Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5276

Search results for: split attention effect

5276 A Global Condition for the Triviality of an Almost Split Quaternionic Structure on Split Complex Manifolds

Authors: Erhan Ata, Yusuf Yaylı

Abstract:

Let M be an almost split quaternionic manifold on which its almost split quaternionic structure is defined by a three dimensional subbundle V of ( T M) T (M) * Ôèù and {F,G,H} be a local basis for V . Suppose that the (global) (1, 2) tensor field defined[V ,V ]is defined by [V,V ] = [F,F]+[G,G] + [H,H], where [,] denotes the Nijenhuis bracket. In ref. [7], for the almost split-hypercomplex structureH = J α,α =1,2,3, and the Obata connection ÔêçH vanishes if and only if H is split-hypercomplex. In this study, we give a prof, in particular, prove that if either M is a split quaternionic Kaehler manifold, or if M is a splitcomplex manifold with almost split-complex structure F , then the vanishing [V ,V ] is equivalent to that of all the Nijenhuis brackets of {F,G,H}. It follows that the bundle V is trivial if and only if [V ,V ] = 0 .

Keywords: Almost split - hypercomplex structure, Almost split quaternionic structure, Almost split quaternion Kaehler manifold, Obata connection.

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5275 Curvature of Almost Split Quaternion Kaehler Manifolds

Authors: Erhan Ata, H. Hilmi Hacisalihoğlu, Yusuf Yayli

Abstract:

In this work some characterizations of semi Riemannian curvature tensor on almost split quaternion Kaehler manifolds and some characterizations of Ricci tensor on almost split quaternion Kaehler manifolds are given.

Keywords: Almost split quaternion Kaehler manifold, Riemann curvature, Ricci curvature.

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5274 Multi Switched Split Vector Quantizer

Authors: M. Satya Sai Ram, P. Siddaiah, M. Madhavi Latha

Abstract:

Vector quantization is a powerful tool for speech coding applications. This paper deals with LPC Coding of speech signals which uses a new technique called Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization, This is a hybrid of two product code vector quantization techniques namely the Multi stage vector quantization technique, and Switched split vector quantization technique,. Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization technique quantizes the linear predictive coefficients in terms of line spectral frequencies. From results it is proved that Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization provides better trade off between bitrate and spectral distortion performance, computational complexity and memory requirements when compared to Switched Split Vector Quantization, Multi stage vector quantization, and Split Vector Quantization techniques. By employing the switching technique at each stage of the vector quantizer the spectral distortion, computational complexity and memory requirements were greatly reduced. Spectral distortion was measured in dB, Computational complexity was measured in floating point operations (flops), and memory requirements was measured in (floats).

Keywords: Unconstrained vector quantization, Linear predictiveCoding, Split vector quantization, Multi stage vector quantization, Switched Split vector quantization, Line Spectral Frequencies.

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5273 Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization of Narrowband Speech Signals

Authors: M. Satya Sai Ram, P. Siddaiah, M. Madhavi Latha

Abstract:

Vector quantization is a powerful tool for speech coding applications. This paper deals with LPC Coding of speech signals which uses a new technique called Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization (MSSVQ), which is a hybrid of Multi, switched, split vector quantization techniques. The spectral distortion performance, computational complexity, and memory requirements of MSSVQ are compared to split vector quantization (SVQ), multi stage vector quantization(MSVQ) and switched split vector quantization (SSVQ) techniques. It has been proved from results that MSSVQ has better spectral distortion performance, lower computational complexity and lower memory requirements when compared to all the above mentioned product code vector quantization techniques. Computational complexity is measured in floating point operations (flops), and memory requirements is measured in (floats).

Keywords: Linear predictive Coding, Multi stage vectorquantization, Switched Split vector quantization, Split vectorquantization, Line Spectral Frequencies (LSF).

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5272 Investigation of Split TCSC on Kanpur-Ballabhgarh Transmission System

Authors: S. Meikandasivam, D. Vijayakumar, Rajesh Kumar Nema, Shailendra Kumar Jain

Abstract:

This paper investigates the performance of the single TCSC and proposed split TCSC on transmission system where India’s first TCSC project is installed in Kanpur - Ballabhgarh (KB) line to ensure the fine tuning of line reactance by proposed split TCSC in place of existing KB TCSC. A three phase KB transmission system is developed in MATLAB/Simulink (SimPowerSystems) for

  1. without any compensation,
  2. with fixed capacitor (FC),
  3. with FC + existing KB TCSC and
  4. with FC + proposed split TCSC

The KB system is analyzed for a step variation of load and performance of the system is investigated with a closed loop reactance control method.

Keywords: Single TCSC, Split TCSC, TCSC Reactance characteristic curve, Power flow analysis, Sensitivity analysis.

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5271 A Polyimide Based Split-Ring Neural Interface Electrode for Neural Signal Recording

Authors: Ning Xue, Srinivas Merugu, Ignacio Delgado Martinez, Tao Sun, John Tsang, Shih-Cheng Yen

Abstract:

We have developed a polyimide based neural interface electrode to record nerve signals from the sciatic nerve of a rat. The neural interface electrode has a split-ring shape, with four protruding gold electrodes for recording, and two reference gold electrodes around the split-ring. The split-ring electrode can be opened up to encircle the sciatic nerve. The four electrodes can be bent to sit on top of the nerve and hold the device in position, while the split-ring frame remains flat. In comparison, while traditional cuff electrodes can only fit certain sizes of the nerve, the developed device can fit a variety of rat sciatic nerve dimensions from 0.6 mm to 1.0 mm, and adapt to the chronic changes in the nerve as the electrode tips are bendable. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement was conducted. The gold electrode impedance is on the order of 10 kΩ, showing excellent charge injection capacity to record neural signals.

Keywords: Impedance, neural interface, split-ring electrode.

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5270 High-Resolution 12-Bit Segmented Capacitor DAC in Successive Approximation ADC

Authors: Wee Leong Son, Hasmayadi Abdul Majid, Rohana Musa

Abstract:

This paper study the segmented split capacitor Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) implemented in a differentialtype 12-bit Successive Approximation Analog-to-Digital Converter (SA-ADC). The series capacitance split array method employed as it reduced the total area of the capacitors required for high resolution DACs. A 12-bit regular binary array structure requires 2049 unit capacitors (Cs) while the split array needs 127 unit Cs. These results in the reduction of the total capacitance and power consumption of the series split array architectures as to regular binary-weighted structures. The paper will show the 12-bit DAC series split capacitor with 4-bit thermometer coded DAC architectures as well as the simulation and measured results.

Keywords: Successive Approximation Register Analog-to- Digital Converter, SAR ADC, Low voltage ADC.

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5269 Control Strategy for Two-Mode Hybrid Electric Vehicle by Using Fuzzy Controller

Authors: Jia-Shiun Chen, Hsiu-Ying Hwang

Abstract:

Hybrid electric vehicles can reduce pollution and improve fuel economy. Power-split hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) provide two power paths between the internal combustion engine (ICE) and energy storage system (ESS) through the gears of an electrically variable transmission (EVT). EVT allows ICE to operate independently from vehicle speed all the time. Therefore, the ICE can operate in the efficient region of its characteristic brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) map. The two-mode powertrain can operate in input-split or compound-split EVT modes and in four different fixed gear configurations. Power-split architecture is advantageous because it combines conventional series and parallel power paths. This research focuses on input-split and compound-split modes in the two-mode power-split powertrain. Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) for an internal combustion engine (ICE) and PI control for electric machines (EMs) are derived for the urban driving cycle simulation. These control algorithms reduce vehicle fuel consumption and improve ICE efficiency while maintaining the state of charge (SOC) of the energy storage system in an efficient range.

Keywords: Hybrid electric vehicle, fuel economy, two-mode hybrid, fuzzy control.

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5268 Transmission Mains Earthing Design: Under Ground to Over Head Pole Transition

Authors: A. Hellany, M. Nassereddine, M. Nagrial, J. Rizk

Abstract:

The demand on High voltage (HV) infrastructures is growing due to the corresponding growth in industries and population. New or upgraded HV infrastructure has safety implications since Transmission mains usually occupy the same easement in the vicinity of neighbouring residents. Transmission mains consist of underground (UG) and overhead (OH) sections and the transition between the UG and OH section is known as the UGOH pole. The existence of two transmission mains in the same easement can dictate to resort to more complicated earthing design in order to mitigate the effect of AC interference, and in some cases it can also necessitates completing a Split Study of the system. This paper provides an overview of the AC interference, Split Study and the earthing of an underground feeder including the UGOH pole .In addition, this paper discusses the use of different link boxes on the UG feeder and presents a case study that represent a clear example of the Ac interference and Split factor. Finally, a few recommendations are provided to achieve a safety zone in the area beyond the boundary of the HV system.

Keywords: UGOH, High Voltage, AC interference, Earthing Design.

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5267 Reducing Cognitive Load in Learning Computer Programming

Authors: Muhammed Yousoof, Mohd Sapiyan, Khaja Kamaluddin

Abstract:

Many difficulties are faced in the process of learning computer programming. This paper will propose a system framework intended to reduce cognitive load in learning programming. In first section focus is given on the process of learning and the shortcomings of the current approaches to learning programming. Finally the proposed prototype is suggested along with the justification of the prototype. In the proposed prototype the concept map is used as visualization metaphor. Concept maps are similar to the mental schema in long term memory and hence it can reduce cognitive load well. In addition other method such as part code method is also proposed in this framework to can reduce cognitive load.

Keywords: Cognitive load, concept maps, working memory, split attention effect, partial code programs.

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5266 Channel Length Modulation Effect on Monolayer Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistor

Authors: Mehdi Saeidmanesh, Razali Ismail

Abstract:

Recently, Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistors (GNR FETs) attract a great deal of attention due to their better performance in comparison with conventional devices. In this paper, channel length Modulation (CLM) effect on the electrical characteristics of GNR FETs is analytically studied and modeled. To this end, the special distribution of the electric potential along the channel and current-voltage characteristic of the device is modeled. The obtained results of analytical model are compared to the experimental data of published works. As a result, it is observable that considering the effect of CLM, the current-voltage response of GNR FET is more realistic.

Keywords: Graphene nanoribbon, field effect transistors, short channel effects, channel length modulation.

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5265 Effects of Molybdenum on Phosphorus Concentration in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Authors: Hamed Zakikhani, Mohd Khanif Yusop, Amin Soltangheisi

Abstract:

A hydroponic trial was carried out to investigate the effect of molybdenum (Mo) on uptake of phosphorus (P) in different rice cultivars. The experiment was conducted using a randomized complete-block design, with a split-plot arrangement of treatments and three replications. Four rates of Mo (0, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg L−1) and five cultivars (MR219, HASHEMI, MR232, FAJRE and MR253) provided the main and sub-plots, respectively. Interaction of molybdenum×variety was significant on shoot phosphorus uptake (p≤0.01). Highest and lowest shoot phosphorus uptake were seen in Mo3V3 (0.6% plant-1) and Mo0V3 (0.14% plant-1) treatments, respectively. Molybdenum did not have a significant effect on root phosphorus content. According to results, application of molybdenum has a synergistic effect on uptake of phosphorus by rice plants.

Keywords: Molybdenum, Phosphorus, Uptake, rice.

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5264 Strength and Permeability Characteristics of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete

Authors: A. P. Singh

Abstract:

The results reported in this paper are the part of an extensive laboratory investigation undertaken to study the effects of fibre parameters on the permeability and strength characteristics of steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC). The effect of varying fibre content and curing age on the water permeability, compressive and split tensile strengths of SFRC was investigated using straight steel fibres having an aspect ratio of 65. Samples containing three different weight fractions of 1.0%, 2.0% and 4.0% were cast and tested for permeability and strength after 7, 14, 28 and 60 days of curing. Plain concrete samples were also cast and tested for reference purposes.

Permeability was observed to decrease significantly with the addition of steel fibres and continued to decrease with increasing fibre content and increasing curing age. An exponential relationship was observed between permeability and compressive and split tensile strengths for SFRC as well as PCC. To evaluate the effect of fibre content on the permeability and strength characteristics, the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistical method was used. An a level (probability of error) of 0.05 was used for ANOVA test. Regression analysis was carried out to develop relationship between permeability, compressive strength and curing age.

Keywords: Permeability, grade of concrete, fibre shape, fibre content, curing age, steady state, Darcy’s law, method of penetration.

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5263 Effect of Different Methods of Soil Fertility on Grain Yield and Chickpea Quality

Authors: Mohammadi K., Ghalavand A., Aghaalikhani M

Abstract:

In order to evaluation the effects of natural, biological and chemical fertilizers on grain yield and chickpea quality, field experiments were carried out in 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. In this research the effects of different organic, chemical and biological fertilizers were investigated on grain yield and quality of chickpea. Experimental units were arranged in split-split plots based on randomized complete blocks with three replications. The highest amounts of yield and yield components were obtained in G1×N5 interaction. Significant increasing of N, P, K, Fe and Mg content in leaves and grains emphasized on superiority of mentioned treatment because each one of these nutrients has an approved role in chlorophyll synthesis and photosynthesis ability of the crop. The combined application of compost, farmyard manure and chemical phosphorus (N5) had the best grain quality due to high protein, starch and total sugar contents, low crude fiber and reduced cooking time.

Keywords: soil fertility, grain yield, chickpea, natural resources.

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5262 Influence of Silica Fume on High Strength Lightweight Concrete

Authors: H. Katkhuda, B. Hanayneh, N. Shatarat

Abstract:

The main objective of this paper is to determine the isolated effect of silica fume on tensile, compressive and flexure strengths on high strength lightweight concrete. Many experiments were carried out by replacing cement with different percentages of silica fume at different constant water-binder ratio keeping other mix design variables constant. The silica fume was replaced by 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% for a water-binder ratios ranging from 0.26 to 0.42. For all mixes, split tensile, compressive and flexure strengths were determined at 28 days. The results showed that the tensile, compressive and flexure strengths increased with silica fume incorporation but the optimum replacement percentage is not constant because it depends on the water–cementitious material (w/cm) ratio of the mix. Based on the results, a relationship between split tensile, compressive and flexure strengths of silica fume concrete was developed using statistical methods.

Keywords: Silica fume, Lightweight, High strength concrete, and Strength.

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5261 Split-Pipe Design of Water Distribution Networks Using a Combination of Tabu Search and Genetic Algorithm

Authors: J. Tospornsampan, I. Kita, M. Ishii, Y. Kitamura

Abstract:

In this paper a combination approach of two heuristic-based algorithms: genetic algorithm and tabu search is proposed. It has been developed to obtain the least cost based on the split-pipe design of looped water distribution network. The proposed combination algorithm has been applied to solve the three well-known water distribution networks taken from the literature. The development of the combination of these two heuristic-based algorithms for optimization is aimed at enhancing their strengths and compensating their weaknesses. Tabu search is rather systematic and deterministic that uses adaptive memory in search process, while genetic algorithm is probabilistic and stochastic optimization technique in which the solution space is explored by generating candidate solutions. Split-pipe design may not be realistic in practice but in optimization purpose, optimal solutions are always achieved with split-pipe design. The solutions obtained in this study have proved that the least cost solutions obtained from the split-pipe design are always better than those obtained from the single pipe design. The results obtained from the combination approach show its ability and effectiveness to solve combinatorial optimization problems. The solutions obtained are very satisfactory and high quality in which the solutions of two networks are found to be the lowest-cost solutions yet presented in the literature. The concept of combination approach proposed in this study is expected to contribute some useful benefits in diverse problems.

Keywords: GAs, Heuristics, Looped network, Least-cost design, Pipe network, Optimization, TS

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5260 Gravitino Dark Matter in (nearly) SLagy D3/D7 m-Split SUSY

Authors: Mansi Dhuria, Aalok Misra

Abstract:

In the context of large volume Big Divisor (nearly) SLagy D3/D7 μ-Split SUSY [1], after an explicit identification of first generation of SM leptons and quarks with fermionic superpartners of four Wilson line moduli, we discuss the identification of gravitino as a potential dark matter candidate by explicitly calculating the decay life times of gravitino (LSP) to be greater than age of universe and lifetimes of decays of the co-NLSPs (the first generation squark/slepton and a neutralino) to the LSP (the gravitino) to be very small to respect BBN constraints. Interested in non-thermal production mechanism of gravitino, we evaluate the relic abundance of gravitino LSP in terms of that of the co-NLSP-s by evaluating their (co-)annihilation cross sections and hence show that the former satisfies the requirement for a potential Dark Matter candidate. We also show that it is possible to obtain a 125 GeV light Higgs in our setup.

Keywords: Split Supersymmetry, Large Volume Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau's, Dark Matter, (N)LSP decays, relic abundance.

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5259 SELF-Cured Alkali Activated Slag Concrete Mixes- An Experimental Study

Authors: Mithun B. M., Mattur C. Narasimhan

Abstract:

Alkali Activated Slag Concrete (AASC) mixes are manufactured by activating ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) using sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solutions. The aim of the present experimental research was to investigate the effect of increasing the dosages of sodium oxide (Na2O, in the range of 4 to 8%) and the activator modulus (Ms) (i.e. the SiO2/Na2O ratio, in the range of 0.5 to 1.5) of the alkaline solutions, on the workability and strength characteristics of self-cured (air-cured) alkali activated Indian slag concrete mixes. Further the split tensile and flexure strengths for optimal mixes were studied for each dosage of Na2O.It is observed that increase in Na2O concentration increases the compressive, split-tensile and flexural strengths, both at the early and later-ages, while increase in Ms, decreases the workability of the mixes. An optimal Ms of 1.25 is found at various Na2O dosages. No significant differences in the strength performances were observed between AASCs manufactured with alkali solutions prepared using either of potable and de-ionized water.

Keywords: Alkali activated slag, self-curing, strength characteristics.

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5258 Modeling and Simulation of Practical Metamaterial Structures

Authors: Ridha Salhi, Mondher Labidi, Fethi Choubani

Abstract:

Metamaterials have attracted much attention in recent years because of their electromagnetic exquisite proprieties. We will present, in this paper, the modeling of three metamaterial structures by equivalent circuit model. We begin by modeling the SRR (Split Ring Resonator), then we model the HIS (High Impedance Surfaces), and finally, we present the model of the CPW (Coplanar Wave Guide). In order to validate models, we compare the results obtained by an equivalent circuit models with numerical simulation.

Keywords: Metamaterials, SRR, HIS, CPW, IDC.

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5257 Parametric Analysis of Water Lily Shaped Split Ring Resonator Loaded Fractal Monopole Antenna for Multiband Applications

Authors: C. Elavarasi, T. Shanmuganantham

Abstract:

A coplanar waveguide (CPW) feed is presented, and comprising a split ring resonator (SRR) loaded fractal with water lily shape is used for multi band applications. The impedance matching of the antenna is determined by the number of Koch curve fractal unit cells. The antenna is designed on a FR4 substrate with a permittivity of εr = 4.4 and size of 14 x 16 x 1.6 mm3 to generate multi resonant mode at 3.8 GHz covering S band, 8.68 GHz at X band, 13.96 GHz at Ku band, and 19.74 GHz at K band with reflection coefficient better than -10 dB. Simulation results show that the antenna exhibits the desired voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) level and radiation patterns across the wide frequency range. The fundamental parameters of the antenna such as return loss, VSWR, good radiation pattern with reasonable gain across the operating bands are obtained.

Keywords: Monopole antenna, fractal, metamaterial, waterlily shape, split ring resonator, multiband.

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5256 Energy Requirement for Cutting Corn Stalks (Single Cross 704 Var.)

Authors: M. Azadbakht, A. Rezaei Asl, K. Tamaskani Zahedi

Abstract:

Corn is cultivated in most countries because of high consumption, quality, and food value. This study evaluated needed energy for cutting corn stems in different levels of cutting height and moisture content. For this reason, test device was fabricated and then calibrated. The device works on the principle of conservation of energy. The results were analyzed using split plot design and SAS software. The results showed that effect of height and moisture content and their interaction effect on cutting energy are significant (P<1%). The maximum cutting energy was 3.22 kJ in 63 (w.b.%) moisture content and the minimum cutting energy was 1.63 kJ in 83.25 (w.b.%) moisture content.

Keywords: Cutting energy, Corn stalk, Cutting height, Moisture content, Impact cutting.

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5255 Salinity on Survival and Early Development of Biofuel Feedstock Crops

Authors: Vincent M. Russo

Abstract:

Salinity level may affect early development of biofuel feedstock crops. The biofuel feedstock crops canola (Brassica napus L.), sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.); and the potential feedstock crop sweet corn (Zea mays L.) were planted in media in pots and treated with aqueous solutions of 0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 M NaCl once at: 1) planting; 2) 7-10 days after planting or 3) first true leaf expansion. An additional treatment (4) comprised of one-half strength of the 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 M (concentrations 0.05, 0.25, 0.5 M at each application) was applied at first true leaf expansion and four days later. Survival of most crops decreased below 90% above 0.5 M; survival of canola decreased above 0.1 M. Application timing had little effect on crop survival. For canola root fresh and dry weights improved when application was at plant emergence; for sorghum top and root fresh weights improved when the split application was used. When application was at planting root dry weight was improved over most other applications. Sunflower top fresh weight was among the highest when saline solutions were split and top dry weight was among the highest when application was at plant emergence. Sweet corn root fresh weight was improved when the split application was used or application was at planting. Sweet corn root dry weight was highest when application was at planting or plant emergence. Even at high salinity rates survival rates greater than what might be expected occurred. Plants that survived appear to be able to adjust to saline during the early stages of development.

Keywords: Canola, Development, Sorghum, Sunflower, Sweetcorn, Survival

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5254 Split-Pipe Design of Water Distribution Network Using Simulated Annealing

Authors: J. Tospornsampan, I. Kita, M. Ishii, Y. Kitamura

Abstract:

In this paper a procedure for the split-pipe design of looped water distribution network based on the use of simulated annealing is proposed. Simulated annealing is a heuristic-based search algorithm, motivated by an analogy of physical annealing in solids. It is capable for solving the combinatorial optimization problem. In contrast to the split-pipe design that is derived from a continuous diameter design that has been implemented in conventional optimization techniques, the split-pipe design proposed in this paper is derived from a discrete diameter design where a set of pipe diameters is chosen directly from a specified set of commercial pipes. The optimality and feasibility of the solutions are found to be guaranteed by using the proposed method. The performance of the proposed procedure is demonstrated through solving the three well-known problems of water distribution network taken from the literature. Simulated annealing provides very promising solutions and the lowest-cost solutions are found for all of these test problems. The results obtained from these applications show that simulated annealing is able to handle a combinatorial optimization problem of the least cost design of water distribution network. The technique can be considered as an alternative tool for similar areas of research. Further applications and improvements of the technique are expected as well.

Keywords: Combinatorial problem, Heuristics, Least-cost design, Looped network, Pipe network, Optimization

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5253 Effect of Conservation Agriculture on Maize Yield in the Transilvanian Plain, Romania

Authors: M.A.Grigoras, A.Popescu, D.Pamfil, I.Has, L.C.Cota

Abstract:

An experimental study is presented on the effect of Conservation Agriculture (CA) compared to Conventional Agriculture (ConvA) upon Maize Yield based on split-plot model. Two factors have been considered: A Factor-Fertilization with two variants: A1- N40P40 kg/ha and A2- N90P70 kg/ha; B Factor- Crop protection with 4 variants : B1- 4 treatments, B2-3 treatments, B3- 2 treatments and B4- 1 treatment. In comparison with conventional agriculture, CA determined lower maize yields. Fertilization is the key factor determining a yield gain of 973.58 kg/ha in ConvA and 1,123.33 kg/ha in CA. A reduced number of treatments determined a yield decline. The A-B interaction had a positive effect on maize yield when a larger amount of fertilizer and 4 or 3 treatments were applied in ConvA and a benefic in CA for highest fertilization level and 2 treatments. The B2A2 ConvA variant was the most efficient leading to 302.67 kg/ha gain while B3A2 CA variant brought 181.33 kg production gain.

Keywords: conservation agriculture, conventional agriculture, maize, yield

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5252 Clustering Categorical Data Using Hierarchies (CLUCDUH)

Authors: Gökhan Silahtaroğlu

Abstract:

Clustering large populations is an important problem when the data contain noise and different shapes. A good clustering algorithm or approach should be efficient enough to detect clusters sensitively. Besides space complexity, time complexity also gains importance as the size grows. Using hierarchies we developed a new algorithm to split attributes according to the values they have and choosing the dimension for splitting so as to divide the database roughly into equal parts as much as possible. At each node we calculate some certain descriptive statistical features of the data which reside and by pruning we generate the natural clusters with a complexity of O(n).

Keywords: Clustering, tree, split, pruning, entropy, gini.

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5251 Complementary Split Ring Resonator-Loaded Microstrip Patch Antenna Useful for Microwave Communication

Authors: Subal Kar, Madhuja Ghosh, Amitesh Kumar, Arijit Majumder

Abstract:

Complementary split-ring resonator (CSRR) loaded microstrip square patch antenna has been optimally designed with the help of high frequency structure simulator (HFSS). The antenna has been fabricated on the basis of the simulation design data and experimentally tested in anechoic chamber to evaluate its gain, bandwidth, efficiency and polarization characteristics. The CSRR loaded microstrip patch antenna has been found to realize significant size miniaturization (to the extent of 24%) compared to the conventional-type microstrip patch antenna both operating at the same frequency (5.2 GHz). The fabricated antenna could realize a maximum gain of 4.17 dB, 10 dB impedance bandwidth of 34 MHz, efficiency 50.73% and with maximum cross-pol of 10.56 dB down at the operating frequency. This practically designed antenna with its miniaturized size is expected to be useful for airborne and space borne applications at microwave frequency.

Keywords: Split ring resonator, metamaterial, CSRR loaded patch antenna, microstrip patch antenna, LC resonator.

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5250 Design and Implementation of a Microcontroller Based LCD Screen Digital Stop Watch

Authors: Mr. Khalid I. Saad, Ms. Nusrat Afrin, Mr. Rajib Mikail

Abstract:

The stop watch is used to measure the time required for a certain event. This is different from normal clocks in many ways, one of which is the accuracy of time. The stop watch requires much more accuracy than the normal clocks. In this paper, an ATmega8535 microcontroller was used to control the stop watch, by which perfect accuracy can be ensured. For compiling the C code and for loading the compiled .hex file into the microcontroller, AVR studio and PonyProg were used respectively. The stop watch is also different from traditional stop watches, as it contains two different timing modes namely 'Split timing' and 'Lap timing'.

Keywords: Stop Watch, Microcontroller, Split timing, Laptiming, LCD.

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5249 Speech Coding and Recognition

Authors: M. Satya Sai Ram, P. Siddaiah, M. Madhavi Latha

Abstract:

This paper investigates the performance of a speech recognizer in an interactive voice response system for various coded speech signals, coded by using a vector quantization technique namely Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization Technique. The process of recognizing the coded output can be used in Voice banking application. The recognition technique used for the recognition of the coded speech signals is the Hidden Markov Model technique. The spectral distortion performance, computational complexity, and memory requirements of Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization Technique and the performance of the speech recognizer at various bit rates have been computed. From results it is found that the speech recognizer is showing better performance at 24 bits/frame and it is found that the percentage of recognition is being varied from 100% to 93.33% for various bit rates.

Keywords: Linear predictive coding, Speech Recognition, Voice banking, Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization, Hidden Markov Model, Linear Predictive Coefficients.

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5248 Germination of Barley as Affected by the Allelopathy of Sisymbrium irio L. and Descurainiasophia (L.) Schur

Authors: Sh. Edrisi, A. Farahbakhsh

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted under controlled conditions to study the effect of water extract of leaves, shoots and roots of either Sisymbrium irio L. =SISIR and or Descurainia sophia (L.) Schur =DESSO on the germination and primary growth of barley. A split-split plot experiment in CRD with three replications was used. The main plots were the type of weed: i.e. SISIR and DESSO and the sub-plots were type of organ: i.e. leaf, stem and root and, the sub-sub plots were concentration of the water extract of each organ of the weeds: i.e. 0, 2, 4 and 8 % w/v. The results showed that the SISIR water extracts had a greater inhibitory effects on the germination and primary growth of barley than those of DESSO water extracts. The water extracts of the leaves of both weeds had the greatest inhibitory effects on the germination and primary growth of barley, compared to those of stems and roots. Increasing the concentration of water extracts of leaves, stems and roots of both weeds up to 8 % caused the greatest inhibitory effects to barley and reduced the germination rate and primary growth of it linearly.

Keywords: Allelopathy, barley, DESSO, SISIR

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5247 Temperature Dependence of Relative Permittivity: A Measurement Technique Using Split Ring Resonators

Authors: Sreedevi P. Chakyar, Jolly Andrews, V. P. Joseph

Abstract:

A compact method for measuring the relative permittivity of a dielectric material at different temperatures using a single circular Split Ring Resonator (SRR) metamaterial unit working as a test probe is presented in this paper. The dielectric constant of a material is dependent upon its temperature and the LC resonance of the SRR depends on its dielectric environment. Hence, the temperature of the dielectric material in contact with the resonator influences its resonant frequency. A single SRR placed between transmitting and receiving probes connected to a Vector Network Analyser (VNA) is used as a test probe. The dependence of temperature between 30 oC and 60 oC on resonant frequency of SRR is analysed. Relative permittivities ‘ε’ of test samples for different temperatures are extracted from a calibration graph drawn between the relative permittivity of samples of known dielectric constant and their corresponding resonant frequencies. This method is found to be an easy and efficient technique for analysing the temperature dependent permittivity of different materials.

Keywords: Metamaterials, negative permeability, permittivity measurement techniques, split ring resonators, temperature dependent dielectric constant.

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