Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 242

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Energy and Environmental Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

242 Scenario-Based Analysis of Electric Vehicle Penetration in Road Transportation in Laos

Authors: Bouneua Khamphilavanh, Toshihiko Masui

Abstract:

The penetration of EV (electric vehicle) technology in Lao road transportation, in this study, was analyzed by using the AIM/CGE [Laos] model. The computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was developed by the Asia-Pacific Integrated Model (AIM) team. In line with the increase of the number of road vehicles, the energy demand in the transport sector has been gradually increased which resulted in a large amount of budget spent for importing fossil fuels during the last decade, and a high carbon dioxide emission from the transport sector, hence the aim of this research is to analyze the impact of EVs penetration on economic and CO₂ emission in short-term, middle-term, and long-term. By the year 2050, the expected gross domestic product (GDP) value, due to Laos will spend more budget for importing the EV, will be gradually lost up to one percent. The cumulative CO₂ emission from 2020 to 2050 in BAU case will be 12,000 GgCO₂eq, and those in the EV mitigation case will be 9,300 GgCO₂eq, which accounting for likely 77% cumulative CO₂ emission reduction in the road transport sector by introducing the EV technology.

Keywords: Transport, GDP, CO2 mitigation, CGE model, EV technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
241 Simulation and Analysis of Passive Parameters of Building in eQuest: The Case Study from Istanbul, Turkey

Authors: Mahdiyeh Zafaranchi

Abstract:

With the rapid development of urbanization and improvement of living standards in the world, energy consumption and carbon emissions of the building sector are expected to increase in the near future; because of that, energy-saving issues had become more important among the engineers. Besides, the building sector is a major contributor to energy consumption and carbon emissions. The concept of the efficient building appeared as a response to the need for reducing energy demand in this sector, which has the main purpose of shifting from standard buildings to low-energy buildings. Although energy-saving should happen in all steps of a building during the life cycle (material production, construction, demolition), the main concept of efficient energy building is saving energy during the life expectancy of a building by passive and active systems, and shouldn't scarify comfort and quality to reach goals. The main goal of this study is passive strategies (don't need energy consumption or use renewable energy) to achieve energy-efficient buildings. Energy retrofit measures were explored by eQuest software; by using a case study as a base model. The study investigates predictive accuracy for the major factors like thermal transmittance (U-value) of the material, windows, shading devices, thermal insulation, rate of the exposed envelope, window/wall ration, lighting system in the energy consumption of the building. The base model was located in Istanbul, Turkey. The impact of eight passive parameters on energy consumption had been indicated. After analyzing the base model by eQuest, a final scenario was suggested which had a good energy performance. The results showed decreasing the U-values of materials, the rate of exposing buildings, and windows had a significant effect on energy consumption. Finally, electric consumption about 10.5%, and gas consumption about 8.37% was saved in the suggested model annually.

Keywords: efficient building, electric and gas consumption, eQuest, Passive parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
240 Sustainable Smart Contraction: China Eco-district Evolution Research and Future Exploration

Authors: Weijun Gao, Xincheng He, Gangwei Cai

Abstract:

In the process of rapid urbanization, large-scale industrial production, and unreasonable planning and construction have caused various ecological and environmental problems, while hindered the sustainable development of cities. The ecological district not only realizes the coordinated development of society, economy, and environment but also conforms to the trend of smart contraction of the development of cities in China from the periphery to the center. This paper reviews the development of China's ecological district, including the full life cycle process of policy, planning, implementation, and operation. Based on sorting out the concept, connotation, and development status of China’s ecological district, the relationship between the construction of the ecological district and the sustainable city is discussed. Summarizing the development trend of the ecological district, the ecological district should combine the construction of smart cities, actively respond to the digital information era, and improve the construction of the ecological district system. It proposes that the future direction of city's sustainable development needs to change from a thematic focus on ecology to the common urbanization of humanity, society, and nature. Focusing on people-oriented, ecological, and digital future communities will become an important construction method for the city's sustainable smart contraction.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, eco-district, smart contraction, future community

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
239 Defining the Turbulent Coefficients with the Effect of Atmospheric Stability in Wake of a Wind Turbine Wake

Authors: Mohammad A. Sazzad, Md M. Alam

Abstract:

Wind energy is one of the cleanest form of renewable energy. Despite wind industry is growing faster than ever there are some roadblocks towards the improvement. One of the difficulties the industry facing is insufficient knowledge about wake within the wind farms. As we know energy is generated in the lowest layer of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). This interaction between the wind turbine (WT) blades and wind introduces a low speed wind region which is defined as wake. This wake region shows different characteristics under each stability condition of the ABL. So, it is fundamental to know this wake region well which is defined mainly by turbulence transport and wake shear. Defining the wake recovery length and width are very crucial for wind farm to optimize the generation and reduce the waste of power to the grid. Therefore, in order to obtain the turbulent coefficients of velocity and length, this research focused on the large eddy simulation (LES) data for neutral ABL (NABL). According to turbulent theory, if we can present velocity defect and Reynolds stress in the form of local length and velocity scales, they become invariant. In our study velocity and length coefficients are 0.4867 and 0.4794 respectively which is close to the theoretical value of 0.5 for NABL. There are some invariant profiles because of the presence of thermal and wind shear power coefficients varied a little from the ideal condition.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Wind turbine, Atmospheric Boundary Layer, wake, turbulent coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
238 Synthesis and Characterization of Green Coke-Derived Activated Carbon by KOH Activation

Authors: Richard, Iyan Subiyanto, Chairul Hudaya

Abstract:

Activated carbon has been playing a significant role for many applications, especially in energy storage devices. However, commercially activated carbons generally require complicated processes and high production costs. Therefore, in this study, an activated carbon originating from green coke waste, that is economically affordable will be used as a carbon source. To synthesize activated carbon, KOH as an activator was employed with variation of C:KOH in ratio of 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5, respectively, with an activation temperature of 700°C. The characterizations of activated carbon are obtained from Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-Ray, Raman Spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller. The optimal activated carbon sample with specific surface area of 2,024 m²/g with high carbon content ( > 80%) supported by the high porosity carbon image obtained by SEM was prepared at C:KOH ratio of 1:4. The result shows that the synthesized activated carbon would be an ideal choice for energy storage device applications. Therefore, this study is expected to reduce the costs of activated carbon production by expanding the utilization of petroleum waste.

Keywords: activated carbon, specific surface area, energy storage material, green coke

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
237 Energy Consumption and Economic Growth Nexus: a Sustainability Understanding from the BRICS Economies

Authors: Smart E. Amanfo

Abstract:

Although the exact functional relationship between energy consumption and economic growth and development remains a complex social science, there is a sustained growing of agreement among energy economists and the likes on direct or indirect role of energy use in the development process, and as sustenance for many of societal achieved socio-economic and environmental developments in any economy. According to OECD, the world economy will double by 2050 in which the two members of BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) countries: China and India lead. There is a global apprehension that if countries constituting the epicenter of the present and future economic growth follow the same trajectory as during and after Industrial Revolution, involving higher energy throughputs, especially fossil fuels, the already known and models predicted threats of climate change and global warming could be exacerbated, especially in the developing economies. The international community’s challenge is how to address the trilemma of economic growth, social development, poverty eradication and stability of the ecological systems. This paper aims at providing the estimates of economic growth, energy consumption, and carbon dioxide emissions using BRICS members’ panel data from 1980 to 2017. The preliminary results based on fixed effect econometric model show positive significant relationship between energy consumption and economic growth. The paper further identified a strong relationship between economic growth and CO2 emissions which suggests that the global agenda of low-carbon-led growth and development is not a straight forward achievable The study therefore highlights the need for BRICS member states to intensify low-emissions-based production and consumption policies, increase renewables in order to avoid further deterioration of climate change impacts.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Sustainability, Energy Consumption, Economic growth, BRICS

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
236 Predicting Photovoltaic Energy Profile of Birzeit University Campus Based on Weather Forecast

Authors: Muhammad Abu-Khaizaran, Ahmad Faza’, Tariq Othman, Yahia Yousef

Abstract:

This paper presents a study to provide sufficient and reliable information about constructing a Photovoltaic energy profile of the Birzeit University campus (BZU) based on the weather forecast. The developed Photovoltaic energy profile helps to predict the energy yield of the Photovoltaic systems based on the weather forecast and hence helps planning energy production and consumption. Two models will be developed in this paper; a Clear Sky Irradiance model and a Cloud-Cover Radiation model to predict the irradiance for a clear sky day and a cloudy day, respectively. The adopted procedure for developing such models takes into consideration two levels of abstraction. First, irradiance and weather data were acquired by a sensory (measurement) system installed on the rooftop of the Information Technology College building at Birzeit University campus. Second, power readings of a fully operational 51kW commercial Photovoltaic system installed in the University at the rooftop of the adjacent College of Pharmacy-Nursing and Health Professions building are used to validate the output of a simulation model and to help refine its structure. Based on a comparison between a mathematical model, which calculates Clear Sky Irradiance for the University location and two sets of accumulated measured data, it is found that the simulation system offers an accurate resemblance to the installed PV power station on clear sky days. However, these comparisons show a divergence between the expected energy yield and actual energy yield in extreme weather conditions, including clouding and soiling effects. Therefore, a more accurate prediction model for irradiance that takes into consideration weather factors, such as relative humidity and cloudiness, which affect irradiance, was developed; Cloud-Cover Radiation Model (CRM). The equivalent mathematical formulas implement corrections to provide more accurate inputs to the simulation system. The results of the CRM show a very good match with the actual measured irradiance during a cloudy day. The developed Photovoltaic profile helps in predicting the output energy yield of the Photovoltaic system installed at the University campus based on the predicted weather conditions. The simulation and practical results for both models are in a very good match.

Keywords: Photovoltaic, weather forecast, clear-sky irradiance model, cloud-cover radiation model

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
235 Surface Modification of TiO2 Layer with Phosphonic Acid Monolayer in Perovskite Solar Cells: Effect of Chain Length and Terminal Functional Group

Authors: Seid Yimer Abate, Ding-Chi Huang, Yu-Tai Tao

Abstract:

In this study, charge extraction characteristics at the perovskite/TiO2 interface in the conventional perovskite solar cell is studied by interface engineering. Self-assembled monolayers of phosphonic acids with different chain length and terminal functional group were used to modify mesoporous TiO2 surface to modulate the surface property and interfacial energy barrier to investigate their effect on charge extraction and transport from the perovskite to the mp-TiO2 and then the electrode. The chain length introduces a tunnelling distance and the end group modulate the energy level alignment at the mp-TiO2 and perovskite interface. The work function of these SAM-modified mp-TiO2 varied from −3.89 eV to −4.61 eV, with that of the pristine mp-TiO2 at −4.19 eV. A correlation of charge extraction and transport with respect to the modification was attempted. The study serves as a guide to engineer ETL interfaces with simple SAMs to improve the charge extraction, carrier balance and device long term stability. In this study, a maximum PCE of ~16.09% with insignificant hysteresis was obtained, which is 17% higher than the standard device.

Keywords: Interface Engineering, Perovskite Solar Cells, Energy level alignment, Phosphonic acid monolayer, Tunnelling distance

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
234 Development of a Coupled Thermal-Mechanical-Biological Model to Simulate Impacts of Temperature on Waste Stabilization at a Landfill in Quebec, Canada

Authors: Simran Kaur, Paul J. Van Geel

Abstract:

A coupled Thermal-Mechanical-Biological (TMB) model was developed for the analysis of impacts of temperatures on waste stabilization at a Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfill in Quebec, Canada using COMSOL Multiphysics, a finite element-based software. For waste placed in landfills in Northern climates during winter months, it can take months or even years before the waste approaches ideal temperatures for biodegradation to occur. Therefore, the proposed model links biodegradation induced strain in MSW to waste temperatures and corresponding heat generation rates as a result of anaerobic degradation. This provides a link between the thermal-biological and mechanical behavior of MSW. The thermal properties of MSW are further linked to density which is tracked and updated in the mechanical component of the model, providing a mechanical-thermal link. The settlement of MSW is modelled based on the concept of viscoelasticity. The specific viscoelastic model used is a single Kelvin – Voight viscoelastic body in which the finite element response is controlled by the elastic material parameters – Young’s Modulus and Poisson’s ratio. The numerical model was validated with 10 years of temperature and settlement data collected from a landfill in Ste. Sophie, Quebec. The coupled TMB modelling framework, which simulates placement of waste lifts as they are placed progressively in the landfill, allows for optimization of several thermal and mechanical parameters throughout the depth of the waste profile and helps in better understanding of temperature dependence of MSW stabilization. The model is able to illustrate how waste placed in the winter months can delay biodegradation-induced settlement and generation of landfill gas. A delay in waste stabilization will impact the utilization of the approved airspace prior to the placement of a final cover and impact post-closure maintenance. The model provides a valuable tool to assess different waste placement strategies in order to increase airspace utilization within landfills operating under different climates, in addition to understanding conditions for increased gas generation for recovery as a green and renewable energy source.

Keywords: Landfill, Finite element modeling, Waste Stabilization, municipal solid waste, coupled model

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
233 Advanced Nanostructured Materials and Their Application for Solar Fuel

Authors: Ahmed Elsayed, A. Hegazy, Essam El Shenawy, N. Allam, Hala Handal, K. R. Mahmoud

Abstract:

Highly crystalline, TiO₂ pristine sub-10 nm anatase nanocrystals were fabricated at low temperatures by post hydrothermal treatment of the as-prepared TiO₂ nanoparticles. This treatment resulted in bandgap narrowing and increased photocurrent density value (3.8 mA/cm²) when this material was employed in water splitting systems. The achieved photocurrent values are among the highest reported ones so far for the fabricated nanoparticles at this low temperature. This might be explained by the increased surface defects of the prepared nanoparticles. It resulted in bandgap narrowing that was further investigated using positron annihilation experiments by measuring positron lifetime and Doppler broadening. Besides, homogeneous spherical TiO₂ nanoparticles were synthesized in large diameter and high surface area and the high percentage of (001) facet by sol-gel method using potassium persulfate (K₂S₂O₈) as an oxidizing agent. The fabricated particles exhibited high exposed surface area, high photoactivity and reduced band gap. Enhanced performance for water splitting applications was displayed by formed TiO₂ nanoparticles. Their morphological and structural properties were studied to optimize their synthesis parameters in an attempt to construct more applicable fuel cells in the industry for hydrogen fuel production.

Keywords: Solar energy, Water Splitting, TiO2 nanoparticles, positron annihilation

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
232 Feasability Study of Airconditioners Operated by Solar Energy in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Eman Simbawa, Budur Alasmri, Hanan Munahir, Hanin Munahir

Abstract:

Solar energy has become currently the subject of attention around the world and is undergoing many researches and studies. Using solar energy, which is a renewable energy, is aligned with the Saudi vision 2030. People are more aware of it and are starting to use it more for environmental and economical reasons. A questionnaire was conducted in this paper to measure the awareness of people in Saudi Arabia regarding solar energy and their attitude towards it. Then, two kinds of air conditioners (one powered by electricity only and one powered by solar panels and electricity) are compared in terms of their cost over a period of 20 years. This will help the users to decide which kind of device to use depending on its cost. The result shows that as the electricity tariffs in Saudi Arabia increases depending on the sector the solar air conditioner is cheaper. In fact, if the tariff in the future increases to reach 50 Halalah/kWh, the solar air conditioner is more economical. This will influence users to buy more solar powered devices, and it will decrease the consumption of electricity. Therefore, the dependence on oil will decrease.

Keywords: Solar energy, Photovoltaic Cells, Airconditioner, present value

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
231 Determinants of House Dust, Endotoxin, and β- (1→ 3)-D-Glucan in Homes of Turkish Children

Authors: Afsoun Nikravan, Parisa Babaei, Gulen Gullu

Abstract:

We aimed to study the association between house dust endotoxin, β-(1→3)-D-glucan, and asthma in a sample representative of the Turkish population. We analyzed data from 240 participants. The house dust was collected from the homes of 110 asthmatics and 130 control (without asthma) school-aged children (6-11 years old). House dust from the living room and from bedroom floors were analyzed for endotoxin and beta-glucan contents. House dust was analyzed for endotoxin content by the kinetic limulus amoebocyte lysate assay and for β-(1→3)-D-glucan by the inhibition enzyme immunoassay. The parents answered questions regarding potential determinants. We found geometric means 187.5 mg/m² for dust. According to statistical values, the endotoxin geometric mean was 13.86×103 EU/g for the control group and 6.16×103 EU/g for the asthma group. As a result, the amount of bacterial endotoxin was measured at a higher level in the homes of children without asthma. The geometric mean for beta-glucan was 46.52 µg/g and 44.39 µg/g for asthma and control groups, respectively. No associations between asthma and microbial agents were observed in Turkish children. High correlations (r > 0.75) were found between floor dust and endotoxin loads, while endotoxin and β-(1→3)-D-glucan concentrations were not correlated. The type of flooring (hard-surface or textile) was the strongest determinant for loads of floor dust and concentrations of endotoxin. Water damage and dampness at home were determinants of β-(1→3)-D-glucan concentrations. Endotoxin and β-(1→3)-D-glucan concentrations in Turkish house dust might lower than concentrations seen in other European countries.

Keywords: Asthma, Indoor Air Quality, case-control, microbial pollutants

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
230 Treatment with Triton-X 100: An Enhancement Approach for Cardboard Bioprocessing

Authors: Ahlam Said Al Azkawi, Nallusamy Sivakumar, Saif Nasser Al Bahri

Abstract:

Diverse approaches and pathways are under development with the determination to develop cellulosic biofuels and other bio-products eventually at commercial scale in “bio-refineries”; however, the key challenge is mainly the high level of complexity in processing the feedstock which is complicated and energy consuming. To overcome the complications in utilizing the naturally occurring lignocellulose biomass, using waste paper as a feedstock for bio-production may solve the problem. Besides being abundant and cheap, bioprocessing of waste paper has evolved in response to the public concern from rising landfill cost from shrinking landfill capacity. Cardboard (CB) is one of the major components of municipal solid waste and one of the most important items to recycle. Although 50-70% of cardboard constitute is known to be cellulose and hemicellulose, the presence of lignin around them cause hydrophobic cross-link which physically obstructs the hydrolysis by rendering it resistant to enzymatic cleavage. Therefore, pretreatment is required to disrupt this resistance and to enhance the exposure of the targeted carbohydrates to the hydrolytic enzymes. Several pretreatment approaches have been explored, and the best ones would be those can influence cellulose conversion rates and hydrolytic enzyme performance with minimal or less cost and downstream processes. One of the promising strategies in this field is the application of surfactants, especially non-ionic surfactants. In this study, triton-X 100 was used as surfactants to treat cardboard prior enzymatic hydrolysis and compare it with acid treatment using 0.1% H2SO4. The effect of the surfactant enhancement was evaluated through its effect on hydrolysis rate in respect to time in addition to evaluating the structural changes and modification by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and through compositional analysis. Further work was performed to produce ethanol from CB treated with triton-X 100 via separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The hydrolysis studies have demonstrated enhancement in saccharification by 35%. After 72 h of hydrolysis, a saccharification rate of 98% was achieved from CB enhanced with triton-X 100, while only 89 of saccharification achieved from acid pre-treated CB. At 120 h, the saccharification % exceeded 100 as reducing sugars continued to increase with time. This enhancement was not supported by any significant changes in the cardboard content as the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin content remained same after treatment, but obvious structural changes were observed through SEM images. The cellulose fibers were clearly exposed with very less debris and deposits compared to cardboard without triton-X 100. The XRD pattern has also revealed the ability of the surfactant in removing calcium carbonate, a filler found in waste paper known to have negative effect on enzymatic hydrolysis. The cellulose crystallinity without surfactant was 73.18% and reduced to 66.68% rendering it more amorphous and susceptible to enzymatic attack. Triton-X 100 has proved to effectively enhance CB hydrolysis and eventually had positive effect on the ethanol yield via SSF. Treating cardboard with only triton-X 100 was a sufficient treatment to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production.

Keywords: Enhancement, treatment, Ethanol, Hydrolysis, cardboard, Triton-X 100

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
229 Identifying Degradation Patterns of LI-Ion Batteries from Impedance Spectroscopy Using Machine Learning

Authors: Yunwei Zhang, Qiaochu Tang, Yao Zhang, Jiabin Wang, Ulrich Stimming, Alpha Lee

Abstract:

Forecasting the state of health and remaining useful life of Li-ion batteries is an unsolved challenge that limits technologies such as consumer electronics and electric vehicles. Here we build an accurate battery forecasting system by combining electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) -- a real-time, non-invasive and information-rich measurement that is hitherto underused in battery diagnosis -- with Gaussian process machine learning. We collect over 20,000 EIS spectra of commercial Li-ion batteries at different states of health, states of charge and temperatures -- the largest dataset to our knowledge of its kind. Our Gaussian process model takes the entire spectrum as input, without further feature engineering, and automatically determines which spectral features predict degradation. Our model accurately predicts the remaining useful life, even without complete knowledge of past operating conditions of the battery. Our results demonstrate the value of EIS signals in battery management systems.

Keywords: electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, battery degradation, machine learning method, battery diagnosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
228 Potential of Pyrolytic Tire Char Use in Agriculture

Authors: M. L. Moyo

Abstract:

Concerns about climate change, food productivity, and the ever-increasing cost of commercial fertilizer products is forcing have spurred interest in the production of alternatives or substitutes for commercial fertilizer products. In this study, the potential of pyrolytic tire char (PT-char) to improve soil productivity was investigated. The use of carbonized biomass, which is commonly termed biochar or biofertilizer and exhibits similar properties to PT-char in agriculture is not new, with historical evidence pointing to the use of charcoal for soil improvement by indigenous Amazon people for several centuries. Due to minimal market value or use of PT-char, huge quantities are currently stockpiled in South Africa. This successively reduces revenue and decreases investments in waste tire recycling efforts as PT-char constitutes 40 % weight of the total waste tire pyrolysis products. The physicochemical analysis results reported in this study showed that PT-char contains a low concentration of essential plant elements (P and K) and, therefore, cannot be used for increasing nutrient availability in soils. A low presence of heavy metals (Ni, Pb, and Cd), which may be harmful to the environment at high application rates was also observed. In addition, the results revealed that PT-char contains very high levels of Zn, a widely known phytotoxicity causing agents in plants. However, the study also illustrated that PT-char is made up of a highly aromatic and condensed carbon structure. PT-char is therefore highly stable, less prone to microbial degradation, and has a low chemical reactivity in soils. Considering these characteristics, PT-char meets the requirements for use as a carbon sequestration agent, which may be useful in mitigating climate change.

Keywords: Agriculture, Physicochemical analysis, Carbon Sequestration, Soil Amendment, pyrolytic tire char

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
227 High Pressure Pyrolysis of Waste and Its Blends

Authors: Kevin Günther, Steffen Krzack, Jörg Kleeberg, Markus Reinmöller, Bernd Meyer

Abstract:

For the modern energetic and non-energetic utilization of solid carbon carriers such as biomasses and wastes the thermochemical conversion processes still plays a major role. Here, the pyrolysis can represent a fuel upgrading step but also an alternative recycling path for heterogeneous feedstocks like waste materials from domestic areas. Complex chemical structures of those materials caused by the pronounced heterogeneity impede the management and optimization of existing pyrolysis processes. Therefore, an improvement of the knowledge of thermochemical conversion is indispensable for a better understanding of the processes. Furthermore, the development of new reactor designs and the optimization of existing ones is nowadays often supported by computational modeling of pyrolysis processes whereby reliable balance data like product yields and compositions under technically relevant conditions, e.g. high pressures and temperatures, are required. The implementation of pyrolysis kinetic data is necessary to improve the models prediction capability and accuracy. Since future thermochemical conversion technologies goes forward to operate under pressures above 30 bar, experimental data under comparable conditions to modern reactor designs must be provided. However, a gap in understanding the effects of enhanced pressure during the conversion processes exists and a reliable, extensive database of kinetic parameters is missing. Hence, the present study is focused on the effect of varying pressures up to 100 bar and varying temperatures between 600 °C and 800 °C on the pyrolysis behavior of pure urban waste materials and blends with regular fuels. The pyrolysis is carried out in a high pressure drop-tube reactor with a continuous feeding system leading to high particle heating rates. Particle and gas residence times are held constant by the adjustment of the carrier gas flow rate. The effects of varying process parameters on product yields and compositions are evaluated. All pyrolysis products are characterized and constitute the basis for closed mass and elemental balances at enhanced pressures. Kinetic parameters (activation energy, frequency factor) for the gas evolution of the main components CO, CO2, CH4, and H2 were determined by means of an appropriate pyrolysis model and contribute to the extension of the database for the process modeling and the model validation.

Keywords: Waste, Kinetics, Thermochemical Conversion, high pressure pyrolysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
226 Gravitational Energy Storage by Using Concrete Stacks

Authors: Thanatchai Kulworawanichpong, Tosaphol Ratniyomchai, Anusit Punsirichaiyakul

Abstract:

The paper aims to study the energy storage system in the form of gravity energy by the weight of concrete stacks. This technology has the potential to replace expensive battery storage. This paper is a trial plan in abandoned mines in Thailand. This is to start with construct concrete boxes to be stacked vertically or obliquely to form appropriate shapes and, therefore, to store the potential energy. The stored energy can be released or discharged back to the system by deploying the concrete stacks to the ground. This is to convert the potential energy stored in the concrete stacks to the kinetic energy of the concrete box movement. This design is incorporating mechanical transmission to reduce the height of the concrete stacks. This study also makes a comparison between the energy used to construct concrete stacks in various shapes and the energy to deploy all the concrete boxes to ground. This paper consists of 2 test systems. The first test is to stack the concrete in vertical shape. The concrete stack has a maximum height of 50 m with a gear ratio of 1:200. The concrete box weight is 115 tons/piece with a total stored energy of 1800 kWh. The oblique system has a height of 50 m with a similar gear ratio of 1:200. The weight of the concrete box is 90 tons/piece and has a total stored energy of 1440 kWh. Also, it has an overall efficiency of 65% and a lifetime of 50 years. This storage has higher storage densities compared to other systems.

Keywords: Gravity, vertical, concrete stacks, oblique

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
225 Piaui Solar: State Development Impulsed by Solar Photovoltaic Energy

Authors: Amanda Maria Rodrigues Barroso, Ary Paixao Borges Santana Junior, Caio Araujo Damasceno

Abstract:

In Piauí, the Brazilian state, solar energy has become one of the renewable sources targeted by internal and external investments, with the intention of leveraging the development of society. However, for a residential or business consumer to be able to deploy this source, there is usually a need for a high initial investment due to its high cost. The countless high taxes on equipment and services are one of the factors that contribute to this cost and ultimately fall on the consumer. Through analysis, a way of reducing taxes is sought in order to encourage consumer adhesion to the use of photovoltaic solar energy. Thus, the objective is to implement the Piauí Solar Program in the state of Piauí in order to stimulate the deployment of photovoltaic solar energy, through benefits granted to users, providing state development by boosting the diversification of the state's energy matrix. The research method adopted was based on the analysis of data provided by the Teresina City Hall, by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and by a private company in the capital of Piauí. The account was taken of the total amount paid in Property and Urban Territorial Property Tax (IPTU), in electricity and in the service of installing photovoltaic panels in a residence with 6 people. Through Piauí Solar, a discount of 80% would be applied to the taxes present in the budgets regarding the implementation of these photovoltaic plates in homes and businesses, as well as in the IPTU. In addition, another factor also taken into account is the energy savings generated after the implementation of these boards. In the studied residence, the annual payment of IPTU went from R $ 99.83 reais to R $ 19.96, the reduction of taxes present in the budget for the implantation of solar panels, caused the value to increase from R $ 42,744.22 to R $ 37,241.98. The annual savings in electricity bills were estimated at around R $ 6,000. Therefore, there is a reduction of approximately 24% in the total invested. The trend of the Piauí Solar program, then, is to bring benefits to the state, providing an improvement in the living conditions of the population, through the savings generated by this program. In addition, an increase in the diversification of the Piauí energy matrix can be seen with the advancement of the use of this renewable energy.

Keywords: Energy, Development, Economy, Taxes

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
224 The Application of Artificial Neural Networks for the Performance Prediction of Evacuated Tube Solar Air Collector with Phase Change Material

Authors: SUKHBIR SINGH

Abstract:

This paper describes the modeling of novel solar air collector (NSAC) system by using artificial neural network (ANN) model. The objective of the study is to demonstrate the application of the ANN model to predict the performance of the NSAC with acetamide as a phase change material (PCM) storage. Input data set consist of time, solar intensity and ambient temperature wherever as outlet air temperature of NSAC was considered as output. Experiments were conducted between 9.00 and 24.00 h in June and July 2014 underneath the prevailing atmospheric condition of Kurukshetra (city of the India). After that, experimental results were utilized to train the back propagation neural network (BPNN) to predict the outlet air temperature of NSAC. The results of proposed algorithm show that the BPNN is effective tool for the prediction of responses. The BPNN predicted results are 99% in agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, phase change material, solar air collector, Evacuated tube solar air collector

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
223 Recommendations for Environmental Impact Assessment of Geothermal Projects on Mature Oil Fields

Authors: Daria Karasalihovic Sedlar, Lucija Jukic, Ivan Smajla, Marija Macenic

Abstract:

This paper analyses possible geothermal energy production from a mature oil reservoir based on exploitation of underlying aquifer thermal energy for the purpose of heating public buildings. Research was conducted based on the case study of the City of Ivanic-Grad public buildings energy demand and Ivanic oil filed that is situated in the same area. Since the City of Ivanic is one of the few cities in the EU where hydrocarbon exploitation has been taking place for decades almost entirely in urban area, decommissioning of oil wells is inevitable; therefore, the research goal was to investigate how to extend the life-time of the reservoir by exploiting geothermal brine beneath the oil reservoir in an environmental friendly manner. This kind of a project is extremely complex in all segments, from documentation preparation, implementation of technological solutions, and providing ecological measures for environmentally acceptable geothermal energy production and utilization. New mining activities that will be needed for the development of geothermal project at the observed Hydrocarbon Exploitation Field Ivanic will be carried out in order to prepare wells for increasing geothermal brine production. These operations involve the conversion of existing wells (well completion for conversion of the observation wells to production ones) along with workover activities, installation of new heat exchangers, and pipelines. Since the wells are in the urban area of the City of Ivanic-Grad in high density populated area, the inhabitants will be exposed to the different environmental impacts during preparation phase of the project. For the purpose of performing workovers, it will be necessary to secure access to wellheads of existing wells. This paper gives guidelines for describing potential impacts on environment components that could occur during geothermal production preparation on existing mature oil filed, recommends possible protection measures to mitigate these impacts, and gives recommendations for environmental monitoring.

Keywords: Environmental Impact Assessment, geothermal energy production, mature oil filed, underlying aquifer thermal energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
222 Effect of Blade Layout on Unidirectional Rotation of a Vertical-Axis Rotor in Waves

Authors: Yingchen Yang

Abstract:

Ocean waves are a rich renewable energy source that is nearly untapped to date, even though many wave energy conversion (WEC) technologies are currently under development. The present work discusses a vertical-axis WEC rotor for power generation. The rotor was specially designed to allow easy rearrangement of the same blades to achieve different rotor configurations and result in different wave-rotor interaction behaviors. These rotor configurations were tested in a wave tank under various wave conditions. The testing results indicate that all the rotor configurations perform unidirectional rotation about the vertical axis in waves, but the response characteristics are somewhat different. The rotor's unidirectional rotation about its vertical axis is essential in wave energy harvesting since it makes the rotor respond well in a wide range of the wave frequency and in any wave propagation directions. Result comparison among different configurations leads to a preferred rotor design for further hydrodynamic optimization.

Keywords: wave energy conversion, unidirectional rotation, vertical axis rotor, wave-rotor interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
221 Alternative Fuel Production from Sewage Sludge

Authors: Jaroslav Knapek, Kamila Vavrova, Tomas Kralik, Tereza Humesova

Abstract:

The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge is one of the most important and critical problems of waste water treatment plants. Currently, 180 thousand tonnes of sludge dry matter are produced in the Czech Republic, which corresponds to approximately 17.8 kg of stabilized sludge dry matter / year per inhabitant of the Czech Republic. Due to the fact that sewage sludge contains a large amount of substances that are not beneficial for human health, the conditions for sludge management will be significantly tightened in the Czech Republic since 2023. One of the tested methods of sludge liquidation is the production of alternative fuel from sludge from sewage treatment plants and paper production. The paper presents an analysis of economic efficiency of alternative fuel production from sludge and its use for fluidized bed boiler with nominal consumption of 5 t of fuel per hour. The evaluation methodology includes the entire logistics chain from sludge extraction, through mechanical moisture reduction to about 40%, transport to the pelletizing line, moisture drying for pelleting and pelleting itself. For economic analysis of sludge pellet production, a time horizon of 10 years corresponding to the expected lifetime of the critical components of the pelletizing line is chosen. The economic analysis of pelleting projects is based on a detailed analysis of reference pelleting technologies suitable for sludge pelleting. The analysis of the economic efficiency of pellet is based on the simulation of cash flows associated with the implementation of the project over the life of the project. For the entered value of return on the invested capital, the price of the resulting product (in EUR / GJ or in EUR / t) is searched to ensure that the net present value of the project is zero over the project lifetime. The investor then realizes the return on the investment in the amount of the discount used to calculate the net present value. The calculations take place in a real business environment (taxes, tax depreciation, inflation, etc.) and the inputs work with market prices. At the same time, the opportunity cost principle is respected; waste disposal for alternative fuels includes the saved costs of waste disposal. The methodology also respects the emission allowances saved due to the displacement of coal by alternative (bio) fuel. Preliminary results of testing of pellet production from sludge show that after suitable modifications of the pelletizer it is possible to produce sufficiently high quality pellets from sludge. A mixture of sludge and paper waste has proved to be a more suitable material for pelleting. At the same time, preliminary results of the analysis of the economic efficiency of this sludge disposal method show that, despite the relatively low calorific value of the fuel produced (about 10-11 MJ / kg), this sludge disposal method is economically competitive. This work has been supported by the Czech Technology Agency within the project TN01000048 Biorefining as circulation technology.

Keywords: Economic analysis, Sewage Sludge, alternative fuel, Pelleting

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
220 Pretreatment of Aquatic Weed Typha latifolia with Sodium Bisulphate for Enhanced Acid and Enzyme Hydrolysis for Production of Xylitol and Bioethanol

Authors: Jyosthna Khanna Goli, Shaik Naseeruddin, Hameeda Bee

Abstract:

Employing lignocellulosic biomass in fermentative production of xylitol and bioethanol is gaining interest as it is renewable, cheap, and abundantly available. Xylitol is a polyol, gaining its importance in the food and pharmacological industry due to its low calorific value and anti-cariogenic nature. Bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass is widely accepted as an alternative fuel for transportation with reduced CO₂ emissions, thus reducing the greenhouse effect. Typha latifolia, an aquatic weed, was found to be promising lignocellulosic substrate as it posses a high amount of sugars and does not compete with arable lands and interfere with food and feed competition. In the present study, xylose from hemicellulosic fraction of typha is converted to xylitol by isolate Jfh5 (Candida. tropicalis) and cellulose part to ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiaeVS3. Initially, alkali pretreatment of typha using sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, sodium bisulphate and sodium dithionate for overnight (18h) at room temperature (28 ± 2°C), resulted in maximum delignification of 75% with 2% (v/v) sodium bisulphate. Later, pretreated biomass was subjected to acid hydrolysis with 1%, 1.5%, 2%, and 3% H₂SO₄ at 110 °C and 121°C for 30 and 60 min, respectively. 2% H₂SO₄ at 121°C for 60 min was found to release 13.5 g /l sugars, which on detoxification and fermentation produced 8.1g/l xylitol with yield and productivity of 0.65g/g and 0.112g/l/h respectively. Further enzymatic hydrolysis of the residual substrate obtained after acid hydrolysis released 11g/l sugar, which on fermentation with VS3 produced 4.9g/l ethanol with yield and productivity of 0.22g/g and 0.136g/l/h respectively.

Keywords: Bioethanol, enzyme hydrolysis, acid hydrolysis, xylitol, delignification

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
219 Improved Hydrogen Sorption Kinetics of Compacted LiNH₂-LiH Based Small Hydrogen Storage Tank by Doping with TiF₄ and MWCNTs

Authors: Chongsutthamani Sitthiwet, Praphatsorn Plerdsranoy, Palmarin Dansirima, Priew Eiamlamai, Oliver Utke, Rapee Utke

Abstract:

Hydrogen storage tank containing compacted LiNH2-LiH is developed by doping with TiF₄ and multi-walled nanotubes (MWCNTs) to study kinetic properties. Transition metal-based catalyst (TiF₄) provides the catalytic effect on hydrogen dissociation/recombination, while MWCNTs benefit thermal conductivity and hydrogen permeability during de/rehydrogenation process. The Enhancement of dehydrogenation kinetics is observed from the single-step reaction at a narrower and lower temperature range of 150-350 ºC (100 ºC lower than the compacted LiNH₂-LiH without additives) as well as long plateau temperature and constant hydrogen flow rate (50 SCCM) up to 30 min during desorption. Besides, Hydrogen contents de/absorbed during 5-6 cycles increase from 1.90-2.40 to 3.10-4.70 wt. % H₂ (from 29 to up to 80 % of theoretical capacity). In the process, Li₅TiN₃ is detected upon cycling probably absorbs NH₃ to form Li₅TiN₃(NH₃)x, which is favoring hydrogen sorption properties of the LiNH₂-LiH system. Importantly, the homogeneous reaction mechanisms and performances are found at all positions inside the tank of compacted LiNH₂-LiH doped with TiF₄ and MWCNTs.

Keywords: Kinetics, Carbon, dehydrogenation, hydride

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
218 Biomass Waste-To-Energy Technical Feasibility Analysis: A Case Study for Processing of Wood Waste in Malta

Authors: G. A. Asciak, C. Camilleri, A. Rizzo

Abstract:

The waste management in Malta is a national challenge. Coupled with Malta’s recent economic boom, which has seen massive growth in several sectors, especially the construction industry, drastic actions need to be taken. Wood waste, currently being dumped in landfills, is one type of waste which has increased astronomically. This research study aims to carry out a thorough examination on the possibility of using this waste as a biomass resource and adopting a waste-to-energy technology in order to generate electrical energy. This study is composed of three distinct yet interdependent phases, namely, data collection from the local SMEs, thermal analysis using the bomb calorimeter, and generation of energy from wood waste using a micro biomass plant. Data collection from SMEs specializing in wood works was carried out to obtain information regarding the available types of wood waste, the annual weight of imported wood, and to analyse the manner in which wood shavings are used after wood is manufactured. From this analysis, it resulted that five most common types of wood available in Malta which would suitable for generating energy are Oak (hardwood), Beech (hardwood), Red Beech (softwood), African Walnut (softwood) and Iroko (hardwood). Subsequently, based on the information collected, a thermal analysis using a 6200 Isoperibol calorimeter on the five most common types of wood was performed. This analysis was done so as to give a clear indication with regards to the burning potential, which will be valuable when testing the wood in the biomass plant. The experiments carried out in this phase provided a clear indication that the African Walnut generated the highest gross calorific value. This means that this type of wood released the highest amount of heat during the combustion in the calorimeter. This is due to the high presence of extractives and lignin, which accounts for a slightly higher gross calorific value. This is followed by Red Beech and Oak. Moreover, based on the findings of the first phase, both the African Walnut and Red Beech are highly imported in the Maltese Islands for use in various purposes. Oak, which has the third highest gross calorific value is the most imported and common wood used. From the five types of wood, three were chosen for use in the power plant on the basis of their popularity and their heating values. The PP20 biomass plant was used to burn the three types of shavings in order to compare results related to the estimated feedstock consumed by the plant, the high temperatures generated, the time taken by the plant to produce gasification temperatures, and the projected electrical power attributed to each wood type. From the experiments, it emerged that whilst all three types reached the required gasification temperature and thus, are feasible for electrical energy generation. African Walnut was deemed to be the most suitable fast-burning fuel. This is followed by Red-beech and Oak, which required a longer period of time to reach the required gasification temperatures. The results obtained provide a clear indication that wood waste can not only be treated instead of being dumped in dumped in landfill but coupled.

Keywords: biomass, Wood, isoperibol calorimeter, waste-to-energy technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
217 Flexible Current Collectors for Printed Primary Batteries

Authors: Vikas Kumar

Abstract:

Portable batteries are reliable source of mobile energy to power smart wearable electronics, medical devices, communications, and others internet of thing (IoT) devices. There is a continuous increase in demand for thinner, more flexible battery with high energy density and reliability to meet the requirement. For a flexible battery, factors that affect these properties are the stability of current collectors, electrode materials and their interfaces with the corrosive electrolytes. State-of-the-art conventional and flexible batteries utilise carbon as an electrode and current collectors which cause high internal resistance (~100 ohms) and limit the peak current to ~1mA. This makes them unsuitable for a wide range of applications. Replacing the carbon parts with metallic components would reduce the internal resistance (and hence reduce parasitic loss), but significantly increases the risk of corrosion due to galvanic interactions within the battery. To overcome these challenges, low cost electroplated nickel (Ni) on copper (Cu) was studied as a potential anode current collector for a zinc-manganese oxide primary battery with different concentration of NH4Cl/ZnCl2 electrolyte. Using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), we monitored the open circuit potential (OCP) of electroplated nickel (different thicknesses) in different concentration of electrolytes to optimise the thickness of Ni coating. Our results show that electroless Ni coating suffer excessive corrosion in these electrolytes. Corrosion rates of Ni coatings for different concentrations of electrolytes have been calculated with Tafel analysis. These results suggest that for electroplated Ni, channelling and/or open porosity is a major issue, which was confirmed by morphological analysis. These channels are an easy pathway for electrolyte to penetrate thorough Ni to corrode the Ni/Cu interface completely. We further investigated the incorporation of a special printed graphene layer on Ni to provide corrosion protection in this corrosive electrolyte medium. We find that the incorporation of printed graphene layer provides the corrosion protection to the Ni and enhances the chemical bonding between the active materials and current collector and also decreases the overall internal resistance of the battery system.

Keywords: Corrosion, Graphene, electrical impedance spectroscopy, flexible battery, metal current collector

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
216 Design and Validation of a Darrieus Type Hydrokinetic Turbine for South African Irrigation Canals Experimentally and Computationally

Authors: Maritz Lourens Van Rensburg, Chantel Niebuhr

Abstract:

Utilizing all available renewable energy sources is an ever-growing necessity, this includes a newfound interest into hydrokinetic energy systems, which open the door to installations where conventional hydropower shows no potential. Optimization and obtaining high efficiencies are key in these installations. In this study a vertical axis Darrieus hydrokinetic turbine is designed and constructed to address certain drawbacks experience by axial flow horizontal axis turbines in an irrigation channel. Many horizontal axis turbines have been well developed and optimized to have high efficiencies but depending on the conditions experienced in an open channel, the performance of these turbines may be adversely affected. The study analyses how the designed vertical axis turbine addresses the problems experienced by a horizontal axis turbine while still achieving a satisfactory efficiency. To be able to optimize the vertical axis turbine, a computational fluid dynamics model was validated to the experimental results obtained from the power generated from a test turbine installation operating at various rotational speeds. It was found that an accurate validated model can be obtained through validation of generated power output.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Darrieus, hydrokinetic, vertical axis turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
215 Regeneration of Cesium-Exhausted Activated Carbons by Microwave Irradiation

Authors: Pietro P. Falciglia, Erica Gagliano, Vincenza Brancato, Alfio Catalfo, Guglielmo Finocchiaro, Guido De Guidi, Stefano Romano, Paolo Roccaro, Federico G. A. Vagliasindi

Abstract:

Cesium-137 (¹³⁷Cs) is a major radionuclide in spent nuclear fuel processing, and it represents the most important cause of contamination related to nuclear accidents. Cesium-137 has long-term radiological effects representing a major concern for the human health. Several physico-chemical methods have been proposed for ¹³⁷Cs removal from impacted water: ion-exchange, adsorption, chemical precipitation, membrane process, coagulation, and electrochemical. However, these methods can be limited by ionic selectivity and efficiency, or they present very restricted full-scale application due to equipment and chemical high costs. On the other hand, adsorption is considered a more cost-effective solution, and activated carbons (ACs) are known as a low-cost and effective adsorbent for a wide range of pollutants among which radionuclides. However, adsorption of Cs onto ACs has been investigated in very few and not exhaustive studies. In addition, exhausted activated carbons are generally discarded in landfill, that is not an eco-friendly and economic solution. Consequently, the regeneration of exhausted ACs must be considered a preferable choice. Several alternatives, including conventional thermal-, solvent-, biological- and electrochemical-regeneration, are available but are affected by several economic or environmental concerns. Microwave (MW) irradiation has been widely used in industrial and environmental applications and it has attracted many attentions to regenerating activated carbons. The growing interest in MW irradiation is based on the passive ability of the irradiated medium to convert a low power irradiation energy into a rapid and large temperature increase if the media presents good dielectric features. ACs are excellent MW-absorbers, with a high mechanical strength and a good resistance towards heating process. This work investigates the feasibility of MW irradiation for the regeneration of Cs-exhausted ACs. Adsorption batch experiments were carried out using commercially available granular activated carbon (GAC), then Cs-saturated AC samples were treated using a controllable bench-scale 2.45-GHz MW oven and investigating different adsorption-regeneration cycles. The regeneration efficiency (RE), weight loss percentage, and textural properties of the AC samples during the adsorption-regeneration cycles were also assessed. Main results demonstrated a relatively low adsorption capacity for Cs, although the feasibility of ACs was strictly linked to their dielectric nature, which allows a very efficient thermal regeneration by MW irradiation. The weight loss percentage was found less than 2%, and an increase in RE after three cycles was also observed. Furthermore, MW regeneration preserved the pore structure of the regenerated ACs. For a deeper exploration of the full-scale applicability of MW regeneration, further investigations on more adsorption-regeneration cycles or using fixed-bed columns are required.

Keywords: cesium, adsorption mechanisms, granular activated carbons, microwave regeneration

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
214 Model-Based Global Maximum Power Point Tracking at Photovoltaic String under Partial Shading Conditions Using Multi-Input Interleaved Boost DC-DC Converter

Authors: Seyed Hossein Hosseini, Seyed Majid Hashemzadeh

Abstract:

Solar energy is one of the remarkable renewable energy sources that have particular characteristics such as unlimited, no environmental pollution, and free access. Generally, solar energy can be used in thermal and photovoltaic (PV) types. The cost of installation of the PV system is very high. Additionally, due to dependence on environmental situations such as solar radiation and ambient temperature, electrical power generation of this system is unpredictable and without power electronics devices, there is no guarantee to maximum power delivery at the output of this system. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) should be used to achieve the maximum power of a PV string. MPPT is one of the essential parts of the PV system which without this section, it would be impossible to reach the maximum amount of the PV string power and high losses are caused in the PV system. One of the noticeable challenges in the problem of MPPT is the partial shading conditions (PSC). In PSC, the output photocurrent of the PV module under the shadow is less than the PV string current. The difference between the mentioned currents passes from the module's internal parallel resistance and creates a large negative voltage across shaded modules. This significant negative voltage damages the PV module under the shadow. This condition is called hot-spot phenomenon. An anti-paralleled diode is inserted across the PV module to prevent the happening of this phenomenon. This diode is known as the bypass diode. Due to the performance of the bypass diode under PSC, the P-V curve of the PV string has several peaks. One of the P-V curve peaks that makes the maximum available power is the global peak. Model-based Global MPPT (GMPPT) methods can estimate the optimal point with higher speed than other GMPPT approaches. Centralized, modular, and interleaved DC-DC converter topologies are the significant structures that can be used for GMPPT at a PV string. there are some problems in the centralized structure such as current mismatch losses at PV sting, loss of power of the shaded modules because of bypassing by bypass diodes under PSC, needing to series connection of many PV modules to reach the desired voltage level. In the modular structure, each PV module is connected to a DC-DC converter. In this structure, by increasing the amount of demanded power from the PV string, the number of DC-DC converters that are used at the PV system will increase. As a result, the cost of the modular structure is very high. We can implement the model-based GMPPT through the multi-input interleaved boost DC-DC converter to increase the power extraction from the PV string and reduce hot-spot and current mismatch error in a PV string under different environmental condition and variable load circumstances. The interleaved boost DC-DC converter has many privileges than other mentioned structures, such as high reliability and efficiency, better regulation of DC voltage at DC link, overcome the notable errors such as module's current mismatch and hot spot phenomenon, and power switches voltage stress reduction.

Keywords: Solar energy, Photovoltaic systems, maximum power point tracking, interleaved boost converter, model-based method, partial shading conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
213 Kaolinite-Assisted Microencapsulation of Octodecane for Thermal Energy Storage

Authors: Ting Pan, Jiacheng Wang, Pengcheng Lin, Ying Chen, Songping Mo

Abstract:

Phase change materials (PCMs) are widely used in latent heat thermal energy storage because of their good properties such as high energy storage density and constant heat-storage/release temperature. Microencapsulation techniques can prevent PCMs from leaking during the liquid-solid phase transition and enhance thermal properties. This technique has been widely applied in architectural materials, thermo-regulated textiles, aerospace fields, etc. One of the most important processes during the synthesis of microcapsules is to form a stable emulsion of the PCM core and reactant solution for the formation of the shell of the microcapsules. The use of surfactants is usually necessary for the formation of a stable emulsion system because of the difference in hydrophilia/lipophilicity of the PCM and the solvent. Unfortunately, the use of surfactants may cause pollution to the environment. In this study, modified kaolinite was used as an emulsion stabilizer for the microencapsulation of octodecane as PCM. Microcapsules were synthesized by phase inversion emulsification method, and the shell of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was formed through free radical polymerization. The morphologies, crystalloid phase, and crystallization properties of microcapsules were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and Fourier transforms infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The thermal properties and thermal stability were investigated by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TG). The FT-IR, XRD results showed that the octodecane was well encapsulated in the PMMA shell. The SEM results showed that the microcapsules were spheres with an average size of about 50-100nm. The DSC results indicated that the latent heat of the microcapsules was 152.64kJ/kg and 164.23kJ/kg. The TG results confirmed that the microcapsules had good thermal stability due to the PMMA shell. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the modified kaolinite can be used as an emulsifier for the synthesis of PCM microcapsules, which is valid for reducing part of the possible pollution caused by the utilization of surfactants.

Keywords: Thermal Energy Storage, kaolinite, PCM, microencapsulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 1