Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1613

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Architectural and Environmental Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1613 Promoting Environmental Sustainability in the Workplace: The Be-Green Project

Authors: Elena Carbone, Chiara Meneghetti, Ivan Innocenti, Monica Musicanti, Paola Volpe, Francesca Pazzaglia


Promoting environmental sustainability is becoming a priority for organizations. Little is known, however, on the extent to which green workplace behaviors are linked, alongside organizational determinants, and also to various employees’ individual characteristics. The BE-GREEN research project, in collaboration with Eni S.p.A., aimed at investigating the relationship between the adoption of green workplace behaviors and various employees’ job-related and broader individual characteristics as well as organizational determinants. A sample of 513 Eni employees was administered a survey assessing the adoption of green workplace behaviors and the management of events (e.g., near-miss, unsafe conditions, weak signals) that could anticipate the occurrence of incidents with a harmful environmental impact. The survey also assessed employees’ job-related (e.g., proneness toward behaving pro-environmentally at work) and general (e.g., soft skills, connectedness to nature and environmental awareness) characteristics and perceived organizational support (e.g., environmental culture, leadership). Results showed that the adoption of green workplace behaviors was associated with employees’ proneness toward behaving pro-environmentally at work, and these factors were, in turn, influenced by broader individual characteristics related to soft skills as well as a connectedness to nature and environmental awareness, along with perceived organizational support. The management of events potentially anticipating the occurrence of incidents with a harmful environmental impact was mainly associated with perceived organizational support. These findings highlight how, alongside organizational determinants, different employees’ individual characteristics influence their adoption of green workplace behaviors, with important implications for the development of interventions tailored to promote environmental sustainability in organizations.

Keywords: green workplace behaviors, soft skills, connectedness to nature, environmental awareness.

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1612 Rehabilitation of Dilapidated Buildings in Morocco: Turning Urban Challenges into Opportunities

Authors: Derradji A., Ben El Mamoun M., Zakaria E., Charadi I. Anrur


The issue of dilapidated buildings represents a significant opportunity for constructive and beneficial interventions in Morocco. Faced with challenges associated with aging constructions and rapid urbanization, the country is committed to developing innovative strategies aimed at revitalizing urban areas and enhancing the sustainability of infrastructure, thereby ensuring citizens' safety. Through targeted investments in the renovation and modernization of existing buildings, Morocco aims to stimulate job creation, boost the local economy, and improve the quality of life for residents. Additionally, the integration of sustainable construction standards and the strengthening of regulations will promote resilient and environmentally friendly urban development. In this proactive perspective, LABOTEST has been commissioned by the National Agency for Urban Renewal (ANRUR) to conduct an in-depth study. This study focuses on the technical expertise of 1800 buildings identified as dilapidated in the prefectures of Rabat and Skhirat-Témara following an initial clearance operation. The primary objective of this initiative is to conduct a comprehensive diagnosis of these buildings and define the necessary interventions to eliminate potential risks while ensuring appropriate treatment. The article presents the adopted intervention methodology, taking into account the social dimensions involved, as well as the results of the technical expertise. These results include the classification of buildings according to their degree of urgency and recommendations for appropriate conservatory measures. Additionally, different pathologies are identified and accompanied by specific treatment proposals for each type of building. Since this study, the adopted approach has been generalized to the entire territory of Morocco. LABOTEST has been solicited by other cities such as Casablanca, Chefchaouen, Ouazzane, Azilal, Bejaad, and Demnate. This extension of the initiative demonstrates Morocco's commitment to addressing urban challenges in a proactive and inclusive manner. These efforts also illustrate the endeavors undertaken to transform urban challenges into opportunities for sustainable development and socio-economic progress for the entire population.

Keywords: building, dilapidated, rehabilitation, Morocco

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1611 Examining the Factors Impeding the Preservation of African Architectural Heritage

Authors: Okafor Calistus Chibuzor


Preserving African architectural heritage is a multifaceted endeavor that intersects with socio-cultural, economic, and environmental factors. Despite growing recognition of the importance of safeguarding these invaluable cultural assets, numerous challenges persist, hindering effective preservation efforts across the continent. This paper investigates the underlying factors impeding the preservation of African architectural heritage, aiming to provide insights for addressing this critical issue. The study begins with an exploration of the historical background and significance of African architectural heritage, highlighting its rich diversity and cultural significance. The study acknowledges that there is an urgent need to address the threats facing these heritage sites, including urbanization, rapid development, lack of funding, inadequate legal protection, and insufficient public awareness. The primary aim of this research is to identify and analyze the key factors contributing to the deterioration and loss of African architectural heritage, with the objective of formulating strategies to mitigate these challenges. A mixed-use research methodology combining archival research, field surveys, stakeholder interviews, and case studies is employed to gather comprehensive data and insights. The findings reveal a complex interplay of socio-economic, political, and institutional factors shaping the preservation landscape in Africa, including issues related to funding, governance, community engagement, and capacity building. The paper concludes by highlighting the urgent need for coordinated efforts among government agencies, heritage organizations, local communities, and international stakeholders to address the identified challenges and develop sustainable preservation strategies. Recommendations are provided for enhancing legal frameworks, promoting community involvement, fostering public awareness, and mobilizing resources to safeguard Africa's rich architectural heritage for future generations.

Keywords: African architectural heritage, preservation challenges, preservation strategies, factors

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1610 Validating Thermal Performance of Existing Wall Assemblies Using In-Situ Measurements

Authors: Shibei Huang


In deep energy retrofits, the thermal performance of existing building envelopes is often difficult to determine with a high level of accuracy. For older buildings, the records of existing assemblies are often incomplete or inaccurate. To obtain greater baseline performance accuracy for energy models, in-field measurement tools can be used to obtain data on the thermal performance of the existing assemblies. For a known assembly, these field measurements assist in validating the U-factor estimates. If the field-measured U-factor consistently varies from the calculated prediction, those measurements prompt further study. For an unknown assembly, successful field measurements can provide approximate U-factor evaluation, validate assumptions, or identify anomalies requiring further investigation. Using case studies, this presentation will focus on the non-destructive methods utilizing a set of various field tools to validate the baseline U-factors for a range of existing buildings with various wall assemblies. The lessons learned cover what can be achieved, the limitations of these approaches and tools, and ideas for improving the validity of measurements. Key factors include the weather conditions, the interior conditions, the thermal mass of the measured assemblies, and the thermal profiles of the assemblies in question.

Keywords: existing building, sensor, thermal analysis, retrofit

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1609 Regenerating Habitats. A Housing Based on Modular Wooden Systems

Authors: Rui Pedro de Sousa Guimarães Ferreira, Carlos Alberto Maia Domínguez


Despite the ambitions to achieve climate neutrality by 2050, to fulfill the Paris Agreement's goals, the building and construction sector remains one of the most resource-intensive and greenhouse gas-emitting industries in the world, accounting for 40% of worldwide CO ₂ emissions. Over the past few decades, globalization and population growth have led to an exponential rise in demand in the housing market and, by extension, in the building industry. Considering this housing crisis, it is obvious that we will not stop building in the near future. However, the transition, which has already started, is challenging and complex because it calls for the worldwide participation of numerous organizations in altering how building systems, which have been a part of our everyday existence for over a century, are used. Wood is one of the alternatives that is most frequently used nowadays (under responsible forestry conditions) because of its physical qualities and, most importantly, because it produces fewer carbon emissions during manufacturing than steel or concrete. Furthermore, as wood retains its capacity to store CO ₂ after application and throughout the life of the building, working as a natural carbon filter, it helps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. After a century-long focus on other materials, in the last few decades, technological advancements have made it possible to innovate systems centered around the use of wood. However, there are still some questions that require further exploration. It is necessary to standardize production and manufacturing processes based on prefabrication and modularization principles to achieve greater precision and optimization of the solutions, decreasing building time, prices, and waste from raw materials. In addition, this approach will make it possible to develop new architectural solutions to solve the rigidity and irreversibility of buildings, two of the most important issues facing housing today. Most current models are still created as inflexible, fixed, monofunctional structures that discourage any kind of regeneration, based on matrices that sustain the conventional family's traditional model and are founded on rigid, impenetrable compartmentalization. Adaptability and flexibility in housing are, and always have been, necessities and key components of architecture. People today need to constantly adapt to their surroundings and themselves because of the fast-paced, disposable, and quickly obsolescent nature of modern items. Migrations on a global scale, different kinds of co-housing, or even personal changes are some of the new questions that buildings have to answer. Designing with the reversibility of construction systems and materials in mind not only allows for the concept of "looping" in construction, with environmental advantages that enable the development of a circular economy in the sector but also unleashes multiple social benefits. In this sense, it is imperative to develop prefabricated and modular construction systems able to address the formalization of a reversible proposition that adjusts to the scale of time and its multiple reformulations, many of which are unpredictable. We must allow buildings to change, grow, or shrink over their lifetime, respecting their nature and, finally, the nature of the people living in them. It´s the ability to anticipate the unexpected, adapt to social factors, and take account of demographic shifts in society to stabilize communities, the foundation of real innovative sustainability.

Keywords: modular, timber, flexibility, housing

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1608 Investigating the Multipurpose, Usage, and Application of Bamboo in Abuja, Nigeria’s Federal Capital Territory

Authors: Michael Adedotun Oke


In Nigeria, Bamboo is one of the most socioeconomically beneficial farming crops, with yearly investment returns of up to N1.6 million. Growing bamboo is a fantastic long-term investment. It may self-renew for up to 70 years and is durable, long-lasting, and environmentally friendly; through an oral interview with the sellers, usage examples, and visual depiction to support those examples, The paper was able to discuss the different uses for bamboo. The various field observations in Federal Capital Territory, including the electric poles, buildings, paper production, and decoration, from picture frames to room dividing screens, bamboo can make some elegant and exotic decorations for the home, building, furniture, cooking, agriculture, instrument, in construction for flooring, roofing designing, scaffolding, garden planting, even to control erosion and slope stabilization in erosion are observed. The use of it is multiplexed with straightforward man-made technology, in contrast. 'This study wants more innovative practices that will be able to make it lucrative for business purposes and sustainability of the process. Although there are various uses and requirements for growing bamboo successfully, it is advised to receive the proper training and in-depth understanding of the growth and management procedures. Consult an experienced bamboo farmer for help.

Keywords: bamboo, use, Nigeria, socioeconomically

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1607 Social Sustainability and Affordability of the Transitional Housing Scheme in Hong Kong

Authors: Tris Kee


This research investigates social sustainability factors in transitional housing projects and their impact on fostering healthy living environments that promote physical activity and social interaction for residents. Social sustainability is integral to individual health and well-being, as emphasized by Goal 11 of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which highlights the importance of safe, affordable, and accessible transport systems, green spaces, and public spaces catering to vulnerable populations' needs. Communal spaces in urban environments are essential for fostering social sustainability, as they serve as settings for physical activities and social interactions among diverse socio-economic groups. Factors such as neighborhood social atmosphere, historical context, social disparity, and mobility can influence the relationship between existing and transitional communities. Mental health effects can be measured through housing segregation, mobility and accessibility, and housing tenure. A significant research gap exists in understanding the living environment of transitional housing in Hong Kong and the social sustainability factors affecting residents' mental and physical health. To address this gap, our study employs a mixed-methods approach combining survey questionnaires and interviews to gather both quantitative and qualitative data. This methodology will provide comprehensive insights into residents' experiences and perceptions. Our research's main contribution is identifying key social sustainability factors in transitional housing and their impact on residents' well-being, informing policy-making and the creation of inclusive, healthy living environments. By addressing this research gap, we aim to provide valuable insights for future housing projects, ultimately promoting the development of socially sustainable transitional communities.

Keywords: social sustainablity, affordable housing, transitional housing, high density housing

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1606 Biophilic Design Strategies: Four Case-Studies from Northern Europe

Authors: Carmen García Sánchez


The UN's 17 Sustainable Development Goals – specifically the nº 3 and nº 11- urgently call for new architectural design solutions at different design scales to increase human contact with nature in the health and wellbeing promotion of primarily urban communities. The discipline of Interior Design offers an important alternative to large-scale nature-inclusive actions which are not always possible due to space limitations. These circumstances provide an immense opportunity to integrate biophilic design, a complex emerging and under-developed approach that pursues sustainable design strategies for increasing the human-nature connection through the experience of the built environment. Biophilic design explores the diverse ways humans are inherently inclined to affiliate with nature, attach meaning to and derive benefit from the natural world. It represents a biological understanding of architecture which categorization is still in progress. The internationally renowned Danish domestic architecture built in the 1950´s and early 1960´s - a golden age of Danish modern architecture - left a leading legacy that has greatly influenced the domestic sphere and has further led the world in terms of good design and welfare. This study examines how four existing post-war domestic buildings establish a dialogue with nature and her variations over time. The case-studies unveil both memorable and unique biophilic resources through sophisticated and original design expressions, where transformative processes connect the users to the natural setting and reflect fundamental ways in which they attach meaning to the place. In addition, fascinating analogies in terms of this nature interaction with particular traditional Japanese architecture inform the research. They embody prevailing lessons for our time today. The research methodology is based on a thorough literature review combined with a phenomenological analysis into how these case-studies contribute to the connection between humans and nature, after conducting fieldwork throughout varying seasons to document understanding in nature transformations multi-sensory perception (via sight, touch, sound, smell, time and movement) as a core research strategy. The cases´ most outstanding features have been studied attending the following key parameters: 1. Space: 1.1. Relationships (itineraries); 1.2. Measures/scale; 2. Context: Context: Landscape reading in different weather/seasonal conditions; 3. Tectonic: 3.1. Constructive joints, elements assembly; 3.2. Structural order; 4. Materiality: 4.1. Finishes, 4.2. Colors; 4.3. Tactile qualities; 5. Daylight interplay. Departing from an artistic-scientific exploration this groundbreaking study provides sustainable practical design strategies, perspectives, and inspiration to boost humans´ contact with nature through the experience of the interior built environment. Some strategies are associated with access to outdoor space or require ample space, while others can thrive in a dense urban context without direct access to the natural environment. The objective is not only to produce knowledge, but to phase in biophilic design in the built environment, expanding its theory and practice into a new dimension. Its long-term vision is to efficiently enhance the health and well-being of urban communities through daily interaction with Nature.

Keywords: sustainability, biophilic design, architectural design, interior design, nature, Danish architecture, Japanese architecture

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1605 Saving Energy through Scalable Architecture

Authors: John Lamb, Robert Epstein, Vasundhara L. Bhupathi, Sanjeev Kumar Marimekala


In this paper, we focus on the importance of scalable architecture for data centers and buildings in general to help an enterprise achieve environmental sustainability. The scalable architecture helps in many ways, such as adaptability to the business and user requirements, promotes high availability and disaster recovery solutions that are cost effective and low maintenance. The scalable architecture also plays a vital role in three core areas of sustainability: economy, environment, and social, which are also known as the 3 pillars of a sustainability model. If the architecture is scalable, it has many advantages. A few examples are that scalable architecture helps businesses and industries to adapt to changing technology, drive innovation, promote platform independence, and build resilience against natural disasters. Most importantly, having a scalable architecture helps industries bring in cost-effective measures for energy consumption, reduce wastage, increase productivity, and enable a robust environment. It also helps in the reduction of carbon emissions with advanced monitoring and metering capabilities. Scalable architectures help in reducing waste by optimizing the designs to utilize materials efficiently, minimize resources, decrease carbon footprints by using low-impact materials that are environmentally friendly. In this paper we also emphasize the importance of cultural shift towards the reuse and recycling of natural resources for a balanced ecosystem and maintain a circular economy. Also, since all of us are involved in the use of computers, much of the scalable architecture we have studied is related to data centers.

Keywords: scalable architectures, sustainability, application design, disruptive technology, machine learning and natural language processing, AI, social media platform, cloud computing, advanced networking and storage devices, advanced monitoring and metering infrastructure, climate change

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1604 Effectiveness of Column Geometry in High-Rise Buildings

Authors: Man Singh Meena


Structural engineers are facing different kind of challenges due to innovative & bold ideas of architects who are trying to design every structure with uniqueness. In RCC frame structures different geometry of columns can be used in design and rectangular columns can be placed with different type orientation. The analysis is design of structures can also be carried out by different type of software available i.e., STAAD Pro, ETABS and TEKLA. In recent times high-rise building modeling & analysis is done by ETABS due to its certain features which are superior to other software. The case study in this paper mainly emphasizes on structural behavior of high rise building for different column shape configurations like Circular, Square, Rectangular and Rectangular with 90-degree Rotation and rectangular shape plan. In all these column shapes the areas of columns are kept same to study the effect on design of concrete area is same. Modelling of 20-storeys R.C.C. framed building is done on the ETABS software for analysis. Post analysis of the structure, maximum bending moments, shear forces and maximum longitudinal reinforcement are computed and compared for three different story structures to identify the effectiveness of geometry of column.

Keywords: high-rise building, column geometry, building modelling, ETABS analysis, building design, structural analysis, structural optimization

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1603 Improvement of Students’ Active Experience through the Provision of Foundational Architecture Pedagogy by Virtual Reality Tools

Authors: Mehdi Khakzand, Flora Fakourian


It has been seen in recent years that architects are using virtual modeling to help them visualize their projects. Research has indicated that virtual media, particularly virtual reality, enhances architects' comprehension of design and spatial perception. Creating a communal experience for active learning is an essential component of the design process in architecture pedagogy. It has been particularly challenging to replicate design principles as a critical teaching function, and this is a complex issue that demands comprehension. Nonetheless, the usage of simulation should be studied and limited as appropriate. In conjunction with extensive technology, 3D geometric illustration can bridge the gap between the real and virtual worlds. This research intends to deliver a pedagogical experience in the architecture basics course to improve the architectural design process utilizing virtual reality tools. This tool seeks to tackle current challenges in current ways of architectural illustration by offering building geometry illustration, building information (data from the building information model), and simulation results. These tools were tested over three days in a design workshop with 12 architectural students. This article provided an architectural VR-based course and explored its application in boosting students' active experiences. According to the research, this technology can improve students' cognitive skills from challenging simulations by boosting visual understanding.

Keywords: active experience, architecture pedagogy, virtual reality, spatial perception

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1602 The Contribution of Community Involvement in Heritage Management

Authors: Esraa Alhadad


Recently, there has been considerable debate surrounding the definition, conservation, and management of heritage. Over the past few years, there has been a growing call for the inclusion of local communities in heritage management. However, the perspectives on involvement, especially concerning key stakeholders like community members, often diverge significantly. While the theoretical foundation for community involvement is reasonably established, the application of this approach in heritage management has been sluggish. Achieving a balance to fulfill the diverse goals of stakeholders in any involvement project proves challenging in practice. Consequently, there is a dearth of empirical studies exploring the practical implications of effective tools in heritage management, and limited indication exists to persuade current authorities, such as governmental organizations, to share their influence with local community members. This research project delves into community involvement within heritage management as a potent means of constructing a robust management framework. Its objective is to assess both the extent and caliber of involvement within the management of heritage sites overall, utilizing a cultural mapping-centered methodology. The findings of this study underscore the significance of engaging the local community in both heritage management and planning endeavors. Ultimately, this investigation furnishes crucial empirical evidence and extrapolates valuable theoretical and practical insights that advance understanding of cultural mapping in pivotal areas, including the catalysts for involvement and collaborative decision-making processes.

Keywords: community involvement, heritage management, cultural mapping, stakeholder mangement

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1601 Assessment of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Perlite Mortars with Recycled Cement

Authors: Saca Nastasia, Radu Lidia, Dobre Daniela, Calotă Razvan


In order to achieve the European Union's sustainable and circular economy goals, strategies for reducing raw material consumption, reusing waste, and lowering CO₂ emissions have been developed. In this study, expanded perlite mortars with recycled cement (RC) were obtained and characterized. The recycled cement was obtained from demolition concrete waste. The concrete waste was crushed in a jaw and grinded in a horizontal ball mill to reduce the material's average grain size. Finally, the fine particles were sieved through a 125 µm sieve. The recycled cement was prepared by heating demolition concrete waste at 550°C for 3 hours. At this temperature, the decarbonization does not occur. The utilization of recycled cement can minimize the negative environmental effects of demolished concrete landfills as well as the demand for natural resources used in cement manufacturing. Commercial cement CEM II/A-LL 42.5R was substituted by 10%, 20%, and 30% recycled cement. By substituting reference cement (CEM II/A-LL 42.5R) by RC, a decrease in cement aqueous suspension pH, electrical conductivity, and Ca²⁺ concentration was observed for all measurements (2 hours, 6 hours, 24 hours, 4 days, and 7 days). After 2 hours, pH value was 12.42 for reference and conductivity of 2220 µS/cm and decreased to 12.27, respectively 1570 µS/cm for 30% RC. The concentration of Ca²⁺ estimated by complexometric titration was 20% lower in suspension with 30% RC in comparison to reference for 2 hours. The difference significantly diminishes over time. The mortars have cement: expanded perlite volume ratio of 1:3 and consistency between 140 mm and 200 mm. The density of fresh mortar was about 1400 kg/m3. The density, flexural and compressive strengths, water absorption, and thermal conductivity of hardened mortars were tested. Due to its properties, expanded perlite mortar is a good thermal insulation material.

Keywords: concrete waste, expanded perlite, mortar, recycled cement, thermal conductivity, mechanical strength

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1600 Transcending Boundaries: Integrating Urban Vibrancy with Contemporary Interior Design through Vivid Wall Pieces

Authors: B. C. Biermann


This in-depth exploration investigates the transformative integration of urban vibrancy into contemporary interior design through the strategic incorporation of vivid wall pieces. Bridging the gap between public dynamism and private tranquility, this study delves into the nuanced methodologies, creative processes, and profound impacts of this innovative approach. Drawing inspiration from street art's dynamic language and the timeless allure of natural beauty, these artworks serve as conduits, orchestrating a dialogue that challenges traditional boundaries and redefines the relationship between external chaos and internal sanctuaries. The fusion of urban vibrancy with contemporary interior design represents a paradigm shift, where the inherent dynamism of public spaces harmoniously converges with the curated tranquility of private environments. This paper aims to explore the underlying principles, creative processes, and transformative impacts of integrating vivid wall pieces as instruments for bringing the "outside in." Employing an innovative and meticulous methodology, street art elements are synthesized with the refined aesthetics of contemporary design. This delicate balance necessitates a nuanced understanding of both artistic realms, ensuring a synthesis that captures the essence of urban energy while seamlessly blending with the sophistication of modern interior design. The creative process involves a strategic selection of street art motifs, colors, and textures that resonate with the organic beauty found in natural landscapes, creating a symbiotic relationship between the grittiness of the streets and the elegance of interior spaces. This groundbreaking approach defies traditional boundaries by integrating dynamic street art into interior spaces, blurring the demarcation between external chaos and internal tranquility. Vivid wall pieces serve as dynamic focal points, transforming physical spaces and challenging conventional perceptions of where art belongs. This redefinition asserts that boundaries are fluid and meant to be transcended. Case studies illustrate the profound impact of integrating vivid wall pieces on the aesthetic appeal of interior spaces. Urban vibrancy revitalizes the atmosphere, infusing it with palpable energy that resonates with the vivacity of public spaces. The curated tranquility of private interiors coexists harmoniously with the dynamic visual language of street art, fostering a unique and evolving relationship between inhabitants and their living spaces. Emphasizing harmonious coexistence, the paper underscores the potential for a seamless dialogue between public urban spaces and private interiors. The integration of vivid wall pieces acts as a bridge rather than a dichotomy, merging the dynamism of street art with the curated elegance of contemporary design. This unique visual tapestry transcends traditional categorizations, fostering a symbiotic relationship between contrasting worlds. In conclusion, this paper posits that the integration of vivid wall pieces represents a transformative tool for contemporary interior design, challenging and redefining conventional boundaries. By strategically bringing the "outside in," this approach transforms interior spaces and heralds a paradigm shift in the relationship between urban aesthetics and contemporary living. The ongoing narrative between urban vibrancy and interior design creates spaces that reflect the dynamic and ever-evolving nature of the surrounding environment.

Keywords: Art Integration, Contemporary Interior Design, Interior Space Transformation, Vivid Wall Pieces

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1599 The Role of Artificial Intelligence on Interior Space in College of Architecture and Design

Authors: Saif M. M. Obeidat


This research investigates the impact of artificial intelligence (AI) on interior spaces within a college of Architecture and Design. Employing a qualitative approach, the study conducts in-depth interviews and reviews AI-integrated design projects within the academic setting. The key objectives include assessing AI integration in design processes, examining the influence of AI on user experience, exploring its role in architectural innovation, identifying challenges, and assessing educational implications. The study aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of AI's role in shaping interior spaces within academia. It anticipates improved efficiency in design processes, positive user feedback on functionality and experiences, the emergence of innovative design solutions, and the identification of challenges like ethical considerations and technical limitations. Additionally, the research expects insights into how educational programs may need to adapt to incorporate AI knowledge and skills, ensuring students are well-prepared for the evolving landscape of architecture and design practice. By addressing these objectives, the research contributes valuable insights into the evolving relationship between technology and the field of architecture, particularly within educational contexts.

Keywords: interior design, artificial intelligence, academic settings, technology, education

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1598 Guidelines for Enhancing the Learning Environment by the Integration of Design Flexibility and Immersive Technology: The Case of the British University in Egypt’s Classrooms

Authors: Eman Ayman, Gehan Nagy


The learning environment has four main parameters that affect its efficiency which they are: pedagogy, user, technology, and space. According to Morrone, enhancing these parameters to be adaptable for future developments is essential. The educational organization will be in need of developing its learning spaces. Flexibility of design an immersive technology could be used as tools for this development. when flexible design concepts are used, learning spaces that can accommodate a variety of teaching and learning activities are created. To accommodate the various needs and interests of students, these learning spaces are easily reconfigurable and customizable. The immersive learning opportunities offered by technologies like virtual reality, augmented reality, and interactive displays, on the other hand, transcend beyond the confines of the traditional classroom. These technological advancements could improve learning. This thesis highlights the problem of the lack of innovative, flexible learning spaces in educational institutions. It aims to develop guidelines for enhancing the learning environment by the integration of flexible design and immersive technology. This research uses a mixed method approach, both qualitative and quantitative: the qualitative section is related to the literature review theories and case studies analysis. On the other hand, the quantitative section will be identified by the results of the applied studies of the effectiveness of redesigning a learning space from its traditional current state to a flexible technological contemporary space that will be adaptable to many changes and educational needs. Research findings determine the importance of flexibility in learning spaces' internal design as it enhances the space optimization and capability to accommodate the changes and record the significant contribution of immersive technology that assists the process of designing. It will be summarized by the questionnaire results and comparative analysis, which will be the last step of finalizing the guidelines.

Keywords: flexibility, learning space, immersive technology, learning environment, interior design

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1597 Strategies for Public Space Utilization

Authors: Ben Levenger


Social life revolves around a central meeting place or gathering space. It is where the community integrates, earns social skills, and ultimately becomes part of the community. Following this premise, public spaces are one of the most important spaces that downtowns offer, providing locations for people to be witnessed, heard, and most importantly, seamlessly integrate into the downtown as part of the community. To facilitate this, these local spaces must be envisioned and designed to meet the changing needs of a downtown, offering a space and purpose for everyone. This paper will dive deep into analyzing, designing, and implementing public space design for small plazas or gathering spaces. These spaces often require a detailed level of study, followed by a broad stroke of design implementation, allowing for adaptability. This paper will highlight how to assess needs, define needed types of spaces, outline a program for spaces, detail elements of design to meet the needs, assess your new space, and plan for change. This study will provide participants with the necessary framework for conducting a grass-roots-level assessment of public space and programming, including short-term and long-term improvements. Participants will also receive assessment tools, sheets, and visual representation diagrams. Urbanism, for the sake of urbanism, is an exercise in aesthetic beauty. An economic improvement or benefit must be attained to solidify these efforts' purpose further and justify the infrastructure or construction costs. We will deep dive into case studies highlighting economic impacts to ground this work in quantitative impacts. These case studies will highlight the financial impact on an area, measuring the following metrics: rental rates (per sq meter), tax revenue generation (sales and property), foot traffic generation, increased property valuations, currency expenditure by tenure, clustered development improvements, cost/valuation benefits of increased density in housing. The economic impact results will be targeted by community size, measuring in three tiers: Sub 10,000 in population, 10,001 to 75,000 in population, and 75,000+ in population. Through this classification breakdown, the participants can gauge the impact in communities similar to their work or for which they are responsible. Finally, a detailed analysis of specific urbanism enhancements, such as plazas, on-street dining, pedestrian malls, etc., will be discussed. Metrics that document the economic impact of each enhancement will be presented, aiding in the prioritization of improvements for each community. All materials, documents, and information will be available to participants via Google Drive. They are welcome to download the data and use it for their purposes.

Keywords: downtown, economic development, planning, strategic

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1596 Review of Electronic Voting as a Panacea for Election Malpractices in Nigerian Political System: Challenges, Benefits, and Issues

Authors: Muhammad Muhammad Suleiman


The Nigerian political system has witnessed rising occurrences of election malpractice in the last decade. This has been due to election rigging and other forms of electoral fraud. In order to find a sustainable solution to this malpractice, the introduction of electronic voting (e-voting) has been suggested. This paper reviews the challenges, benefits, and issues associated with e-voting as a panacea for election malpractice in Nigeria. The review of existing literature revealed that e-voting can reduce the cost of conducting elections and reduce the opportunity for electoral fraud. The review suggests that the introduction of e-voting in the Nigerian political system would require adequate cybersecurity measures, trust-building initiatives, and proper legal frameworks to ensure its successful implementation. It is recommended that there should be an effective policy that would ensure the security of the system as well as the credibility of the results. Furthermore, a comprehensive awareness campaign needs to be conducted to ensure that voters understand the process and are comfortable using the system. In conclusion, e-voting has the potential to reduce the occurrence of election malpractice in the Nigerian political system. However, the successful implementation of e-voting will require effective policy interventions and trust-building initiatives. Additionally, the costs of acquiring the necessary infrastructure and equipment and implementing proper legal frameworks need to be considered.

Keywords: electronic voting, general election, candidate, INEC, cyberattack

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1595 Interior Design: Changing Values

Authors: Kika Ioannou Kazamia


This paper examines the action research cycle of the second phase of longitudinal research on sustainable interior design practices, between two groups of stakeholders, designers and clients. During this phase of the action research, the second step - the change stage - of Lewin’s change management model has been utilized to change values, approaches, and attitudes toward sustainable design practices among the participants. Affective domain learning theory is utilized to attach new values. Learning with the use of information technology, collaborative learning, and problem-based learning are the learning methods implemented toward the acquisition of the objectives. Learning methods, and aims, require the design of interventions with participants' involvement in activities that would lead to the acknowledgment of the benefits of sustainable practices. Interventions are steered to measure participants’ decisions for the worth and relevance of ideas, and experiences; accept or commit to a particular stance or action. The data collection methods used in this action research are observers’ reports, participants' questionnaires, and interviews. The data analyses use both quantitative and qualitative methods. The main beneficial aspect of the quantitative method was to provide the means to separate many factors that obscured the main qualitative findings. The qualitative method allowed data to be categorized, to adapt the deductive approach, and then examine for commonalities that could reflect relevant categories or themes. The results from the data indicate that during the second phase, designers and clients' participants altered their behaviours.

Keywords: design, change, sustainability, learning, practices

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1594 Sustainability and Smart Cities Planning in Contrast with City Humanity. Human Scale and City Soul (Neighbourhood Scale)

Authors: Ghadir Hummeid


Undoubtedly, our world is leading all the purposes and efforts to achieve sustainable development in life in all respects. Sustainability has been regarded as a solution to many challenges of our world today, materiality and immateriality. With the new consequences and challenges our world today, such as global climate change, the use of non-renewable resources, environmental pollution, the decreasing of urban health, the urban areas’ aging, the highly increasing migrations into urban areas linked to many consequences such as highly infrastructure density, social segregation. All of that required new forms of governance, new urban policies, and more efficient efforts and urban applications. Based on the fact that cities are the core of life and it is a fundamental life axis, their development can increase or decrease the life quality of their inhabitants. Architects and planners see themselves today in the need to create new approaches and new sustainable policies to develop urban areas to correspond with the physical and non-physical transformations that cities are nowadays experiencing. To enhance people's lives and provide for their needs in this present without compromising the needs and lives of future generations. The application of sustainability has become an inescapable part of the development and projections of cities' planning. Yet its definition has been indefinable due to the plurality and difference of its applications. As the conceptualizations of technology are arising and have dominated all life aspects today, from smart citizens and smart life rhythms to smart production and smart structures to smart frameworks, it has influenced the sustainability applications as well in the planning and urbanization of cities. The term "smart city" emerged from this influence as one of the possible key solutions to sustainability. The term “smart city” has various perspectives of applications and definitions in the literature and in urban applications. However, after the observation of smart city applications in current cities, this paper defined the smart city as an urban environment that is controlled by technologies yet lacks the physical architectural representation of this smartness as the current smart applications are mostly obscured from the public as they are applied now on a diminutive scale and highly integrated into the built environment. Regardless of the importance of these technologies in improving the quality of people's lives and in facing cities' challenges, it is important not to neglect their architectural and urban presentations will affect the shaping and development of city neighborhoods. By investigating the concept of smart cities and exploring its potential applications on a neighbourhood scale, this paper aims to shed light on understanding the challenges faced by cities and exploring innovative solutions such as smart city applications in urban mobility and how they affect the different aspects of communities. The paper aims to shape better articulations of smart neighborhoods’ morphologies on the social, architectural, functional, and material levels. To understand how to create more sustainable and liveable future approaches to developing urban environments inside cities. The findings of this paper will contribute to ongoing discussions and efforts in achieving sustainable urban development.

Keywords: sustainability, urban development, smart city, resilience, sense of belonging

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1593 The Impact of Right to Repair Initiatives on Environmental and Financial Performance in European Consumer Electronics Firms: An Econometric Analysis

Authors: Daniel Stabler, Anne-Laure Mention, Henri Hakala, Ahmad Alaassar


In Europe, 2.2 billion tons of waste annually generate severe environmental damage and economic burdens, and negatively impact human health. A stark illustration of the problem is found within the consumer electronics industry, which reflects one of the most complex global waste streams. Of the 5.3 billion globally discarded mobile phones in 2022, only 17% were properly recycled. To address these pressing issues, Europe has made significant strides in developing waste management strategies, Circular Economy initiatives, and Right to Repair policies. These endeavors aim to make product repair and maintenance more accessible, extend product lifespans, reduce waste, and promote sustainable resource use. European countries have introduced Right to Repair policies, often in conjunction with extended producer responsibility legislation, repair subsidies, and consumer repair indices, to varying degrees of regulatory rigor. Changing societal trends emphasizing sustainability and environmental responsibility have driven consumer demand for more sustainable and repairable products, benefiting repair-focused consumer electronics businesses. In academic research, much of the literature in Management studies has examined the European Circular Economy and the Right to Repair from firm-level perspectives. These studies frequently employ a business-model lens, emphasizing innovation and strategy frameworks. However, this study takes an institutional perspective, aiming to understand the adoption of Circular Economy and repair-focused business models within the European consumer electronics market. The concepts of the Circular Economy and the Right to Repair align with institutionalism as they reflect evolving societal norms favoring sustainability and consumer empowerment. Regulatory institutions play a pivotal role in shaping and enforcing these concepts through legislation, influencing the behavior of businesses and individuals. Compliance and enforcement mechanisms are essential for their success, compelling actors to adopt sustainable practices and consider product life extension. Over time, these mechanisms create a path for more sustainable choices, underscoring the influence of institutions and societal values on behavior and decision-making. Institutionalism, particularly 'neo-institutionalism,' provides valuable insights into the factors driving the adoption of Circular and repair-focused business models. Neo-institutional pressures can manifest through coercive regulatory initiatives or normative standards shaped by socio-cultural trends. The Right to Repair movement has emerged as a prominent and influential idea within academic discourse and sustainable development initiatives. Therefore, understanding how macro-level societal shifts toward the Circular Economy and the Right to Repair trigger firm-level responses is imperative. This study aims to answer a crucial question about the impact of European Right to Repair initiatives had on the financial and environmental performance of European consumer electronics companies at the firm level. A quantitative and statistical research design will be employed. The study will encompass an extensive sample of consumer electronics firms in Northern and Western Europe, analyzing their financial and environmental performance in relation to the implementation of Right to Repair mechanisms. The study's findings are expected to provide valuable insights into the broader implications of the Right to Repair and Circular Economy initiatives on the European consumer electronics industry.

Keywords: circular economy, right to repair, institutionalism, environmental management, european union

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1592 Enhancing Air Quality: Investigating Filter Lifespan and Byproducts in Air Purification Solutions

Authors: Freja Rydahl Rasmussen, Naja Villadsen, Stig Koust


Air purifiers have become widely implemented in a wide range of settings, including households, schools, institutions, and hospitals, as they tackle the pressing issue of indoor air pollution. With their ability to enhance indoor air quality and create healthier environments, air purifiers are particularly vital when ventilation options are limited. These devices incorporate a diverse array of technologies, including HEPA filters, active carbon filters, UV-C light, photocatalytic oxidation, and ionizers, each designed to combat specific pollutants and improve air quality within enclosed spaces. However, the safety of air purifiers has not been investigated thoroughly, and many questions still arise when applying them. Certain air purification technologies, such as UV-C light or ionization, can unintentionally generate undesirable byproducts that can negatively affect indoor air quality and health. It is well-established that these technologies can inadvertently generate nanoparticles or convert common gaseous compounds into harmful ones, thus exacerbating air pollution. However, the formation of byproducts can vary across products, necessitating further investigation. There is a particular concern about the formation of the carcinogenic substance formaldehyde from common gases like acetone. Many air purifiers use mechanical filtration to remove particles, dust, and pollen from the air. Filters need to be replaced periodically for optimal efficiency, resulting in an additional cost for end-users. Currently, there are no guidelines for filter lifespan, and replacement recommendations solely rely on manufacturers. A market screening revealed that manufacturers' recommended lifespans vary greatly (from 1 month to 10 years), and there is a need for general recommendations to guide consumers. Activated carbon filters are used to adsorb various types of chemicals that can pose health risks or cause unwanted odors. These filters have a certain capacity before becoming saturated. If not replaced in a timely manner, the adsorbed substances are likely to be released from the filter through off-gassing or losing adsorption efficiency. The goal of this study is to investigate the lifespan of filters as well as investigate the potentially harmful effects of air purifiers. Understanding the lifespan of filters used in air purifiers and the potential formation of harmful byproducts is essential for ensuring their optimal performance, guiding consumers in their purchasing decisions, and establishing industry standards for safer and more effective air purification solutions. At this time, a selection of air purifiers has been chosen, and test methods have been established. In the following 3 months, the tests will be conducted, and the results will be ready for presentation later.

Keywords: air purifiers, activated carbon filters, byproducts, clean air, indoor air quality

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1591 Optimum Design of Support and Care Home for the Elderly

Authors: P. Shahabi


The increase in average human life expectancy has led to a growing elderly population. This demographic shift has brought forth various challenges related to the mental and physical well-being of the elderly, often resulting in a lack of dignity and respect for this valuable segment of society. These emerging social issues have cast a shadow on the lives of families, prompting the need for innovative solutions to enhance the lives of the elderly. In this study, within the context of architecture, we aim to create a pleasant and nurturing environment that combines traditional Iranian and modern architectural elements to cater to the unique needs of the elderly. Our primary research objectives encompass the following: Recognizing the societal demand for nursing homes due to the increasing elderly population, addressing the need for a conducive environment that promotes physical and mental well-being among the elderly, developing spatial designs that are specifically tailored to the elderly population, ensuring their comfort and convenience. To achieve these objectives, we have undertaken a comprehensive exploration of the challenges and issues faced by the elderly. We have also laid the groundwork for the architectural design of nursing homes, culminating in the presentation of an architectural plan aimed at minimizing the difficulties faced by the elderly and enhancing their quality of life. It is noteworthy that many of the existing nursing homes in Iran lack the necessary welfare and safety conditions required for the elderly. Hence, our research aims to establish comprehensive and suitable criteria for the optimal design of nursing homes. We believe that through optimal design, we can create spaces that are not only diverse, attractive, and dynamic but also significantly improve the quality of life for the elderly. We hold the hope that these homes will serve as beacons of hope and tranquility for all individuals in their later years.

Keywords: care home, elderly, optimum design, support

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1590 Developing Urban Design and Planning Approach to Enhance the Efficiency of Infrastructure and Public Transportation in Order to Reduce GHG Emissions

Authors: A. Rostampouryasouri, A. Maghoul, S. Tahersima


The rapid growth of urbanization and the subsequent increase in population in cities have resulted in the destruction of the environment to cater to the needs of citizens. The industrialization of urban life has led to the production of pollutants, which has significantly contributed to the rise of air pollution. Infrastructure can have both positive and negative effects on air pollution. The effects of infrastructure on air pollution are complex and depend on various factors such as the type of infrastructure, location, and context. This study examines the effects of infrastructure on air pollution, drawing on a range of empirical evidence from Iran and China. Our paper focus for analyzing the data is on the following concepts: 1. Urban design and planning principles and practices 2. Infrastructure efficiency and optimization strategies 3. Public transportation systems and their environmental impact 4. GHG emissions reduction strategies in urban areas 5. Case studies and best practices in sustainable urban development This paper employs a mixed methodology approach with a focus on developmental and applicative purposes. The mixed methods approach combines both quantitative and qualitative research methods to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the research topic. A group of 20 architectural specialists and experts who are proficient in the field of research, design, and implementation of green architecture projects were interviewed in a systematic and purposeful manner. The research method was based on content analysis using MAXQDA2020 software. The findings suggest that policymakers and urban planners should consider the potential impacts of infrastructure on air pollution and take measures to mitigate negative effects while maximizing positive ones. This includes adopting a nature-based approach to urban planning and infrastructure development, investing in information infrastructure, and promoting modern logistic transport infrastructure.

Keywords: GHG emissions, infrastructure efficiency, urban development, urban design

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1589 Designing Sustainable and Energy-Efficient Urban Network: A Passive Architectural Approach with Solar Integration and Urban Building Energy Modeling (UBEM) Tools

Authors: A. Maghoul, A. Rostampouryasouri, MR. Maghami


The development of an urban design and power network planning has been gaining momentum in recent years. The integration of renewable energy with urban design has been widely regarded as an increasingly important solution leading to climate change and energy security. Through the use of passive strategies and solar integration with Urban Building Energy Modeling (UBEM) tools, architects and designers can create high-quality designs that meet the needs of clients and stakeholders. To determine the most effective ways of combining renewable energy with urban development, we analyze the relationship between urban form and renewable energy production. The procedure involved in this practice include passive solar gain (in building design and urban design), solar integration, location strategy, and 3D models with a case study conducted in Tehran, Iran. The study emphasizes the importance of spatial and temporal considerations in the development of sector coupling strategies for solar power establishment in arid and semi-arid regions. The substation considered in the research consists of two parallel transformers, 13 lines, and 38 connection points. Each urban load connection point is equipped with 500 kW of solar PV capacity and 1 kWh of battery Energy Storage (BES) to store excess power generated from solar, injecting it into the urban network during peak periods. The simulations and analyses have occurred in EnergyPlus software. Passive solar gain involves maximizing the amount of sunlight that enters a building to reduce the need for artificial lighting and heating. Solar integration involves integrating solar photovoltaic (PV) power into smart grids to reduce emissions and increase energy efficiency. Location strategy is crucial to maximize the utilization of solar PV in an urban distribution feeder. Additionally, 3D models are made in Revit, and they are keys component of decision-making in areas including climate change mitigation, urban planning, and infrastructure. we applied these strategies in this research, and the results show that it is possible to create sustainable and energy-efficient urban environments. Furthermore, demand response programs can be used in conjunction with solar integration to optimize energy usage and reduce the strain on the power grid. This study highlights the influence of ancient Persian architecture on Iran's urban planning system, as well as the potential for reducing pollutants in building construction. Additionally, the paper explores the advances in eco-city planning and development and the emerging practices and strategies for integrating sustainability goals.

Keywords: energy-efficient urban planning, sustainable architecture, solar energy, sustainable urban design

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1588 Residencial Inclusion Strategies for Homeless Immigrants: The Case of Spain

Authors: Raluca Cosmina Budian


The homeless population in Spain, particularly among immigrants, has been a persistent and multifaceted issue. The government has implemented various housing public policies over the years to address homelessness, ranging from shelter programs to initiatives promoting permanent housing solutions. However, understanding the effectiveness of these policies requires insight from the very individuals and professionals directly impacted by or involved in their execution. This research sheds light on national strategies (The 2015-2020 Comprehensive National Strategy for the Homeless and National Strategy to Combat Homelessness in Spain 2023-2030) aimed at tackling homelessness in Spain, with a focus on the evolving landscape of housing public policies and their relationship with the homeless population. We investigate how these strategies have transformed over time and their impact on the inclusion of this vulnerable group. Furthermore, we explore the perspectives of homeless immigrants, distinguishing between those with an extended residency in Spain and those who have more recently arrived (less than 2 years); and distinguishing between women and men. Additionally, we incorporate insights from 13 interviews with professionals dedicated to serving the homeless population. These insights offer a deeper understanding of the intricacies of current homelessness service provision. Our findings reveal the complex dynamics of providing services to homeless individuals, and the importance of aligning these efforts with the broader national strategies for tackling homelessness. Drawing on a comprehensive dataset, we offer a nuanced view of the challenges and successes in implementing inclusive housing policies in the Spanish context. Our research highlights the importance of collaboration between policy makers, service providers and advocates to create a cohesive and effective approach. By fostering such collaboration, we aim to create a more inclusive and comprehensive strategy to address homelessness in Spain and possible affordable housing proposals for this vulnerable group. It´s only underscores the importance of tailored approaches but also contributes to the broader discourse on housing public policies' ability to address homelessness and foster integration. We suggest that a more comprehensive approach, considering the unique needs of immigrants and working in collaboration with professionals in the field, is essential for the development of effective strategies to combat homelessness and ensure the right to adequate housing for all.

Keywords: housing, homeless, public policy, Spain

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1587 Solar Building Design Using GaAs PV Cells for Optimum Energy Consumption

Authors: Hadis Pouyafar, D. Matin Alaghmandan


Gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells are widely used in applications like spacecraft and satellites because they have a high absorption coefficient and efficiency and can withstand high-energy particles such as electrons and protons. With the energy crisis, there's a growing need for efficiency and cost-effective solar cells. GaAs cells, with their 46% efficiency compared to silicon cells 23% can be utilized in buildings to achieve nearly zero emissions. This way, we can use irradiation and convert more solar energy into electricity. III V semiconductors used in these cells offer performance compared to other technologies available. However, despite these advantages, Si cells dominate the market due to their prices. In our study, we took an approach by using software from the start to gather all information. By doing so, we aimed to design the optimal building that harnesses the full potential of solar energy. Our modeling results reveal a future; for GaAs cells, we utilized the Grasshopper plugin for modeling and optimization purposes. To assess radiation, weather data, solar energy levels and other factors, we relied on the Ladybug and Honeybee plugins. We have shown that silicon solar cells may not always be the choice for meeting electricity demands, particularly when higher power output is required. Therefore, when it comes to power consumption and the available surface area for photovoltaic (PV) installation, it may be necessary to consider efficient solar cell options, like GaAs solar cells. By considering the building requirements and utilizing GaAs technology, we were able to optimize the PV surface area.

Keywords: gallium arsenide (GaAs), optimization, sustainable building, GaAs solar cells

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1586 Sustainable Cities: Harnessing the Power of Urban Renewable Energy

Authors: Mehrzad Soltani, Pegah Rezaei


In the endeavor to construct cities that are not only thriving but also environmentally responsible, effective urban planning and architectural design assume paramount significance. The focal point of this pursuit is the harnessing of urban renewable energy. By embracing sustainable practices such as the integration of solar panels into the urban landscape and the establishment of smart grids, cities are poised to confront head-on the dual challenge of surging energy demands and pressing environmental concerns. Urban renewable energy solutions offer a multifaceted approach to these issues. Firstly, they usher in a clean and sustainable source of energy, reducing the cities' ecological footprint while ensuring a continuous power supply. This transition to eco-friendly energy is also intrinsically linked to enhanced spatial utilization, thereby streamlining the efficiency of urban areas. Moreover, it spurs the adoption of sustainable transportation alternatives, diminishing the reliance on fossil fuels and mitigating air pollution. However, the significance of integrating renewable energy solutions transcends the realm of urban sustainability. It embodies a holistic approach towards creating cities that harmoniously coexist with the natural environment while catering to the needs and aspirations of their inhabitants. In essence, prioritizing sustainability in urban planning and architectural design has evolved from a choice to a necessity, one that not only safeguards the cities' well-being but also fosters a better quality of life for their residents. Thus, it is imperative that we acknowledge the transformative potential of these innovations as we pave the way towards the cities of the future.

Keywords: sustainability, smart grids, solar panel, urban planning, environmental concerns

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1585 Origins: An Interpretive History of MMA Design Studio’s Exhibition for the 2023 Venice Biennale

Authors: Jonathan A. Noble


‘Origins’ is an exhibition designed and installed by MMA Design Studio, at the 2023 Venice Biennale. The instillation formed part of the ‘Dangerous Liaisons’ group exhibition at the Arsenale building. An immersive experience was created for those who visited, where video projection and the bodies of visitors interacted with the scene. Designed by South African architect, Mphethi Morojele – founder and owner of MMA – the primary inspiration for ‘Origins’ was the recent discovery by Professor Karim Sadr in 2019, of a substantial Tswana settlement. Situated in present day Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve, some 45km south of Johannesburg, this precolonial city named Kweneng, has been dated back to the fifteenth century. This remarkable discovery was achieved thanks to advanced aerial, LiDAR scanning technology, which was used to capture the traces of Kweneng, spanning a terrain of some 10km long and 2km wide. Discovered by light (LiDAR) and exhibited through light, Origins presents a simulated experience of Kweneng. The presentation of Kweneng was achieved primarily though video, with a circular projection onto the floor of an animated LiDAR data sequence, and onto the walls a filmed dance sequence choreographed to embody the architectural, spatial and symbolic significance of Kweneng. This paper documents the design process that was involved in the conceptualization, development and final realization of this noteworthy exhibition, with an elucidation upon key social and cultural questions pertaining to precolonial heritage, reimagined histories and postcolonial identity. Periods of change and of social awakening sometimes spark an interest in questions of origin, of cultural lineage and belonging – and which certainly is the case for contemporary, post-Apartheid South Africa. Researching this paper has required primary study of MMA Design Studio’s project archive, including various proposals and other design related documents, conceptual design sketches, architectural drawings and photographs. This material is supported by the authors first-hand interviews with Morejele and others who were involved, especially with respect to the choreography of the interpretive dance, LiDAR visualization techniques and video production that informed the simulated, immersive experience at the exhibition. Presenting a ‘dangerous liaison’ between architecture and dance, Origins looks into the distant past to frame contemporary questions pertaining to intangible heritage, animism and embodiment through architecture and dance – considerations which are required “to survive the future”, says Morojele.

Keywords: architecture and dance, Kweneng, MMA design studio, origins, Venice Biennale

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1584 The Architectural Conservation and Restoration Problems of Mevlevihanes

Authors: Zeynep Tanrıverdi, Ş. Barihüda Tanrıkorur


Mevlevihanes are the dervish lodges of the Mevlevi Sufi Order of dervishes, which was founded on the teachings of Mevlâna Jalaluddin Rumi (1207-1273) in the late 13th century in the Anatolian city of Konya, from which they were administered until 1925, when their activities together with all other sufi dervish orders, were legally prohibited after the founding of the Turkish Republic. On their closure in 1925 over 150 mevlevihane architectural complexes, which had functioned for over 600 years through the late Seljuk, Emirates, and Ottoman periods of Turkish history, were to be found in the geographic areas that had been once occupied by the Ottoman Empire. Unfortunately, because of the history of their prohibition and closure after 1925, the public developed confused negative reactions towards sufi dervish orders and their buildings occupied a nebulous political status so that their upkeep and restoration became neglected, they were used for different, inappropriate functions or were abandoned within the Turkish Republic, until a more socially objective, educated viewpoint developed in the late 1970’s and 80’s. The declaration of the Mevlevi Ayin-i Şerifi (the Ritual Whirling Ceremony of the Mevlevi Dervish Order) with its complex composed music and sema (whirling movements) performance, as a Masterpiece of the Intangible Heritage of Humanity in 2005 by UNESCO and 2007 as the International Year of Mevlâna, started an increase in studies about mevlevihanes and a wave of restorations, especially of their semahanes (the large assembly whirling halls where the Mevlevi Ritual Whirling Ceremony was performed). However, due to inadequacies in legal procedures, socio-cultural changes, economic incapacity, negative environmental factors, and faulty repair practices, the studies and applications for the protection of mevlevihanes have not reached the desired level. Within this historical perspective, this study aims to reveal the particular architectural conservation and restoration problems of mevlevihanes and propose solutions for them. Firstly, the categorization and components of mevlevihane architecture was evaluated through its historical process. Secondly, their basic architectural characteristics were explained. Thirdly, by examining recently restored examples like Manisa, Edirne, Bursa, Tokat, Gelibolu, and Çankırı Mevlevihanes, using archival documents, old maps, drawings, photos and reports, building survey method, mevlevihane architectural conservation and restoration application problems were analyzed. Finally, solution suggestions were proposed for the problems that threaten the proper restoration of mevlevihanes. It is hoped that this study will contribute to the preservation of Mevlevihanes which have played an important role in the architectural, cultural heritage of Turkey, and that their authentic values will be properly transmitted to future generations.

Keywords: conservation, cultural heritage, mevlevihane architecture, reastoration

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