Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1310

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Architectural and Environmental Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1310 Factors Affecting the Formation of Architectural Space and Construction Systems in the Jordanian Vernacular Architecture

Authors: Mohannad Tarrad


The research deals with the beginnings of the vernacular Jordanian architecture since the establishment of the Jordanian state in the early nineteenth century until now, where the Jordanian architecture was based on the interactions of the Jordanian society with the surrounding environment, where the local materials available in the construction area were used, and the construction systems inherited from previous civilizations were used. The builders in Jordan relied on exchanging knowledge and transferring it from one generation to another, where they were able to formulate a construction style capable of responding to the requirement of architectural spaces, and each region of Jordan has its own way of building, as there are various geographical areas in Jordan, including agricultural, mountainous and desert areas. Then the research touched on a historical study of the architectural space and identifying the value of the architectural space in the Jordanian social life, which is related to the customs and traditions of a society influenced by the Arab Islamic civilization, and then the construction, the structural structure, its characteristics and the constituent elements of the building were defined in the vernacular l Jordanian architecture. From the structural point of view, and then to identify the structural materials used in the structural structure and the impact of the structural structure on the design from several aspects, leading to the interior space and the factors affecting it. The research aims to explain and clarify the interconnected design and construction solutions in the vernacular Jordanian architecture in a manner that respects the environmental context, taking into account the material cost of the building, where the financial situation of the home owner plays an important role in choosing the building material and construction method. Case studies from heritage buildings from several Jordanian regions will be analyzed to illustrate the idea of the research.

Keywords: construction systems, architectural space, environmental context, Jordanian architecture

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1309 Post-Pandemic Public Space, Case Study of Public Parks in Kerala

Authors: Nirupama Sam


COVID-19, the greatest pandemic since the turn of the century, presents several issues for urban planners, the most significant of which is determining appropriate mitigation techniques for creating pandemic-friendly and resilient public spaces. The study is conducted in four stages. The first stage consisted of literature reviews to examine the evolution and transformation of public spaces during pandemics throughout history and the role of public spaces during pandemic outbreaks. The second stage is to determine the factors that influence the success of public spaces, which was accomplished by an analysis of current literature and case studies. The influencing factors are categorized under comfort and images, uses and activity, access and linkages, and sociability. The third stage is to establish the priority of identified factors for which a questionnaire survey of stakeholders is conducted and analyzing of certain factors with the help of GIS tools. COVID-19 has been in effect in India for the last two years. Kerala has the highest daily COVID-19 prevalence due to its high population density, making it more susceptible to viral outbreaks. Despite all preventive measures taken against COVID-19, Kerala remains the worst-affected state in the country. Finally, two live case studies of the hardest-hit localities, namely Subhash bose park and Napier Museum park in the Ernakulam and Trivandrum districts of Kerala, respectively, were chosen as study areas for the survey. The responses to the questionnaire were analyzed using SPSS for determining the weights of the influencing factors. The spatial success of the selected case studies was examined using the GIS interpolation model. Following the overall assessment, the fourth stage is to develop strategies and guidelines for planning public spaces to make them more efficient and robust, which further leads to improved quality, safety and resilience to future pandemics.

Keywords: urban design, public space, covid-19, post-pandemic, public spaces

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1308 Challenge of Net-Zero Carbon Construction and Measurement of Energy Consumption and Carbon Emission Reduction to Climate Change, Economy and Job Growths in Hong Kong and Australia

Authors: Kwok Tak Kit


The Paris Agreement 2015 addressed climate change and its negative impacts. The agreement aims to substantially reduce global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to limit the global temperature increase in this century to 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. The 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP26) was held in Glasgow in 2021. In the Submit, all countries agreed to the Glasgow Climate Pact to keep 1.5 degrees and finalized the outstanding elements of the Paris Agreement. The basic approach of waste strategy, recycling policy, circular economy strategy, net-zero strategy and sustainability strategy will be discussed. Different researchers defined the waste strategy as to provide the capacity to handle the waste as a primary approach, and recycling policy is to manage the waste resources in a more efficient way, circular economy strategy is to minimize waste and maximize their value, net-zero strategy is the action to take for carbon neutrality and finally, sustainability is to achieve longevity without impact to the environment and our planet. In this paper, a more holistic study of the importance of the basic factors in terms of carbon emission, waste generation and conservation of energy will be critically and systematically reviewed and analyzed. Recommendations based on the finding can provide further research and future discussion for different stakeholders in the industry.

Keywords: net-zero carbon, climate change, carbon emission, energy consumption

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1307 An IoT, Edge Computing and Fuzzy Logic Combinational Approach for Early Identification and Alerting of Fire in the Buildings

Authors: Thusaya Hewa Lakshitha Sadeeshana Subasinghe


Fire is the most prevalent cause of unintentional death. Thousands of residential structures are destroyed by fire each year, resulting in serious injuries and deaths. In prior research, there have been several advancements in early fire identification. However, few have created an early detection system that combines edge computing, the Internet of Things, and fuzzy logic. A typical fire detection system primarily employs smoke and temperature sensors to detect fires and provide alerts to the fire detection system. However, merely these parameters and the Sensing network are ineffective in detecting fires early. Multiple sensors in the detecting node are utilized to monitor the amount of environmental change, including the DHT 11 sensor for temperature and humidity, the flame sensor for IR radiations, and the MQ-2 sensor for smoke. The MQTT protocol was used to create the Edge network system. To increase the accuracy of the outputs, the system employs the Mamdani fuzzy controller to handle the data from the sensing nodes. And, via a web interface, provide the degree of the building's fire condition. The sensor input data was processed by the fuzzy controller in many steps. The primary steps of data processing in the proposed system are fuzzification, rule evaluation, and defuzzification. Through the fuzzy logic controller, the system outputs a percentage of the fire level. To achieve cost-effectiveness, this approach is built on low-cost, highly tiny sensors. The suggested solution was evaluated using the experimental data in a testing environment.

Keywords: edge computing, fire identification, fuzzy logic, Internet of things, MQTT

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1306 A Reading Light That Can Adjust Indoor Light Intensity According to the Activity and Person for Improve Indoor Visual Comfort of Occupants and Tested using Post-occupancy Evaluation Techniques for Sri Lankan Population

Authors: R.T.P. De Silva, T. K. Wijayasiriwardhane, B. Jayawardena


Most people nowadays spend their time indoor environment. Because of that, a quality indoor environment needs for them. This study was conducted to identify how to improve indoor visual comfort using a personalized light system. Light intensity, light color, glare, and contrast are the main facts that affect visual comfort. The light intensity which needs to perform a task is changed according to the task. Using necessary light intensity and we can improve the visual comfort of occupants. The hue can affect the emotions of occupants. The preferred light colors and intensity change according to the occupant's age and gender. The research was conducted to identify is there any relationship between personalization and visual comfort. To validate this designed an Internet of Things-based reading light. This light can work according to the standard light levels and personalized light levels. It also can measure the current light intensity of the environment and maintain continuous light levels according to the task. The test was conducted by using 25 undergraduates, and 5school students, and 5 adults. The feedbacks are gathered using Post-occupancy evaluation (POE) techniques. Feedbacks are gathered in three steps, It was done without any light control, with standard light level, and with personalized light level Users had to spend 10 minutes under each condition. After finishing each step, collected their feedbacks. According to the result gathered, 94% of participants rated a personalized light system as comfort for them. The feedbacks show stay under continuous light level help to keep their concentrate. Future research can be conducted on how the color of indoor light can affect for indoor visual comfort of occupants using a personalized light system. Further proposed IoT based can improve to change the light colors according to the user's preference.

Keywords: indoor environment quality, internet of things based light system, post occupancy evaluation, visual comfort

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1305 IoT Based Solution for Increase Car Indoor Air Quality Using Outdoor and Indoor Air Quality Data

Authors: Suren Thilaksha Karunasekara Wijerathna


Air pollution has become a major problem that everyone in the modern world must confront. People who spend a lot of time in their cars are particularly affected by this problem because there is so much traffic and vehicle pollution on the roadways. According to the majority of studies, passengers in vehicle cabins are exposed to poorer air quality than pedestrians on the same road. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a significant pollutant index because it poses a significant health risk when levels in the air are consistently high. Volatile organic compounds are organic chemicals that convert into gas at room temperature. Because there are thousands of VOCs in the air at once, the TVOC level has been used to assess pollution levels similar to PM2.5 levels. Passengers in vehicles who are exposed to PM2.5 and VOC-contaminated air have serious health issues. There are built-in ways, such as blower fans, for bringing outside air into the automobile interior, as well as aftermarket items, such as air puffier, to avoid this issue. The majority of car users are unsure how to use these strategies efficiently. This paper proposes a cloud-based in-car air quality management system to address the issue. The purpose of the questionnaire is to learn more about car users' awareness of inherent and aftermarket procedures, as well as how often they utilize them. Indoor and outdoor air quality, as well as the vehicle's location and speed, are collected and sent to the cloud via a sensor-based system. The values of PM2.5 and TVOC are primarily used to determine air quality. Using the acquired data set, a machine learning prediction model is created to forecast location-based air quality. Using real-time and projected data, the API system is intended to provide notifications to improve in-car air quality.

Keywords: air pollution, PM2.5, TVOC, in-car air quality management, machine learning prediction model

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1304 Socioeconomic Impacts of Innovative Housing Construction Technologies in Slum Upgrading: Case of Mathare Valley Nairobi, Kenya

Authors: Edmund M. Muthigani


Background: Adequate, decent housing is a universal human right integral component. Resources’ costs and intensified rural-urban migration have increased the demand for affordable housing in urban areas. Modern knowledge-based economy uses innovation. The construction industry uses product and process innovation to provide adequate and decent low-cost housing. Kenya adopted innovation practices in slum upgrading that used cost-effectively locally available building materials. This study objectively looked at the outcomes, social and economic impacts of innovative housing technologies construction in the Mathare valley slums upgrading project. Methods: This post-occupancy study used an exploratory-descriptive research design. Random sampling was used to sample 384 users of low-cost housing projects in Mathare Valley, Nairobi County. Research instruments included semi-structured questionnaires and interview guides. Pilot study, validity and reliability tests ensured the quality of a study. Ethical considerations included university approval and consent. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) software version 21 was applied to compute the descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings: Slum-upgrading had a significant-positive outcome on improved houses and community. Social impacts included communal facilities, assurance of security of tenure, and retained frameworks of establishments. Economic impacts included employment; affordable and durable units (p values <0.05). The upgrading process didn’t influence rent fees, was corrupt and led to the displacement of residents. Conclusion: Slum upgrading process impacted positively. Similar projects should consider residents in decision-making.

Keywords: innovation, technologies, slum upgrading, Mathare valley slum, social impact, economic impact

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1303 Investigating Jacket-Type Offshore Structures Failure Probability by Applying the Reliability Analyses Methods

Authors: Majid Samiee Zonoozian


For such important constructions as jacket type platforms, scrupulous attention in analysis, design and calculation processes is needed. The reliability assessment method has been established into an extensively used method to behavior safety calculation of jacket platforms. In the present study, a methodology for the reliability calculation of an offshore jacket platform in contradiction of the extreme wave loading state is available. Therefore, sensitivity analyses are applied to acquire the nonlinear response of jacket-type platforms against extreme waves. The jacket structure is modeled by applying a nonlinear finite-element model with regards to the tubular members' behave. The probability of a member’s failure under extreme wave loading is figured by a finite-element reliability code. The FORM and SORM approaches are applied for the calculation of safety directories and reliability indexes have been detected. A case study for a fixed jacket-type structure positioned in the Persian Gulf is studied by means of the planned method. Furthermore, to define the failure standards, equations suggested by the 21st version of the API RP 2A-WSD for The jacket-type structures’ tubular members designing by applying the mixed axial bending and axial pressure. Consequently, the effect of wave Loades in the reliability index was considered.

Keywords: Jacket-Type structure, reliability, failure probability, tubular members

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1302 Incentive Policies to Promote Green Infrastructure in Urban Jordan

Authors: Zayed Freah Zeadat


The wellbeing of urban dwellers is strongly associated with the quality and quantity of green infrastructure. Nevertheless, urban green infrastructure is still lagging in many Arab cities, and Jordan is no exception. The capital city of Jordan, Amman, is becoming more urban dense with limited green spaces. The unplanned urban growth in Amman has caused several environmental problems such as urban heat islands, air pollution, and lack of green spaces. This study aims to investigate the most suitable drivers to leverage the implementation of urban green infrastructure in Jordan through qualitative and quantitative analysis. The qualitative research includes an extensive literature review to discuss the most common drivers used internationally to promote urban green infrastructure implementation in the literature. The quantitative study employs a questionnaire survey to rank the suitability of each driver. Consultants, contractors, and policymakers were invited to fill the research questionnaire according to their judgments and opinions. Relative Importance Index has been used to calculate the weighted average of all drivers and the Kruskal-Wallis test to check the degree of agreement among groups. This study finds that research participants agreed that indirect financial incentives (i.e., tax reductions, reduction in stormwater utility fee, reduction of interest rate, density bonus, etc.) are the most effective incentive policy whilst granting sustainability certificate policy is the least effective driver to ensure widespread of UGI is elements in Jordan.

Keywords: urban green infrastructure, relative importance index, sustainable urban development, urban Jordan

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1301 Review the Concept of Context in Modernization of Rural Architecture Case Study: Baliran Village

Authors: Neda Najafi, Mehran Allalhesabi


At present, the natural, geographical, physical contexts of the rural textures, which play a crucial role in making the concept behind their body, are not considered in the new designs. Despite the fundamental differences in contexts, this issue has caused that, the new rural textures in our country become similar to each other and the cohesive structure of many villages in the development of rural areas are exposed to deterioration. The villages of northern Iran are not immune from this situation and nothing have remained from their physical characteristic, and the new sections of rural areas are designed heterogeneously and regardless to the concepts behind the region's architecture, which destroys the originality of the environment. The purpose of this study is to extract the concepts and criteria that differentiate the body of the village and reveal its similarity with the same structures. In this way, understanding the underlying values is extremely useful and is considered very important to approach the new model. In the first part, the subject matters of the research (context, village and rural architecture) are defined and then the characteristics of context-oriented rural architecture and criteria that can be examined from the perspective of contextualism approach are presented. In the second part, by selecting 3 samples from the houses of Baliran village, these concepts and criteria have been evaluated in the houses of the village. The results of this study show that the characteristics of contextual rural architecture have the ability to adapt to the body of the village and can be the best model to achieve contextual architecture in this area. Therefore, by using these concepts and criteria, it is possible to achieve a type of architecture that is located along with the past architecture and, with the help of the modern facilities and environmental potentials, creates a logical and correct flow in the physical development of the rural textures.

Keywords: context, village, rural architecture, concepts and criteria of physical contextualism

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1300 Planning for Sustainability in the Built Environment

Authors: Adedayo Jeremiah Adeyekun, Samuel Oluwagbemiga Ishola


This paper aimed to identify the significance of sustainability in the built environment, the economic and environmental importance to building and construction projects. Sustainability in the built environment has been a key objective of research over the past several decades. Sustainability in the built environment requires reconciliation between economic, environmental and social impacts of design and planning decisions made during the life cycle of a project from inception to termination. Planning for sustainability in the built environment needs us to go beyond our individual disciplines to consider the variety of economic, social and environmental impacts of our decisions in the long term. A decision to build a green residential development in an isolated location may pass some of the test of sustainability through its reduction in stormwater runoff, energy efficiency, and ecological sustainability in the building, but it may fail to be sustainable from a transportation perspective. Sustainability is important to the planning, design, construction, and preservation of the built environment; because it helps these activities reflect multiple values and considerations. In fact, the arts and sciences of the built environment have traditionally integrated values and fostered creative expression, capabilities that can and should lead the sustainability movement as society seeks ways to live in dynamic balance with its own diverse needs and the natural world. This research aimed to capture the state-of-the-art in the development of innovative sustainable design and planning strategies for building and construction projects. Therefore, there is a need for a holistic selection and implication approach for identifying potential sustainable strategies applicable to a particular project and evaluating the overall life cycle impact of each alternative by accounting for different applicable impacts and making the final selection among various viable alternatives.

Keywords: sustainability, built environment, planning, design, construction

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1299 Microstructures and Chemical Compositions of Quarry Dust As Alternative Building Material in Malaysia

Authors: Abdul Murad Zainal Abidin, Tuan Suhaimi Salleh, Siti Nor Azila Khalid, Noryati Mustapa


Quarry dust is a quarry end product from rock crushing processes, which is a concentrated material used as an alternative to fine aggregates for concreting purposes. In quarrying activities, the rocks are crushed into aggregates of varying sizes, from 75mm until less than 4.5 mm, the size of which is categorized as quarry dust. The quarry dust is usually considered as waste and not utilized as a recycled aggregate product. The dumping of the quarry dust at the quarry plant poses the risk of environmental pollution and health hazard. Therefore, the research is an attempt to identify the potential of quarry dust as an alternative building material that would reduce the materials and construction costs, as well as contribute effort in mitigating depletion of natural resources. The objectives are to conduct material characterization and evaluate the properties of fresh and hardened engineering brick with quarry dust mix proportion. The microstructures of quarry dust and the bricks were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the results suggest that the shape and surface texture of quarry dust is a combination of hard and angular formation. The chemical composition of the quarry dust was also evaluated using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and compared against sand and concrete. The quarry dust was found to have a higher presence of alumina (Al₂O₃), indicating the possibility of an early strength effect for brick. They are utilizing quarry dust waste as replacement material has the potential of conserving non-renewable resources as well as providing a viable alternative to disposal of current quarry waste.

Keywords: building materials, cement replacement, quarry microstructure, quarry product, sustainable materials

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1298 Critically Analyzing the Application of Big Data for Smart Transportation: A Case Study of Mumbai

Authors: Tanuj Joshi


Smart transportation is fast emerging as a solution to modern cities’ approach mobility issues, delayed emergency response rate and high congestion on streets. Present day scenario with Google Maps, Waze, Yelp etc. demonstrates how information and communications technologies controls the intelligent transportation system. This intangible and invisible infrastructure is largely guided by the big data analytics. On the other side, the exponential increase in Indian urban population has intensified the demand for better services and infrastructure to satisfy the transportation needs of its citizens. No doubt, India’s huge internet usage is looked as an important resource to guide to achieve this. However, with a projected number of over 40 billion objects connected to the Internet by 2025, the need for systems to handle massive volume of data (big data) also arises. This research paper attempts to identify the ways of exploiting the big data variables which will aid commuters on Indian tracks. This study explores real life inputs by conducting survey and interviews to identify which gaps need to be targeted to better satisfy the customers. Several experts at Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA), Mumbai Metro and Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) were interviewed regarding the Information Technology (IT) systems currently in use. The interviews give relevant insights and requirements into the workings of public transportation systems whereas the survey investigates the macro situation.

Keywords: smart transportation, mobility issue, Mumbai transportation, big data, data analysis

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1297 The Shifting Urban Role of Buildings’ Facade Design: A Diachronic Analysis of a Case Study in Korba

Authors: Virginia Bassily, Sherif Goubran


In heritage conservation and revival, much of the focus is placed on the techniques and methods to preserve, restore, and revive heritage structures and locations. This is especially important in locations that are currently in a deteriorated or critical state. However, less research examines how deterioration happens and its effect on the heritage locations’ character and socio-economic functions. To this end, this research aims to examine the decline and its effect in the Korba area in Heliopolis, Cairo, Egypt. Constructed in 1906 by Baron Empain, Korba was designed to have a unique architectural character intended to stimulate social and economic life in the then newly designed desert oasis. However, the area has been on a path of physical deterioration over the years, and this resulted in the corrosion in the social life of its streets. Previous research proposed a framework that connected six street-level façade design parameters to the social interactions on streets and sidewalks, namely: complexity and architectural character, permeability, territoriality and personalization, enclosure, ground-floor use, and physical comfort. This research builds on this framework to study the changes in Korba’s buildings’ architectural features through a diachronic analysis in Ibrahim El-Lakkani Street of Korba. We select two distinct periods, the present (2021) and the original state of the building (1906). Specifically, architectural features of the street level are broken down and categorized in those six parameters to understand their decline or improvement over time. We Used descriptive analysis; the paper then connects the physical deterioration with potential deterioration in the social life on the streets and sidewalks of Korba and underscores the critical physical changes that are likely causing such decline. We find that the parameters that have decreased enough over the years and caused the deterioration are complexity and architectural character, permeability, territoriality and personalization, and physical comfort. The results verify that the street has overgone deterioration in their overall socialization levels and that the physical deterioration can indeed be used as a predictor of social interaction decline in urban areas. The findings propose a process by which revival projects can focus on physical parameters that create synergistic benefits by preserving and renewing heritage locations and revitalizing their socio-economic potentials.

Keywords: architectural character, conservation, enclosure, ground-floor use, Korba, permeability, personalization, physical comfort, social life, territoriality

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1296 Generative Acoustic Design: A Cross-Platform Design and Optimization Workflow for the Integration of Absorber and Diffuser Geometry with Embedded Coupled Helmholtz-Resonators for Large-Scale Additive

Authors: Saqib Aziz, Brad Alexander, Max Weber, Stefan Weinzierl, Christoph Gengnagel


This paper explores a generative design, simulation, and optimization workflow for the integration of an acoustical diffuser and/or absorber geometry with embedded coupled Helmholtz-resonators for full-scale 3D printed building components. Large-scale additive manufacturing in conjunction with algorithmic CAD design tools enables a vast amount of control when creating geometry. This can also be advantageous regarding the increasing demands of comfort standards for indoor spaces and the use of more resourceful and sustainable construction methods and materials. The presented methodology aims to highlight these new technological advancements and offers a multimodal and integrative design solution with the potential for an immediate application in the AEC-Industry. Although this methodology can be applied to a large array of additive manufacturing processes, the presented work will investigate a case study based on a structurally optimised waffle or two-way joist slab. The goal is to create permanent formwork that serves as molds during the fabrication process on-site and to integrate or program acoustical absorption and diffusion qualities to them. For this, a hybrid validation strategy using a digital and cross-platform simulation environment that is audited with physical prototyping is investigated. The iterative workflow starts with the generation of a parametric design model for the acoustical geometry using the algorithmic visual scripting editor grasshopper3D inside the Building Information Model-ing (BIM) software Revit. Various geometric attributes (bottleneck and cavity dimensions) of the resonator are parameterized and a custom numerical optimizer was able to modify the geometry with the goal of increasing absorption at resonance and increasing the bandwidth of the effective absorption range. The generative model was then dynamically imported into the simulation environment COMSOL Multiphysics where the geometry was further modified and prepared for simulation in a semi-automated process. The incident and scattered pressure fields were simulated from which the surface normal absorption coefficients were calculated. This reciprocal process was repeated a few times to further optimize the geometric parameters. Subsequently, the numerical models were compared with a set of 3D concrete printed physical twin models which were tested in a .25 x .25 m impedance tube. The empirical results served to improve the starting parameter settings of the initial numerical model. The geometry resulting from the numerical optimization was finally returned to grasshopper for further implementation in an interdisciplinary study.

Keywords: acoustical design, computational design, multimodal optimization, additive manufacturing, generation design, cross-platform interoperability

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1295 Automated Multisensory Data Collection System for Continuous Monitoring of Refrigerating Appliances Recycling Plants

Authors: Georgii Emelianov, Mikhail Polikarpov, Fabian Hübner, Jochen Deuse, Jochen Schiemann


Recycling refrigerating appliances plays a major role in protecting the Earth's atmosphere from ozone depletion and emissions of greenhouse gases. The performance of refrigerator recycling plants in terms of material retention is the subject of strict environmental certifications and is reviewed periodically through specialized audits. The continuous collection of Refrigerator data required for the input-output analysis is still mostly manual, error-prone, and not digitalized. In this paper, we propose an automated data collection system for recycling plants in order to deduce expected material contents in individual end-of-life refrigerating appliances. The system utilizes laser scanner measurements and optical data to extract attributes of individual refrigerators by applying transfer learning with pre-trained vision models and optical character recognition. Based on Recognized features, the system automatically provides material categories and target values of contained material masses, especially foaming and cooling agents. The presented data collection system paves the way for continuous performance monitoring and efficient control of refrigerator recycling plants.

Keywords: automation, data collection, performance monitoring, recycling, refrigerators

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1294 Critical Design - Concepts, Methods and Practices for Innovative Societal Relationships

Authors: Martina Maria Keitsch


Critical Design (CD) confronts traditional design practice. Instead of reproducing and reinforcing contemporary perceptions of products and services, CD seeks to challenge them with the goal to stimulate debates and visions on societal innovation. CD methods comprise, among other narratives and design of critical objects. The oral presentation is based on a study that discusses concepts, methods, and applications of CD links CD to traditional design, and identifies CD benefits and challenges for design research and practice. The objective of the study is to introduce CD as an alternative for design researchers and practitioners supplementing commercially oriented design approaches. The study utilizes a literature review on CD concepts and methods based on current publications and online documents and illustrates CD practice with help of selected case studies. Findings of the study indicate that CD contribute, among others, to create new societal roles for designers, foster innovative relationships between designers and users, and encourage creativity through imaginative aesthetics.

Keywords: critical design, postmodern design theories, narratives, rhizome

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1293 Anti-architecture and Spaces of Marginality against a Hidden Genocide

Authors: Edwin E. Dilone Berumen


After having waged war and perpetrating acts of genocide against humanity since the birth of what could be called originality, aestheticism and orthodoxy are now dead. This is a reality often rejected by the masses and those at the apex of societal constructs for two very different reasons. The first is to create an architecture where all ideas are safeguarded against all forms of criticism in so-called “safe spaces,” either virtual or tangible. The second is to create architectures of domination and repression that create dogma and inquisition any opposition in a popular massacre. Both are predicated upon ideologies of denial towards the self. This very day, architecture is built against the “other” in towers that repeatedly peer outdoors and target those found outside in marginal space. One may belong to one or the other, but never in the margin. Marginal space is, therefore, anti-architecture, the opposite of architecture and its established role in concealment, denial, and genocide. To clarify, anti-architecture is not simply the reciprocal of explicit space, interior vs. exterior space, but rather the mediation between what can be called spaces of influence and spaces that are influenced. The mediation between utopia and reality. Suggested amongst these designs is an architecture that becomes outwardly and in desire of criticism as much as it desires to do the same unto the occupant. An architecture entirely unapologetic, however, also welcoming to those that seek it out. The marginal space intrinsically becomes a place of expansion and transit that completely transforms the way a space is perceived. Exterior and interior are no longer places to be, but only spaces in addition to circulation. Timelessness is no longer apparent, overtaken by wants of temporariness and the need to continuously understand and change. Stagnation is to be avoided at all costs. Using methods outlining how spaces of acceptance and acceptance of spaces might be visualized, the aim of this exploration: to understand the basis of erasure through hierarchical analysis and its relationship with genocide, to understand levels of concealment, denial and the role choice involves itself, examining current examples in architecture, and suggesting an alternative approach to perceptions surrounded by the superficiality of space fixated upon elimination of the “other.”

Keywords: aestheticism, anti-architecture, denial, genocide, margin, safe space

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1292 The Illegal Architecture of Apartheid in Palestine

Authors: Hala Barakat


Architecture plays a crucial role in the colonization and organization of spaces, as well as the preservation of cultures and history. As a result of 70 years of occupation, Palestinian land, culture, and history are endangered today. The government of Israel has used architecture to strangulate Palestinians out and seize their land. The occupation has managed to fragment the West Bank and cause sensible scars on the landscape by creating obstacles, barriers, watchtowers, checkpoints, walls, apartheid roads, border devices, and illegal settlements to unjustly claim land from its indigenous population. The apartheid architecture has divided the Palestinian social and urban fabric into pieces, similarly to the Bantustans. The architectural techniques and methods used by the occupation are evidence of prejudice, and while the illegal settlements remain to be condemned by the United Nations, little is being done to officially end this apartheid. Illegal settlements range in scale from individual units to established cities and house more than 60,000 Israeli settlers that immigrated from all over Europe and the United States. Often architecture by Israel is being directed towards expressing ideologies and serving as evidence of its political agenda. More than 78% of what was granted to Palestine after the development of the Green Line in 1948 is under Israeli occupation today. This project aims to map the illegal architecture as a criticism of governmental agendas in the West Bank and Historic Palestinian land. The paper will also discuss the resistance to the newly developed plan for the last Arab village in Jerusalem, Lifta. The illegal architecture has isolated Palestinians from each other and installed obstacles to control their movement. The architecture of occupation has no ethical or humane logic but rather entirely political, administrative, and it should not be left for the silenced architecture to tell the story. Architecture is not being used as a connecting device but rather a way to implement political injustice and spatial oppression. By narrating stories of the architecture of occupation, we can highlight the spatial injustice of the complex apartheid infrastructure. The Israeli government has managed to intoxicate architecture to serve as a divider between cultural groups, allowing the unlawful and unethical architecture to define its culture and values. As architects and designers, the roles we play in the development of illegal settlements must align with the spatial ethics we practice. Most importantly, our profession is not performing architecturally when we design a house with a particular roof color to ensure it would not be mistaken with a Palestinian house and be attacked accidentally.

Keywords: apartheid, illegal architecture, occupation, politics

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1291 Contemporary Vision of Islamic Motifs in Decorating Products

Authors: Shuruq Ghazi Nahhas


Islamic art is a decorative art that depends on repeating motifs in various shapes to cover different surfaces. Each motif has its own characteristics and style that may reflect different Islamic periods, such as Umayyad, Abbasid, Fatimid, Seljuk, Nasrid, Ottoman, and Safavid. These periods were the most powerful periods which played an important role in developing the Islamic motifs. Most of these motifs of the Islamic heritage were not used in new applications. This research focused on reviving the vegetal Islamic motifs found on Islamic heritage and redesign them in a new format to decorate various products, including scarfs, cushions, coasters, wallpaper, wall art, and boxes. The scarf is chosen as one element of these decorative products because it is used as accessories to add aesthetic value to fashion. A descriptive-analytical method is used for this research. The process started with extracting and analyzing the original motifs. Then, creating the new motifs by simplifying, deleting, or adding elements based on the original structure. Then, creating repeated patterns and applying them to decorative products. The findings of this research indicated: repeating patterns based on different structures creates unlimited patterns. Also, changing the elements of the motifs of a pattern adds new characteristics to the pattern. Also, creating frames using elements from the repeated motifs adds aesthetic and contemporary value to decorative products. Finally, using various methods of combining colors creates unlimited variations of each pattern. At the end, reviving the Islamic motifs in contemporary vision enriches decorative products with aesthetic, artistic, and historical values of different Islamic periods. This makes the decorative products valuable that adds uniqueness to their surroundings.

Keywords: Islamic motifs, contemporary patterns, scarfs, decorative products

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1290 Environmental Sustainability Practice in Resort Hotels: Case of Resort Hotels in Bishoftu, Ethiopia

Authors: Mohammed Aman Kassim


This study aims to investigate attitudes of resort hotel managers toward environmental sustainability practice in Bishoftu Town, Ethiopia. Six resorts were selected out of twelve by using systematic sampling method and totally fifty-six managers were taken for the survey. The findings revealed that more than 99% of hotel managers possess positive attitudes but low level of performance. Owners’ attitudes and personal beliefs, government regulation and incentives for good achievement were the most important factors that motivate or influence the adoptions of environmental sustainability practices. Hotel managers’ environmental attitudes more significantly influenced by their social demographics, such as level of education and age. Therefore, in order to increase hotels commitment to become more sustainable, some measurement should be implemented, such as vigorous support of the government, cooperation with hotel associations, continuous behaviors of hotel environmental protection, and local community participation in environmental practice.

Keywords: environmental attitude, environmental sustainability, hotel managers, resorts

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1289 Examining the Attitude and Behavior Towards Household Waste in China With the Theory of Planned Behavior and PEST Analysis

Authors: Yuxuan Liu, Jianli Hao, Ruoyu Zhang, Lin Lin, Nelsen Andreco Muljadi, Yu Song, Guobin Gong


With the increased municipal waste of China, household waste management (HWM) has become a key issue for sustainable development. In this study, an online survey questionnaire was conducted with the aim of assessing the current attitudes and behaviors of the households in China towards waste separationand recycling practices. Related influential factors are also determined within the context of the theory of planned behavior and PEST analysis. The survey received a total of 551 valid respondents. Results showed that the sample has an overall positive attitudes and behavior toward participating in HWM, but only 16.3% of themregularly segregate their waste. Society and policy are also found to be the two most impactful factors.

Keywords: householde waste management, theory of planned behavior, attitude, behavior

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1288 A Comparative Approach for Modeling the Toxicity of Metal Mixtures in Two Ecologically Related Three-Spined (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) And Nine-Spined (Pungitius pungitius L.) Sticklebacks

Authors: Tomas Makaras


Sticklebacks (Gasterosteiformes) are increasingly used in ecological and evolutionary research and become well-established role as model species for biologists. However, ecotoxicology studies concerning behavioural effects in sticklebacks regarding stress responses, mainly induced by chemical mixtures, have hardly been addressed. Moreover, although many authors in their studies emphasised the similarity between three-spined and nine-spined stickleback in morphological, neuroanatomical and behavioural adaptations to environmental changes, several comparative studies have revealed considerable differences between these species in and their susceptibility and resistance to variousstressors in laboratory experiments. The hypothesis of this study was that three-spined and nine-spined stickleback species will demonstrate apparent differences in response patterns and sensitivity to metal-based chemicals stimuli. For this purpose, we investigated the swimming behaviour (including mortality rate based on 96-h LC50 values) of two ecologically similar three-spined (Gasterosteusaculeatus) and nine-spined sticklebacks (Pungitiuspungitius) to short-term (up to 24 h) metal mixture (MIX) exposure. We evaluated the relevance and efficacy of behavioural responses of test species in the early toxicity assessment of chemical mixtures. Fish exposed to six (Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni and Cr) metals in the mixture were either singled out by the Water Framework Directive as priority or as relevant substances in surface water, which was prepared according to the environmental quality standards (EQSs) of these metals set for inland waters in the European Union (EU) (Directive 2013/39/EU). Based on acute toxicity results, G. aculeatus found to be slightly (1.4-fold) more tolerant of MIX impact than those of P. pungitius specimens. The performed behavioural analysis showed the main effect on the interaction between time, species and treatment variables. Although both species exposed to MIX revealed a decreasing tendency in swimming activity, these species’ responsiveness to MIX was somewhat different. Substantial changes in the activity of G. aculeatus were established after 3-h exposure to MIX solutions, which was 1.43-fold lower, while in the case of P. pungitius, 1.96-fold higher than established 96-h LC50 values for each species. This study demonstrated species-specific differences in response sensitivity to metal-based water pollution, indicating behavioural insensitivity of P. pungitiuscompared to G. aculeatus. While many studies highlight the usefulness and suitability of nine-spined sticklebacks for evolutionary and ecological research, attested by their increasing popularity in these fields, great caution must be exercised when using them as model species in ecotoxicological research to probe metal contamination. Meanwhile, G. aculeatus showed to be a promising bioindicator species in the environmental ecotoxicology field.

Keywords: acute toxicity, comparative behaviour, metal mixture, swimming activity

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1287 Factors in a Sustainability Assessment of New Types of Closed Cavity Facades

Authors: Zoran Veršić, Josip Galić, Marin Binički, Lucija Stepinac


With the current increase in CO₂ emissions and global warming, the sustainability of both existing and new solutions must be assessed on a wide scale. As the implementation of closed cavity facades (CCF) is on the rise, a variety of factors must be included in the analysis of new types of CCF. This paper aims to cover the relevant factors included in the sustainability assessment of new types of CCF. Several mathematical models are being used to describe the physical behavior of CCF. Depending on the type of CCF, they cover the main factors which affect the durability of the façade: thermal behavior of various elements in the façade, stress, and deflection of the glass panels, pressure inside a cavity, exchange rate, and the moisture buildup in the cavity. CCF itself represents a complex system in which all mentioned factors must be considered mutually. Still, the façade is only an envelope of a more complex system, the building. Choice of the façade dictates the heat loss and the heat gain, thermal comfort of inner space, natural lighting, and ventilation. Annual consumption of energy for heating, cooling, lighting, and maintenance costs will present the operational advantages or disadvantages of the chosen façade system in both the economic and environmental aspects. Still, the only operational viewpoint is not all-inclusive. As the building codes constantly demand higher energy efficiency as well as transfer to renewable energy sources, the ratio of embodied and lifetime operational energy footprint of buildings is changing. With the drop in operational energy CO₂ emissions, embodied energy emissions present a larger and larger share in the lifecycle emissions of the building. Taken all into account, the sustainability assessment of a façade, as well as other major building elements, should include all mentioned factors during the lifecycle of an element. The challenge of such an approach is a timescale. Depending on the climatic conditions on the building site, the expected lifetime of CCF can exceed 25 years. In such a time span, some of the factors can be estimated more precisely than others. The ones depending on the socio-economic conditions are more likely to be harder to predict than the natural ones like the climatic load. This work recognizes and summarizes the relevant factors needed for the assessment of new types of CCF, considering the entire lifetime of a façade element and economic and environmental aspects.

Keywords: assessment, closed cavity façade, life cycle, sustainability

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1286 The Aspect of Urban Inequality after Urban Redevelopment Projects

Authors: Sungik Kang, Ja-Hoon Koo


Globally, urban environments have become unequal, and cities have been segmented by income class. It is predicted that urban inequality has arisen by urban redevelopment and reconstruction projects that improve the urban environment and innovate cities. This study aims to analyze the occurrence and characteristics of urban inequality by using the housing price and sale price and demonstrating the correlation with the urban redevelopment project. This study measures 14 years of urban inequality index for 25 autonomous districts in Seoul and analyzes the correlation between urban inequality with urban redevelopment projects. As a conclusion of this study, first, the urban inequality index of Seoul has been continuously rising since 2015. Trends from 2006 to 2019 have been in U-curved shape in between 2015. In 2019, Seoul's urban inequality index was 0.420, a level similar to that of the 2007 financial crisis. Second, the correlation between urban redevelopment and urban inequality was not statistically significant. Therefore, we judged that urban redevelopment's scale or project structure has nothing with urban inequality. Third, while district designation of urban reconstruction temporarily alleviates urban inequality, the completion of the project increases urban inequality. When designating a district, urban inequality is likely to decrease due to decreased outdated housing transactions. However, the correlation with urban inequality increases as expensive houses has been placed after project completion.

Keywords: urban inequality, urban redevelopment projects, urban reconstruction projects, housing price inequality, panel analysis

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1285 Hybridization as a Process of Refusal of Imposed Popular Architecture

Authors: Jorge Eliseo Muñiz-Gutierrez, Daniel Olvera-García, Cristina Sotelo-Salas


The objective of this research is to allow the understanding of the hybridization process shown in culture through the architecture of mass production for the purpose of consumption, taking as a case study the mass-built housing of the city of Mexicali, Mexico. The methodology is born from the hermeneutical study of the meta-modified architectural object, which guided the research with a qualitative focus to be carried out in two stages, the first is based on the literature review regarding cultural hybridization, and the second stage is carried out in through an ethnographic study of the cultural exploration of the contextual landscape produced by the houses located in popular neighborhoods of the city of Mexicali, Mexico. The research shows that there is an unconscious hybridization process, the birth of a mixture of impositions guided by the popular and the personal aspirations of the inhabitant. The study presents the possibilities of a home and the relationship with its inhabitant and, in turn, its effects on the context and its contribution to culture through hybridization.

Keywords: hybridization, architectural landscape, architecture, mass housing

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1284 A Study of New Window Typology for Palestinian Residential Building for More Sustainable Building

Authors: Nisreen Ardda


Fenestrations are one of the main building envelope elements that play an important role in home social-ecological l factors. They play a vital role in providing natural lighting and ventilation, visual, thermal, and acoustical comfort, and also provide weather-tightness, privacy, a feeling of openness. In most home buildings, fenestrations are controlled manually by the occupants, which significantly impacts occupants' comfort and energy use. Culture plays a central role in the Palestinians window operation behavior. Improved windows design that provides the desired privacy while maintaining the appropriate function of fenestration (natural lighting, thermal comfort, and visual openness) is becoming a necessity. Therefore, this paper proposes a window typology to achieve the social and environmental factors in residential buildings in the West Bank. The window typology and reference building were designed in Rivet 2021, and natural ventilation was carried out in Design Builder The results showed that the proposed typology provides the desired privacy and the feeling of openness without compromising natural ventilation as the existing window did.

Keywords: window design, passive design, sustainable built environment, building material

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1283 Research Methodology and Mixed Methods (Qualitative and Quantitative) for Ph.D. Construction Management – Post-Disaster Reconstruction

Authors: Samuel Quashie


Ph.D. Construction Management methodology and mixed methods are organized to guide the researcher to assemble and assess data in the research activities. Construction management research is close to business management and social science research. It also contributes to researching the phenomenon and answering the research question, generating an integrated management system for post-disaster reconstruction in construction and related industries. Research methodology and methods drive the research to achieve the goal or goals, contribute to knowledge, or increase knowledge. This statement means the research methodology, mixed methods, aim, objectives, and processes address the research question, facilitate its achievement and foundation to conduct the study. Mixed methods use project-based case studies, interviews, observations, literature and archival document reviews, research questionnaires, and surveys, and evaluation of integrated systems used in the construction industry and related industries to address the research work. The research mixed methods (qualitative, quantitative) define the research topic and establish a more in-depth study. The research methodology is action research, which involves the collaboration of participants and service users to collect and evaluate data, studying the phenomenon, research question(s) to improve the situation in post-disaster reconstruction phase management.

Keywords: methodology, Ph.D. research, post-disaster reconstruction, mixed-methods qualitative and quantitative

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1282 A House for Men: A Study of the Dong Minority Residential Architecture in the Southern Dialect Areas from a Gender Perspective

Authors: Fung Sze Wai Veera, Peter W. Ferretto


Gender functions as a principle in organizing society based on the cultural meanings given to males and females. It is an essential component in constructing the spatial reality, one that is in most cases in favor of men’s needs and disregards that of women’s. Similar to other minorities in China, men of the Dong community hold the primary position in policymaking, moral standards, social values, and, furthermore, the building of the physical environment. This study, therefore, aims to investigate the residential architecture of Dong through the lens of gender. Specifically, it examines how the patriarchal practice of Dong is manifested in terms of the spatial organization, the architectural feature, and the construction process of Dong houses in the southern dialect areas. While the residential architecture of Dong has been extensively researched, the role of gender culture in designing and constructing it deserves more research attention. Ultimately, the objective of this study is to challenge the notion of gender-inclusive design in the rural China context while opening up a cross-disciplinary discussion concerning Chinese minority architecture and gender studies.

Keywords: Dong minority residential architecture, gender study, built environment, male-dominated society, gender-inclusive design

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1281 Designing a Waste Management System for an Urban Area in Sri Lanka

Authors: R. A. C. K. Gunathilaka, P. T. D. Peiris, O. S. M. Jayawardane, S. M. A. I. Kulathunga


Waste management is one of the predominant aspects of resource utilization and sustainability. The absence of a proper waste management system may lead to adverse troubles and catastrophic tragedies ultimately. Sri Lanka has faced different predicaments for a long time due to the unavailability of a systematic manner in the waste management process. The main objective of this research is to design an efficient waste management system for an urban area in Sri Lanka. The research was dispersed into three categories as biodegradable, non-biodegradable, and hazardous waste. Different waste materials were researched for each category by probing the entire process from the beginning to final disposal for perceiving the prevailing problems in the waste management system. The distinctive segment of this research is comparing efficient foreign waste management strategies with efficacious approaches on increasing public commitment to uncovering cognizable ways of implementing such a system in the Sri Lankan context. Waste management systems in Singapore, Japan, Malaysia, USA, Maldives, and China incorporated their exemplary plan of action on tackling the waste problem in diverse sectors were studied. Ultimately, three coherent models were proposed for each category pertaining to the concepts of circular economy and lean manufacturing from the inception to the final disposal of the waste. This research also includes concealed financial opportunities regarding waste management.

Keywords: circular economy, efficient waste management system, lean manufacturing, sustainability, urban area

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