can have health effects at the cellular level as well as at brain, nervous, and cardiovascular levels. Health authorities have enacted regulations locally and globally to set critical values to limit the adverse effects of EMF radiation. By introducing a more comprehensive field of EMF radiation study and practice, architects and designers can design for a safer electromagnetic (EM) indoor environment, and, as building and construction specialists, will be able to monitor and reduce EM radiation. This paper identifies the nature of EMF radiation in the built environment, the various EMF radiation sources, and its human health effects. It addresses European and US regulations for EMF radiation in buildings and provides a preliminary action plan. The challenges of developing measurement protocols for the various EMF radiation frequency ranges and determining the effects of EMF radiation on building occupants are discussed. This paper argues that a mature method for measuring EMF radiation in building environments and linking these measurements to human health impacts occupant health should be developed to provide adequate safeguards for human occupants of buildings for future research.

Keywords: Human Health, Electromagnetic Field, biological affection, building regulation, healthy building, clean construction

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1184 Mineral Slag Used as an Alternative of Cement in Concrete

Authors: Jun Zhao, Eskinder Desta Shumuye, Zike Wang

Abstract:

This paper summarizes the results of experimental studies carried out at Zhengzhou University, School of Mechanics and Engineering Science, research laboratory, on the performance of concrete produced by combining Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) with Ground-Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS). Concrete specimens cast with OPC and various percentage of GGBS (0%, 30%, 50%, and 70%) were subjected to high temperature exposure and extensive experimental test reproducing basic freeze-thaw cycle and a chloride-ion attack to determine their combined effects within the concrete samples. From the experimental studies, comparisons were made on the physical, mechanical, and microstructural properties in compassion with ordinary Portland cement concrete (OPC). Further, durability of GGBS cement concrete, such as exposure to accelerated carbonation, chloride ion attack, and freeze-thaw action in compassion with various percentage of GGBS and ordinary Portland cement concrete of similar mixture composition was analyzed. The microstructure, mineralogical composition, and pore size distribution of concrete specimens were determined via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The result demonstrated that when the exposure temperature increases from 200 ºC to 400 ºC, the residual compressive strength was fluctuating for all concrete group, and compressive strength and chloride ion exposure of the concrete decreased with the increasing of slag content. The SEM and EDS results showed an increase in carbonation rate with increasing in slag content.

Keywords: Concrete, High-temperature, GGBS, accelerated carbonation, chloride-ion, ground-granulated blast furnace slag

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1183 Uncertainty Analysis of a Hardware in Loop Setup for Testing Products Related to Building Technology

Authors: Balasundaram Prasaant, Ploix Stephane, Delinchant Benoit, Muresan Cristian

Abstract:

Hardware in Loop (HIL) testing is done to test and validate a particular product especially in building technology. When it comes to building technology, it is more important to test the products for their efficiency. The test rig in the HIL simulator may contribute to some uncertainties on measured efficiency. The uncertainties include physical uncertainties and scenario-based uncertainties. In this paper, a simple uncertainty analysis framework for an HIL setup is shown considering only the physical uncertainties. The entire modeling of the HIL setup is done in Dymola. The uncertain sources are considered based on available knowledge of the components and also on expert knowledge. For the propagation of uncertainty, Monte Carlo Simulation is used since it is the most reliable and easy to use. In this article it is shown how an HIL setup can be modeled and how uncertainty propagation can be performed on it. Such an approach is not common in building energy analysis.

Keywords: Monte Carlo Simulation, Uncertainty Propagation, energy in buildings, hardware in loop testing, modelica modelling

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1182 Flexible Cities: A Multisided Spatial Application of Tracking Livability of Urban Environment

Authors: Maria Christofi, George Plastiras, Rafaella Elia, Vaggelis Tsiourtis, Theocharis Theocharides, Miltiadis Katsaros

Abstract:

The rapidly expanding urban areas of the world constitute a challenge of how we need to make the transition to "the next urbanization", which will be defined by new analytic tools and new sources of data. This paper is about the production of a new spatial application, the ‘FUMapp’, where space and its initiative will be available literally, in meters, but also abstractly, at a sensed level. While existing spatial applications typically focus on illustrations of the urban infrastructure, the suggested application goes beyond existing: It investigates how our environment's perception adapts to the alterations of the built environment through an archive of biophysical measurements (eye-tracking, heart beating), and physical metrics (spatial characteristics, size of stimuli, rhythm of mobility). It explores the intersections between architecture, cognition, and computing where future design can be improved and identifies the flexibility and livability of the ‘available space’ of specific examined urban paths.

Keywords: livability, biophysical data, flexibility of urban, next urbanization, spatial application

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1181 A Survey of the Sleep-Disturbed Bedroom Environmental Factors and the Occupants’ Bedroom Windows or Door Opening Behaviors

Authors: Chenxi Liao, Mizuho Akimoto, Mariya Bivolarova, Sekhar Chandra, Xiaojun Fan, Li Lan, Jelle Laverge, Pawel Wargocki

Abstract:

The bedroom environment plays an important role in maintaining good sleep quality, which is vital for humans’ health and next-day performance. A survey of the sleep-disturbed bedroom environmental factors and the occupants' bedroom windows (BW) or bedroom door (BD) opening behaviors was launched in the capital region of Denmark in 2020 by an online questionnaire. People were asked if they were disturbed by too warm temperature, too cool temperature, noise, or stuffy air during sleep. Also, they reported their BW or the BD opening behaviors in the morning, afternoon, evening, and during sleep. A total of 512 responses were received. Too warm temperature was reported the most among the four sleep-disturbed factors, following too cool temperature, noise, and stuffy air. Whether or not opening BW or the BD was commonly used to improve or change the bedroom environment. The respondents who were disturbed by too warm temperature during sleep opened BW for a longer time in the morning compared to those who were never disturbed by it (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.01-1.62). Those who were disturbed by too cool temperatures tended to open BW less frequently in the morning (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.97-1.57). They preferred keeping BW open in the whole day if they realized stuffy air disturbing their sleep, although only a few of them still opened BW during sleep. Those who were disturbed by too cool temperature (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.63-0.92) and noise (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.66-0.96) were more likely to sleep with the BD open in a lesser frequency. Opening BW, increasing ventilation rates, could relieve disturbing by stuffy air during sleep, but induced other sleep-disturbed factors such as too cool in winter and noise. Also, opening BW only when people were not sleep was not sufficient to exempt disturbing by stuffy air during sleep. Using mechanical ventilation in bedrooms is necessary to ensure good air quality and meanwhile to avoid thermal discomfort and noise during sleep. Future studies are required to figure out the required flow rate of fresh air of mechanical ventilation during sleep.

Keywords: Survey, Windows, bedroom environmental, occupants behaviors, door

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1180 A Comprehensive Review of Adaptive Building Energy Management Systems Based on Users’ Feedback

Authors: P. Javid, P. Nafisi Poor

Abstract:

Over the past few years, the idea of adaptive buildings and specifically, adaptive building energy management systems (ABEMS) has become popular. Well-performed management in terms of energy is to create a balance between energy consumption and user comfort; therefore, in new energy management models, efficient energy consumption is not the sole factor and the user's comfortability is also considered in the calculations. One of the main ways of measuring this factor is by analyzing user feedback on the conditions to understand whether they are satisfied with conditions or not. This paper provides a comprehensive review of recent approaches towards energy management systems based on users' feedbacks and subsequently performs a comparison between them premised upon their efficiency and accuracy to understand which approaches were more accurate and which ones resulted in a more efficient way of minimizing energy consumption while maintaining users' comfortability. It was concluded that the highest accuracy rate among the presented works was 95% accuracy in determining satisfaction and up to 51.08% energy savings can be achieved without disturbing user’s comfort. Considering the growing interest in designing and developing adaptive buildings, these studies can support diverse inquiries about this subject and can be used as a resource to support studies and researches towards efficient energy consumption while maintaining the comfortability of users.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Intelligent Buildings, adaptive buildings, user comfortability

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1179 Architecture, Politics and Religion Synthesis: Political Legitimacy in Early Islamic Iran

Authors: Fahimeh Ghorbani, Alam Saleh

Abstract:

Ideology, politics and art have always been omnipresent patterns of Islam since its early age. The Islamic empire, expanded from China to Andalusia, has instrumentalized art and architecture to enhance political legitimacy of different dynasties or states throughout its history. Quranic verses utilized to convey ideological messages in the major mosques and mausoleums. Iranians had already been employing art and architecture to propagate their political legitimacy prior to Islam. The land of Iran and its art with strong civilizational pre-Islamic history has been profoundly politicized since the rise of Islam in the region. Early Islamic period in Iran has witnessed introduction of a new architectural language, new formulas for spatial configuration in built spaces, as well as new system of architectural decoration. Studying Iran’s Early Islamic architecture helps in better understanding the process of socio-political identity making of Iranian-Islamic culture, and thus art and architecture. This period also set the stage for formation of glorious architectural movements through Persianate world in later periods. During the Early Islamic period in Iran, the innovative combination of Islamic ideology and Iranian Architecture created formidable ideological tools in politicizing art in the region and beyond. As such, this paper aims to investigate the political history and architectural legacy from late Sassanid to Early Islamic period, delves into the ways in which Early Islamic architecture played role in transforming Persian concepts of kingship, administration, and social organization. In so doing, the study focuses on the Perso-Islamic architectural synthesis under the Samanids and Seljuk dynasty as case studies. The paper also explores how the newly introduced Islamic architecture has been employed to address the question of political legitimacy and to propagate states’ political agenda in early Islamic Iran (650-1250). As for the existing literature, despite its uniqueness and significance, Early Islamic architecture of Iran has received little scholarly attention. However, there exists a sizeable body of scholarship on socio-historic condition of the land of Iran during Early Islamic period which provide a solid base for the project. Methodologically speaking, the authors look into the subject through various lenses. They will conduct historic and archival research in libraries, private collections, and archives in Iran and the related neighbouring countries in Persian, Arabic and English. The methods of visual and formal analysis are applied to examine architectural features of the period. There are also a high number of intriguing, yet poorly examined, published and unpublished documents, old plans, drawings and photos of monuments preserved in Cultural Heritage of Iran Organization which will be consulted.

Keywords: Aesthetics, Islamic Architecture, propaganda, Early Islamic Architecture, Iran, political legitimacy, early Islamic Iran, politicized art

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1178 Seismic Resistant Columns of Buildings against the Differential Settlement of the Foundation

Authors: Romaric Desbrousses, Lan Lin

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to determine how Canadian seismic design provisions affect the column axial load resistance of moment-resisting frame reinforced concrete buildings subjected to the differential settlement of their foundation. To do so, two four-storey buildings are designed in accordance with the seismic design provisions of the Canadian Concrete Design Standards. One building is located in Toronto, which is situated in a moderate seismic hazard zone in Canada, and the other in Vancouver, which is in Canada’s highest seismic hazard zone. A finite element model of each building is developed using SAP 2000. A 100 mm settlement is assigned to the base of the building’s center column. The axial load resistance of the column is represented by the demand capacity ratio. The analysis results show that settlement-induced tensile axial forces have a particularly detrimental effect on the conventional settling columns of the Toronto buildings which fail at a much smaller settlement that those in the Vancouver buildings. The results also demonstrate that particular care should be taken in the design of columns in short-span buildings.

Keywords: Seismic Design, Non-linear Analysis, Columns, Demand, Foundation differential settlement

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1177 Slowness in Architecture: The Pace of Human Engagement with the Built Environment

Authors: Jaidev Tripathy

Abstract:

A human generation’s lifestyle, behaviors, habits, and actions are governed heavily by homogenous mindsets. But the current scenario is witnessing a rapid gap in this homogeneity as a result of an intervention, or rather, the dominance of the digital revolution in the human lifestyle. The current mindset for mass production, employment, multi-tasking, rapid involvement, and stiff competition to stay above the rest has led to a major shift in human consciousness. Architecture, as an entity, is being perceived differently. The screens are replacing the skies. The pace at which operation and evolution is taking place has increased. It is paradoxical, that time seems to be moving faster despite the intention to save time. Parallelly, there is an evident shift in architectural typologies spanning across different generations. The architecture of today is now seems influenced heavily from here and there. Mass production of buildings and over-exploitation of resources giving shape to uninspiring algorithmic designs, ambiguously catering to multiple user groups, has become a prevalent theme. Borrow-and-steal replaces influence, and the diminishing depth in today’s designs reflects a lack of understanding and connection. The digitally dominated world, perceived as an aid to connect and network, is making humans less capable of real-life interactions and understanding. It is not wrong, but it doesn’t seem right either. The engagement level between human beings and the built environment is a concern which surfaces. This leads to a question: Does human engagement drive architecture, or does architecture drive human engagement? This paper attempts to relook at architecture's capacity and its relativity with pace to influence the conscious decisions of a human being. Secondary research, supported with case examples, helps in understanding the translation of human engagement with the built environment through physicality of architecture. The procedure, or theme, is pace and the role of slowness in the context of human behaviors, thus bridging the widening gap between the human race and the architecture themselves give shape to, avoiding a possible future dystopian world.

Keywords: Perception, PACE, junkspace, slowness

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1176 Geo-Collaboration Model between a City and Its Inhabitants to Develop Complementary Solutions for Better Household Waste Collection

Authors: Abdessalam Hijab, Hafida Boulekbache, Eric Henry

Abstract:

According to several research studies, the city as a whole is a complex, spatially organized system; its modeling must take into account several factors, socio-economic, and political, or geographical, acting at multiple scales of observation according to varied temporalities. Sustainable management and protection of the environment in this complex system require significant human and technical investment, particularly for monitoring and maintenance. The objective of this paper is to propose an intelligent approach based on the coupling of Geographic Information System (GIS) and Information and Communications Technology (ICT) tools in order to integrate the inhabitants in the processes of sustainable management and protection of the urban environment, specifically in the processes of household waste collection in urban areas. We are discussing a collaborative 'city/inhabitant' space. Indeed, it is a geo-collaborative approach, based on the spatialization and real-time geo-localization of topological and multimedia data taken by the 'active' inhabitant, in the form of geo-localized alerts related to household waste issues in their city. Our proposal provides a good understanding of the extent to which civil society (inhabitants) can help and contribute to the development of complementary solutions for the collection of household waste and the protection of the urban environment. Moreover, it allows the inhabitant to contribute to the enrichment of a data bank for future uses. Our geo-collaborative model will be tested in the Lamkansa sampling district of the city of Casablanca in Morocco.

Keywords: ICT, Geographic Information System, City, GIS, Information and Communications Technology, Inhabitants, geo-collaboration

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1175 Prediction of Urban Growth and Loss of Vegetation Cover and Waterbodies in Eastern India Using Cellular Automata (CA)

Authors: Arpita Mondal, Debasrita Baidya, Abhijit Sarkar, Diptarshi Mitra

Abstract:

Information about the nature and extent of urban growth and loss of vegetation and waterbodies, due to urbanization, in the near/distant future, are important for sustainable development and also urban planning. This study attempts to find out the effectiveness of the MOLUSCE (MOdules for Land USe Change Evaluation) plugin of QGIS 2.18.11 (an open source system), in predicting the urban growth of Asansol city, in India, and the loss of vegetation and waterbodies, due to urbanization, in the region around the growing city of Rajarhat New Town, in India. Landsat-5 images of Asansol, for the years 1990 and 2005, and of the region around Rajarhat New Town, for the years 1999 and 2009, have been collected; each of the images is classified to create only two classes viz., urban and non-urban (for Asansol), vegetation and non-vegetation (for New Town) and waterbody and non-waterbody (also for New Town). Proximity to the Asansol Railway Station has been considered as the sole criterion for urban growth; and proximity to the Sector-V Metro Station (beside New Town) has been considered as the only criterion for the disappearance of vegetation and waterbodies. Images of suitable concentric buffers around these two stations, have been created. MOLUSCE has used the classified images and the images of buffers, and employed cellular automata technique with logistic regression training model, to yield the prediction maps of the Asansol city for the year 2020, of the vegetation cover around New Town for the year 2019, and of the waterbodies around New Town for the year 2019. These prediction maps have been validated with classified Landsat-8 images of the respective areas (Asansol and Rajarhat New Town) for the respective years (2020 and 2019); for urban growth, the correctness is 75.4%, for vegetation loss, the correctness is 78.2% and for loss of waterbodies, the correctness is 85.7%. However, there is little similarity between the actual and prediction maps, most probably due to the consideration of only one simple criterion of growth/disappearance. Nevertheless, the results show the potential of MOLUSCE in predicting land use changes, if a suitable number of appropriate criteria are considered.

Keywords: cellular automata, Urban Growth, vegetation loss, loss of waterbodies, MOLUSCE, Asansol, Rajarhat New Town

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1174 Native Plants Marketing by Entrepreneur in the Landscaping Industry in Japan

Authors: Yuki Hara

Abstract:

Entrepreneurs are welcomed to landscaping industry conserving practically and theoretically biological diversity in landscaping construction although there are limited reports on corporative trials making a market with a new logistics system of native plants (NP) between landscaping companies and nurserymen. This paper explores the entrepreneurial process of a landscaping company “5bymidori” for NP marketing. This paper employs the case study design. Data are collected in interviews with the manager and designer of 5bymidori, 2 scientists, 1 organisation and 18 nurserymen, fieldworks at two nurseries, observations of marketing activities in three years, and texts from published documents about the business concept and marketing strategy with NP. These data are analysed qualitative methods. The results show that NP is suitable for the vision of 5bymidori improving urban desertified environment with closer urban-rural linkage. Professional landscaping team changes a forestry organisation into NP producers conserving a large nursery of a mountain. Economic histories and individual backgrounds along with social contexts strongly rather effect on NP, than environmental responsibilities. Wider partnerships with existing nurserymen at other sites in many regions than at the main site in Tokyo needs socioeconomic incentives and environmental reliability. In conclusion, the entrepreneurial marketing of a landscaping company needs to add more meanings and a variety of merits in terms of ecosystem services, as NP tends to be in academic definition and independent from the cultures like nurseryman and forestry.

Keywords: Marketing, Native Plants, Biological Diversity, landscaping industry

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1173 Artificial Intelligent Assisted Construction Safety Analytic: An Application in Monitoring Personal Protective Equipments and Safety Zone of Heavy Machinery

Authors: Warren Paau, Kenny Wong, Nicolas Tsang

Abstract:

Construction sites are open areas with people, vehicles, and equipment constantly moving within it, and different activities are being held, which creates a different type of risk that could potentially harm both the workers and the project. The use of an AI-assisted construction safety analytic system may lead to a significantly lower fatality rate and massively improve the safety and health of construction sites with non-stop safety inspections and analysis around the clock. By utilizing existing IP cameras installed at the construction sites, our Karta-X AI-Assisted Construction Safety Analytic (KACSA) engine can perform close to real-time checking of site activities happening on site. KACSA is a self-invented AI algorithm that aims to develop a single safety analytic platform to improve construction safety for workers. Additionally, cameras with KACSA engines can be placed at an elevated level on a construction vehicle, and our system will make it clear if there are workers around the vehicle and whether a worker is within proximity of the machinery unexpectedly. This paper will describe the key considerations and difficulties for the development of KACSA. In addition, it will also cover its applications in construction sites in Hong Kong for real-time checking to ensure any person entering the construction site are equipped with Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), the monitoring of safety zones of heavy machinery to prevent unsafe intrusion in the working area and finally, based on the developed continuous safety monitoring, the significant improvement in the inspection for unsafe behavior on construction sites through the use of KACSA.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligent, Karta-X AI assisted construction safety analytic, personal protect equipment, safety analytic platform

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1172 A Study on The Relationship between Building Façade and Solar Energy Utilization Potential in Urban Residential Area in West China

Authors: Y. Liu, J. Wang, T. Wen, W. Zheng, T. Shao

Abstract:

Along with the increasing density of urban population, solar energy potential of building facade in high-density residential areas become a question that needs to be addressed. This paper studies how the solar energy utilization potential of building facades in different locations of a residential areas changes with different building layouts and orientations in Xining, a typical city in west China which possesses large solar radiation resource. Solar energy potential of three typical building layouts of residential areas, which are parallel determinant, gable misalignment, transverse misalignment, are discussed in detail. First of all, through the data collection and statistics of Xining new residential area, the most representative building parameters are extracted, including building layout, building height, building layers, and building shape. Secondly, according to the results of building parameters extraction, a general model is established and analyzed with rhinoceros 6.0 and its own plug-in grasshopper. Finally, results of the various simulations and data analyses are presented in a visualized way. The results show that there are great differences in the solar energy potential of building facades in different locations of residential areas under three typical building layouts. Generally speaking, the solar energy potential of the west peripheral location is the largest, followed by the East peripheral location, and the middle location is the smallest. When the deflection angle is the same, the solar energy potential shows the result that the West deflection is greater than the East deflection. In addition, the optimal building azimuth range under these three typical building layouts is obtained. Within this range, the solar energy potential of the residential area can always maintain a high level. Beyond this range, the solar energy potential drops sharply. Finally, it is found that when the solar energy potential is maximum, the deflection angle is not positive south, but 5 °or 15°south by west. The results of this study can provide decision analysis basis for residential design of Xining city to improve solar energy utilization potential and provide a reference for solar energy utilization design of urban residential buildings in other similar areas.

Keywords: Visualization, Solar Radiation, solar energy potential, building facade, urban residential area, Xining city

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1171 Floating Populations, Rooted Networks. Tracing the Evolution of Russeifa City through the Lens of Marka Refugee Camp.

Authors: Dina Dahood Dabash

Abstract:

Refugee camps are habitually defined as receptive sites, transient spaces of exile and nondescript depoliticized places of exception. However, such arguments form partial sides of an existing situation, especially in countries that are geopolitically challenged and rely immensely on international aid as Jordan. In Jordan, the dynamics brought with the floating population of refugees (Palestinian amongst others) have resulted in spatial after-effects that cannot be easily overlooked. For instance, Palestine refugee camps have turned by time into socioeconomic centers of gravity and cores of spatial evolution. Yet, such a position is not instantaneous. Amongst various reasons, it can be related, according to this paper, to a distinctive institutional climate that has been co-produced, by the refugees, host community, humanitarian actors and the state. This paper aims to investigate the evolution of urban and spatial regulations in Jordan between 1948 and 1995, more specifically, state-regulations, community regulations and refugee-self-regulation that all dynamically interacted that period within a humanitarian mold. The paper aims to unpack the relations between refugee camps and their environs to further to explore the agency of such floating population in establishing rooting networks that extended time and place boundaries. The paper’s argument stems from the fact that the spatial configuration of urban systems is not only an outcome of a historical evolutionary process but is also a result of complex dynamics amongst actors. The paper aspires to further understand the post-emergency strategies, which were historically applied in Jordan and can be employed to handle more recent geopolitical challenges such as the Syrian refugee crisis. The research operationalizes Russeifa City and Marka refugee camp in Jordan as a case study. Russeifa, is a city in Zarqa Governorate in Jordan, and is part of a larger metropolitan area (together with the capital Amman and Zarqa governorate), of which acts as a home for more than half of Jordan’s businesses. Marka Camp is one of the six "emergency" Palestine refugee camps erected in 1968 to shelter 15,000 Palestine refugees and displaced persons who left the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Nowadays, the camp shelters more than 50,000 refugees in the same area of land. Methodological framework: The paper traces the evolution of the refugee-camp regulations in Jordan, in relation to the horizontal and vertical growth of Marka camp and its surroundings. Consequently, the main methods employed are historical and mental tracing, interviews, in addition to using available aerial and archival photos.

Keywords: Displacement, Refugee Camps, Socio-spatial Agency, Transient Settlements

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1170 Adaptive Architecture and Urbanism - A Study of Coastal Cities, Climate Change Problems, Effects, Risks And Opportunities for Making Sustainable Habitat

Authors: Santosh Kumar Ketham

Abstract:

Climate change creating most dramatic and destructive consequences, the result is global warming and sea-level rise, flooding coastal cities around the world forming vulnerable situations affecting in multiple ways: environment, economy, social and political. The aim and goal of the research is to develop cities on water. Taking the problem as an opportunity to bring science, engineering, policies and design together to make a resilient and sustainable floating community on water considering existing/new technologies of floating. The quest is to make sustainable habitat on water to live, work, learn and play.  To make sustainable energy generation and storage alongside maintaining balance of land and marine to conserve Ecosystem. The research would serve as a model for sustainable neighbourhoods designed in a modular way and thus can easily extend or re-arranged, to adapt for future socioeconomic realities.  This research paper studies primarily on climate change problems, effects, risks and opportunities. It does so, through analysing existing case studies, books and writings published on coastal cities and understanding its various aspects for making sustainable habitat.

Keywords: floating cities, flexible modular typologies, rising sea levels, sustainable architecture and urbanism

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1169 Reimaging Archetype of Mosque: A Case Study on Contemporary Mosque Architecture in Bangladesh

Authors: Sabrina Rahman

Abstract:

The Mosque is Islam’s most symbolic structure, as well as the expression of collective identity. From the explicit words of our Prophet, 'The earth has been created for me as a masjid and a place of purity, and whatever man from my Ummah finds himself in need of prayer, let him pray' (anywhere)! it is obvious that a devout Muslim does not require a defined space or structure for divine worship since the whole earth is his prayer house. Yet we see that from time immemorial man throughout the Muslim world has painstakingly erected innumerable mosques. However, mosque design spans time, crosses boundaries, and expresses cultures. It is a cultural manifestation as much as one based on a regional building tradition or a certain interpretation of religion. The trend to express physical signs of religion is not new. Physical forms seem to convey symbolic messages. However, in recent times physical forms of mosque architecture are dominantly demising from mosque architecture projects in Bangladesh. Dome & minaret, the most prominent symbol of the mosque, is replacing by contextual and contemporary improvisation rather than subcontinental mosque architecture practice of early fellows. Thus the recent mosque projects of the last 15 years established the contemporary architectural realm in their design. Contextually, spiritual lighting, the serenity of space, tranquility of outdoor spaces, the texture of materials is widely establishing a new genre of Muslim prayer space. A case study based research will lead to specify its significant factors of modernism. Based on the findings, the paper presents evidence of recent projects as well as a guideline for the future image of contemporary Mosque architecture in Bangladesh.

Keywords: Modernism, Symbolism, Contemporary Architecture, prayer space

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1168 Life-Saving Design Strategies for Nursing Homes and Long-Term Care Facilities

Authors: Jason M. Hegenauer, Nicholas Fucci

Abstract:

In the late 1990s, a major deinstitutionalization movement of elderly patients took place, since which, the design of long-term care facilities has not been adequately analyzed in the United States. Over the course of the last 25 years, major innovations in construction methods, technology, and medicine have been developed, drastically changing the landscape of healthcare architecture. In light of recent events, and the expected increase in elderly populations with the aging of the baby-boomer generation, it is evident that reconsideration of these facilities is essential for the proper care of aging populations. The global response has been effective in stifling this pandemic; however, widespread disease still poses an imminent threat to the human race. Having witnessed the devastation Covid-19 has reaped throughout nursing homes and long-term care facilities, it is evident that the current strategies for protecting our most vulnerable populations are not enough. Light renovation of existing facilities and previously overlooked considerations for new construction projects can drastically lower the risk at nursing homes and long-term care facilities. A reconfigured entry sequence supplements several of the features which have been long-standing essentials of the design of these facilities. This research focuses on several aspects identified as needing improvement, including indoor environment quality, security measures incorporated into healthcare architecture and design, and architectural mitigation strategies for sick building syndrome. The results of this study have been compiled as 'best practices' for the design of future healthcare construction projects focused on the health, safety, and quality of life of the residents of these facilities. These design strategies, which can easily be implemented through renovation of existing facilities and new construction projects, minimize risk of infection and spread of disease while allowing routine functions to continue with minimal impact, should the need for future lockdowns arise. Through the current lockdown procedures, which were implemented during the Covid-19 pandemic, isolation of residents has caused great unrest and worry for family members and friends as they are cut off from their loved ones. At this time, data is still being reported, leaving infection and death rates inconclusive; however, recent projections in some states list long-term care facility deaths as high as 60% of all deaths in the state. The population of these facilities consists of residents who are elderly, immunocompromised, and have underlying chronic medical conditions. According to the Centers for Disease Control, these populations are particularly susceptible to infection and serious illness. The obligation to protect our most vulnerable population cannot be overlooked, and the harsh measures recently taken as a response to the Covid-19 pandemic prove that the design strategies currently utilized for doing so are inadequate.

Keywords: Building Security, Sick Building Syndrome, renovation, indoor environment quality, healthcare architecture and design, new construction

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1167 Philosophy, Geometry, and Purpose in Islamic and Gothic Architecture as Two Religious-Based Styles

Authors: Pedram Nafisi Poor, Parisa Javid

Abstract:

Religion and Divinity have always been important matters to humans therefore they had significant effects on different aspects of life including art and architecture. Numerous works of art are related to religion whether supporting or denying it. The appearance of new religions or the thoughts of religious scholars made major changes and created different styles of art throughout history. Nowadays two most popular religions are Islam and Christianity. This popularity has an old background starting from the birth of Jesus to the arrival of Mohammad. Since the early years of appearance, these two have been the most discussed and most popular religions of all time. Besides, they had the most effects on arts and architecture. Islam changed Iranian and Arabian architecture and they applied it in different places around the world. From the appearance of Islam at 622 AD to this day Islamic architecture has been evolving but one of the most important periods for this style was between 1501 AD to 1736 AD in Iran which is the focal point of this paper in terms of Islamic architecture. Christianity, on the other hand, changed European architecture especially between 1150 AD to 1450 AD or so-called "Gothic" era, which begins at Medieval time and reaches its peak at International gothic ages. At both of these periods, designing buildings based on spiritual concepts and divine statements reached its peak, and architects were considering God and religion as their center of attention. This article presents a general philosophy of these two styles to comprehend the idea behind each one followed by an analysis of their geometry and architectural aspects derived from the best examples, all to understand the purpose of each style and to realize, which one was more successful in reaching their purpose. Subsequently, a comprehensive and literature review of each building is provided including 3d visualizations to help achieve the goal of the article. These studies can support diverse inquiries about both Islamic and Gothic architecture and can be used as a resource to support studies and researches towards designing based on religion or for divine purposes.

Keywords: Islamic, Architecture, Religion, Gothic

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1166 Urban Development from the Perspective of Lou Gang Polder System: Taihu Lake, Huzhou as an Example

Authors: Wei Bin Shen

Abstract:

Lou Gang world irrigation project heritage in Taihu Lake is a systematic irrigation project integrating water conservancy, ecology and culture. Through the methods of historical documents and field investigation, this paper deeply analyzes the formation history, connotation and value of Lou Gang polder system: Lou Gang heritage, describes in detail the relationship between Lou Gang polder system in Taihu Lake and the development and evolution of Huzhou City, and initially explores the protection and Utilization Strategies of Lou Gang water conservancy cultural heritage resources in Taihu Lake from the current situation.

Keywords: Lou Gang, protection strategy, urban evolution, waterconservancyculturalheritage

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1165 Assessment of Energy Consumption in Cluster Redevelopment: A Case Study of Bhendi Bazar in Mumbai

Authors: Insiya Kapasi, Roshni Udyavar Yehuda

Abstract:

Cluster Redevelopment is a new concept in the city of Mumbai. Its regulations were laid down by the government in 2009. The concept of cluster redevelopment encompasses a group of buildings defined by a boundary as specified by the municipal authority (in this case, Mumbai), which may be dilapidated or approved for redevelopment. The study analyses the effect of cluster redevelopment in the form of renewal of old group of buildings as compared to refurbishment or restoration - on energy consumption. The methodology includes methods of assessment to determine increase or decrease in energy consumption in cluster redevelopment based on different criteria such as carpet area of the units, building envelope and its architectural elements. Results show that as the area and number of units increase the Energy consumption increases and the EPI (energy performance index) decreases as compared to the base case. The energy consumption per unit area declines by 29% in the proposed cluster redevelopment as compared to the original settlement. It is recommended that although the development is spacious and provides more light and ventilation, aspects such as glass type, traditional architectural features and consumer behavior are critical in the reduction of energy consumption.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Energy Consumption, Cluster Redevelopment, Typologies

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1164 Impact of Butt Joints on Flexural Properties of Nail Laminated Timber

Authors: Mohammad Mehdi Bagheri, Tianying Ma, Meng Gong

Abstract:

Nail laminated timber (NLT) is widely used for constructing timber bridge decks in North America. Butt joints usually exist due to the length limits of lumber, leading to concerns about the decrease of structural performance of NLT. This study aimed at investigating the provisions incorporated in Canadian highway bridge design code on the use of but joints in wooden bridge decks. Three and five layers NLT specimens with various configurations were tested under 3-point bending test. It was found that the standard equation is capable of predicting the bending stiffness reduction due to butt joints and 1-m band limit in which, one but joint in every three adjacent lamination is allowed, sounds reasonable. The strength reduction also followed a pattern similar to stiffness reduction. Also reinforcement of the butt joint through nails and steel side plates was attempted. It was found that nail reinforcement recovers the stiffness slightly. In contrast, reinforcing the butt joint through steel side plate improved the flexural performance significantly when compared to the nail reinforcement.

Keywords: reinforcement, butt joint, Bending stiffness, nail laminated timber

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1163 Platform Urbanism: Planning towards Hyper-Personalisation

Authors: Provides Ng

Abstract:

Platform economy is a peer-to-peer model of distributing resources facilitated by community-based digital platforms. In recent years, digital platforms are rapidly reconfiguring the public realm using hyper-personalisation techniques. This paper aims at investigating how urban planning can leapfrog into the digital age to help relieve the rising tension of the global issue of labour flow; it discusses the means to transfer techniques of hyper-personalisation into urban planning for plasticity using platform technologies. This research first denotes the limitations of the current system of urban residency, where the system maintains itself on the circulation of documents, which are data on paper. Then, this paper tabulates how some of the institutions around the world, both public and private, digitise data, and streamline communications between a network of systems and citizens using platform technologies. Subsequently, this paper proposes ways in which hyper-personalisation can be utilised to form a digital planning platform. Finally, this paper concludes by reviewing how the proposed strategy may help to open up new ways of thinking about how we affiliate ourselves with cities.

Keywords: platform urbanism, hyper-personalisation, digital inventory, urban accessibility

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1162 Paratransit as Tool for Peri-Urban Connectivity: A Comparative Case Study of Indore and Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

Authors: Sumit Rahangdale

Abstract:

This research paper is a comparative study of two BRTS cities of Madhya Pradesh (INDIA), Bhopal and Indore. Indore is the largest and most populous city of Madhya Pradesh, with heavy traffic, while Bhopal though being the capital of Madhya Pradesh is comparatively less developed and shows less traffic The cities show similarity in case of peri-urban nature, but variation is observed in transportation fare, where Indore has been able to reduce it but Bhopal couldn’t, one of the reason for it is the para-transit services. Indore can be considered as a successful model due to the low fares and can be implemented in other parts of the city. The research paper tries to identify relation of para-transit services with the peri-urban connectivity and provide a solution for the Bhopal case study.

Keywords: paratransit, demand-supply-fare relationship, mobility and accessibility, peri-urban connectivity

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1161 Extraction and Antibacterial Studies of Oil from Three Mango Kernel Obtained from Makurdi, Nigeria

Authors: K. Asemave, D. O. Abakpa, T. T. Ligom

Abstract:

The ability of bacteria to develop resistance to many antibiotics cannot be undermined, given the multifaceted health challenges in the present times. For this reason, a lot of attention is on botanicals and their products in search of new antibacterial agents. On the other hand, mango kernel oils (MKO) can be heavily valorized by taking advantage of the myriads bioactive phytochemicals it contains. Herein, we validated the use of MKO as bioactive agent against bacteria. The MKOs for the study were extracted by soxhlet means with ethanol and hexane for 4 h from 3 different mango kernels, namely; 'local' (sample A), 'julie' (sample B), and 'john' (sample C). Prior to the extraction, ground fine particles of the kernels were obtained from the seed kernels dried in oven at 100 °C for 8 h. Hexane gave higher yield of the oils than ethanol. It was also qualitatively confirmed that the mango kernel oils contain some phytochemicals such as phenol, quinone, saponin, and terpenoid. The results of the antibacterial activities of the MKO against both gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) at different concentrations showed that the oils extracted with ethanol gave better antibacterial properties than those of the hexane. More so, the bioactivities were best with the local mango kernel oil. Indeed this work has completely validated the previous claim that MKOs are effective antibacterial agents. Thus, these oils (especially the ethanol-derived ones) can be used as bacteriostatic and antibacterial agents in say food, cosmetics, and allied industries.

Keywords: Oil, Phytochemicals, Bacteria, kernel, mango

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