Search results for: secure mean and variance
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 715

Search results for: secure mean and variance

715 Secure Multiparty Computations for Privacy Preserving Classifiers

Authors: M. Sumana, K. S. Hareesha

Abstract:

Secure computations are essential while performing privacy preserving data mining. Distributed privacy preserving data mining involve two to more sites that cannot pool in their data to a third party due to the violation of law regarding the individual. Hence in order to model the private data without compromising privacy and information loss, secure multiparty computations are used. Secure computations of product, mean, variance, dot product, sigmoid function using the additive and multiplicative homomorphic property is discussed. The computations are performed on vertically partitioned data with a single site holding the class value.

Keywords: Homomorphic property, secure product, secure mean and variance, secure dot product, vertically partitioned data.

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714 Improving Security by Using Secure Servers Communicating via Internet with Standalone Secure Software

Authors: Carlos Gonzalez

Abstract:

This paper describes the use of the Internet as a feature to enhance the security of our software that is going to be distributed/sold to users potentially all over the world. By placing in a secure server some of the features of the secure software, we increase the security of such software. The communication between the protected software and the secure server is done by a double lock algorithm. This paper also includes an analysis of intruders and describes possible responses to detect threats.

Keywords: Internet, secure software, threats, cryptography process.

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713 Four Phase Methodology for Developing Secure Software

Authors: Carlos Gonzalez-Flores, Ernesto Liñan-García

Abstract:

A simple and robust approach for developing secure software. A Four Phase methodology consists in developing the non-secure software in phase one, and for the next three phases, one phase for each of the secure developing types (i.e. self-protected software, secure code transformation, and the secure shield). Our methodology requires first the determination and understanding of the type of security level needed for the software. The methodology proposes the use of several teams to accomplish this task. One Software Engineering Developing Team, a Compiler Team, a Specification and Requirements Testing Team, and for each of the secure software developing types: three teams of Secure Software Developing, three teams of Code Breakers, and three teams of Intrusion Analysis. These teams will interact among each other and make decisions to provide a secure software code protected against a required level of intruder.

Keywords: Secure Software, Four Phase Methodology, Software Engineering, Code Breakers, Intrusion Analysis.

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712 Dynamic Authenticated Secure Group Communication

Authors: R. Aparna, B. B. Amberker

Abstract:

Providing authentication for the messages exchanged between group members in addition to confidentiality is an important issue in Secure Group communication. We develop a protocol for Secure Authentic Communication where we address authentication for the group communication scheme proposed by Blundo et al. which only provides confidentiality. Authentication scheme used is a multiparty authentication scheme which allows all the users in the system to send and receive messages simultaneously. Our scheme is secure against colluding malicious parties numbering fewer than k.

Keywords: Secure Group Communication, Secret key, Authentication, Authentication code, Threshold.

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711 A Robust Controller for Output Variance Reduction and Minimum Variance with Application on a Permanent Field DC-Motor

Authors: Mahmood M. Al-Imam, M. Mustafa

Abstract:

In this paper, we present an experimental testing for a new algorithm that determines an optimal controller-s coefficients for output variance reduction related to Linear Time Invariant (LTI) Systems. The algorithm features simplicity in calculation, generalization to minimal and non-minimal phase systems, and could be configured to achieve reference tracking as well as variance reduction after compromising with the output variance. An experiment of DCmotor velocity control demonstrates the application of this new algorithm in designing the controller. The results show that the controller achieves minimum variance and reference tracking for a preset velocity reference relying on an identified model of the motor.

Keywords: Output variance, minimum variance, overparameterization, DC-Motor.

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710 Distribution Sampling of Vector Variance without Duplications

Authors: Erna T. Herdiani, Maman A. Djauhari

Abstract:

In recent years, the use of vector variance as a measure of multivariate variability has received much attention in wide range of statistics. This paper deals with a more economic measure of multivariate variability, defined as vector variance minus all duplication elements. For high dimensional data, this will increase the computational efficiency almost 50 % compared to the original vector variance. Its sampling distribution will be investigated to make its applications possible.

Keywords: Asymptotic distribution, covariance matrix, likelihood ratio test, vector variance.

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709 Efficient Frontier - Comparing Different Volatility Estimators

Authors: Tea Poklepović, Zdravka Aljinović, Mario Matković

Abstract:

Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT) according to Markowitz states that investors form mean-variance efficient portfolios which maximizes their utility. Markowitz proposed the standard deviation as a simple measure for portfolio risk and the lower semi-variance as the only risk measure of interest to rational investors. This paper uses a third volatility estimator based on intraday data and compares three efficient frontiers on the Croatian Stock Market. The results show that range-based volatility estimator outperforms both mean-variance and lower semi-variance model.

Keywords: Variance, lower semi-variance, range-based volatility.

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708 Secure Image Retrieval Based On Orthogonal Decomposition under Cloud Environment

Authors: Yanyan Xu, Lizhi Xiong, Zhengquan Xu, Li Jiang

Abstract:

In order to protect data privacy, image with sensitive or private information needs to be encrypted before being outsourced to the cloud. However, this causes difficulties in image retrieval and data management. A secure image retrieval method based on orthogonal decomposition is proposed in the paper. The image is divided into two different components, for which encryption and feature extraction are executed separately. As a result, cloud server can extract features from an encrypted image directly and compare them with the features of the queried images, so that the user can thus obtain the image. Different from other methods, the proposed method has no special requirements to encryption algorithms. Experimental results prove that the proposed method can achieve better security and better retrieval precision.

Keywords: Secure image retrieval, secure search, orthogonal decomposition, secure cloud computing.

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707 A Secure Proxy Signature Scheme with Fault Tolerance Based on RSA System

Authors: H. El-Kamchouchi, Heba Gaber, Fatma Ahmed, Dalia H. El-Kamchouchi

Abstract:

Due to the rapid growth in modern communication systems, fault tolerance and data security are two important issues in a secure transaction. During the transmission of data between the sender and receiver, errors may occur frequently. Therefore, the sender must re-transmit the data to the receiver in order to correct these errors, which makes the system very feeble. To improve the scalability of the scheme, we present a secure proxy signature scheme with fault tolerance over an efficient and secure authenticated key agreement protocol based on RSA system. Authenticated key agreement protocols have an important role in building a secure communications network between the two parties.

Keywords: Proxy signature, fault tolerance, RSA, key agreement protocol.

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706 Proposal of Optimality Evaluation for Quantum Secure Communication Protocols by Taking the Average of the Main Protocol Parameters: Efficiency, Security and Practicality

Authors: Georgi Bebrov, Rozalina Dimova

Abstract:

In the field of quantum secure communication, there is no evaluation that characterizes quantum secure communication (QSC) protocols in a complete, general manner. The current paper addresses the problem concerning the lack of such an evaluation for QSC protocols by introducing an optimality evaluation, which is expressed as the average over the three main parameters of QSC protocols: efficiency, security, and practicality. For the efficiency evaluation, the common expression of this parameter is used, which incorporates all the classical and quantum resources (bits and qubits) utilized for transferring a certain amount of information (bits) in a secure manner. By using criteria approach whether or not certain criteria are met, an expression for the practicality evaluation is presented, which accounts for the complexity of the QSC practical realization. Based on the error rates that the common quantum attacks (Measurement and resend, Intercept and resend, probe attack, and entanglement swapping attack) induce, the security evaluation for a QSC protocol is proposed as the minimum function taken over the error rates of the mentioned quantum attacks. For the sake of clarity, an example is presented in order to show how the optimality is calculated.

Keywords: Quantum cryptography, quantum secure communcation, quantum secure direct communcation security, quantum secure direct communcation efficiency, quantum secure direct communcation practicality.

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705 Secure Cryptographic Operations on SIM Card for Mobile Financial Services

Authors: Kerem Ok, Serafettin Senturk, Serdar Aktas, Cem Cevikbas

Abstract:

Mobile technology is very popular nowadays and it provides a digital world where users can experience many value-added services. Service Providers are also eager to offer diverse value-added services to users such as digital identity, mobile financial services and so on. In this context, the security of data storage in smartphones and the security of communication between the smartphone and service provider are critical for the success of these services. In order to provide the required security functions, the SIM card is one acceptable alternative. Since SIM cards include a Secure Element, they are able to store sensitive data, create cryptographically secure keys, encrypt and decrypt data. In this paper, we design and implement a SIM and a smartphone framework that uses a SIM card for secure key generation, key storage, data encryption, data decryption and digital signing for mobile financial services. Our frameworks show that the SIM card can be used as a controlled Secure Element to provide required security functions for popular e-services such as mobile financial services.

Keywords: SIM Card, mobile financial services, cryptography, secure data storage.

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704 Addressing Security Concerns of Data Exchange in AODV Protocol

Authors: Monis Akhlaq, M Noman Jafri, Muzammil A Khan, Baber Aslam

Abstract:

The Ad Hoc on demand distance vector (AODV) routing protocol is designed for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). AODV offers quick adaptation to dynamic link conditions; it is characterized by low memory overhead and low network utilization. The security issues related to the protocol remain challenging for the wireless network designers. Numerous schemes have been proposed for establishing secure communication between end users, these schemes identify that the secure operation of AODV is a bi tier task (routing and secure exchange of information at separate levels). Our endeavor in this paper would focus on achieving the routing and secure data exchange in a single step. This will facilitate the user nodes to perform routing, mutual authentications, generation and secure exchange of session key in one step thus ensuring confidentiality, integrity and authentication of data exchange in a more suitable way.

Keywords: AODV, key management, security, wirelessnetworks.

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703 A Review on Factors Influencing Implementation of Secure Software Development Practices

Authors: Sri Lakshmi Kanniah, Mohd Naz’ri Mahrin

Abstract:

More and more businesses and services are depending on software to run their daily operations and business services. At the same time, cyber-attacks are becoming more covert and sophisticated, posing threats to software. Vulnerabilities exist in the software due to the lack of security practices during the phases of software development. Implementation of secure software development practices can improve the resistance to attacks. Many methods, models and standards for secure software development have been developed. However, despite the efforts, they still come up against difficulties in their deployment and the processes are not institutionalized. There is a set of factors that influence the successful deployment of secure software development processes. In this study, the methodology and results from a systematic literature review of factors influencing the implementation of secure software development practices is described. A total of 44 primary studies were analysed as a result of the systematic review. As a result of the study, a list of twenty factors has been identified. Some of factors that affect implementation of secure software development practices are: Involvement of the security expert, integration between security and development team, developer’s skill and expertise, development time and communication between stakeholders. The factors were further classified into four categories which are institutional context, people and action, project content and system development process. The results obtained show that it is important to take into account organizational, technical and people issues in order to implement secure software development initiatives.

Keywords: Secure software development, software development, software security, systematic literature review.

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702 Face Detection using Variance based Haar-Like feature and SVM

Authors: Cuong Nguyen Khac, Ju H. Park, Ho-Youl Jung

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new approach to perform the problem of real-time face detection. The proposed method combines primitive Haar-Like feature and variance value to construct a new feature, so-called Variance based Haar-Like feature. Face in image can be represented with a small quantity of features using this new feature. We used SVM instead of AdaBoost for training and classification. We made a database containing 5,000 face samples and 10,000 non-face samples extracted from real images for learning purposed. The 5,000 face samples contain many images which have many differences of light conditions. And experiments showed that face detection system using Variance based Haar-Like feature and SVM can be much more efficient than face detection system using primitive Haar-Like feature and AdaBoost. We tested our method on two Face databases and one Non-Face database. We have obtained 96.17% of correct detection rate on YaleB face database, which is higher 4.21% than that of using primitive Haar-Like feature and AdaBoost.

Keywords: AdaBoost, Haar-Like feature, SVM, variance, Variance based Haar-Like feature.

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701 Wafer Fab Operational Cost Monitoring and Controlling with Cost per Equivalent Wafer Out

Authors: Ian Kree, Davina Chin Lee Yien

Abstract:

This paper presents Cost per Equivalent Wafer Out, which we find useful in wafer fab operational cost monitoring and controlling. It removes the loading and product mix effect in the cost variance analysis. The operation heads, therefore, could immediately focus on identifying areas for cost improvement. Without this, they would have to measure the impact of the loading variance and product mix variance between actual and budgeted prior to make any decision on cost improvement. Cost per Equivalent Wafer Out, thereby, increases efficiency in wafer fab operational cost monitoring and controlling.

Keywords: Cost Control, Cost Variance, Operational Expenditure, Semiconductor.

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700 Requirements Driven Multiple View Paradigm for Developing Security Architecture

Authors: K. Chandra Sekaran

Abstract:

This paper describes a paradigmatic approach to develop architecture of secure systems by describing the requirements from four different points of view: that of the owner, the administrator, the user, and the network. Deriving requirements and developing architecture implies the joint elicitation and describing the problem and the structure of the solution. The view points proposed in this paper are those we consider as requirements towards their contributions as major parties in the design, implementation, usage and maintenance of secure systems. The dramatic growth of the technology of Internet and the applications deployed in World Wide Web have lead to the situation where the security has become a very important concern in the development of secure systems. Many security approaches are currently being used in organizations. In spite of the widespread use of many different security solutions, the security remains a problem. It is argued that the approach that is described in this paper for the development of secure architecture is practical by all means. The models representing these multiple points of view are termed the requirements model (views of owner and administrator) and the operations model (views of user and network). In this paper, this multiple view paradigm is explained by first describing the specific requirements and or characteristics of secure systems (particularly in the domain of networks) and the secure architecture / system development methodology.

Keywords: Multiple view paradigms, requirements model, operations model, secure system, owner, administrator, user, network.

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699 An Efficient Proxy Signature Scheme Over a Secure Communications Network

Authors: H. El-Kamchouchi, Heba Gaber, Fatma Ahmed, Dalia H. El-Kamchouchi

Abstract:

Proxy signature scheme permits an original signer to delegate his/her signing capability to a proxy signer, and then the proxy signer generates a signing message on behalf of the original signer. The two parties must be able to authenticate one another and agree on a secret encryption key, in order to communicate securely over an unreliable public network. Authenticated key agreement protocols have an important role in building secure communications network between the two parties. In this paper, we present a secure proxy signature scheme over an efficient and secure authenticated key agreement protocol based on the discrete logarithm problem.

Keywords: Proxy signature, warrant partial delegation, key agreement, discrete logarithm.

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698 Importance of Hardware Systems and Circuits in Secure Software Development Life Cycle

Authors: Mir Shahriar Emami

Abstract:

Although it is fully impossible to ensure that a software system is quite secure, developing an acceptable secure software system in a convenient platform is not unreachable. In this paper, we attempt to analyze software development life cycle (SDLC) models from the hardware systems and circuits point of view. To date, the SDLC models pay merely attention to the software security from the software perspectives. In this paper, we present new features for SDLC stages to emphasize the role of systems and circuits in developing secure software system through the software development stages, the point that has not been considered previously in the SDLC models.

Keywords: Systems and circuits security, software security, software process engineering, SDLC, SSDLC.

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697 Secure Proxy Signature Based on Factoring and Discrete Logarithm

Authors: H. El-Kamchouchi, Heba Gaber, Fatma Ahmed, Dalia H. El-Kamchouchi

Abstract:

A digital signature is an electronic signature form used by an original signer to sign a specific document. When the original signer is not in his office or when he/she travels outside, he/she delegates his signing capability to a proxy signer and then the proxy signer generates a signing message on behalf of the original signer. The two parties must be able to authenticate one another and agree on a secret encryption key, in order to communicate securely over an unreliable public network. Authenticated key agreement protocols have an important role in building a secure communications network between the two parties. In this paper, we present a secure proxy signature scheme over an efficient and secure authenticated key agreement protocol based on factoring and discrete logarithm problem.

Keywords: Discrete logarithm, factoring, proxy signature, key agreement.

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696 Secure Internet Connectivity for Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) based Mobile Ad hoc Networks

Authors: Ramanarayana Kandikattu, Lillykutty Jacob

Abstract:

'Secure routing in Mobile Ad hoc networks' and 'Internet connectivity to Mobile Ad hoc networks' have been dealt separately in the past research. This paper proposes a light weight solution for secure routing in integrated Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET)-Internet. The proposed framework ensures mutual authentication of Mobile Node (MN), Foreign Agent (FA) and Home Agent (HA) to avoid various attacks on global connectivity and employs light weight hop-by-hop authentication and end-to-end integrity to protect the network from most of the potential security attacks. The framework also uses dynamic security monitoring mechanism to monitor the misbehavior of internal nodes. Security and performance analysis show that our proposed framework achieves good security while keeping the overhead and latency minimal.

Keywords: Internet, Mobile Ad hoc Networks, Secure routing.

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695 Design and Implementation of Secure Electronic Payment System (Client)

Authors: Pyae Pyae Hun

Abstract:

Secure electronic payment system is presented in this paper. This electronic payment system is to be secure for clients such as customers and shop owners. The security architecture of the system is designed by RC5 encryption / decryption algorithm. This eliminates the fraud that occurs today with stolen credit card numbers. The symmetric key cryptosystem RC5 can protect conventional transaction data such as account numbers, amount and other information. This process can be done electronically using RC5 encryption / decryption program written by Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0. There is no danger of any data sent within the system being intercepted, and replaced. The alternative is to use the existing network, and to encrypt all data transmissions. The system with encryption is acceptably secure, but that the level of encryption has to be stepped up, as computing power increases. Results In order to be secure the system the communication between modules is encrypted using symmetric key cryptosystem RC5. The system will use simple user name, password, user ID, user type and cipher authentication mechanism for identification, when the user first enters the system. It is the most common method of authentication in most computer system.

Keywords: A 128-bit block cipher, Microsoft visual basic 6.0, RC5 encryption /decryption algorithm and TCP/IP protocol.

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694 Wireless Transmission of Big Data Using Novel Secure Algorithm

Authors: K. Thiagarajan, K. Saranya, A. Veeraiah, B. Sudha

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel algorithm for secure, reliable and flexible transmission of big data in two hop wireless networks using cooperative jamming scheme. Two hop wireless networks consist of source, relay and destination nodes. Big data has to transmit from source to relay and from relay to destination by deploying security in physical layer. Cooperative jamming scheme determines transmission of big data in more secure manner by protecting it from eavesdroppers and malicious nodes of unknown location. The novel algorithm that ensures secure and energy balance transmission of big data, includes selection of data transmitting region, segmenting the selected region, determining probability ratio for each node (capture node, non-capture and eavesdropper node) in every segment, evaluating the probability using binary based evaluation. If it is secure transmission resume with the two- hop transmission of big data, otherwise prevent the attackers by cooperative jamming scheme and transmit the data in two-hop transmission.

Keywords: Big data, cooperative jamming, energy balance, physical layer, two-hop transmission, wireless security.

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693 Standard Deviation of Mean and Variance of Rows and Columns of Images for CBIR

Authors: H. B. Kekre, Kavita Patil

Abstract:

This paper describes a novel and effective approach to content-based image retrieval (CBIR) that represents each image in the database by a vector of feature values called “Standard deviation of mean vectors of color distribution of rows and columns of images for CBIR". In many areas of commerce, government, academia, and hospitals, large collections of digital images are being created. This paper describes the approach that uses contents as feature vector for retrieval of similar images. There are several classes of features that are used to specify queries: colour, texture, shape, spatial layout. Colour features are often easily obtained directly from the pixel intensities. In this paper feature extraction is done for the texture descriptor that is 'variance' and 'Variance of Variances'. First standard deviation of each row and column mean is calculated for R, G, and B planes. These six values are obtained for one image which acts as a feature vector. Secondly we calculate variance of the row and column of R, G and B planes of an image. Then six standard deviations of these variance sequences are calculated to form a feature vector of dimension six. We applied our approach to a database of 300 BMP images. We have determined the capability of automatic indexing by analyzing image content: color and texture as features and by applying a similarity measure Euclidean distance.

Keywords: Standard deviation Image retrieval, color distribution, Variance, Variance of Variance, Euclidean distance.

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692 Implementation of a Virtual Testbed for Secure IoT Firmware Update Using Blockchain

Authors: Tarun Chand, Michael Jurczyk

Abstract:

With the increasing need and popularity of IoT devices and how integrated they are becoming in our daily lives and industries; these devices make for a very lucrative target for malicious actors. And since these devices have such limited resources, the implementation of robust security features is a tradeoff to be made for the actual functionality the device was intended for. This makes them an easy target with high returns. Several frameworks for the secure firmware update of these devices have been recently proposed in the literature. They focus on methods such as blockchains and distributed file systems to secure firmware updates, but do not go into the details of the actual implementation of these frameworks and the lower-level interactions among these methods used. This work integrates some of these security measures into one overall framework and details the actual lower-level implementation of this framework in a virtual dockerized testbed running on AWS.

Keywords: Blockchain, Ethereum, Geth, IPFS, secure IoT-firmware update, virtual testbed development

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691 Spread Spectrum Image Watermarking for Secured Multimedia Data Communication

Authors: Tirtha S. Das, Ayan K. Sau, Subir K. Sarkar

Abstract:

Digital watermarking is a way to provide the facility of secure multimedia data communication besides its copyright protection approach. The Spread Spectrum modulation principle is widely used in digital watermarking to satisfy the robustness of multimedia signals against various signal-processing operations. Several SS watermarking algorithms have been proposed for multimedia signals but very few works have discussed on the issues responsible for secure data communication and its robustness improvement. The current paper has critically analyzed few such factors namely properties of spreading codes, proper signal decomposition suitable for data embedding, security provided by the key, successive bit cancellation method applied at decoder which have greater impact on the detection reliability, secure communication of significant signal under camouflage of insignificant signals etc. Based on the analysis, robust SS watermarking scheme for secure data communication is proposed in wavelet domain and improvement in secure communication and robustness performance is reported through experimental results. The reported result also shows improvement in visual and statistical invisibility of the hidden data.

Keywords: Spread spectrum modulation, spreading code, signaldecomposition, security, successive bit cancellation

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690 Chaos-based Secure Communication via Continuous Variable Structure Control

Authors: Cheng-Fang Huang, Meei-Ling Hung, Teh-Lu Liao, Her-Terng Yau, Jun-Juh Yan

Abstract:

The design of chaos-based secure communication via synchronized modified Chua-s systems is investigated in this paper. A continuous control law is proposed to ensure synchronization of the master and slave modified Chua-s systems by using the variable structure control technique. Particularly, the concept of extended systems is introduced such that a continuous control input is obtained to avoid chattering phenomenon. Then, it becomes possible to ensure that the message signal embedded in the transmitter can be recovered in the receiver.

Keywords: Chaos, Secure communication, Synchronization, Variable structure control (VSC)

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689 Secure Socket Layer in the Network and Web Security

Authors: Roza Dastres, Mohsen Soori

Abstract:

In order to electronically exchange information between network users in the web of data, different software such as outlook is presented. So, the traffic of users on a site or even the floors of a building can be decreased as a result of applying a secure and reliable data sharing software. It is essential to provide a fast, secure and reliable network system in the data sharing webs to create an advanced communication systems in the users of network. In the present research work, different encoding methods and algorithms in data sharing systems is studied in order to increase security of data sharing systems by preventing the access of hackers to the transferred data. To increase security in the networks, the possibility of textual conversation between customers of a local network is studied. Application of the encryption and decryption algorithms is studied in order to increase security in networks by preventing hackers from infiltrating. As a result, a reliable and secure communication system between members of a network can be provided by preventing additional traffic in the website environment in order to increase speed, accuracy and security in the network and web systems of data sharing.

Keywords: Secure Socket Layer, Security of networks.

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688 An Enhanced Fault-Tolerant Conference Key Agreement Protocol

Authors: Cheng-Chi Lee, Chun-Ta Li, Chia-Ying Wu, Shiow-Yuan Huang

Abstract:

Establishing a secure communication of Internet conferences for participants is very important. Before starting the conference, all the participants establish a common conference key to encrypt/decrypt communicated messages. It enables participants to exchange the secure messages. Nevertheless, in the conference, if there are any malicious participants who may try to upset the key generation process causing other legal participants to obtain a different conference key. In this article, we propose an improved conference key agreement with fault-tolerant capability. The proposed scheme can filter malicious participants at the beginning of the conference to ensure that all participants obtain the same conference key. Compare with other schemes, our scheme is more secure and efficient than others.

Keywords: Conference key, Diffie-Hellman protocol, key agreement, fault tolerance.

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687 Variance Based Component Analysis for Texture Segmentation

Authors: Zeinab Ghasemi, S. Amirhassan Monadjemi, Abbas Vafaei

Abstract:

This paper presents a comparative analysis of a new unsupervised PCA-based technique for steel plates texture segmentation towards defect detection. The proposed scheme called Variance Based Component Analysis or VBCA employs PCA for feature extraction, applies a feature reduction algorithm based on variance of eigenpictures and classifies the pixels as defective and normal. While the classic PCA uses a clusterer like Kmeans for pixel clustering, VBCA employs thresholding and some post processing operations to label pixels as defective and normal. The experimental results show that proposed algorithm called VBCA is 12.46% more accurate and 78.85% faster than the classic PCA.

Keywords: Principal Component Analysis; Variance Based Component Analysis; Defect Detection; Texture Segmentation.

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686 Secure Low-Bandwidth Video Streaming through Reliable Multipath Propagation in MANETs

Authors: S. Mohideen Badhusha, K. Duraiswamy

Abstract:

Most of the existing video streaming protocols provide video services without considering security aspects in decentralized mobile ad-hoc networks. The security policies adapted to the currently existing non-streaming protocols, do not comply with the live video streaming protocols resulting in considerable vulnerability, high bandwidth consumption and unreliability which cause severe security threats, low bandwidth and error prone transmission respectively in video streaming applications. Therefore a synergized methodology is required to reduce vulnerability and bandwidth consumption, and enhance reliability in the video streaming applications in MANET. To ensure the security measures with reduced bandwidth consumption and improve reliability of the video streaming applications, a Secure Low-bandwidth Video Streaming through Reliable Multipath Propagation (SLVRMP) protocol architecture has been proposed by incorporating the two algorithms namely Secure Low-bandwidth Video Streaming Algorithm and Reliable Secure Multipath Propagation Algorithm using Layered Video Coding in non-overlapping zone routing network topology. The performances of the proposed system are compared to those of the other existing secure multipath protocols Sec-MR, SPREAD using NS 2.34 and the simulation results show that the performances of the proposed system get considerably improved.

Keywords: Bandwidth consumption, layered video coding, multipath propagation, reliability, security threats, video streaming applications, vulnerability.

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