Search results for: water allocation
2580 Optimal Water Allocation: Sustainable Management of Dam Reservoir
Authors: Afshin Jahangirzadeh, Shatirah Akib, Babak Kamali, Sadia Rahman
Abstract:Scarcity of water resources and huge costs of establishing new hydraulic installations necessitate optimal exploitation from existing reservoirs. Sustainable management and efficient exploitation from existing finite water resources are important factors in water resource management, particularly in the periods of water insufficiency and in dry regions, and on account of competitive allocations in the view of exploitation management. This study aims to minimize reservoir water release from a determined rate of demand. A numerical model for water optimal exploitation has been developed using GAMS introduced by the World Bank and applied to the case of Meijaran dam, northern Iran. The results indicate that this model can optimize the function of reservoir exploitation while required water for lower parts of the region will be supplied. Further, allocating optimal water from reservoir, the optimal rate of water allocated to any group of the users were specified to increase benefits in curve dam exploitation.
Keywords: Water resource management, water reservoirs, water allocation, GAMS, Meijaran damProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2491
2579 Exploring SSD Suitable Allocation Schemes Incompliance with Workload Patterns
Authors: Jae Young Park, Hwansu Jung, Jong Tae Kim
In the Solid-State-Drive (SSD) performance, whether the data has been well parallelized is an important factor. SSD parallelization is affected by allocation scheme and it is directly connected to SSD performance. There are dynamic allocation and static allocation in representative allocation schemes. Dynamic allocation is more adaptive in exploiting write operation parallelism, while static allocation is better in read operation parallelism. Therefore, it is hard to select the appropriate allocation scheme when the workload is mixed read and write operations. We simulated conditions on a few mixed data patterns and analyzed the results to help the right choice for better performance. As the results, if data arrival interval is long enough prior operations to be finished and continuous read intensive data environment static allocation is more suitable. Dynamic allocation performs the best on write performance and random data patterns.
Keywords: Dynamic allocation, NAND Flash based SSD, SSD parallelism, static allocation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1759
2578 Bandwidth Allocation in Mobile ATM Cellular Networks
Authors: Khaja Kamaluddin, Muhammed Yousoof
Abstract:Bandwidth allocation in wired network is less complex and to allocate bandwidth in wireless networks is complex and challenging, due to the mobility of source end system.This paper proposes a new approach to bandwidth allocation to higher and lower priority mobile nodes.In our proposal bandwidth allocation to new mobile node is based on bandwidth utilization of existing mobile nodes.The first section of the paper focuses on introduction to bandwidth allocation in wireless networks and presents the existing solutions available for allocation of bandwidth. The second section proposes the new solution for the bandwidth allocation to higher and lower priority nodes. Finally this paper ends with the analytical evaluation of the proposed solution.
Keywords: Layered Approach, Bandwidth allocation, CBR, ABR, QOS.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1591
2577 Minimizing Fresh and Wastewater Using Water Pinch Technique in Petrochemical Industries
Authors: W. Mughees, M. Al-Ahmad, M. Naeem
This research involves the design and analysis of pinch-based water/wastewater networks to minimize water utility in the petrochemical and petroleum industries. A study has been done on Tehran Oil Refinery to analyze feasibilities of regeneration, reuse and recycling of water network. COD is considered as a single key contaminant. Amount of freshwater was reduced about 149m3/h (43.8%) regarding COD. Re-design (or retrofitting) of water allocation in the networks was undertaken. The results were analyzed through graphical method and mathematical programming technique which clearly demonstrated that amount of required water would be determined by mass transfer of COD.
Keywords: Minimization, Water Pinch, Water Management, Pollution Prevention.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3740
2576 Application of CPN Tools for Simulation and Analysis of Bandwidth Allocation
Authors: Julija Asmuss, Gunars Lauks, Viktors Zagorskis
Abstract:We consider the problem of bandwidth allocation in a substrate network as an optimization problem for the aggregate utility of multiple applications with diverse requirements and describe a simulation scheme for dynamically adaptive bandwidth allocation protocols. The proposed simulation model based on Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is realized using CPN Tools.
Keywords: Bandwidth Allocation Problem, Coloured Petri Nets, CPN Tools, SimulationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1843
2575 Ec-A: A Task Allocation Algorithm for Energy Minimization in Multiprocessor Systems
Authors: Anju S. Pillai, T.B. Isha
With the necessity of increased processing capacity with less energy consumption; power aware multiprocessor system has gained more attention in the recent future. One of the additional challenges that is to be solved in a multi-processor system when compared to uni-processor system is job allocation. This paper presents a novel task dependent job allocation algorithm: Energy centric- Allocation (Ec-A) and Rate Monotonic (RM) scheduling to minimize energy consumption in a multiprocessor system. A simulation analysis is carried out to verify the performance increase with reduction in energy consumption and required number of processors in the system.
Keywords: Energy consumption, Job allocation, Multiprocessor systems, Task dependent.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1881
2574 A New Reliability Allocation Method Based On Fuzzy Numbers
Authors: Peng Li, Chuanri Li, Tao Li
Reliability allocation is quite important during early design and development stages for a system to apportion its specified reliability goal to subsystems. This paper improves the reliability fuzzy allocation method, and gives concrete processes on determining the factor and sub-factor sets, weight sets, judgment set, and multi-stage fuzzy evaluation. To determine the weight of factor and sub-factor sets, the modified trapezoidal numbers are proposed to reduce errors caused by subjective factors. To decrease the fuzziness in fuzzy division, an approximation method based on linear programming is employed. To compute the explicit values of fuzzy numbers, centroid method of defuzzification is considered. An example is provided to illustrate the application of the proposed reliability allocation method based on fuzzy arithmetic.
Keywords: Reliability allocation, fuzzy arithmetic, allocation weight.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2603
2573 Optimal Transmission Network Usage and Loss Allocation Using Matrices Methodology and Cooperative Game Theory
Authors: Baseem Khan, Ganga Agnihotri
Restructuring of Electricity supply industry introduced many issues such as transmission pricing, transmission loss allocation and congestion management. Many methodologies and algorithms were proposed for addressing these issues. In this paper a power flow tracing based method is proposed which involves Matrices methodology for the transmission usage and loss allocation for generators and demands. This method provides loss allocation in a direct way because all the computation is previously done for usage allocation. The proposed method is simple and easy to implement in a large power system. Further it is less computational because it requires matrix inversion only a single time. After usage and loss allocation cooperative game theory is applied to results for finding efficient economic signals. Nucleolus and Shapely value approach is used for optimal allocation of results. Results are shown for the IEEE 6 bus system and IEEE 14 bus system.
Keywords: Modified Kirchhoff Matrix, Power flow tracing, Transmission Pricing, Transmission Loss Allocation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2462
2572 Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation in Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) Networks
Authors: Eman I. Raslan, Haitham S. Hamza, Reda A. El-Khoribi
Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) networks are a promising candidate for future broadband access networks. These networks combine the optical network as the back end where different passive optical network (PON) technologies are realized and the wireless network as the front end where different wireless technologies are adopted, e.g. LTE, WiMAX, Wi-Fi, and Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs). The convergence of both optical and wireless technologies requires designing architectures with robust efficient and effective bandwidth allocation schemes. Different bandwidth allocation algorithms have been proposed in FiWi networks aiming to enhance the different segments of FiWi networks including wireless and optical subnetworks. In this survey, we focus on the differentiating between the different bandwidth allocation algorithms according to their enhancement segment of FiWi networks. We classify these techniques into wireless, optical and Hybrid bandwidth allocation techniques.
Keywords: Fiber-Wireless (FiWi), dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA), passive optical networks (PON), media access control (MAC).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1663
2571 Model Development for Allocation of Raw Material in Timber Processing Industry in Indonesia
Authors: Muh. Hisjam, Nancy Oktyajati, Wakhid A. Jauhari, Wahyudi Sutopo
This research is intended to develop a raw material allocation model in timber processing industry in Perum Perhutani Unit I, Central Java, Indonesia. The model can be used to determine the quantity of allocation of timber between chain in the supply chain to select supplier considering factors that are log price and the distance. In determining the quantity of allocation of timber between chains in the supply chain, the model considers the optimal inventory in each chain. Whilst the optimal inventory is determined based on demand forecast, the capacity and safety stock. Problem solving allocation is conducted by developing linear programming model that aims to minimize the total cost of the purchase, transportation cost and storage costs at each chain. The results of numerical examples show that the proposed model can generate savings of the purchase cost of 20.84% and select suppliers with mileage closer.
Keywords: Allocation model, linear programming, purchase costs, storage costs, suppliers, transportation costs.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1344
2570 Target Tracking in Sensor Networks: A Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Approach
Authors: R.Mostafaei, A.Habiboghli, M.R.Meybodi
In distributed resource allocation a set of agents must assign their resources to a set of tasks. This problem arises in many real-world domains such as distributed sensor networks, disaster rescue, hospital scheduling and others. Despite the variety of approaches proposed for distributed resource allocation, a systematic formalization of the problem, explaining the different sources of difficulties, and a formal explanation of the strengths and limitations of key approaches is missing. We take a step towards this goal by using a formalization of distributed resource allocation that represents both dynamic and distributed aspects of the problem. In this paper we present a new idea for target tracking in sensor networks and compare it with previous approaches. The central contribution of the paper is a generalized mapping from distributed resource allocation to DDCSP. This mapping is proven to correctly perform resource allocation problems of specific difficulty. This theoretical result is verified in practice by a simulation on a realworld distributed sensor network.
Keywords: Distributed CSP, Target Tracking, Sensor NetworkProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1074
2569 Harnessing Replication in Object Allocation
Authors: H. T. Barney, G. C. Low
Abstract:The design of distributed systems involves the partitioning of the system into components or partitions and the allocation of these components to physical nodes. Techniques have been proposed for both the partitioning and allocation process. However these techniques suffer from a number of limitations. For instance object replication has the potential to greatly improve the performance of an object orientated distributed system but can be difficult to use effectively and there are few techniques that support the developer in harnessing object replication. This paper presents a methodological technique that helps developers decide how objects should be allocated in order to improve performance in a distributed system that supports replication. The performance of the proposed technique is demonstrated and tested on an example system.
Keywords: Allocation, Distributed Systems, Replication.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1293
2568 Atmosphere Water Vapour As Main Sweet Water Resource in the Arid Zones of Central Asia
Authors: S.I.Nikolaeva, Yu.V. Petrov, L.Ye.Skipnikova
It has been shown that the solution of water shortage problem in Central Asia closely connected with inclusion of atmosphere water vapour into the system of response and water resources management. Some methods of water extraction from atmosphere have been discussed.
Keywords: potable water, water resources, water problems, water scarcity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1417
2567 The Influence of the Commons Structure Modification on the Active Power Losses Allocation
Authors: O. Pop, C. Barbulescu, M. Nemes, St. Kilyeni
Abstract:The tracing methods determine the contribution the power system sources have in their supplying. These methods can be used to assess the transmission prices, but also to recover the transmission fixed cost. In this paper is presented the influence of the modification of commons structure has on the specific price of transfer and on active power losses. The authors propose a power losses allocation method, based on Kirschen-s method. The system operator must make use of a few basic principles about allocation. The only necessary information is the power flows on system branches and the modifications applied to power system buses. In order to illustrate this method, the 25-bus test system is used, elaborated within the Electrical Power Engineering Department, from Timisoara, Romania.
Keywords: Power systems, P-U bus, P-Q bus, loss allocation, traceability methods.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1385
2566 Design and Bandwidth Allocation of Embedded ATM Networks using Genetic Algorithm
Authors: H. El-Madbouly
Abstract:In this paper, genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed for the design of an optimization algorithm to achieve the bandwidth allocation of ATM network. In Broadband ISDN, the ATM is a highbandwidth; fast packet switching and multiplexing technique. Using ATM it can be flexibly reconfigure the network and reassign the bandwidth to meet the requirements of all types of services. By dynamically routing the traffic and adjusting the bandwidth assignment, the average packet delay of the whole network can be reduced to a minimum. M/M/1 model can be used to analyze the performance.
Keywords: Bandwidth allocation, Genetic algorithm, ATMNetwork, packet delay.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1264
2565 Optimal Resource Configuration and Allocation Planning Problem for Bottleneck Machines and Auxiliary Tools
Authors: Yin-Yann Chen, Tzu-Ling Chen
Abstract:This study presents the case of an actual Taiwanese semiconductor assembly and testing manufacturer. Three major bottleneck manufacturing processes, namely, die bond, wire bond, and molding, are analyzed to determine how to use finite resources to achieve the optimal capacity allocation. A medium-term capacity allocation planning model is developed by considering the optimal total profit to satisfy the promised volume demanded by customers and to obtain the best migration decision among production lines for machines and tools. Finally, sensitivity analysis based on the actual case is provided to explore the effect of various parameter levels.
Keywords: Capacity planning, capacity allocation, machine migration, resource configuration.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 728
2564 A Simulation Modeling Approach for Optimization of Storage Space Allocation in Container Terminal
Authors: Gamal Abd El-Nasser A. Said, El-Sayed M. El-Horbaty
Container handling problems at container terminals are NP-hard problems. This paper presents an approach using discrete-event simulation modeling to optimize solution for storage space allocation problem, taking into account all various interrelated container terminal handling activities. The proposed approach is applied on a real case study data of container terminal at Alexandria port. The computational results show the effectiveness of the proposed model for optimization of storage space allocation in container terminal where 54% reduction in containers handling time in port is achieved.
Keywords: Container terminal, discrete-event simulation, optimization, storage space allocation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2541
2563 Downlink Scheduling and Radio Resource Allocation in Adaptive OFDMA Wireless Communication Systems for User-Individual QoS
Authors: Lu Yanhui, Wang Chunming, Yin Changchuan, Yue Guangxin
Abstract:In this paper, we address the problem of adaptive radio resource allocation (RRA) and packet scheduling in the downlink of a cellular OFDMA system, and propose a downlink multi-carrier proportional fair (MPF) scheduler and its joint with adaptive RRA algorithm to distribute radio resources among multiple users according to their individual QoS requirements. The allocation and scheduling objective is to maximize the total throughput, while at the same time maintaining the fairness among users. The simulation results demonstrate that the methods presented provide for user more explicit fairness relative to RRA algorithm, but the joint scheme achieves the higher sum-rate capacity with flexible parameters setting compared with MPF scheduler.
Keywords: OFDMA, adaptive radio resource allocation, scheduling, QoS.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1494
2562 Using Fuzzy Numbers in Heavy Aggregation Operators
Authors: José M. Merigó, Montserrat Casanovas
Abstract:We consider different types of aggregation operators such as the heavy ordered weighted averaging (HOWA) operator and the fuzzy ordered weighted averaging (FOWA) operator. We introduce a new extension of the OWA operator called the fuzzy heavy ordered weighted averaging (FHOWA) operator. The main characteristic of this aggregation operator is that it deals with uncertain information represented in the form of fuzzy numbers (FN) in the HOWA operator. We develop the basic concepts of this operator and study some of its properties. We also develop a wide range of families of FHOWA operators such as the fuzzy push up allocation, the fuzzy push down allocation, the fuzzy median allocation and the fuzzy uniform allocation.
Keywords: Aggregation operators, Fuzzy numbers, Fuzzy OWAoperator, Heavy OWA operator.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1449
2561 Optimal Power Allocation for the Proposed Asymmetric Turbo Code for 3G Systems
Authors: K. Ramasamy, B. Balamuralithara, Mohammad Umar Siddiqi
We proposed a new class of asymmetric turbo encoder for 3G systems that performs well in both “water fall" and “error floor" regions in . In this paper, a modified (optimal) power allocation scheme for the different bits of new class of asymmetric turbo encoder has been investigated to enhance the performance. The simulation results and performance bound for proposed asymmetric turbo code with modified Unequal Power Allocation (UPA) scheme for the frame length, N=400, code rate, r=1/3 with Log-MAP decoder over Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel are obtained and compared with the system with typical UPA and without UPA. The performance tests are extended over AWGN channel for different frame size to verify the possibility of implementation of the modified UPA scheme for the proposed asymmetric turbo code. From the performance results, it is observed that the proposed asymmetric turbo code with modified UPA performs better than the system without UPA and with typical UPA and it provides a coding gain of 0.4 to 0.52dB.
Keywords: Asymmetric turbo code, Generator polynomial, Interleaver, UPA, WCDMA, cdma2000.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1723
2560 The Management and Funding of Education in Nigeria
Authors: Teryima Oralu, Babatunde Kasim Oladele
This paper looks at the management and funding of education in Nigeria. The concept of management and administration has been concisely defined. Also the historical background of educational management in Nigeria has been discussed alongside the management of primary education, secondary education and tertiary education in Nigeria. Furthermore, the funding of education has also been concisely discussed in this paper alongside the various sources of funds available to education in Nigeria. The sources include government grant, school fees, external aids, school revenue yielding businesses and so on. The budgetary allocation of Nigeria to education from 1999 to 2013 was also highlighted in this in paper and it was discovered that the lowest allocation was in 1999 with 4.46% while the highest allocation was in 2006 with 10.43%. It is also of note that, Nigeria is still yet to meet the recommendation of UNESCO of 26% budgetary allocation to education by developing countries. Recommendations have been drawn that the government should increase budgetary allocation to this sector in a consistent manner because of its importance to the national economy, hoping that with proper monitoring of fund, it would contribute more significantly to the development of the country. An effective utilization of such funds is also advocated for greater achievements. All organs of the government should exhibit good corporate governance and transparency and so on.
Keywords: Education, funding, management, Nigeria.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 7164
2559 Virtual Routing Function Allocation Method for Minimizing Total Network Power Consumption
Authors: Kenichiro Hida, Shin-Ichi Kuribayashi
In a conventional network, most network devices, such as routers, are dedicated devices that do not have much variation in capacity. In recent years, a new concept of network functions virtualisation (NFV) has come into use. The intention is to implement a variety of network functions with software on general-purpose servers and this allows the network operator to select their capacities and locations without any constraints. This paper focuses on the allocation of NFV-based routing functions which are one of critical network functions, and presents the virtual routing function allocation algorithm that minimizes the total power consumption. In addition, this study presents the useful allocation policy of virtual routing functions, based on an evaluation with a ladder-shaped network model. This policy takes the ratio of the power consumption of a routing function to that of a circuit and traffic distribution between areas into consideration. Furthermore, the present paper shows that there are cases where the use of NFV-based routing functions makes it possible to reduce the total power consumption dramatically, in comparison to a conventional network, in which it is not economically viable to distribute small-capacity routing functions.
Keywords: Virtual routing function, NFV, resource allocation, minimum power consumption.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1005
2558 State Estimation Solution with Optimal Allocation of Phasor Measurement Units Considering Zero Injection Bus Modeling
Authors: M. Ravindra, R. Srinivasa Rao, V. Shanmukha Naga Raju
This paper presents state estimation with Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) allocation to obtain complete observability of network. A matrix is designed with modeling of zero injection constraints to minimize PMU allocations. State estimation algorithm is developed with optimal allocation of PMUs to find accurate states of network. The incorporation of PMU into traditional state estimation process improves accuracy and computational performance for large power systems. The nonlinearity integrated with zero injection (ZI) constraints is remodeled to linear frame to optimize number of PMUs. The problem of optimal PMU allocation is regarded with modeling of ZI constraints, PMU loss or line outage, cost factor and redundant measurements. The proposed state estimation with optimal PMU allocation has been compared with traditional state estimation process to show its importance. MATLAB programming on IEEE 14, 30, 57, and 118 bus networks is implemented out by Binary Integer Programming (BIP) method and compared with other methods to show its effectiveness.
Keywords: Observability, phasor measurement units, synchrophasors, SCADA measurements, zero injection bus.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 679
2557 Maximizing Sum-Rate for Multi-User Two-Way Relaying Networks with ANC Protocol
Authors: Muhammad Abrar, Xiang Gui, Amal Punchihewa
Abstract:In this paper we study the resource allocation problem for an OFDMA based cooperative two-way relaying (TWR) network. We focus on amplify and forward (AF) analog network coding (ANC) protocol. An optimization problem for two basic resources namely, sub-carrier and power is formulated for multi-user TWR networks. A joint optimal optimization problem is investigated and two-step low complexity sub-optimal resource allocation algorithm is proposed for multi-user TWR networks with ANC protocol. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated in term of total achievable system sum-rate and achievable individual sum-rate for each userpair. The good tradeoff between system sum-rate and fairness is observed in the two-step proportional resource allocation scheme.
Keywords: Relay Network, Relay Protocols, Resource Allocation, Two –way relaying.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1553
2556 A Practical Scheme for Transmission Loss Allocation to Generators and Loads in Restructured Power Systems
Authors: M.R. Ebrahimi, M. Ehsan
This paper presents a practical scheme that can be used for allocating the transmission loss to generators and loads. In this scheme first the share of a generator or load on the current through a branch is determined using Z-bus modified matrix. Then the current components are decomposed and the branch loss allocation is obtained. A motivation of proposed scheme is to improve the results of Z-bus method and to reach more fair allocation. The proposed scheme has been implemented and tested on several networks. To achieve practical and applicable results, the proposed scheme is simulated and compared on the transmission network (400kv) of Khorasan region in Iran and the 14-bus standard IEEE network. The results show that the proposed scheme is comprehensive and fair to allocating the energy losses of a power market to its participants.
Keywords: Transmission Loss, Loss Allocation, Z-bus modifiedmatrix, current Components Decomposition and Restructured PowerSystemsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1357
2555 Optimal Power Allocation to Diversity Branches of Cooperative MISO Sensor Networks
Authors: Rooholah Hasanizadeh, Saadan Zokaei
Abstract:In the context of sensor networks, where every few dB saving counts, the novel node cooperation schemes are reviewed where MIMO techniques play a leading role. These methods could be treated as joint approach for designing physical layer of their communication scenarios. Then we analyzed the BER performance of transmission diversity schemes under a general fading channel model and proposed a power allocation strategy to the transmitting sensor nodes. This approach is then compared to an equal-power assignment method and its performance enhancement is verified by the simulation. Another key point of the contribution lies in the combination of optimal power allocation and sensor nodes- cooperation in a transmission diversity regime (MISO). Numerical results are given through figures to demonstrate the optimality and efficiency of proposed combined approach.
Keywords: Optimal power allocation, cooperative MISO scheme, sensor networks, diversity branch.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1293
2554 Water Quality Trading with Equitable Total Maximum Daily Loads
Authors: S. Jamshidi, E. Feizi Ashtiani, M. Ardestani
Abstract:Waste Load Allocation (WLA) strategies usually intend to find economic policies for water resource management. Water quality trading (WQT) is an approach that uses discharge permit market to reduce total environmental protection costs. This primarily requires assigning discharge limits known as total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). These are determined by monitoring organizations with respect to the receiving water quality and remediation capabilities. The purpose of this study is to compare two approaches of TMDL assignment for WQT policy in small catchment area of Haraz River, in north of Iran. At first, TMDLs are assigned uniformly for the whole point sources to keep the concentrations of BOD and dissolved oxygen (DO) at the standard level at checkpoint (terminus point). This was simply simulated and controlled by Qual2kw software. In the second scenario, TMDLs are assigned using multi objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) method in which the environmental violation at river basin and total treatment costs are minimized simultaneously. In both scenarios, the equity index and the WLA based on trading discharge permits (TDP) are calculated. The comparative results showed that using economically optimized TMDLs (2nd scenario) has slightly more cost savings rather than uniform TMDL approach (1st scenario). The former annually costs about 1 M$ while the latter is 1.15 M$. WQT can decrease these annual costs to 0.9 and 1.1 M$, respectively. In other word, these approaches may save 35 and 45% economically in comparison with command and control policy. It means that using multi objective decision support systems (DSS) may find more economical WLA, however its outcome is not necessarily significant in comparison with uniform TMDLs. This may be due to the similar impact factors of dischargers in small catchments. Conversely, using uniform TMDLs for WQT brings more equity that makes stakeholders not feel that much envious of difference between TMDL and WQT allocation. In addition, for this case, determination of TMDLs uniformly would be much easier for monitoring. Consequently, uniform TMDL for TDP market is recommended as a sustainable approach. However, economical TMDLs can be used for larger watersheds.
Keywords: Waste load allocation (WLA), Water quality trading (WQT), Total maximum daily loads (TMDLs), Haraz River, Multi objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO), Equity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1776
2553 Multi-Objective Optimization of Combined System Reliability and Redundancy Allocation Problem
Authors: Vijaya K. Srivastava, Davide Spinello
This paper presents established 3n enumeration procedure for mixed integer optimization problems for solving multi-objective reliability and redundancy allocation problem subject to design constraints. The formulated problem is to find the optimum level of unit reliability and the number of units for each subsystem. A number of illustrative examples are provided and compared to indicate the application of the superiority of the proposed method.
Keywords: Integer programming, mixed integer programming, multi-objective optimization, reliability redundancy allocation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 511
2552 A Study of Water Consumption in Two Malaysian Resorts
Authors: Fu E. Tang
Abstract:In the effort to reduce water consumption for resorts, more water conservation practices need to be implemented. Hence water audits need to be performed to obtain a baseline of water consumption, before planning water conservation practices. In this study, a water audit framework specifically for resorts was created, and the audit was performed on two resorts: Resort A in Langkawi, Malaysia; and Resort B in Miri, Malaysia. From the audit, the total daily water consumption for Resorts A and B were estimated to be 180m3 and 330 m3 respectively, while the actual water consumption (based on water meter readings) were 175 m3 and 325 m3. This suggests that the audit framework is reasonably accurate and may be used to account for most of the water consumption sources in a resort. The daily water consumption per guest is about 500 litres. The water consumption of both resorts is poorly rated compared with established benchmarks. Water conservation measures were suggested for both resorts.
Keywords: water consumption patterns, water conservation practices, water audit, water audit framework.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 6507
2551 Optimal DG Allocation in Distribution Network
Authors: A. Safari, R. Jahani, H. A. Shayanfar, J. Olamaei
Abstract:This paper shows the results obtained in the analysis of the impact of distributed generation (DG) on distribution losses and presents a new algorithm to the optimal allocation of distributed generation resources in distribution networks. The optimization is based on a Hybrid Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization (HGAPSO) aiming to optimal DG allocation in distribution network. Through this algorithm a significant improvement in the optimization goal is achieved. With a numerical example the superiority of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated in comparison with the simple genetic algorithm.
Keywords: Distributed Generation, Distribution Networks, Genetic Algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2560