Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 306

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Structural and Construction Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

306 Numerical Study of Elastic Performances of Sandwich Beam with Carbon-Fibre Reinforced Skins

Authors: Soukaina Ounss, Hamid Mounir, Abdellatif El Marjani

Abstract:

Sandwich materials with composite reinforced skins are mostly required in advanced construction applications with a view to ensure resistant structures. Their lightweight, their high flexural stiffness and their optimal thermal insulation make them a suitable solution to obtain efficient structures with performing rigidity and optimal energy safety. In this paper, the mechanical behavior of a sandwich beam with composite skins reinforced by unidirectional carbon fibers is investigated numerically through analyzing the impact of reinforcements specifications on the longitudinal elastic modulus in order to select the adequate sandwich configuration that has an interesting rigidity and an accurate convergence to the analytical approach which is proposed to verify performed numerical simulations. Therefore, concerned study starts by testing flexion performances of skins with various fibers orientations and volume fractions to determine those to use in sandwich beam. For that, the combination of a reinforcement inclination of 30° and a volume ratio of 60% is selected with the one with 60° of fibers orientation and 40% of volume fraction, this last guarantees to chosen skins an important rigidity with an optimal fibers concentration and a great enhance in convergence to analytical results in the sandwich model for the reason of the crucial core role as transverse shear absorber. Thus, a resistant sandwich beam is elaborated from a face-sheet constituted from two layers of previous skins with fibers oriented in 60° and an epoxy core; concerned beam has a longitudinal elastic modulus of 54 Gpa (gigapascal) that equals to the analytical value by a negligible error of 2%.

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305 Implementation of Enterprise Asset Management (E-AM) System at Oman Electricity Transmission Company

Authors: Omran Al Balushi, Haitham Al Rawahi

Abstract:

Enterprise Asset Management (eAM) has been implemented across different Generation, Transmission and Distribution subsidiaries in Nama Group companies. As part of Nama group, Oman Electricity Transmission Company (OETC) was the first company to implement this system. It was very important for OETC to implement and maintain such a system to achieve its business objectives and for effective operations, which will also support the delivery of the asset management strategy. Enterprise Asset Management (eAM) addresses the comprehensive asset maintenance requirements of Oman Electricity Transmission Company (OETC). OETC needs to optimize capacity and increase utilization, while lowering unit production. E-AM will enable OETC to adopt this strategy. Implementation of e-AM has improved operation performance with preventive and scheduled maintenance as well as it increased safety. Implementation of e-AM will also enable OETC to create optimal asset management strategy which will increase revenue and decrease cost by effectively monitoring operational data such as maintenance history and operation conditions. CMMS (Computerised Maintenance Management System) is the main software and the back-bone of e-AM system. It is used to provide an improved working practice to properly establish information and data flow related to maintenance activities. Implementation of e-AM system was one of the factors that supported OETC to achieve ISO55001 Certificate on fourth quarter of 2016. Also, full implementation of e-AM system will result in strong integration between CMMS and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) application and it will improve OETC to build a reliable maintenance strategy for all asset classes in its Transmission network. In this paper we will share our experience and knowledge of implementing such a system and how it supported OETC’s management to make decisions. Also we would highlight the challenges and difficulties that we encountered during the implementation of e-AM. Also, we will list some features and advantages of e-AM in asset management, preventive maintenance and maintenance cost management.

Keywords: Asset Management, maintenance strategy, Maintenance Management, CMMS

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304 Barriers to the Use of Factoring Accounts Receivables: Ghanaian Contractor's Perception

Authors: E. Kissi, V. K. Acheamfour, J. Gyimah, T. Adjei-Kumi

Abstract:

Factoring accounts receivables are widely accepted as an alternative financing source and utilized in almost every industry that sells business-to-business or business-to-government. However, its patronage in the construction industry is very limited as some barriers hinder its application in the construction industry. This study aims at assessing the barriers to the use of factoring accounts receivables in the Ghanaian construction industry. The study adopted the sequential exploratory research method where structured and unstructured questionnaires were conveniently distributed to D1K1 and D2K2 construction firms in Ghana. Using the one-sample t-test and Kendall's Coefficient of concordance, data was analyzed. The most severe challenge concluded is the high cost of factoring patronage. Other critical challenges identified were low knowledge on factoring processes, inadequate access to information on factoring, and high risks involved in factoring. Hence, it is recommended that contractors should be made aware of the prospects of factoring of accounts receivables in the construction industry. This study serves as basis for further rigorous research into factoring of accounts receivables in the industry.

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303 Physics-Based Earthquake Source Models for Seismic Engineering: Analysis and Validation for Dip-Slip Faults

Authors: Percy Galvez, Anatoly Petukhin, Paul Somerville, Ken Miyakoshi, Kojiro Irikura, Daniel Peter

Abstract:

Physics-based dynamic rupture modelling is necessary for estimating parameters such as rupture velocity and slip rate function that are important for ground motion simulation, but poorly resolved by observations, e.g. by seismic source inversion. In order to generate a large number of physically self-consistent rupture models, whose rupture process is consistent with the spatio-temporal heterogeneity of past earthquakes, we use multicycle simulations under the heterogeneous rate-and-state (RS) friction law for a 45deg dip-slip fault. We performed a parametrization study by fully dynamic rupture modeling, and then, a set of spontaneous source models was generated in a large magnitude range (Mw > 7.0). In order to validate rupture models, we compare the source scaling relations vs. seismic moment Mo for the modeled rupture area S, as well as average slip Dave and the slip asperity area Sa, with similar scaling relations from the source inversions. Ground motions were also computed from our models. Their peak ground velocities (PGV) agree well with the GMPE values. We obtained good agreement of the permanent surface offset values with empirical relations. From the heterogeneous rupture models, we analyzed parameters, which are critical for ground motion simulations, i.e. distributions of slip, slip rate, rupture initiation points, rupture velocities, and source time functions. We studied cross-correlations between them and with the friction weakening distance Dc value, the only initial heterogeneity parameter in our modeling. The main findings are: (1) high slip-rate areas coincide with or are located on an outer edge of the large slip areas, (2) ruptures have a tendency to initiate in small Dc areas, and (3) high slip-rate areas correlate with areas of small Dc, large rupture velocity and short rise-time.

Keywords: Seismic Engineering, source characterization, earthquake dynamics, strong ground motion prediction

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302 Subcontractor Development Practices and Processes: A Conceptual Model for LEED Projects

Authors: Andrea N. Ofori-Boadu

Abstract:

The purpose is to develop a conceptual model of subcontractor development practices and processes that strengthen the integration of subcontractors into construction supply chain systems for improved subcontractor performance on Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certified building projects. The construction management of a LEED project has an important objective of meeting sustainability certification requirements. This is in addition to the typical project management objectives of cost, time, quality, and safety for traditional projects; and, therefore increases the complexity of LEED projects. Considering that construction management organizations rely heavily on subcontractors, poor performance on complex projects such as LEED projects has been largely attributed to the unsatisfactory preparation of subcontractors. Furthermore, the extensive use of unique and non-repetitive short term contracts limits the full integration of subcontractors into construction supply chains and hinders long-term cooperation and benefits that could enhance performance on construction projects. Improved subcontractor development practices are needed to better prepare and manage subcontractors, so that complex objectives can be met or exceeded. While supplier development and supply chain theories and practices for the manufacturing sector have been extensively investigated to address similar challenges, investigations in the construction sector are not that obvious. Consequently, the objective of this research is to investigate effective subcontractor development practices and processes to guide construction management organizations in their development of a strong network of high performing subcontractors. Drawing from foundational supply chain and supplier development theories in the manufacturing sector, a mixed interpretivist and empirical methodology is utilized to assess the body of knowledge within literature for conceptual model development. A self-reporting survey with five-point Likert scale items and open-ended questions is administered to 30 construction professionals to estimate their perceptions of the effectiveness of 37 practices, classified into five subcontractor development categories. Data analysis includes descriptive statistics, weighted means, and t-tests that guide the effectiveness ranking of practices and categories. The results inform the proposed three-phased LEED subcontractor development program model which focuses on preparation, development and implementation, and monitoring. Highly ranked LEED subcontractor pre-qualification, commitment, incentives, evaluation, and feedback practices are perceived as more effective, when compared to practices requiring more direct involvement and linkages between subcontractors and construction management organizations. This is attributed to unfamiliarity, conflicting interests, lack of trust, and resource sharing challenges. With strategic modifications, the recommended practices can be extended to other non-LEED complex projects. Additional research is needed to guide the development of subcontractor development programs that strengthen direct involvement between construction management organizations and their network of high performing subcontractors. Insights from this present research strengthen theoretical foundations to support future research towards more integrated construction supply chains. In the long-term, this would lead to increased performance, profits and client satisfaction.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Construction Management, Sustainable Construction, general contractor

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301 Essential Factors of Risk Perception Crucial in Efficient Construction Management

Authors: Francis Edum-Fotwe, Tony Thorpe, Charles Afetornu

Abstract:

Risk perception informs the outcome of how issues are responded to in either solving or overcoming a problem or improving a situation. Risk perception is established to be affected by some key factors reflecting in the varying ways in which work is done as well as the level of efficiency achieved. These factors potentially would influence risk perception to different extents. Such that if these factors are said to determine risk perception, how does a change in any affect risk perception. Since the ability to address risk is influenced by risk perception, establishing and developing awareness of that perception should enable construction professionals to make viable decisions. Any act to improve the construction industry cannot be overemphasised, considering its contribution to national development. A survey questionnaire was conducted in Ghana to elicit data that measures the risk perception and the essential factors as well as the necessary demographics of the respondents, who are construction professionals. This study finds out the sensitivity of the critical factors of risk perception. It uses the Relative Importance Index analysis tool to investigate the differential effect of these essential factors on risk perception, such that a slight change in a factor makes a significant change in risk perception, having established that it is influenced by essential factors. The findings can lead to policy formation for employers on the prioritisation factors to undertake to improve the risk perception of employees. Other areas in which this study can be useful in team formation for sensitive and complex projects where efficient risk management is critical.

Keywords: Risk management, Risk, construction industry, Risk Perception

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300 Study of the Adhesive Bond Effect on Electro-Mechanical Behaviour of Coupled Piezo Structural System

Authors: Rahul S. Raj

Abstract:

Electro-mechanical impedance technique is a recently developed non-destructive method for structural health monitoring. This system comprises of piezo electric patch, bonded to the structure using an adhesive/epoxy and electrically excited to determine the health of the component. The subjected electric field actuates the PZT patch harmonically and imparts a force on the host structure. The structural response thus produced by the host component is in the form of peaks and valleys which further shows the admittance signatures of the structure for the given excitation frequency. Adhesives have the capability to change the structural signatures, in EMI technique, by transforming conductance and susceptance signatures. The static approximation provide a justifiable result where adhesive bond lines are thin and stiff. The epoxy adhesive bonds limits design flexibility due to poor bond strengths, hence to enhance the performance of the joints, a new technique is developed for joining PZT, i.e. the alloy bonding technique. It is a metallic joining compound which contains many active elements including Titanium, that reacts with the tenacious surface films of the ceramic and composites to create excellent bonds. This alloy-based bonding technique will be used for better strain interaction and rigorous stress transfer between PZT patch and the host structure.

Keywords: admittance, conductance, susceptance, EMI technique, alloy bonding

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299 Smart BIM Documents - the Development of the Ontology-Based Tool for Employer Information Requirements (OntEIR), and its Transformation into SmartEIR

Authors: Shadan Dwairi

Abstract:

Defining proper requirements is one of the key factors for a successful construction projects. Although there have been many attempts put forward in assist in identifying requirements, but still this area is under developed. In Buildings Information Modelling (BIM) projects. The Employer Information Requirements (EIR) is the fundamental requirements document and a necessary ingredient in achieving a successful BIM project. The provision on full and clear EIR is essential to achieving BIM Level-2. As Defined by PAS 1192-2, EIR is a “pre-tender document that sets out the information to be delivered and the standards and processes to be adopted by the supplier as part of the project delivery process”. It also notes that “EIR should be incorporated into tender documentation to enable suppliers to produce an initial BIM Execution Plan (BEP)”. The importance of effective definition of EIR lies in its contribution to a better productivity during the construction process in terms of cost and time, in addition to improving the quality of the built asset. Proper and clear information is a key aspect of the EIR, in terms of the information it contains and more importantly the information the client receives at the end of the project that will enable the effective management and operation of the asset, where typically about 60%-80% of the cost is spent. This paper reports on the research done in developing the Ontology-based tool for Employer Information Requirements (OntEIR). OntEIR has proven the ability to produce a full and complete set of EIRs, which ensures that the clients’ information needs for the final model delivered by BIM is clearly defined from the beginning of the process. It also reports on the work being done into transforming OntEIR into a smart tool for Defining Employer Information Requirements (smartEIR). smartEIR transforms the OntEIR tool into enabling it to develop custom EIR- tailored for the: Project Type, Project Requirements, and the Client Capabilities. The initial idea behind smartEIR is moving away from the notion “One EIR fits All”. smartEIR utilizes the links made in OntEIR and creating a 3D matrix that transforms it into a smart tool. The OntEIR tool is based on the OntEIR framework that utilizes both Ontology and the Decomposition of Goals to elicit and extract the complete set of requirements needed for a full and comprehensive EIR. A new ctaegorisation system for requirements is also introduced in the framework and tool, which facilitates the understanding and enhances the clarification of the requirements especially for novice clients. Findings of the evaluation of the tool that was done with experts in the industry, showed that the OntEIR tool contributes towards effective and efficient development of EIRs that provide a better understanding of the information requirements as requested by BIM, and support the production of a complete BIM Execution Plan (BEP) and a Master Information Delivery Plan (MIDP).

Keywords: Ontology, Building Information Modelling, tool, web-based, employer information requirements

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298 Modeling the Cyclic Behavior of High Damping Rubber Bearings

Authors: Donatello Cardone

Abstract:

Bilinear hysteresis models are usually used to describe the cyclic behavior of high damping rubber bearings. However, they neglect a number of phenomena (such as the interaction between axial load and shear force, buckling and post-buckling behavior, cavitation, scragging effects, etc.) that can significantly influence the dynamic behavior of such isolation devices. In this work, an advanced hysteresis model is examined and properly calibrated using consolidated procedures. Results of preliminary numerical analyses, performed in OpenSees, are shown and compared with the results of experimental tests on high damping rubber bearings and simulation analyses using alternative nonlinear models. The findings of this study can provide an useful tool for the accurate evaluation of the seismic response of structures with rubber-based isolation systems.

Keywords: Seismic isolation, numerical modeling, high damping rubber bearings, axial-shear force interaction

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297 Development of Fire Douse Vehicle

Authors: Rishabh Rastogi, Nikhil Verma, Akshay Kant Mishra, Bikarama Prasad Yadav

Abstract:

Emerging fire incidents are the protuberant contributor out turning into life loss, property damage and importantly firefighters. It insinuates that a firefighting and rescue operation of the existing equipment or apparatus and their proficiency is limited, particularly in annihilating firefighting environments. The proposed methodology will help in developing a technology which can be useful in minimizing the risks and losses due to fire. In this paper, design and development of combat mini vehicle comprising of multi-purpose nozzle system is proposed which can target diverse fires simultaneously at distinct time and location. Basically, the system is semi-automated type protection system which can be manoeuvred by controller. Designing of robust vehicle based on semi-automated protection type system is consummated using SolidWorks platform. Concept of developing a robust vehicle will help to fight fires in multiple directions reducing the time required to douse multiple fires.

Keywords: fire douse vehicle, multiple fires, multi-purpose nozzle, semi-automated system

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296 Analyzing the Effects of Bio-fibers on the Stiffness and Strength of Adhesively Bonded Thermoplastic Bio-fiber Reinforced Composites by a Mixed Experimental-Numerical Approach

Authors: Frederik Desplentere, Sofie Verstraete, Stijn Debruyne

Abstract:

Considering environmental issues, the interest to apply sustainable materials in industry increases. Specifically for composites, there is an emerging need for suitable materials and bonding techniques. As an alternative to traditional composites, short bio-fiber (cellulose-based flax) reinforced Polylactic Acid (PLA) is gaining popularity. However, these thermoplastic based composites show issues in adhesive bonding. This research focusses on analyzing the effects of the fibers near the bonding interphase. The research applies injection molded plate structures. A first important parameter concerns the fiber volume fraction, which directly affects adhesion characteristics of the surface. This parameter is varied between 0 (pure PLA) and 30%. Next to fiber volume fraction, the orientation of fibers near the bonding surface governs the adhesion characteristics of the injection molded parts. This parameter is not directly controlled in this work, but its effects are analyzed. Surface roughness also greatly determines surface wettability, thus adhesion. Therefore, this research work considers three different roughness conditions. Different mechanical treatments yield values up to 0.5 mm. In this preliminary research, only one adhesive type is considered. This is a two-part epoxy which is cured at 23 °C for 48 hours. In order to assure a dedicated parametric study, simple and reproduceable adhesive bonds are manufactured. Both single lap (substrate width 25 mm, thickness 3 mm, overlap length 10 mm) and double lap tests are considered since these are well documented and quite straightforward to conduct. These tests are conducted for the different substrate and surface conditions. Dog bone tensile testing is applied to retrieve the stiffness and strength characteristics of the substrates (with different fiber volume fractions). Numerical modelling (non-linear FEA) relates the effects of the considered parameters on the stiffness and strength of the different joints, obtained through the abovementioned tests. Ongoing work deals with developing dedicated numerical models, incorporating the different considered adhesion parameters. Although this work is the start of an extensive research project on the bonding characteristics of thermoplastic bio-fiber reinforced composites, some interesting results are already prominent. Firstly, a clear correlation between the surface roughness and the wettability of the substrates is observed. Given the adhesive type (and viscosity), it is noticed that an increase in surface energy is proportional to the surface roughness, to some extent. This becomes more pronounced when fiber volume fraction increases. Secondly, ultimate bond strength (single lap) also increases with increasing fiber volume fraction. On a macroscopic level, this confirms the positive effect of fibers near the adhesive bond line.

Keywords: flax fibers, adhesive bonding, lap joint, bio-fiber reinforced composite

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295 Urban Waste Management for Health and Well-Being in Lagos, Nigeria

Authors: Bolawole F. Ogunbodede, Mokolade Johnson, Adetunji Adejumo

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High population growth rate, reactive infrastructure provision, inability of physical planning to cope with developmental pace are responsible for waste water crisis in the Lagos Metropolis. Septic tank is still the most prevalent waste-water holding system. Unfortunately, there is a dearth of septage treatment infrastructure. Public waste-water treatment system statistics relative to the 23 million people in Lagos State is worrisome. 1.85 billion Cubic meters of wastewater is generated on daily basis and only 5% of the 26 million population is connected to public sewerage system. This is compounded by inadequate budgetary allocation and erratic power supply in the last two decades. This paper explored community participatory waste-water management alternative at Oworonshoki Municipality in Lagos. The study is underpinned by decentralized Waste-water Management systems in built-up areas. The initiative accommodates 5 step waste-water issue including generation, storage, collection, processing and disposal through participatory decision making in two Oworonshoki Community Development Association (CDA) areas. Drone assisted mapping highlighted building footage. Structured interviews and focused group discussion of land lord associations in the CDA areas provided collaborator platform for decision-making. Water stagnation in primary open drainage channels and natural retention ponds in framing wetlands is traceable to frequent of climate change induced tidal influences in recent decades. Rise in water table resulting in septic-tank leakage and water pollution is reported to be responsible for the increase in the water born infirmities documented in primary health centers. This is in addition to unhealthy dumping of solid wastes in the drainage channels. The effect of uncontrolled disposal system renders surface waters and underground water systems unsafe for human and recreational use; destroys biotic life; and poisons the fragile sand barrier-lagoon urban ecosystems. Cluster decentralized system was conceptualized to service 255 households. Stakeholders agreed on public-private partnership initiative for efficient wastewater service delivery.

Keywords: Management, Health, Infrastructure, Well-being, Septage

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294 Size Effect on Shear Strength of Slender Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Subhan Ahmad, Pradeep Bhargava, Ajay Chourasia

Abstract:

Shear failure in reinforced concrete beams without shear reinforcement leads to loss of property and life since a very little or no warning occurs before failure as in case of flexural failure. Shear strength of reinforced concrete beams decreases as its depth increases. This phenomenon is generally called as the size effect. In this paper, a comparative analysis is performed to estimate the performance of shear strength models in capturing the size effect of reinforced concrete beams made with conventional concrete, self-compacting concrete, and recycled aggregate concrete. Four shear strength models that account for the size effect in shear are selected from the literature and applied on the datasets of slender reinforced concrete beams. Beams prepared with conventional concrete, self-compacting concrete, and recycled aggregate concrete are considered for the analysis. Results showed that all the four models captured the size effect in shear effectively and produced conservative estimates of the shear strength for beams made with normal strength conventional concrete. These models yielded unconservative estimates for high strength conventional concrete beams with larger effective depths ( > 450 mm). Model of Bazant and Kim (1984) captured the size effect precisely and produced conservative estimates of shear strength of self-compacting concrete beams at all the effective depths. Also, shear strength models considered in this study produced unconservative estimates of shear strength for recycled aggregate concrete beams at all effective depths.

Keywords: Size Effect, Shear Strength, prediction models, reinforced concrete beams

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293 Thermal Properties and Water Vapor Permeability for Cellulose-Based Materials

Authors: Staņislavs Gendelis, Andris Jakovičs, Maris Sinka

Abstract:

Insulation materials made from natural sources have become more popular for the ecologisation of buildings, meaning wide use of such renewable materials. Such natural materials replace synthetic products which consume a large quantity of energy. The most common and the cheapest natural materials in Latvia are cellulose-based (wood and agricultural plants). The ecological aspects of such materials are well known, but experimental data about physical properties remains lacking. In this study, six different samples of wood wool panels and a mixture of hemp shives and lime (hempcrete) are analysed. Thermal conductivity and heat capacity measurements were carried out for wood wool and cement panels using the calibrated hot plate device. Water vapor permeability was tested for hempcrete material by using the gravimetric dry cup method. Studied wood wool panels are eco-friendly and harmless material, which is widely used in the interior design of public and residential buildings, where noise absorption and sound insulation is of importance. They are also suitable for high humidity facilities (e.g., swimming pools). The difference in panels was the width of used wood wool, which is linked to their density. The results of measured thermal conductivity are in a wide range, showing the worsening of properties with the increasing of the wool width (for the least dense 0.066, for the densest 0.091 W/(m·K)). Comparison with mineral insulation materials shows that thermal conductivity for such materials are 2-3 times higher and are comparable to plywood and fibreboard. Measured heat capacity was in a narrower range; here, the dependence on the wool width was not so strong due to the fact that heat capacity value is related to mass, not volume. The resulting heat capacity is a combination of two main components. A comparison of results for different panels allows to select the most suitable sample for a specific application because the dependencies of the thermal insulation and heat capacity properties on the wool width are not the same. Hempcrete is a much denser material compared to conventional thermal insulating materials. Therefore, its use helps to reinforce the structural capacity of the constructional framework, at the same time, it is lightweight. By altering the proportions of the ingredients, hempcrete can be produced as a structural, thermal, or moisture absorbent component. The water absorption and water vapor permeability are the most important properties of these materials. Information about absorption can be found in the literature, but there are no data about water vapor transmission properties. Water vapor permeability was tested for a sample of locally made hempcrete using different air humidity values to evaluate the possible difference. The results show only the slight influence of the air humidity on the water vapor permeability value. The absolute ‘sd value’ measured is similar to mineral wool and wood fiberboard, meaning that due to very low resistance, water vapor passes easily through the material. At the same time, other properties – structural and thermal of the hempcrete is totally different. As a result, an experimentally-based knowledge of thermal and water vapor transmission properties for cellulose-based materials was significantly improved.

Keywords: Heat Capacity, Thermal Conductivity, hemp concrete, water vapor transmission, wood wool

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292 Comparative Study of Various Wall Finishes in Buildings in Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: Ayodele Oluwole Alejo

Abstract:

Wall finishes are the term to describe an application over a wall surface to provide a suitable surface. Wall finishes are smelt, touched and seen by building occupiers even colour and design affects the user psychology and the atmosphere of our building. Building users/owners seem not to recognize the function of various wall finishes in building and factors to be considered in selecting them suitable for the type and purpose of proposed buildings. Therefore, defects such as deterioration, dampness, and stain may occur when comparisons of wall finishes are not made before the selection of appropriate materials at the design stage with knowledge of the various factors that may hinder the performance or maintenance culture of proposed building of a particular location. This research work investigates and compares various wall finishes in building. Buildings in Ondo state, Nigeria were used as the target area to conduct the research works. The factors bearing on various wall finishes were analyzed to find out their individual and collective impact using suitable analytical tools. The findings revealed that paint with high percentage score was the most preferred wall finishes, whereas wall paper was ranked the least by the respondent findings, Factors considered most in the selection of wall finishes was durability with the highest ranking percentage and least was the cost. The study recommends that skilled worker should carry out operations, quality product should be used and all of wall finishes and materials should be considered before selection.

Keywords: Design, Construction, Building, Wall, finishes

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291 Semi-Transparent Dye-Sensitized Solar Panels for Energy Autonomous Greenhouses

Authors: D. Sygkridou, E. Stathatos, A. Mourtzikou, T. Georgakopoulos, G. Katsagounos

Abstract:

Over 60% highly transparent quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with dimension of 50x50 cm2 were fabricated via inkjet printing process using nanocomposite inks as raw materials and tested under outdoor illumination conditions. The cells were electrically characterized, and their possible application to the shell of greenhouses was also examined. The panel design was in Z-interconnection, where the working electrode was inkjet printed on one conductive glass and the counter electrode on a second glass in a sandwich configuration. Silver current collective fingers were printed on the glasses to make the internal electrical connections. In that case, the adjacent cells were connected in series via silver fingers and finally insulated using a UV curing resin to protect them from the corrosive (I-/I3-) redox couple of the electrolyte.

Keywords: Scale up, quasi-solid state electrolyte, inkjet printing, Dye-sensitized solar panels, semi-transparency

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290 Analysis of The Effect about Different Automatic Sprinkler System Extinguishing The Scooter Fire in Underground Parking Space

Authors: Yu-Hsiu Li, Chun-Hsun Chen

Abstract:

Analysis of automatic sprinkler system protects the scooter in underground parking space, the current of general buildings is mainly equipped with foam fire-extinguishing equipment in Taiwan, the automatic sprinkling system has economic and environmental benefits, even high stability, China and the United States allow the parking space to set the automatic sprinkler system under certain conditions. The literature about scooter full-scale fire indicates that the average fire growth coefficient is 0.19 KW/sec2, it represents the scooter fire is classified as ultra-fast time square fire growth model, automatic sprinkler system can suppress the flame height and prevent extending burning. According to the computer simulation (FDS) literature, no matter computer simulation or full-scale experiments, the active order and trend about sprinkler heads are the same. This study uses the computer simulation program (FDS), the simulation scenario designed includes using a different system (enclosed wet type and open type), and different configurations. The simulation result demonstrates that the open type requires less time to extinguish the fire than the enclosed wet type if the horizontal distance between the sprinkler and the scooter ignition source is short, the sprinkler can act quickly, the heat release rate of fire can be suppressed in advance.

Keywords: FDS, Automatic Sprinkler System, Underground Parking Spac, Scooter fire Extinguishing

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289 The Role of the Elastic Foundation Having Nonlinear Stiffness Properties in the Vibration of Structures

Authors: E. Feulefack Songong, A. Zingoni

Abstract:

A vibration is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations occur about an equilibrium point. Although vibrations can be linear or nonlinear depending on the basic components of the system, the interest is mostly pointed towards nonlinear vibrations. This is because most structures around us are to some extent nonlinear and also because we need more accurate values in an analysis. The goal of this research is the integration of nonlinearities in the development and validation of structural models and to ameliorate the resistance of structures when subjected to loads. Although there exist many types of nonlinearities, this thesis will mostly focus on the vibration of free and undamped systems incorporating nonlinearity due to stiffness. Nonlinear stiffness has been a concern to many engineers in general and Civil engineers in particular because it is an important factor that can bring a good modification and amelioration to the response of structures when subjected to loads. The analysis of systems will be done analytically and then numerically to validate the analytical results. We will first show the benefit and importance of stiffness nonlinearity when it is implemented in the structure. Secondly, We will show how its integration in the structure can improve not only the structure’s performance but also its response when subjected to loads. The results of this study will be valuable to practicing engineers as well as industry practitioners in developing better designs and tools for their structures and mechanical devices. They will also serve to engineers to design lighter and stronger structures and to give good predictions as for the behavior of structures when subjected to external loads.

Keywords: Vibration, Nonlinear, structures, Plates, Stiffness, elastic foundation

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288 The Impact of Alumina Cement on Properties of Portland Cement Slurries and Mortars

Authors: Krzysztof Zielinski, Dariusz Kierzek

Abstract:

The addition of a small amount of alumina cement to Portland cement results in immediate setting, a rapid increase in the compressive strength, and a clear increase of the adhesion to concrete substrate. This phenomenon is used, among others, for the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds. Alumina cement is several times more expensive than Portland cement and is a component having a significant impact on prices of products manufactured with its use. For the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds, low-alumina cement containing approx. 40% Al₂O₃ is normally used. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of Portland cement with the addition of alumina cement on the basic physical and mechanical properties of cement slurries and mortars. CEM I 42.5R and three types of alumina cement containing 40, 50, and 70% of Al₂O₃ were used for the tests. Mixes containing 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12% of different varieties of alumina cement were prepared. For them was determined the time of initial and final setting, compressive and flexural strength, and adhesion to concrete substrate. The analysis of the obtained test results showed that a similar immediate setting effect and clearly better adhesion strength can be obtained using the addition of 6% of high-alumina cement than 12% of low-alumina cement. As the prices of these cements are similar, this can give significant financial savings in the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds.

Keywords:

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287 Frequency and Stiffness before and after Strengthening of a Confined Masonry Wall with and without Openings

Authors: Emin Z. Mahmud

Abstract:

This paper presents the observations from a series of shaking-table tests done on a 1:1 scaled confined masonry wall model, with and without openings. Frequency and stiffness changes before and after GFRP wall strengthening are analysed. Definition of dynamic properties of models was the first step of the experimental testing, which enabled acquiring important information about the achieved stiffness (natural frequencies) of the models. For their importance and value, many of masonry building has been classified into mankind’s historical and cultural heritage of highest category. Considering that many of these buildings were built in the past and should be properly strengthened. From past earthquakes, it has been observed that the behaviour of the masonry systems under seismic impacts is substantially influenced by the presence and the location of the openings as well. Shaking table tests are planned in order to deepen the understanding of the behaviour of confined masonry structures with or without openings. The tests are realized in the laboratory of the Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology (IZIIS) – Skopje. The specimens were examined separately on the shaking table, with uniaxial, in-plane excitation. After testing, samples were strengthened with GFRP and re-tested. The main targets of this research are assessment of the influence of location and the area of the opening on the load-bearing capacity, rigidity, and ductility of confined masonry, definition of appropriate systems for improvement of the stiffness, load capacity and ductility of the system and contribution in the assessment procedures proposed for masonry building in Eurocode 8.3.

Keywords: Masonry, Strengthening, Frequency, shaking table test, behaviour of masonry structures, Eurocode

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286 The Relationship between Resource Sharing and Economic Resilience: An Empirical Analysis of Firms’ Resilience from the Perspective of Resource Dependence Theory

Authors: Alfredo R. Roa-Henriquez

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This paper is about organizational-level resilience and decision-making in the face of natural hazards. Research on resilience emerged to explain systems’ ability to absorb and recover in the midst of adversity and uncertainty from natural disasters, crises, and other disruptive events. While interest in resilience has accelerated, research multiplied, and the number of policies and implementations of resilience to natural hazards has increased over the last several years, mainly at the level of communities and regions, there has been a dearth of empirical work on resilience at the level of the firm. This paper uses empirical data and a sample selection model to test some hypotheses related to the firm’s dependence on critical resources, the sharing of resources and its economic resilience. The objective is to understand how the sharing of resources among organizations is related to economic resilience. Empirical results that are obtained from a sample of firms affected by Superstorm Sandy and Hurricane Harvey indicate that there is unobserved heterogeneity that explains the strategic behavior of firms in the post-disaster and that those firms that are more likely to resource share are also the ones that exhibit higher economic resilience. The impact of property damage on the sharing of resources and economic resilience is explored.

Keywords: Strategic Management, economic resilience, resource sharing, critical resources

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285 A Study of Mortars with Granulated Blast Furnace Slag as Fine Aggregate and Its Influence on Properties of Burnt Clay Brick Masonry

Authors: Vibha Venkataramu, B. V. Venkatarama Reddy

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Natural river sand is the most preferred choice as fine aggregate in masonry mortars. Uncontrolled mining of sand from riverbeds for several decades has had detrimental effects on the environment. Several countries across the world have put strict restrictions on sand mining from riverbeds. However, in countries like India, the huge infrastructural boom has made the local construction industry to look for alternative materials to sand. This study aims at understanding the suitability of granulated blast furnace slag (GBS) as fine aggregates in masonry mortars. Apart from characterising the material properties of GBS, such as particle size distribution, pH, chemical composition, etc., of GBS, tests were performed on the mortars with GBS as fine aggregate. Additionally, the properties of five brick tall, stack bonded masonry prisms with various types of GBS mortars were studied. The mortars with mix proportions 1: 0: 6 (cement: lime: fine aggregate), 1: 1: 6, and 1: 0: 3 were considered for the study. Fresh and hardened properties of mortar, such as flow and compressive strength, were studied. To understand the behaviour of GBS mortars on masonry, tests such as compressive strength and flexure bond strength were performed on masonry prisms made with a different type of GBS mortars. Furthermore, the elastic properties of masonry with GBS mortars were also studied under compression. For comparison purposes, the properties of corresponding control mortars with natural sand as fine aggregate and masonry prisms with sand mortars were also studied under similar testing conditions. From the study, it was observed the addition of GBS negatively influenced the flow of mortars and positively influenced the compressive strength. The GBS mortars showed 20 to 25 % higher compressive strength at 28 days of age, compared to corresponding control mortars. Furthermore, masonry made with GBS mortars showed nearly 10 % higher compressive strengths compared to control specimens. But, the impact of GBS on the flexural strength of masonry was marginal.

Keywords: Building materials, fine aggregate, granulated blast furnace slag in mortars, masonry properties

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284 Applying an Application-Based Knowledge Capturing and Reusing for Construction Consultant Organizations Applying

Authors: Phan Nghiem Vu, Le Tuan Vu, Ta Quang Tai

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Knowledge Management effectively is critical to the survival and advance of a company, especially in company-based industries such as construction. Knowledge management practice is crucial to the survival and progress of a company, especially company-based knowledge such as construction consultancy. Effective knowledge management practices are very significant to the competitive and development of a consulting organization. Hence, the success of knowledge management implementation depends on knowledge capturing and reusing effectively. In this paper, a survey was carried out of engineers and managers with experience in seven construction consulting organizations that provide services on the north-central coast of Vietnam. The main objectives of the survey to finding out how these organizations capture and reuse knowledge and significant barriers to the implementation of knowledge management. A conceptual framework based-on Trello application is proposed to formalize the knowledge-capturing and reusing process within construction consulting companies. It is showed that the conceptual framework could be used to manage both implicit and explicit knowledge effectively in construction consultant organizations.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, construction consultant organization, knowledge capturing, reusing knowledge, application-based technology

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283 Influence of Selected Finishing Technologies on the Roughness Parameters of Stainless Steel Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting Method

Authors: J. Kratochvil, J. Petrů, M. Pagáč, J. Hajnys, P. Stefek, J. Mesicek

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The new progressive method of 3D metal printing SLM (Selective Laser Melting) is increasingly expanded into the normal operation. As a result, greater demands are placed on the surface quality of the parts produced in this way. The article deals with research of selected finishing methods (tumbling, face milling, sandblasting, shot peening and brushing) and their impact on the final surface roughness. The 20 x 20 x 7 mm produced specimens using SLM additive technology on the Renishaw AM400 were subjected to testing of these finishing methods by adjusting various parameters. Surface parameters of roughness Sa, Sz were chosen as the evaluation criteria and profile parameters Ra, Rz were used as additional measurements. Optical measurement of surface roughness was performed on Alicona Infinite Focus 5. An experiment conducted to optimize the surface roughness revealed, as expected, that the best roughness parameters were achieved through a face milling operation. Tumbling is particularly suitable for 3D printing components, as tumbling media are able to reach even complex shapes and, after changing to polishing bodies, achieve a high surface gloss. Surface quality after tumbling depends on the process time. Other methods with satisfactory results are shot peening and tumbling, which should be the focus of further research.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, Selective Laser Melting, surface roughness, stainless steel, SLM

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282 The Impact of Outsourcing Project Management Services on the Success of International Engineering, Procurement and Construction Projects

Authors: Majid Parchami Jalal, Parisa Amirtash

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Purpose: Over recent decades, many construction projects have been developed all around the world. Another evolution is the development of international projects, which has led countries to collaborate regardless of geopolitical boundaries. This paper has focused on employing native project management consultant (NPMC) by the main foreign contractor in an international EPC (engineering, procurement, construction) project, to facilitate the relevant processes, promote the project success, and coordinate the operations and engineering services, from design to delivery. The study introduced the concept of NPMC and examined the impact of its services on the overall success of the project. Design/Methodology/Approach: Desk research carried out to examine the theoretical foundations of the study. A questionnaire survey has been done to achieve the opinions of construction experts for designing the proposed strategy to identify the characteristics and advantages of NPMC. Confirmatory factor investigation was conducted to verify the questionnaire validity, and structural equation modeling was also employed to measure the questionnaire reliability. Findings: A general positive impact of around 70% is achieved in the study. The following are different areas of project management (based on the Project Management Body of Knowledge), which are arranged in descending order of the positive impact they felt: 1. Stakeholder management; 2. Quality management; 3. Risk management; 4. Human resource management; 5. Procurement management; 6. Communication management; 7. Cost management; 8. Time management; 9. Scope management. Practical Implications: The paper includes suggestions for consultants to provide project management services to foreign contractors. For clients is to recommend employing NPMC to foreign contractors and for international contractors to engage NPMC in their international projects.

Keywords: Construction Project, international EPC project, main contractor, project management consultant

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281 Conflict Causes within Construction Projects; Conflict Interaction across Project Phases

Authors: Abdullah Mohammed Alshehri

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The projects in the construction industry have significantly increased, given its contribution to the overall Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the countries. Reflecting upon the complex nature and involvement of various agents, the study aims to analyze the conflicts cause within construction projects. Therefore, the study strived to come out with understanding the levels of conflict interaction across project phases. However, this conducted by investigating the association between antecedents and apparent conflicts inherent in. The study used a qualitative approach for collecting the data through a quantitative, semi-structured method. Formation of a questionnaire survey has been conducted for over 30 respondents. However, the survey came out with the identification of 25 conflict cause categories, which can take place in different construction project phases, including pre-design phase, pre-construction phase, construction phase, commissioning, and completion phase. For example, conflicts associated with inconsistencies or discrepancies within or between project documents, which took place at tendering time in the pre-construction phase were relatable with the selection of material specifications that should be supplied or used in the construction projects at the construction phase. Its analysis can provide comprehensive understanding, trace the root of the problem, which offers a roadmap to deepen the understanding of the conflict conditions and ‘course of action’ necessary for project management strategy actions toward avoiding or minimizing conflict causes at project life.

Keywords: Construction, Interaction, phases, conflict causes, levels

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280 Bonding Strength of Adhesive Scarf Joints Improved by Nano-Silica Subjected to Humidity

Authors: B. Paygozar, S.A. Dizaji, A.C. Kandemir

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In this study, the effects of the modified adhesive including different concentrations of Nano-silica are surveyed on the bonding strength of the adhesive scarf joints. The nanoparticles are added in two different concentrations, to an epoxy-based two-component structural adhesive, Araldite 2011, to survey the influences of the nanoparticle weight percentage on the failure load of the joints compared to that of the joints manufactured by the neat adhesive. The effects of being exposure to a moist ambience on the joint strength are also investigated for the joints produced of both neat and modified adhesives. For this purpose, an ageing process was carried out on the joints of both neat and improved kinds with variable immersion periods (20, 40 and 60 days). All the specimens were tested under a quasi-static tensile loading of 2 mm/min speed so as to find the quantities of the failure loads. Outcomes indicate that the failure loads of the joints with modified adhesives are measurably higher than that of the joint with neat adhesive, even while being put for a while under a moist condition. Another result points out that humidity lessens the bonding strength of all the joints of both types as the exposure time increases, which can be attributed to the change in the failure mode.

Keywords: humidity, bonding strength, nano-silica, scarf joint

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279 Potential of Dredged Material for CSEB in Building Structure

Authors: BoSheng Liu

Abstract:

The research goal is to re-image a locally-sourced waste product as abuilding material. The author aims to contribute to the compressed stabilized earth block (CSEB) by investigating the promising role of dredged material as an alternative building ingredient in the production of bricks and tiles. Dredged material comes from the sediment deposited near the shore or downstream, where the water current velocity decreases. This sediment needs to be dredged to provide water transportation; thus, there are mounds of the dredged material stored at bay. It is the interest of this research to reduce the filtered un-organic soil in the production of CSEB and replace it with locally dredged material from the Atchafalaya River in Morgan City, Louisiana. Technology and mechanical innovations have evolved the traditional adobe production method, which mixes the soil and natural fiber into molded bricks, into chemically stabilized CSEB made by compressing the clay mixture and stabilizer in a compression chamber with particular loads. In the case of dredged material CSEB (DM-CSEB), cement plays an essential role as the bending agent contributing to the unit strength while sustaining the filtered un-organic soil. Each DM-CSEB unit is made in a compression chamber with 580 PSI (i.e., 4 MPa) force. The research studied the cement content from 5% to 10% along with the range of dredged material mixtures, which differed from 20% to 80%. The material mixture content affected the DM-CSEB's strength and workability during and after its compression. Results indicated two optimal workabilities of the mixture: 27% fine clay content and 63% dredged material with 10% cement, or 28% fine clay content, and 67% dredged material with 5% cement. The final product of DM-CSEB emitted between 10 to 13 times fewer carbon emissions compared to the conventional fired masonry structure. DM-CSEB satisfied the strength requirement given by the ASTM C62 and ASTM C34 standards for construction material. One of the final evaluations tested and validated the material performance by designing and constructing an architectural, conical tile-vault prototype that was 28" by 40" by 24." The vault utilized a computational form-finding approach to generate the form's geometry, which optimized the correlation between the vault geometry and structural load distribution. A series of scaffolding was deployed to create the framework for the tile-vault construction. The final tile-vault structure was made from 2 layers of DM-CSEB tiles jointed by mortar, and the construction of the structure used over 110 tiles. The tile-vault prototype was capable of carrying over 400 lbs of live loads, which further demonstrated the dredged material feasibility as a construction material. The presented case study of Dredged Material Compressed Stabilized Earth Block (DM-CSEB) provides the first impression of dredged material in the clayey mixture process, structural performance, and construction practice. Overall, the approach of integrating dredged material in building material can be feasible, regionally sourced, cost-effective, and environment-friendly.

Keywords: dredged material, environment-friendly, compressed stabilized earth block, tile-vault, regionally sourced

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278 Failure Load Investigations in Adhesively Bonded Single-Strap Joints of Dissimilar Materials Using Cohesive Zone Model

Authors: B. Paygozar, S.A. Dizaji

Abstract:

Adhesive bonding is a highly valued type of fastening mechanical parts in complex structures, where joining some simple components is always needed. This method is of several merits, such as uniform stress distribution, appropriate bonding strength, and fatigue performance, and lightness, thereby outweighing other sorts of bonding methods. This study is to investigate the failure load of adhesive single-strap joints, including adherends of different sizes and materials. This kind of adhesive joint is very practical in different industries, especially when repairing the existing joints or attaching substrates of dissimilar materials. In this research, experimentally validated numerical analyses carried out in a commercial finite element package, ABAQUS, are utilized to extract the failure loads of the joints, based on the cohesive zone model. In addition, the stress analyses of the substrates are performed in order to acquire the effects of lowering the thickness of the substrates on the stress distribution inside them to avoid designs suffering from the necking or failure of the adherends. It was found out that this method of bonding is really feasible in joining dissimilar materials which can be utilized in a variety of applications. Moreover, the stress analyses indicated the minimum thickness for the adherends so as to avoid the failure of them.

Keywords: Dissimilar Materials, cohesive zone model, failure load, single strap joint

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277 Computational Fluid Dynamics Based Analysis of Heat Exchanging Performance of Rotary Thermal Wheels

Authors: H. M. D. Prabhashana Herath, M. D. Anuradha Wickramasinghe, A. M. C. Kalpani Polgolla, R. A. C. Prasad Ranasinghe, M. Anusha Wijewardane

Abstract:

The demand for thermal comfort in buildings in hot and humid climates increases progressively. In general, buildings in hot and humid climates spend more than 60% of the total energy cost for the functionality of the air conditioning (AC) system. Hence, it is required to install energy efficient AC systems or integrate energy recovery systems for both new and/or existing AC systems whenever possible, to reduce the energy consumption by the AC system. Integrate a Rotary Thermal Wheel as the energy recovery device of an existing AC system has shown very promising with attractive payback periods of less than 5 years. A rotary thermal wheel can be located in the Air Handling Unit (AHU) of a central AC system to recover the energy available in the return air stream. During this study, a sensitivity analysis was performed using a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) software to determine the optimum design parameters (i.e., rotary speed and parameters of the matrix profile) of a rotary thermal wheel for hot and humid climates. The simulations were performed for a sinusoidal matrix geometry. Variation of sinusoidal matrix parameters, i.e., span length and height, were also analyzed to understand the heat exchanging performance and the induced pressure drop due to the air flow. The results show that the heat exchanging performance increases when increasing the wheel rpm. However, the performance increment rate decreases when increasing the rpm. As a result, it is more advisable to operate the wheel at 10-20 rpm. For the geometry, it was found that the sinusoidal geometries with lesser spans and higher heights have higher heat exchanging capabilities. Considering the sinusoidal profiles analyzed during the study, the geometry with 4mm height and 3mm width shows better performance than the other combinations.

Keywords: Air Conditioning, Computational Fluid Dynamics, CFD, energy recovery, Heat Exchangers

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