Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1554

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Energy and Power Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1554 Optimal Chord Length Distribution Formula for Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines Equipped with Co-Flow Jet Circulation Control Active Systems

Authors: Daniel Guariglia

Abstract:

Active control systems are recently emerging as trending innovations in large horizontal axis wind turbine technology panorama. Among these, circulation control (CC) technology appears to be very promising due to its fast response time and great efficacy in increasing airfoil lift and decreasing airfoil drag. CC technology can find very interesting applications in reducing blade loads and increase power efficiency, ultimately enabling further upscaling of wind turbines size. However, the impact of specific power consumption can be difficult to estimate in early design with traditional methodologies. Classical blade chord distribution formulas (such as Betz and Schmitz) are not best suited for exploiting the full potential of CC airfoils because drag is typically ignored, and the actuator disk theory does not consider that the CC airfoils are, in fact, injecting additional energy to the fluid. In this paper, a novel formula for optimal chord length distribution is presented. The formula is derived from the Schmitz equation and adapted to include the impact of negative drag coefficients (CD) and the specific power consumption of the CC device as input parameters. CFD and experimental data of co-flow jet CC technology has been used in this investigation. The co-flow jet airfoil makes use of both an injection slot and a suction slot, with zero net mass balance. The formula has been validated through Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory numerical simulations. The results show how in all cases the power coefficient (CP) of the turbine increases while contemporary the optimal chord length distribution decreases in comparison with the baseline case. The percentage of chord reduction appears to be in function of the intensity of the CC and the tip speed ratio (TSR). The power consumed by the CC device is then subtracted and a net power coefficient (CP_net) is estimated. Simulations show how, for the simulated cases, it is possible to attain chord reduction values higher than 30% together with similar or even superior CP_net compared to the baseline case. This would open very interesting scenarios for the development of lighter slender blades with beneficial effects for the turbine design and operation.

Keywords: optimal wind turbine design, optimal chord length formula, circulation control active system, boundary layer active control, co-flow jet

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1553 Constructing a Bayesian Network for Solar Energy in Egypt Using Life Cycle Analysis & Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: Rawaa H. El-Bidweihy, Hisham M. Abdelsalam, Ihab A. El-Khodary

Abstract:

In an era where machines run and shape our world, the need for a stable, non-ending source of energy emerges. In this study, the focus was on the solar energy in Egypt as a renewable source, the most important factors that could affect the solar energy’s market share throughout its life cycle production were analyzed and filtered, the relationships between them were derived before structuring a Bayesian network. Also, forecasted models were built for multiple factors to predict the states in Egypt by 2035, based on historical data and patterns, to be used as the nodes’ states in the network. Thirty-seven factors were found to might have an impact on the use of solar energy and then were deducted to 12 factors that were chosen to be the most effective to the solar energy’s life cycle in Egypt, based on surveying experts and data analysis, some of the factors were found to be recurring in multiple stages. The presented Bayesian network could be used later for scenario and decision analysis of using solar energy in Egypt, as a stable renewable source for generating any type of energy needed.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Solar energy, Life Cycle, Forecasting Models, Bayesian network, SARIMA, ARIMA, auto correlation, partial correlation

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1552 Battery Energy Storage System Economic Benefits Assessment on a Network Frequency Control

Authors: Kréhi Serge Agbli, Samuel Portebos, Michael Salomon

Abstract:

Here a methodology is considered aiming at evaluating the economic benefit of the provision of primary frequency control unit using a Battery Energy Storage System (BESS). In this methodology, two control types (basic and hysteresis) are implemented, and the corresponding minimum energy storage system power allowing to maintain the frequency drop inside a given threshold under a given contingency is identified and compared using DigSilent's PowerFactory software. Following this step, the corresponding energy storage capacity (in MWh) is calculated. As PowerFactory is dedicated to dynamic simulation for transient analysis, a first order model related to the IEEE 9 bus grid used for the analysis under PowerFactory is characterized and implemented on MATLAB-Simulink. Primary frequency control is simulated using the two control types over one-month grid's frequency deviation data on this Simulink model. This simulation results in energy throughput, both basic and hysteresis BESSs. It emerges that the 15 minutes operation band of the battery capacity allocated to frequency control is sufficient under the considered disturbances. A sensitivity analysis on the width of the control deadband is then performed for the two control types. The deadband width variation leads to an identical sizing with the hysteresis control showing a better frequency control at the cost of a higher delivered throughput compared to the basic control. An economic analysis comparing the cost of the sized BESS to the potential revenues is then performed.

Keywords: battery energy storage system, electrical network frequency stability, frequency control unit, PowerFactor

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1551 Enhancing Temporal Extrapolation of Windspeed Using A Hybrid Technique: A Case Study in West Coast of Denmark.

Authors: Xuerui Mao, Basem Elshafei

Abstract:

The demand for renewable energy is significantly increasing, major investments are being supplied to the wind power generation industry as a leading source of clean energy. The wind energy sector is entirely dependable and driven by the prediction of wind speed, which by nature of wind is a very stochastic and widely random. This study employs deep multi-fidelity gaussian process regression, used to predict wind speeds for medium term time horizons. Data of the RUNE experiment in the west coast of Denmark was provided by the Technical University of Denmark, which represents the wind speed across the study area from the period between December 2015 to March 2016. The study aims to investigate the effect of pre-processing the data by denoising the signal using empirical wavelet transform (EWT) and engaging the vector components of wind speed to increase the number of input data layers for data fusion using deep multi-fidelity gaussian process regression (GPR). The outcomes were compared using root mean square error (RMSE) and the results demonstrated a significant increase in the accuracy of predictions which demonstrated that using vector components of the wind speed as additional predictors exhibits more accurate predictions than strategies that ignore them, reflecting the importance of the inclusion of all sub data and pre-processing signals for wind speed forecasting models.

Keywords: Data fusion, Gaussian process regression, signal denoise, temporal extrapolation

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1550 Simulation Study on Polymer Flooding with Thermal Degradation in Elevated-Temperature Reservoirs

Authors: Lin Zhao, Hanqiao Jiang, Junjian Li

Abstract:

Polymers injected into elevated-temperature reservoirs inevitably suffer from thermal degradation, resulting in severe viscosity loss and poor flooding performance. However, for polymer flooding in such reservoirs, present simulators fail to provide accurate results for lack of description on thermal degradation. In light of this, the objectives of this paper are to provide a simulation model for polymer flooding with thermal degradation and study the effect of thermal degradation on polymer flooding in elevated-temperature reservoirs. Firstly, a thermal degradation experiment was conducted to obtain the degradation law of polymer concentration and viscosity. Different types of polymers degraded in the Thermo tank with elevated temperatures. Afterward, based on the obtained law, a streamline-assistant model was proposed to simulate the degradation process under in-situ flow conditions. Model validation was performed with field data from a well group of an offshore oilfield. Finally, the effect of thermal degradation on polymer flooding was studied using the proposed model. Experimental results showed that the polymer concentration remained unchanged, while the viscosity degraded exponentially with time after degradation. The polymer viscosity was functionally dependent on the polymer degradation time (PDT), which represented the elapsed time started from the polymer particle injection. Tracing the real flow path of polymer particle was required. Therefore, the presented simulation model was streamline-assistant. Equation of PDT vs. time of flight (TOF) along streamline was built by the law of polymer particle transport. Based on the field polymer sample and dynamic data, the new model proved its accuracy. Study of degradation effect on polymer flooding indicated: (1) the viscosity loss increased with TOF exponentially in the main body of polymer-slug and remained constant in the slug front; (2) the responding time of polymer flooding was delayed, but the effective time was prolonged; (3) the breakthrough of subsequent water was eased; (4) the capacity of polymer adjusting injection profile was diminished; (5) the incremental recovery was reduced significantly. In general, the effect of thermal degradation on polymer flooding performance was rather negative. This paper provides a more comprehensive insight into polymer thermal degradation in both the physical process and field application. The proposed simulation model offers an effective means for simulating the polymer flooding process with thermal degradation. The negative effect of thermal degradation suggests that the polymer thermal stability should be given full consideration when designing polymer flooding project in elevated-temperature reservoirs.

Keywords: Numerical Simulation, Thermal Degradation, polymer flooding, elevated-temperature reservoir

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1549 Power Production Performance of Different Wave Energy Converters in the Southwestern Black Sea

Authors: Ajab G. Majidi, Bilal Bingölbali, Adem Akpınar

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the amount of energy (economic wave energy potential) that can be obtained from the existing wave energy converters in the high wave energy potential region of the Black Sea in terms of wave energy potential and their performance at different depths in the region. The data needed for this purpose were obtained using the calibrated nested layered SWAN wave modeling program version 41.01AB, which was forced with Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) winds from 1979 to 2009. The wave dataset at a time interval of 2 hours was accumulated for a sub-grid domain for around Karaburun beach in Arnavutkoy, a district of Istanbul city. The annual sea state characteristic matrices for the five different depths along with a vertical line to the coastline were calculated for 31 years. According to the power matrices of different wave energy converter systems and characteristic matrices for each possible installation depth, the probability distribution tables of the specified mean wave period or wave energy period and significant wave height were calculated. Then, by using the relationship between these distribution tables, according to the present wave climate, the energy that the wave energy converter systems at each depth can produce was determined. Thus, the economically feasible potential of the relevant coastal zone was revealed, and the effect of different depths on energy converter systems is presented. The Oceantic at 50, 75 and 100 m depths and Oyster at 5 and 25 m depths presents the best performance. In the 31-year long period 1998 the most and 1989 is the least dynamic year.

Keywords:

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1548 Experimental and Characterization Studies on Micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

Authors: S. Muthuraja Soundrapandian, C.K. Subramaniam

Abstract:

A micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) of 1 cm2 active area with selective sensor materials to sense methanol for redox, has been developed. Among different Pt alloys, Pt-Sn/C was able to produce high current density and repeatability. Membrane Elecctrode Assembly (MEA) of anode catalyst Pt-Sn/C was prepared with nafion as active membrane and Pt black as cathode catalyst. The sensor’s maximum ability to detect the trace levels of methanol in ppm has been analyzed. A compact sensor set up has also been made and the characterization studies were carried out. The acceptable value of current density was derived by the cell and the results are able to fulfill the needs of DMFC technology for the practical applications.

Keywords: Sensor, MEA, DMFC, Pt-Sn

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1547 Long Distance Aspirating Smoke Detection for Large Radioactive Areas

Authors: Michael Dole, Pierre Ninin, Denis Raffourt

Abstract:

Most of the CERN’s facilities hosting particle accelerators are large, underground and radioactive areas. All fire detection systems installed in such areas, shall be carefully studied to cope with the particularities of this stringent environment. The detection equipment usually chosen by CERN to secure these underground facilities are based on air sampling technology. The electronic equipment is located in non-radioactive areas whereas air sampling networks are deployed in radioactive areas where fire detection is required. The air sampling technology provides very good detection performances and prevent the "radiation-to-electronic" effects. In addition, it reduces the exposure to radiations of maintenance workers and is permanently available during accelerator operation. In order to protect the Super Proton Synchrotron and its 7 km tunnels, a specific long distance aspirating smoke detector has been developed to detect smoke at up to 700 meters between electronic equipment and the last air sampling hole. This paper describes the architecture, performances and return of experience of the long distance fire detection system developed and installed to secure the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron tunnels.

Keywords: Fire Detection, Air Sampling, long distance, radioactive areas

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1546 Energy Efficient Microgrid Design with Hybrid Power Systems

Authors: Pedro Esteban

Abstract:

Today’s electrical networks, including microgrids, are evolving into smart grids. The smart grid concept brings the idea that the power comes from various sources (continuous or intermittent), in various forms (AC or DC, high, medium or low voltage, etc.), and it must be integrated into the electric power system in a smart way to guarantee a continuous and reliable supply that complies with power quality and energy efficiency standards and grid code requirements. This idea brings questions for the different players like how the required power will be generated, what kind of power will be more suitable, how to store exceeding levels for short or long-term usage, and how to combine and distribute all the different generation power sources in an efficient way. To address these issues, there has been lots of development in recent years on the field of on-grid and off-grid hybrid power systems (HPS). These systems usually combine one or more modes of electricity generation together with energy storage to ensure optimal supply reliability and high level of energy security. Hybrid power systems combine power generation and energy storage technologies together with real-time energy management and innovative power quality and energy efficiency improvement functionalities. These systems help customers achieve targets for clean energy generation, they add flexibility to the electrical grid, and they optimize the installation by improving its power quality and energy efficiency.

Keywords: energy storage, ​Hybrid Power Systems, microgrids, power quality improvement

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1545 Active Power Filters and their Smart Grid Integration - Applications for Smart Cities

Authors: Pedro Esteban

Abstract:

Most installations nowadays are exposed to many power quality problems, and they also face numerous challenges to comply with grid code and energy efficiency requirements. The reason behind this is that they are not designed to support nonlinear, non-balanced, and variable loads and generators that make up a large percentage of modern electric power systems. These problems and challenges become especially critical when designing green buildings and smart cities. These problems and challenges are caused by equipment that can be typically found in these installations like variable speed drives (VSD), transformers, lighting, battery chargers, double-conversion UPS (uninterruptible power supply) systems, highly dynamic loads, single-phase loads, fossil fuel generators and renewable generation sources, to name a few. Moreover, events like capacitor switching (from existing capacitor banks or passive harmonic filters), auto-reclose operations of transmission and distribution lines, or the starting of large motors also contribute to these problems and challenges. Active power filters (APF) are one of the fastest-growing power electronics technologies for solving power quality problems and meeting grid code and energy efficiency requirements for a wide range of segments and applications. They are a high performance, flexible, compact, modular, and cost-effective type of power electronics solutions that provide an instantaneous and effective response in low or high voltage electric power systems. They enable longer equipment lifetime, higher process reliability, improved power system capacity and stability, and reduced energy losses, complying with most demanding power quality and energy efficiency standards and grid codes. There can be found several types of active power filters, including active harmonic filters (AHF), static var generators (SVG), active load balancers (ALB), hybrid var compensators (HVC), and low harmonic drives (LHD) nowadays. All these devices can be used in applications in Smart Cities bringing several technical and economic benefits.

Keywords:

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1544 Short-Term Forecast for Photovoltaic Generation Based on Improved Restricted Boltzmann Machine Algorithm

Authors: Li Guo, Xiang Zhu, Haoqi Shi, Yunlong Ding

Abstract:

In order to accurately predict the amount of photovoltaic power generation and save resources, we proposed a short-term prediction model of photovoltaic (PV) power generation based on improved restricted Boltzmann machine. Pearson similarity analysis is used to select environmental factors that affect photovoltaic power generation, and multi-set canonical correlation analysis (MCCA) is used to fuse environmental factors. The sample data after fusion is used as the input of Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM). K-fold cross-validation is used for model testing. Case studies show that the improved restricted Boltzmann machine has higher short-term prediction accuracy and faster convergence rate.

Keywords: Photovoltaic Power, restricted boltzmann machine, power prediction, multiset canonical correlation analysis

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1543 A Grid Synchronization Phase Locked Loop Method for Grid-Connected Inverters Systems

Authors: Naima Ikken, Abdelhadi Bouknadel, Nour-Eddine Tariba, Ahmed Haddou, Hafsa El Omari, Hamid El Omari

Abstract:

The operation of grid-connected inverters necessity a new single-phase phase locked loop (PLL) is proposed in this article to accurately and quickly estimate and detect the grid phase angle. This article presents the improvement of a method of phase-locked loop. The novelty is to generate a method (PLL) of synchronizing the grid with a Notch filter based on adaptive fuzzy logic for inverter systems connected to the grid. The performance of the proposed method was tested under normal and abnormal operating conditions (amplitude, frequency, and phase shift variations). In addition, simulation results with ISPM software are developed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method strategy. Finally, the experimental test will be used to extract the result and discuss the validity of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: Fuzzy logic control, notch filter, phase locked loop, PLL, grid connected inverters

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1542 Study on Properties of Carbon-based Layer for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Application

Authors: Chih-Chia Lin, Ching-Ying Huang, Chun-Han Li, Pei-Jung Wu, Chien-Yuan Wang

Abstract:

The fuel cell market has considerable development potential, but the cost is still less competitive. Replacing the traditional graphite plate with a stainless steel plate as a bipolar plate can greatly reduce the weight and volume of the stack, and has more cost advantages. However, the passivation layer on the surface of stainless steel makes the contact resistance reach the ohmic level and reduces the performance of the fuel cell. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the interfacial contact resistance through the surface treatment. In this research, the thickness, uniformity, interfacial contact resistance (ICR), and adhesion of the carbon-based layer was analyzed. On the other hand, the effect of coating properties on the performance of the fuel cell was verified through I-V tests. The results show that after coating the contact resistance is greatly reduced by three stages to the microohm level, and as the film thickness is reduced, the contact resistance is reduced from 229~118 mΩ-cm² to 135~73 mΩ-cm² at a general assembly pressure of 1 to 2 MPa., and the current density at 0.6 V increased from 485.7 mA/cm² to 575.7 mA/cm². This study verifies the importance of the uniformity and ICR of the coating on proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), and the surface coating technology is the key to affecting the characteristics of the coating.

Keywords: contact resistance, PEMFC, proton exchange membrane fuel cell, SS bipolar plate, spray coating process

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1541 Enhanced Optical and Electrical Properties of P-Type AgBiS₂ Energy Harvesting Materials as an Absorber of Solar Cell by Copper Doping

Authors: Yasaman Tabari-Saadi, Kaiwen Sun, Jialiang Huang, Martin Green, Xiaojing Hao

Abstract:

Optical and electrical properties of p-type AgBiS₂ absorber material have been improved by copper doping on silver sites. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis suggest that complete solid solutions of Ag₁₋ₓCuₓBiS₂ thin film have been formed. The carrier concentration of pure AgBiS₂ thin film deposited by the chemical process is 4.5*E+14 cm⁻³, and copper doping leads to the improved carrier concentration despite the semiconductor AgBiS₂ remains p-type semiconductor. Copper doping directly changed the absorption coefficient and increased the optical band gap (~1.5eV), which makes it a promising absorber for thin-film solar cell applications.

Keywords: copper doped, AgBiS2, carrier concentration, p-type semiconductor, thin-film solar cell

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1540 Local Energy and Flexibility Markets to Foster Demand Response Services within the Energy Community

Authors: Eduardo Rodrigues, Gisela Mendes, José M. Torres, José E. Sousa

Abstract:

In the sequence of the liberalisation of the electricity sector a progressive engagement of consumers has been considered and targeted by sector regulatory policies. With the objective of promoting market competition while protecting consumers interests, by transferring some of the upstream benefits to the end users while reaching a fair distribution of system costs, different market models to value consumers’ demand flexibility at the energy community level are envisioned. Local Energy and Flexibility Markets (LEFM) involve stakeholders interested in providing or procure local flexibility for community, services and markets’ value. Under the scope of DOMINOES, a European research project supported by Horizon 2020, the local market concept developed is expected to: • Enable consumers/prosumers empowerment, by allowing them to value their demand flexibility and Distributed Energy Resources (DER); • Value local liquid flexibility to support innovative distribution grid management, e.g., local balancing and congestion management, voltage control and grid restoration; • Ease the wholesale market uptake of DER, namely small-scale flexible loads aggregation as Virtual Power Plants (VPPs), facilitating Demand Response (DR) service provision; • Optimise the management and local sharing of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in Medium Voltage (MV) and Low Voltage (LV) grids, trough energy transactions within an energy community; • Enhance the development of energy markets through innovative business models, compatible with ongoing policy developments, that promote the easy access of retailers and other service providers to the local markets, allowing them to take advantage of communities’ flexibility to optimise their portfolio and subsequently their participation in external markets. The general concept proposed foresees a flow of market actions, technical validations, subsequent deliveries of energy and/or flexibility and balance settlements. Since the market operation should be dynamic and capable of addressing different requests, either prioritising balancing and prosumer services or system’s operation, direct procurement of flexibility within the local market must also be considered. This paper aims to highlight the research on the definition of suitable DR models to be used by the Distribution System Operator (DSO), in case of technical needs, and by the retailer, mainly for portfolio optimisation and solve unbalances. The models to be proposed and implemented within relevant smart distribution grid and microgrid validation environments, are focused on day-ahead and intraday operation scenarios, for predictive management and near-real-time control respectively under the DSO’s perspective. At local level, the DSO will be able to procure flexibility in advance to tackle different grid constrains (e.g., demand peaks, forecasted voltage and current problems and maintenance works), or during the operating day-to-day, to answer unpredictable constraints (e.g., outages, frequency deviations and voltage problems). Due to the inherent risks of their active market participation retailers may resort to DR models to manage their portfolio, by optimising their market actions and solve unbalances. The interaction among the market actors involved in the DR activation and in flexibility exchange is explained by a set of sequence diagrams for the DR modes of use from the DSO and the energy provider perspectives. • DR for DSO’s predictive management – before the operating day; • DR for DSO’s real-time control – during the operating day; • DR for retailer’s day-ahead operation; • DR for retailer’s intraday operation.

Keywords: Demand Response, Flexible Demand, energy communities, local energy and flexibility markets

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1539 CFD Investigation on Heat Transfer and Friction Characteristics of Rib Roughened Evacuated Tube Collector Solar Air Heater

Authors: Mohit Singla, Vishavjeet Singh Hans, Sukhmeet Singh

Abstract:

Heat transfer and friction characteristics of evacuated tube collector solar air heater artificially roughened with periodic circular rib of uniform cross-section were investigated. The present investigation was carried out in ANSYS Fluent 15.0 to study the impact of roughness geometry parameters, i.e. relative roughness pitch (P/e) of 8 and relative roughness height (e/Dh) of 0.064 and flow parameters, i.e. Reynolds number range of 2500-8000 on Nusselt number and friction factor. RNG k-ε with enhanced wall treatment turbulence model was selected for analysis. The results obtained for roughened evacuated tube collector has been compared with smooth evacuated tube collector for the similar flow conditions. With the increment in Reynolds number from 2500 to 8000, Nusselt number augments while friction factor decreases. Maximum enhancement ratio of Nusselt number and friction factor was 1.71 and 2.7 respectively, obtained at Reynolds number value of 8000. The value of thermo-hydraulic performance parameter was varied between 1.18 - 1.23 for the entire range of Reynolds number, indicates the advantage to use the roughened evacuated tube collector over smooth evacuated tube collector in solar air heater.

Keywords: friction factor, nusselt number, artificial roughness, evacuated tube collector

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1538 The Evolution of Integrated Applications and Alternative Systems in Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Technologies

Authors: S. Doyle, G. A. Aggidis

Abstract:

Wave energy converter technologies continue to show good progress in worldwide research. One of the most researched technologies, the Oscillating Water Column (OWC), is arguably one of the most popular categories within the converter technologies due to its robustness, simplicity and versatility. However, the versatility of the OWC is still largely untapped with most deployments following similar trends with respect to applications and operating systems. As the competitiveness of the energy market continues to increase, the demand for wave energy technologies to be innovative also increases. For existing wave energy technologies, this requires to identify areas to diversify for lower costs of energy with respect to applications and synergies or integrated systems. This paper provides a review of all OWCs systems integrated into alternative applications in the past and present. The aspects and variation in their design, deployment and system operation are discussed. Particular focus is given to the Multi-OWCs and their great potential to increase capture on a larger scale, especially in synergy applications. It is made clear that these steps need to be taken in order to make wave energy a competitive and viable option in the renewable energy mix as progression to date shows that stand alone single function devices are not economical. Findings reveal that the trend of development is moving toward these integrated applications in order to reduce the Levelised Cost of Energy (LCOE) and will ultimately continue in this direction in efforts to make wave energy a competitive option in the renewable energy mix.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Ocean energy, wave energy converter, oscillating water column

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1537 Material Mechanical Property for Improving the Energy Density of Lithium-Ion Battery

Authors: Collins Chike Kwasi-Effah, Timon Rabczuk, Osarobo O. Ighodaro

Abstract:

The energy density of various battery technologies used in the electric vehicle industry still ranges between 250 Wh/kg to 650 Wh/kg, thus limiting their distance range compared to the conventional internal combustion engine vehicle. In order to overcome this limitation, a new material technology is necessary to overcome this limitation. The proposed sole lithium-air battery seems to be far behind in terms of practical implementation. In this paper, experimental analysis using COMSOL multiphysics has been conducted to predict the performance of lithium ion battery with variation in the elastic property of five different cathode materials including; LiMn2O4, LiFePO4, LiCoO2, LiV6O13, and LiTiS2. Combining LiCoO2, and aqueous lithium showed great improvement in the energy density. Thus, the material combination of LiCoO2/aqueous lithium-air could give a practical solution in achieving high energy density for application in the electric vehicle industry.

Keywords: Energy Density, Battery Energy, mechanical property, lithium-ion

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1536 Practical Techniques of Improving State Estimator Solution

Authors: Kiamran Radjabli

Abstract:

State Estimator became an intrinsic part of Energy Management Systems (EMS). The SCADA measurements received from the field are processed by the State Estimator in order to accurately determine the actual operating state of the power systems and provide that information to other real-time network applications. All EMS vendors offer a State Estimator functionality in their baseline products. However, setting up and ensuring that State Estimator consistently produces a reliable solution often consumes a substantial engineering effort. This paper provides generic recommendations and describes a simple practical approach to efficient tuning of State Estimator, based on the working experience with major EMS software platforms and consulting projects in many electrical utilities of the USA.

Keywords: Power Systems, Convergence, Performance, monitoring, Troubleshooting, Tuning, State estimator

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1535 Optimization by Means of Genetic Algorithm of the Equivalent Electrical Circuit Model of Different Order for Li-ion Battery Pack

Authors: Victor Pizarro Carmona

Abstract:

The purpose of this article is to optimize the Equivalent Electric Circuit model (EECM) of different orders to obtain greater precision in the modeling of Li-ion battery packs. Optimization includes considering circuits based on 1RC, 2RC and 3RC networks, with a dependent voltage source and a series resistor. The parameters are obtained experimentally using tests in the time domain and in the frequency domain. Due to the high non-linearity of the behavior of the battery pack, Genetic Algorithm (GA) was used to solve and optimize the parameters of each EECM considered (1RC, 2RC and 3RC). The objective of the estimation is to minimize the mean square error between the measured impedance in the real battery pack and those generated by the simulation of different proposed circuit models. The results have been verified by comparing the Nyquist graphs of the estimation of the complex impedance of the pack. As a result of the optimization, the 2RC and 3RC circuit alternatives are considered as viable to represent the battery behavior. These battery pack models are experimentally validated using a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation platform that reproduces the well-known NYCC and FTP driving cycles for electric vehicles. The results show that using GA optimization allows obtaining EECs with 2RC or 3RC networks, with high precision to represent the dynamic behavior of a battery pack in vehicular applications.

Keywords: Electric Vehicle Applications, Li-ion battery packs modeling optimized, EECM

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1534 Analysis of Gas Transport and Sorption Processes in Coal under Confining Pressure Conditions

Authors: Anna Pajdak, Mateusz Kudasik, Norbert Skoczylas, Leticia Teixeira Palla Braga

Abstract:

A substantial majority of gas transport and sorption researches into coal are carried out on samples that are free of stress. In natural conditions, coal occurs at considerable depths, which often exceed 1000 meters. In such conditions, coal is subjected to geostatic pressure. Thus, in natural conditions, the sorption capacity of coal subjected to geostatic pressure can differ considerably from the sorption capacity of coal, determined in laboratory conditions, which is free of stress. The work presents the results of filtration and sorption tests of gases in coal under confining pressure conditions. The tests were carried out on the author's device, which ensures: confining pressure regulation in the range of 0-30 MPa, isobaric gas pressure conditions, and registration of changes in sample volume during its gas saturation. Based on the conducted research it was found, among others, that the sorption capacity of coal relative to CO₂ was reduced by about 15% as a result of the change in the confining pressure from 1.5 MPa to 30 MPa exerted on the sample. The same change in sample load caused a significant, more than tenfold reduction in carbon permeability to CO₂. The results confirmed that a load of coal corresponding to a hydrostatic pressure of 1000 meters underground reduces its permeability and sorption properties. These results are so important that the effect of load on the sorption properties of coal should be taken into account in laboratory studies on the applicability of CO₂ Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery (CO₂-ECBM) technology.

Keywords: Coal, Sorption, Gas Transport, confining pressure

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1533 Optimization of Waste Plastic to Fuel Oil Plants' Deployment Using Mixed Integer Programming

Authors: David Muyise

Abstract:

Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) is an approach that involves the optimization of a range of decision variables in order to minimize or maximize a particular objective function. The main objective of this study was to apply the MIP approach to optimize the deployment of waste plastic to fuel oil processing plants in Uganda. The processing plants are meant to reduce plastic pollution by pyrolyzing the waste plastic into a cleaner fuel that can be used to power diesel/paraffin engines, so as (1) to reduce the negative environmental impacts associated with plastic pollution and also (2) to curb down the energy gap by utilizing the fuel oil. A programming model was established and tested in two case study applications that are, small-scale applications in rural towns and large-scale deployment across major cities in the country. In order to design the supply chain, optimal decisions on the types of waste plastic to be processed, size, location and number of plants, and downstream fuel applications were concurrently made based on the payback period, investor requirements for capital cost and production cost of fuel and electricity. The model comprises qualitative data gathered from waste plastic pickers at landfills and potential investors, and quantitative data obtained from primary research. It was found out from the study that a distributed system is suitable for small rural towns, whereas a decentralized system is only suitable for big cities. Small towns of Kalagi, Mukono, Ishaka, and Jinja were found to be the ideal locations for the deployment of distributed processing systems, whereas Kampala, Mbarara, and Gulu cities were found to be the ideal locations initially utilize the decentralized pyrolysis technology system. We conclude that the model findings will be most important to investors, engineers, plant developers, and municipalities interested in waste plastic to fuel processing in Uganda and elsewhere in developing economy.

Keywords: Plastic Pollution, mixed integer programming, fuel oil plants, optimisation of waste plastics, pyrolyzing

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1532 Enhancing the Understanding of the Effects of Weather and Climate Variables on Electricity Demand in Barbados

Authors: Andrea Sealy, Adanna Robertson-Quimby

Abstract:

Caribbean states are heavily dependent on imported fossil fuel to meet their energy demands. Fossil fuels account for approximately eighty percent (80%) of primary supply, hence electricity prices in the Caribbean are among the highest in the world. According to a number of studies conducted worldwide, weather and climate have been shown to impact energy systems. It is further highlighted that such studies are country, scale, climate and resource specific. Studies on the impacts of weather and climate on energy systems in the Caribbean are limited. With the onset of climate change and the expected rise in surface temperatures, population growth and increased energy demand; the Caribbean has to become more resilient and adaptive to weather and climate events. There is a need to better understand these relationships between weather and climate variables and energy systems in order to enhance the resilience of such in the Caribbean. This study focuses on providing a better understanding of the existing and future relationships between climatic variables and energy demand in Barbados. The development of a framework for forecasting the future energy load due to changes in long-term climate and variability has commenced using electricity consumption data from the Barbados Light and Power Company Limited for the period 1996-2015 and meteorological data for the same period for Barbados. Methodologies such as regression, correlation and principal component analysis were utilised to determine which weather and climate variables impact energy demand and the sensitivity of the relationships. Climatological statistics such as the hottest and coolest months on average were used as a basis for analysing the possible relationship between the climate variables and electricity demand. The analysis and result of two test months, February and October were selected for presentation; since these months occur during periods of different climatological variations and demonstrate mean opposite extremes of energy consumption. Based on the global literature, temperature is one of the main variables affecting energy demand through heating and cooling needs. However, this may not be the case for Barbados during the test months of February and October. The following questions could be asked: Could the fact that the diurnal variation of temperature within the tropics is greater than the annual temperature range be the reason for this? What other variables contribute to the weather and climate sensitivities of energy demand? Therefore, within this study, the answers to these questions are being explored.

Keywords: Electricity, Weather, Energy demand, climate sensitivity

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1531 A Novel Multi-Objective Park and Ride Control Scheme Using Renewable Energy Sources: Cairo Case Study

Authors: Mohammed Elsayed Lotfy Elsayed Abouzeid, Tomonobu Senjyu

Abstract:

A novel multi-objective park and ride control approach is presented in this research. Park and ride will encourage the owners of the vehicles to leave their cars in the nearest points (on the edges of the crowded cities) and use public transportation facilities (train, bus, metro, or mon-rail) to reach their work inside the crowded city. The proposed control scheme is used to design electric vehicle charging stations (EVCS) to charge 1000 electric vehicles (EV) during their owners' work time. Cairo, Egypt is used as a case study. Photovoltaic (PV) and battery energy storage system (BESS) are used to meet the EVCS demand. Two multi-objective optimization techniques (MOGA and epsilon-MOGA) are utilized to get the optimal sizes of PV and BESS so as to meet the load demand and minimize the total life cycle cost. Detailed analysis and comparison are held to investigate the performance of the proposed control scheme using MATLAB.

Keywords: Electric Vehicle, Photovoltaic, multi-objective, Battery Energy Storage System, Park and Ride

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1530 Economical Transformer Selection Implementing Service Lifetime Cost

Authors: Bonginkosi A. Thango, Jacobus A. Jordaan, Agha F. Nnachi

Abstract:

In this day and age, there is a proliferate concern from all governments across the globe to barricade the environment from greenhouse gases, which absorb infrared radiation. As a result, solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity has been an expeditiously growing renewable energy source and will eventually undertake a prominent role in the global energy generation. The selection and purchasing of energy-efficient transformers that meet the operational requirements of the solar photovoltaic energy generation plants then become a part of the Independent Power Producers (IPP’s) investment plan of action. Taking these into account, this paper proposes a procedure that put into effect the intricate financial analysis necessitated to precisely evaluate the transformer service lifetime no-load and load loss factors. This procedure correctly set forth the transformer service lifetime loss factors as a result of a solar PV plant’s sporadic generation profile and related levelized costs of electricity into the computation of the transformer’s total ownership cost. The results are then critically compared with the conventional transformer total ownership cost unaccompanied by the emission costs, and demonstrate the significance of the sporadic energy generation nature of the solar PV plant on the total ownership cost. The findings indicate that the latter play a crucial role for developers and Independent Power Producers (IPP’s) in making the purchase decision during a tender bid where competing offers from different transformer manufactures are evaluated. Additionally, the susceptibility analysis of different factors engrossed in the transformer service lifetime cost is carried out; factors including the levelized cost of electricity, solar PV plant’s generation modes, and the loading profile are examined.

Keywords: transformer, solar photovoltaic plant, total ownership cost, loss factors

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1529 The Effect of Hydrogen on Performance and Emissions of a Methanol Si-Engine at Part Load

Authors: Junaid Bin Aamir, Ma Fanhua

Abstract:

Methanol and hydrogen are the most suitable alternative fuel resources for the existing and future internal combustion engines. This paper experimentally examined the effects of hydrogen addition on the performance and emission characteristics of a spark-ignition engine fueled with methanol at part load conditions. The experiments were carried out for various engine speeds and loads. Hydrogen-rich syngas was used to enhance the performance of the test engine. It was formed by catalytic dissociation of methanol itself, and volumetric hydrogen fraction in syngas was about 67%. A certain amount of syngas dissociated from methanol was injected into the intake manifold in each engine cycle, and the low heating value (LHV) of hydrogen-rich syngas used was 4% of methanol in each cycle. Both the fuels were injected separately using port fuel injectors. The results showed that brake thermal efficiency of the engine was enhanced by 3-5% with hydrogen addition, while brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature were reduced. There was a significant reduction (90-95%) in THC and (35-50%) in CO emissions at the exhaust. NOx emissions from hydrogen blended methanol increased slightly (10-15%), but they can be reduced by using lean fuel-air mixture to keep the cylinder temperature low.

Keywords: Hydrogen, Emissions, methanol, alternative fuel, spark ignition engines

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1528 Voltage Sag Characteristics during Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Faults

Authors: Marios Moschakis, Ioannis Binas

Abstract:

Electrical faults in transmission and distribution networks can have great impact on the electrical equipment used. Fault effects depend on the characteristics of the fault as well as the network itself. It is important to anticipate the network’s behavior during faults when planning a new equipment installation, as well as troubleshooting. Moreover, working backwards, we could be able to estimate the characteristics of the fault when checking the perceived effects. Different transformer winding connections dominantly used in the Greek power transfer and distribution networks and the effects of 1-phase to neutral, phase-to-phase, 2-phases to neutral and 3-phase faults on different locations of the network were simulated in order to present voltage sag characteristics. The study was performed on a generic network with three steps down transformers on two voltage level buses (one 150 kV/20 kV transformer and two 20 kV/0.4 kV). We found that during faults, there are significant changes both on voltage magnitudes and on phase angles. The simulations and short-circuit analysis were performed using the PSCAD simulation package. This paper presents voltage characteristics calculated for the simulated network, with different approaches on the transformer winding connections during symmetrical and asymmetrical faults on various locations.

Keywords: Power Quality, Phase angle shift, transformer winding connections, voltage sag propagation

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1527 Mitigating Biofouling on Reverse Osmosis Membranes: Applying Greener Preservatives to Biofilm Treatment

Authors: Anna Curtin, Matthew Thibodeau, Heather Buckley

Abstract:

Water scarcity is characterized by a lack of access to clean and affordable drinking water, as well as water for hygienic and economic needs. The amount of people effected by water scarcity is expected to increase in the coming years due to climate change, population growth, and pollution, amongst other things. In response, scientists are pursuing cost effective drinking water treatment methods, often with a focus on alternative water sources. Desalination of seawater via reverse osmosis is one promising alternative method. Desalination of seawater via reverse osmosis, however, is limited significantly by biofouling of the filtration membrane. Biofouling is the buildup of microorganisms in a biofilm at the water-membrane interface. It clogs the membrane, decreasing the efficiency of filtration, consequently increasing operational and maintenance costs. Although effective, existing chemical treatment methods can damage the membrane, decreasing the lifespan of the membrane; create antibiotic resistance; and cause harm to humans and the environment if they pass through the membrane into the permeate. The current project focuses on applying safer preservatives used in home and personal care products to RO membranes to investigate the biofouling treatment efficacy. Currently, many of these safer preservatives have only been tested on cells in planktonic phase in suspension cultures, not on cells in biofilms. The results of suspension culture tests are not applicable to biofouling scenarios because organisms in planktonic phase in suspension cultures exhibit different morphological, chemical, and metabolic characteristics than those in a biofilm. Testing antifoulant efficacy of safer preservatives on biofilms will provide more applicable results to biofouling on RO membranes. To do this, biofilms will be grown on 96-well-plates and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC90) and log-reductions will be calculated for various safer preservatives. Results from these tests will be used to guide doses for tests of safer preservatives in a bench-scale RO system.

Keywords: Green Chemistry, Antimicrobial, Reverse osmosis, Biofouling, preservatives, safer alternative

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1526 Fuel Cell Performance Predictions by Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques

Authors: Evgueniy Entchev, Libing Yang

Abstract:

Governments around the world are taking measures to minimize the humans’ impact on the climate and environment by reducing emissions and energy use in all sectors. Novel approaches featuring large introduction of renewables, improved efficiencies, smart grid, etc. will have potentials for significant impact on the way energy is generated, distributed and utilized. Microgeneration is a suitable approach to reduce costs and carbon emissions by offering high efficiency performance and offsetting the need for centrally - generated grid electricity and to avoid transmission and distribution losses associated with it. This study applies adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) techniques and artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the performance of 5kWel SOFC system under variety of operating and weather conditions. The ANN model was built on back propagation algorithm and the ANFIS model applied a combination of least squares method and back propagation gradient decent method. The system performance data were collected during the winter heating season and used for training both ANN and ANFIS models to predict selective SOFC performance parameters such as fuel cell stack current and stack voltage. The initial data set was subjected to detailed sensitivity analysis and statistically insignificant parameters were excluded from the training set. As a result, significant reduction of computational time was achieved without affecting models’ accuracy. The study indicated that both ANN and ANFIS models’ predictions agreed well with variety of experimental data sets representing steady-state, start-up and shut-down operations of the SOFC system. It demonstrated that by using ANN and ANFIS techniques PEM and SOFC microgeneration systems’ performance could be modelled with minimum time demand and with a high degree of accuracy.

Keywords: Modeling, Simulations, Fuel Cell, Artificial Neural Network, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, microgeneration

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1525 Increasing Power Transfer Capacity of Distribution Networks Using Direct Current Feeders

Authors: Akim Borbuev, Francisco de León

Abstract:

Economic and population growth in densely-populated urban areas introduce major challenges to distribution system operators, planers, and designers. To supply added loads, utilities are frequently forced to invest in new distribution feeders. However, this is becoming increasingly more challenging due to space limitations and rising installation costs in urban settings. This paper proposes the conversion of critical alternating current (ac) distribution feeders into direct current (dc) feeders to increase the power transfer capacity by a factor as high as four. Current trends suggest that the return of dc transmission, distribution, and utilization are inevitable. Since a total system-level transformation to dc operation is not possible in a short period of time due to the needed huge investments and utility unreadiness, this paper recommends that feeders that are expected to exceed their limits in near future are converted to dc. The increase in power transfer capacity is achieved through several key differences between ac and dc power transmission systems. First, it is shown that underground cables can be operated at higher dc voltage than the ac voltage for the same dielectric stress in the insulation. Second, cable sheath losses, due to induced voltages yielding circulation currents, that can be as high as phase conductor losses under ac operation, are not present under dc. Finally, skin and proximity effects in conductors and sheaths do not exist in dc cables. The paper demonstrates that in addition to the increased power transfer capacity utilities substituting ac feeders by dc feeders could benefit from significant lower costs and reduced losses. Installing dc feeders is less expensive than installing new ac feeders even when new trenches are not needed. Case studies using the IEEE 342-Node Low Voltage Networked Test System quantify the technical and economic benefits of dc feeders.

Keywords: Distribution Networks, DC power systems, distribution feeders, power transfer capacity

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