Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: Cost Control

6 Achieving Design-Stage Elemental Cost Planning Accuracy: Case Study of New Zealand

Authors: Johnson Adafin, James O. B. Rotimi, Suzanne Wilkinson, Abimbola O. Windapo

Abstract:

An aspect of client expenditure management that requires attention is the level of accuracy achievable in design-stage elemental cost planning. This has been a major concern for construction clients and practitioners in New Zealand (NZ). Pre-tender estimating inaccuracies are significantly influenced by the level of risk information available to estimators. Proper cost planning activities should ensure the production of a project’s likely construction costs (initial and final), and subsequent cost control activities should prevent unpleasant consequences of cost overruns, disputes and project abandonment. If risks were properly identified and priced at the design stage, observed variance between design-stage elemental cost plans (ECPs) and final tender sums (FTS) (initial contract sums) could be reduced. This study investigates the variations between design-stage ECPs and FTS of construction projects, with a view to identifying risk factors that are responsible for the observed variance. Data were sourced through interviews, and risk factors were identified by using thematic analysis. Access was obtained to project files from the records of study participants (consultant quantity surveyors), and document analysis was employed in complementing the responses from the interviews. Study findings revealed the discrepancies between ECPs and FTS in the region of -14% and +16%. It is opined in this study that the identified risk factors were responsible for the variability observed. The values obtained from the analysis would enable greater accuracy in the forecast of FTS by Quantity Surveyors. Further, whilst inherent risks in construction project developments are observed globally, these findings have important ramifications for construction projects by expanding existing knowledge on what is needed for reasonable budgetary performance and successful delivery of construction projects. The findings contribute significantly to the study by providing quantitative confirmation to justify the theoretical conclusions generated in the literature from around the world. This therefore adds to and consolidates existing knowledge.

Keywords: New Zealand, Accuracy, design-stage, elemental cost plan, final tender sum

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5 Techniques of Construction Management in Civil Engineering

Authors: Mamoon M. Atout

Abstract:

The Middle East Gulf region has witnessed rapid growth and development in many areas over the last two decades. The development of the real-estate sector, construction industry and infrastructure projects are a major share of the development that has participated in the civilization of the countries of the Gulf. Construction industry projects were planned and managed by different types of experts, who came from all over the world having different types of experiences in construction management and industry. Some of these projects were completed on time, while many were not, due to many accumulating factors. Many accumulated factors are considered as the principle reason for the problem experienced at the project construction stage, which reflected negatively on the project success. Specific causes of delay have been identified by construction managers to avoid any unexpected delays through proper analysis and considerations to some implications such as risk assessment and analysis for many potential problems to ensure that projects will be delivered on time. Construction management implications were adopted and considered by project managers who have experience and knowledge in applying the techniques of the system of engineering construction management. The aim of this research is to determine the benefits of the implications of construction management by the construction team and level of considerations of the techniques and processes during the project development and construction phases to avoid any delay in the projects. It also aims to determine the factors that participate to project completion delays in case project managers are not well committed to their roles and responsibilities. The results of the analysis will determine the necessity of the applications required by the project team to avoid the causes of delays that help them deliver projects on time, e.g. verifying tender documents, quantities and preparing the construction method of the project.

Keywords: Construction Management, Planning and Scheduling, Roles and Responsibilities, Control Process, cost control

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4 Feedback Stabilization Based on Observer and Guaranteed Cost Control for Lipschitz Nonlinear Systems

Authors: A. Thabet, G. B. H. Frej, M. Boutayeb

Abstract:

This paper presents a design of dynamic feedback control based on observer for a class of large scale Lipschitz nonlinear systems. The use of Differential Mean Value Theorem (DMVT) is to introduce a general condition on the nonlinear functions. To ensure asymptotic stability, sufficient conditions are expressed in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). High performances are shown through real time implementation with ARDUINO Duemilanove board to the one-link flexible joint robot.

Keywords: feedback stabilization, nonlinear observer, DMVT, Lipschitz nonlinear systems, real time implementation

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3 Critical Success Factors Influencing Construction Project Performance for Different Objectives: Procurement Phase

Authors: Samart Homthong, Wutthipong Moungnoi

Abstract:

Critical success factors (CSFs) and the criteria to measure project success have received much attention over the decades and are among the most widely researched topics in the context of project management. However, although there have been extensive studies on the subject by different researchers, to date, there has been little agreement on the CSFs. The aim of this study is to identify the CSFs that influence the performance of construction projects, and determine their relative importance for different objectives across five stages in the project life cycle. A considerable literature review was conducted that resulted in the identification of 179 individual factors. These factors were then grouped into nine major categories. A questionnaire survey was used to collect data from three groups of respondents: client representatives, consultants, and contractors. Out of 164 questionnaires distributed, 93 were returned, yielding a response rate of 56.7%. Using the mean score, relative importance index, and weighted average method, the top 10 critical factors for each category were identified. The agreement of survey respondents on those categorised factors were analysed using Spearman’s rank correlation. A one-way analysis of variance was then performed to determine whether the mean scores among the various groups of respondents were statistically significant. The findings indicate the most CSFs in each category in procurement phase are: proper procurement programming of materials (time), stability in the price of materials (cost), and determining quality in the construction (quality). They are then followed by safety equipment acquisition and maintenance (health and safety), budgeting allowed in a contractual arrangement for implementing environmental management activities (environment), completeness of drawing documents (productivity), accurate measurement and pricing of bill of quantities (risk management), adequate communication among the project team (human resource), and adequate cost control measures (client satisfaction). An understanding of CSFs would help all interested parties in the construction industry to improve project performance. Furthermore, the results of this study would help construction professionals and practitioners take proactive measures for effective project management.

Keywords: Procurement Phase, critical success factors, project performance, project life cycle

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2 Examination of Pre-Tender Budgeting Techniques for Mechanical and Electrical Services in Malaysia

Authors: Ganiyu Amuda Yusuf, Sarajul Fikri Mohamed

Abstract:

The procurement and cost management approach adopted for mechanical and electrical (M&E) services in Malaysian construction industry have been criticized for its inefficiency. The study examined early cost estimating practices adopted for mechanical and electrical services (M&E) in Malaysia so as to understand the level of compliance of the current techniques with best practices. The methodology adopted for the study is a review of bidding documents used on both completed and on – going building projects awarded between 2008 – 2010 under 9th Malaysian Plan. The analysis revealed that, M&E services cost cannot be reliably estimated at pre-contract stage; the bidding techniques adopted for M&E services failed to provide uniform basis for contractors to submit tender; detailed measurement of items were not made which could complicate post contract cost control and financial management. The paper concluded that, there is need to follow a structured approach in determining the pre-contract cost estimate for M&E services which will serve as a virile tool for post contract cost control.

Keywords: Cost Management, Procurement, Mechanical and Electrical Services, Standard Method of Measurement

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1 Wafer Fab Operational Cost Monitoring and Controlling with Cost per Equivalent Wafer Out

Authors: Ian Kree, Davina Chin Lee Yien

Abstract:

This paper presents Cost per Equivalent Wafer Out, which we find useful in wafer fab operational cost monitoring and controlling. It removes the loading and product mix effect in the cost variance analysis. The operation heads, therefore, could immediately focus on identifying areas for cost improvement. Without this, they would have to measure the impact of the loading variance and product mix variance between actual and budgeted prior to make any decision on cost improvement. Cost per Equivalent Wafer Out, thereby, increases efficiency in wafer fab operational cost monitoring and controlling.

Keywords: Semiconductor, cost control, Cost Variance, Operational Expenditure

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