Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 220

Search results for: indoor radon

220 Design Criteria for Achieving Acceptable Indoor Radon Concentration

Authors: T. Valdbjørn Rasmussen

Abstract:

Design criteria for achieving an acceptable indoor radon concentration are presented in this paper. The paper suggests three design criteria. These criteria have to be considered at the early stage of the building design phase to meet the latest recommendations from the World Health Organization in most countries. The three design criteria are; first, establishing a radon barrier facing the ground; second, lowering the air pressure in the lower zone of the slab on ground facing downwards; third, diluting the indoor air with outdoor air. The first two criteria can prevent radon from infiltrating from the ground, and the third criteria can dilute the indoor air. By combining these three criteria, the indoor radon concentration can be lowered achieving an acceptable level. In addition, a cheap and reliable method for measuring the radon concentration in the indoor air is described. The provision on radon in the Danish Building Regulations complies with the latest recommendations from the World Health Organization. Radon can cause lung cancer and it is not known whether there is a lower limit for when it is not harmful to human beings. Therefore, it is important to reduce the radon concentration as much as possible in buildings. Airtightness is an important factor when dealing with buildings. It is important to avoid air leakages in the building envelope both facing the atmosphere, e.g. in compliance with energy requirements, but also facing the ground, to meet the requirements to ensure and control the indoor environment. Infiltration of air from the ground underneath a building is the main providing source of radon to the indoor air.

Keywords: Radon, natural radiation, barrier, pressure lowering, ventilation.

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219 A Comparative Study of Indoor Radon Concentrations between Dwellings and Workplaces in the Ko Samui District, Surat Thani Province, Southern Thailand

Authors: Kanokkan Titipornpun, Tripob Bhongsuwan, Jan Gimsa

Abstract:

The Ko Samui district of Surat Thani province is located in the high amounts of equivalent uranium in the ground surface that is the source of radon. Our research in the Ko Samui district aimed at comparing the indoor radon concentrations between dwellings and workplaces. Measurements of indoor radon concentrations were carried out in 46 dwellings and 127 workplaces, using CR-39 alpha-track detectors in closed-cup. A total of 173 detectors were distributed in 7 sub-districts. The detectors were placed in bedrooms of dwellings and workrooms of workplaces. All detectors were exposed to airborne radon for 90 days. After exposure, the alpha tracks were made visible by chemical etching before they were manually counted under an optical microscope. The track densities were assumed to be correlated with the radon concentration levels. We found that the radon concentrations could be well described by a log-normal distribution. Most concentrations (37%) were found in the range between 16 and 30 Bq.m-3. The radon concentrations in dwellings and workplaces varied from a minimum of 11 Bq.m-3 to a maximum of 305 Bq.m-3. The minimum (11 Bq.m-3) and maximum (305 Bq.m-3) values of indoor radon concentrations were found in a workplace and a dwelling, respectively. Only for four samples (3%), the indoor radon concentrations were found to be higher than the reference level recommended by the WHO (100 Bq.m-3). The overall geometric mean in the surveyed area was 32.6±1.65 Bq.m-3, which was lower than the worldwide average (39 Bq.m-3). The statistic comparison of the geometric mean indoor radon concentrations between dwellings and workplaces showed that the geometric mean in dwellings (46.0±1.55 Bq.m-3) was significantly higher than in workplaces (28.8±1.58 Bq.m-3) at the 0.05 level. Moreover, our study found that the majority of the bedrooms in dwellings had a closed atmosphere, resulting in poorer ventilation than in most of the workplaces that had access to air flow through open doors and windows at daytime. We consider this to be the main reason for the higher geometric mean indoor radon concentration in dwellings compared to workplaces.

Keywords: CR-39 detector, indoor radon, radon in dwelling, radon in workplace.

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218 Effectiveness of Radon Remedial Action Implemented in a School on the Island of Ischia

Authors: F. Loffredo, M. Quarto, M. Pugliese, A. Mazzella, F. De Cicco, V. Roca

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of radon remedial action in a school on the Ischia island, South Italy, affected by indoor radon concentration higher than the value of 500 Bq/m3. This value is the limit imposed by the Italian legislation, to above which corrective actions in schools are necessary. Before the application of remedial action, indoor radon concentrations were measured in 9 rooms of the school. The measurements were performed with LR-115 passive alpha detectors (SSNTDs) and E-Perm. The remedial action was conducted in one of the office affected by high radon concentration using a Radonstop paint applied after the construction of a concrete slab under the floor. The effect of remedial action was the reduction of the concentration of radon of 41% and moreover it has demonstrated to be durable over time. The chosen method is cheap and easy to apply and it could be designed for various types of building. This method can be applied to new and existing buildings that show high dose values.

Keywords: E-Perm, LR 115 detectors, radon remediation, school.

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217 Hazards Assessment of Radon Exhalation Rate and Radium Content in the Soil Samples in Iraqi Kurdistan Using Passive and Active Detecting Methods

Authors: Asaad H. Ismail, Mohamad S. Jaafar

Abstract:

This study aims to assess the environmental hazards from radon exhalation rate in the soil samples in selected locations in Iraqi Kurdistan, using passive (CR-39NTDs) and active (RAD7) detecting method. Radon concentration, effective radium content and radon exhalation rate were estimated in soil samples that collected at the depth level of 30 cm inside 124 houses. The results show that the emanation rate for radon gas was variation from location to other, depending on the geological formation. Most health risks come from emanation of radon and its daughter due to its contribution for indoor radon, so the results showed that there is a linear relationship between the ratio of soil and indoor radon concentration (CSoil Rn222/ Cindoor Rn222) and the effective radium content in soil samples. The results show that radon concentration has high and low values in Hajyawa city and Er. Tyrawa Qr, respectively. A comparison between our results with that mentioned in international reports was done.

Keywords: Radon, CR-39NTDs, RAD7, Soil, Iraqi Kurdistan.

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216 Radon in Drinking Water in Novi Sad

Authors: J. Nikolov, N. Todorovic, S. Forkapic, I. Bikit, D. Mrdja

Abstract:

Exposure to radon occurs when breathing airborne radon while using water: showering, washing dishes, cooking, and drinking water that contain radon. The results of radon activity measurements in water from public drinking fountain in city of Novi Sad, Serbia is presented in this paper. Radon level in some samples exceeded EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) recommendation for maximum contaminant level (MCL) for radon in drinking water of 11.1 Bq/l.

Keywords: radon, radioactivity dose, public drink fountain.

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215 Radon-222 Concentration and Potential Risk to Workers of Al-Jalamid Phosphate Mines, North Province, Saudi Arabia

Authors: El-Said. I. Shabana, Mohammad S. Tayeb, Maher M. T. Qutub, Abdulraheem A. Kinsara

Abstract:

Usually, phosphate deposits contain 238U and 232Th in addition to their decay products. Due to their different pathways in the environment, the 238U/232Th activity concentration ratio usually found to be greater than unity in phosphate sediments. The presence of these radionuclides creates a potential need to control exposure of workers in the mining and processing activities of the phosphate minerals in accordance with IAEA safety standards. The greatest dose to workers comes from exposure to radon, especially 222Rn from the uranium series, and has to be controlled. In this regard, radon (222Rn) was measured in the atmosphere (indoor and outdoor) of Al-Jalamid phosphate-mines working area using a portable radon-measurement instrument RAD7, in a purpose of radiation protection. Radon was measured in 61 sites inside the open phosphate mines, the phosphate upgrading facility (offices and rooms of the workers, and in some open-air sites) and in the dwellings of the workers residence-village that lies at about 3 km from the mines working area. The obtained results indicated that the average indoor radon concentration was about 48.4 Bq/m3. Inside the upgrading facility, the average outdoor concentrations were 10.8 and 9.7 Bq/m3 in the concentrate piles and crushing areas, respectively. It was 12.3 Bq/m3 in the atmosphere of the open mines. These values are comparable with the global average values. Based on the average values, the annual effective dose due to radon inhalation was calculated and risk estimates have been done. The average annual effective dose to workers due to the radon inhalation was estimated by 1.32 mSv. The potential excess risk of lung cancer mortality that could be attributed to radon, when considering the lifetime exposure, was estimated by 53.0x10-4. The results have been discussed in detail.

Keywords: Dosimetry, environmental monitoring, phosphate deposits, radiation protection, radon-22.

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214 Environmental Impact Assessment of Ceramic Tile Materials Used in Jordan on Indoor Radon Level

Authors: Mefleh S. Hamideen

Abstract:

In this investigation, activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K, of some ceramic tile materials used in the local market of Jordan for interior decoration were determined by making use of High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. Twenty samples of different country of origin and sizes used in Jordan were analyzed. The concentration values of the last-mentioned radionuclides ranged from 30 Bq.kg-1 (Sample from Jordan) to 98 Bq.kg-1 (Sample from China) for 226Ra, 31 Bq.kg-1 (Sample from Italy) to 98 Bq.kg-1 (Sample from China) for 232Th, and 129 Bq.kg-1 (Sample from Spain) to 679 Bq.kg-1 (Sample from Italy) for 40K. Based on the calculated activity concentrations, some radiological parameters have been calculated to test the radiation hazards in the ceramic tiles. In this work, the following parameters: Total absorbed dose rate (DR), Annual effective dose rate (HR), Radium equivalent activity (Raeq), Radon emanation coefficient F (%) and Radon mass exhalation rate (Em) were calculated for all ceramic tiles and listed in the body of the work. Fortunately, the average calculated values of all parameters are less than the recommended values for each parameter. Consequently, almost all the examined ceramic materials appear to have low radon emanation coefficients. As a result of that investigation, no problems on people can appear by using those ceramic tiles in Jordan.

Keywords: radon emanation coefficient, radon mass exhalation rate, total annual effective dose, radon level

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213 Computational Model for Prediction of Soil-Gas Radon-222 Concentration in Soil-Depths and Soil Grain Size Particles

Authors: I. M. Yusuff, O. M. Oni, A. A. Aremu

Abstract:

Percentage of soil-gas radon-222 concentration (222Rn) from soil-depths contributing to outdoor radon atmospheric level depends largely on some physical parameters of the soil. To determine its dependency in soil-depths, survey tests were carried out on soil depths and grain size particles using in-situ measurement method of soil-gas radon-222 concentration at different soil depths. The measurements were carried out with an electronic active radon detector (RAD-7) manufactured by Durridge Company USA. Radon-222 concentrations (222Rn) in soil-gas were measured at four different soil depths of 20, 40, 60 and 100 cm in five feasible locations. At each soil depth, soil samples were collected for grain size particle analysis using soil grasp sampler. The result showed that highest value of radon-222 concentration (24,680 ± 1960 Bqm-3) was measured at 100 cm depth with utmost grain size particle of 17.64% while the lowest concentration (7370 ± 1139 Bqm-3) was measured at 100 cm depth with least grain size particle of 10.75% respectively. A computational model was derived using SPSS regression package. This model could be a yardstick for prediction on soil gas radon concentration reference to soil grain size particle at different soil-depths.

Keywords: Concentration, radon, porosity, diffusion, colorectal, emanation, yardstick.

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212 A New Technique for Progressive ECG Transmission using Discrete Radon Transform

Authors: Amine Naït-Ali

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to present a new method which can be used for progressive transmission of electrocardiogram (ECG). The idea consists in transforming any ECG signal to an image, containing one beat in each row. In the first step, the beats are synchronized in order to reduce the high frequencies due to inter-beat transitions. The obtained image is then transformed using a discrete version of Radon Transform (DRT). Hence, transmitting the ECG, leads to transmit the most significant energy of the transformed image in Radon domain. For decoding purpose, the receptor needs to use the inverse Radon Transform as well as the two synchronization frames. The presented protocol can be adapted for lossy to lossless compression systems. In lossy mode we show that the compression ratio can be multiplied by an average factor of 2 for an acceptable quality of reconstructed signal. These results have been obtained on real signals from MIT database.

Keywords: Discrete Radon Transform, ECG compression, synchronization.

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211 Offline Signature Recognition using Radon Transform

Authors: M.Radmehr, S.M.Anisheh, I.Yousefian

Abstract:

In this work a new offline signature recognition system based on Radon Transform, Fractal Dimension (FD) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) is presented. In the first step, projections of original signatures along four specified directions have been performed using radon transform. Then, FDs of four obtained vectors are calculated to construct a feature vector for each signature. These vectors are then fed into SVM classifier for recognition of signatures. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the system several experiments are carried out. Offline signature database from signature verification competition (SVC) 2004 is used during all of the tests. Experimental result indicates that the proposed method achieved high accuracy rate in signature recognition.

Keywords: Fractal Dimension, Offline Signature Recognition, Radon Transform, Support Vector Machine

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210 An Artificial Neural Network Model for Earthquake Prediction and Relations between Environmental Parameters and Earthquakes

Authors: S. Niksarlioglu, F. Kulahci

Abstract:

Earthquakes are natural phenomena that occur with influence of a lot of parameters such as seismic activity, changing in the ground waters' motion, changing in the water-s temperature, etc. On the other hand, the radon gas concentrations in soil vary as nonlinear generally with earthquakes. Continuous measurement of the soil radon gas is very important for determination of characteristic of the seismic activity. The radon gas changes as continuous with strain occurring within the Earth-s surface during an earthquake and effects from the physical and the chemical processes such as soil structure, soil permeability, soil temperature, the barometric pressure, etc. Therefore, at the modeling researches are notsufficient to knowthe concentration ofradon gas. In this research, we determined relationships between radon emissions based on the environmental parameters and earthquakes occurring along the East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ), Turkiye and predicted magnitudes of some earthquakes with the artificial neural network (ANN) model.

Keywords: Earthquake, Modeling, Prediction, Radon.

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209 Comparative Study of Indoor Environment in Residential Buildings in Hot Humid Climate of Malaysia

Authors: M. I. Mohd Hafizal, Y. Hiroshi, T. Goto

Abstract:

There-s a lack in understanding the indoor climate of Malaysian residential. The assumption of traditional house could provide the best indoor environment is too good to be true. This research is to understand indoor environment in three types of Malaysian residential and thermo recorder TR72Ui were placed in indoor spaces for measurement. There are huge differences of indoor environment between housing types, and building material helps to control indoor climate. Traditional house indoor climate was similar to the outdoor. Temperature in the bedroom of terrace and town houses were slightly higher than the living room. Indoor temperature was 2oC lower in the rainy season than the hot season. It was hard to control indoor humidity level in traditional house compared with terrace and town house. As for conclusion, town house provides the best thermal environment to the building occupants and can be improved with good roof insulation.

Keywords: Indoor environment, residential, temperature.

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208 Geochemistry of Natural Radionuclides Associated with Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) in a Coal Mining Area in Southern Brazil

Authors: Juliana A. Galhardi, Daniel M. Bonotto

Abstract:

Coal is an important non-renewable energy source of and can be associated with radioactive elements. In Figueira city, Paraná state, Brazil, it was recorded high uranium activity near the coal mine that supplies a local thermoelectric power plant. In this context, the radon activity (Rn-222, produced by the Ra-226 decay in the U-238 natural series) was evaluated in groundwater, river water and effluents produced from the acid mine drainage in the coal reject dumps. The samples were collected in August 2013 and in February 2014 and analyzed at LABIDRO (Laboratory of Isotope and Hydrochemistry), UNESP, Rio Claro city, Brazil, using an alpha spectrometer (AlphaGuard) adjusted to evaluate the mean radon activity concentration in five cycles of 10 minutes. No radon activity concentration above 100 Bq.L-1, which was a previous critic value established by the World Health Organization. The average radon activity concentration in groundwater was higher than in surface water and in effluent samples, possibly due to the accumulation of uranium and radium in the aquifer layers that favors the radon trapping. The lower value in the river waters can indicate dilution and the intermediate value in the effluents may indicate radon absorption in the coal particles of the reject dumps. The results also indicate that the radon activities in the effluents increase with the sample acidification, possibly due to the higher radium leaching and the subsequent radon transport to the drainage flow. The water samples of Laranjinha River and Ribeirão das Pedras stream, which, respectively, supply Figueira city and receive the mining effluent, exhibited higher pH values upstream the mine, reflecting the acid mine drainage discharge. The radionuclides transport indicates the importance of monitoring their activity concentration in natural waters due to the risks that the radioactivity can represent to human health.

Keywords: Radon, radium, acid mine drainage, coal

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207 Indoor Moisture Control of Auckland Houses with Different Ventilation Systems

Authors: Bin Su

Abstract:

Auckland has a temperate climate with comfortable warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters. Auckland house design not only focus on winter thermal performance and indoor thermal condition, but also indoor moisture control, which is closely related to indirect health effects such as dust mites, fungi, etc. Most Auckland houses are designed to use temporary heating for winter indoor thermal comfort. Based on field study data of indoor microclimate conditions of two Auckland townhouses with a whole home mechanical ventilation system or a passive wind directional skylight vent, this study is to evaluate and compare indoor moisture conditions of two insulated townhouses only using temporary heating with different ventilation systems.

Keywords: House ventilation, house thermal design, indoor health condition, indoor moisture control.

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206 The Impact of an Air-Supply Guide Vane on the Indoor Air Distribution

Authors: C.-C. Tsao, S.-W. Nien, W.-H. Chen , Y.-C. Shih

Abstract:

Indoor air distribution has great impact on people-s thermal sensation. Therefore, how to remove the indoor excess heat becomes an important issue to create a thermally comfortable indoor environment. To expel the extra indoor heat effectively, this paper used a dynamic CFD approach to study the effect of an air-supply guide vane swinging periodically on the indoor air distribution within a model room. The numerical results revealed that the indoor heat transfer performance caused by the swing guide vane had close relation with the number of vortices developing under the inlet cold jet. At larger swing amplitude, two smaller vortices continued to shed outward under the cold jet and remove the indoor heat load more effectively. As a result, it can be found that the average Nusselt number on the floor increased with the increase of the swing amplitude of the guide vane.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), dynamic mesh, heat transfer, indoor air distribution, thermal comfort.

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205 House Indoor Thermal and Health Conditions with Different Passive Designs

Authors: Bin Su

Abstract:

According to the Auckland climate, building passive design more focus on improving winter indoor thermal and health conditions. Based on field study data of indoor air temperature and relative humidity close to ceiling and floor of an insulated Auckland townhouse with and without a whole home mechanical ventilation system, this study is to analysis variation of indoor microclimate data of an Auckland townhouse using or not using the mechanical ventilation system to evaluate winter indoor thermal and health conditions for the future house design with a mechanical ventilation system.

Keywords: House ventilation, indoor thermal condition, indoor health condition, passive design.

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204 An Application-Based Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) Calculator for Residential Buildings

Authors: Kwok W. Mui, Ling T. Wong, Chin T. Cheung, Ho C. Yu

Abstract:

Based on an indoor environmental quality (IEQ) index established by previous work that indicates the overall IEQ acceptance from the prospect of an occupant in residential buildings in terms of four IEQ factors - thermal comfort, indoor air quality, visual and aural comforts, this study develops a user-friendly IEQ calculator for iOS and Android users to calculate the occupant acceptance and compare the relative performance of IEQ in apartments. “IEQ calculator” is easy to use and it preliminarily illustrates the overall indoor environmental quality on the spot. Users simply input indoor parameters such as temperature, number of people and windows are opened or closed for the mobile application to calculate the scores in four areas: the comforts of temperature, brightness, noise and indoor air quality. The calculator allows the prediction of the best IEQ scenario on a quantitative scale. Any indoor environments under the specific IEQ conditions can be benchmarked against the predicted IEQ acceptance range. This calculator can also suggest how to achieve the best IEQ acceptance among a group of residents. 

Keywords: Calculator, indoor environmental quality (IEQ), residential buildings, 5-star benchmarks.

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203 Radon Concentration in the Water Samples of Hassan District, Karnataka, India

Authors: T. S. Shashikumar

Abstract:

Radon is a radioactive gas emitted from radium, a daughter product of uranium that occurs naturally in rocks and soil. Radon, together with its decay products, emits alpha particles that can damage lung tissue. The activity concentration of 222Ra has been analyzed in water samples collected from borewells and rivers in and around Hassan city, Karnataka State, India. The measurements were performed by Emanometry technique. The concentration of 222Rn in borewell waters varies from 18.49±1.89 to 397.26±12.3 Bql-1 with geometric mean 120.48±12.87 Bql-1 and in river waters it varies from 92.63±9.31 to 93.98±9.51 Bql-1 with geometric mean of 93.16±9.33 Bql-1. In the present study, the radon concentrations are higher in Adarshanagar and Viveka Nagar which are found to be 397.26±12.3 Bql-1 and 325.78±32.56 Bql-1. Most of the analysed samples show a 222Rn concentration more than 100 Bql-1 and this can be attributed to the geology of the area where the ground waters are located, which is predominantly of granitic characteristic. The average inhalation dose and ingestion dose in the borewell water are found to be 0.405 and 0.033 µSvy-1; and in river water it is found to be 0.234 and 0.019 µSvy-1, respectively. The average total effective dose rate in borewell waters and river waters are found to be 0.433 and 0.253 µSvy-1, which does not cause any health risk to the population of Hassan region.

Keywords: Borewell, effective dose, emanometry, 222Rn.

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202 Visual Search Based Indoor Localization in Low Light via RGB-D Camera

Authors: Yali Zheng, Peipei Luo, Shinan Chen, Jiasheng Hao, Hong Cheng

Abstract:

Most of traditional visual indoor navigation algorithms and methods only consider the localization in ordinary daytime, while we focus on the indoor re-localization in low light in the paper. As RGB images are degraded in low light, less discriminative infrared and depth image pairs are taken, as the input, by RGB-D cameras, the most similar candidates, as the output, are searched from databases which is built in the bag-of-word framework. Epipolar constraints can be used to relocalize the query infrared and depth image sequence. We evaluate our method in two datasets captured by Kinect2. The results demonstrate very promising re-localization results for indoor navigation system in low light environments.

Keywords: Indoor navigation, low light, RGB-D camera, vision based.

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201 I2Navi: An Indoor Interactive NFC Navigation System for Android Smartphones

Authors: Jing Hang Choo, Soon Nyean Cheong, Yee Lien Lee, Sze Hou Teh

Abstract:

The advancement of smartphones, wireless networking and Near Field Communication (NFC) technology have opened up a new approach to indoor navigation. Although NFC technology has been used to support electronic commerce, access control, and ticketing, there is a lack of research work on building NFC-based indoor navigation system for smartphone users. This paper presents an indoor interactive navigation system (named I2Navi) based on NFC technology for users to navigate within a building with ease using their smartphones. The I2Navi system has been implemented at the Faculty of Engineering (FOE), Multimedia University (MMU) to enable students, parents, visitors who own NFC-enabled Android smartphones to navigate themselves within the faculty. An evaluation is carried out and the results show positive response to the proposed indoor navigation system using NFC and smartphone technologies.

Keywords: Near Field Communication, indoor navigation system, smartphones.

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200 Radiological Risk Assessment in Soil Samples of Western Haryana, India

Authors: R. Mehra

Abstract:

The measurements of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K using gamma spectrometry and radon concentration and exhalation rates measurements using solid state nuclear track (LR-115, Type-II plastic) detectors are used to asses a first order exposure risk for the persons residing in Fatehbad and Hissar districts of Western Haryana, India. The concentration of Radium, Thorium and Potassium in the soil samples varies from 13.37 Bq m-3 to 24.67 Bq m-3, 34.67 Bq m-3 to 67.34 Bq m-3 and 298.78 Bq m-3 to 405.67 Bq m-3 respectively with average values of 18.78, 47.35 and 361.57 Bq m-3 respectively. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq) calculated for the same soil samples varies from 92.72 Bq m-3 to 140.6 Bq m-3 with an average value of 111.80 Bq m-3. The values of absorbed dose and annual effective dose (indoors and outdoors) are found to vary from 44.18 nGy h-1 to 65.23 nGy h-1, 0.22 mSv y-1 to 0.32 mSv y-1 and 0.05 mSv y-1 to 0.08 mSv y-1 respectively. The radon concentration and exhalation rates have also been reported. The radium equivalent activities in all the soil samples were found to be lower than the limit (370 Bq kg-1) set in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) report and the value of Hex in all the samples is less than unity.

Keywords: Gamma ray spectrometry, dose, radon, exhalationrate.

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199 Analysing of Indoor Radio Wave Propagation on Ad-hoc Network by Using TP-LINK Router

Authors: Khine Phyu, Aung Myint Aye

Abstract:

This paper presents results of measurements campaign carried out at a carrier frequency of 24GHz with the help of TPLINK router in indoor line-of-sight (LOS) scenarios. Firstly, the radio wave propagation strategies are analyzed in some rooms with router of point to point Ad hoc network. Then floor attenuation is defined for 3 floors in experimental region. The free space model and dual slope models are modified by considering the influence of corridor conditions on each floor. Using these models, indoor signal attenuation can be estimated in modeling of indoor radio wave propagation. These results and modified models can also be used in planning the networks of future personal communications services.

Keywords: radio wave signal analyzing, LOS radio wavepropagation, indoor radio wave propagation, free space model, tworay model and indoor attenuation.

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198 An Analysis of Thermal Comfort for Indoor Environment of the New Assiut Housing in Egypt

Authors: Amr Sayed, Y. Hiroshi, T. Goto, N. Enteria, M. M. Radwan, M. Abdelsamei Eid

Abstract:

Climate considerations are essential dimensions in the assessment of thermal comfort and indoor environments inside Egyptian housing. The primary aim of this paper is to analyze the indoor environment of new housing in the new city of Assiut in the Southern Upper Egypt zone, in order to evaluate its thermal environment and determine the acceptable indoor operative temperatures. The psychrometric charts for ASHRAE Standard 55 and ACS used in this study would facilitate an overall representation of the climate in one of the hottest months in the summer season. This study helps to understand and deal with this problem and work on a passive cooling ventilation strategy in these contexts in future studies. The results that demonstrated the indoor temperature is too high, ranges between 31°C to 40°C in different natural ventilation strategies. This causes the indoor environment to be far from the optimum comfort operative temperature of ACS except when using air conditioners. Finally, this study is considered a base for developing a new system using natural ventilation with passive cooling strategies.

Keywords: Adaptive comfort standard (ACS), indoor environment, thermal comfort, ventilation.

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197 Modelling Indoor Air Carbon Dioxide (CO2)Concentration using Neural Network

Authors: J-P. Skön, M. Johansson, M. Raatikainen, K. Leiviskä, M. Kolehmainen

Abstract:

The use of neural networks is popular in various building applications such as prediction of heating load, ventilation rate and indoor temperature. Significant is, that only few papers deal with indoor carbon dioxide (CO2) prediction which is a very good indicator of indoor air quality (IAQ). In this study, a data-driven modelling method based on multilayer perceptron network for indoor air carbon dioxide in an apartment building is developed. Temperature and humidity measurements are used as input variables to the network. Motivation for this study derives from the following issues. First, measuring carbon dioxide is expensive and sensors power consumptions is high and secondly, this leads to short operating times of battery-powered sensors. The results show that predicting CO2 concentration based on relative humidity and temperature measurements, is difficult. Therefore, more additional information is needed.

Keywords: Indoor air quality, Modelling, Neural networks

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196 Indoor Mobile Robot Positioning Based on Wireless Fingerprint Matching

Authors: Xu Huang, Jing Fan, Maonian Wu, Yonggen Gu

Abstract:

This paper discusses the design of an indoor mobile robot positioning system. The problem of indoor positioning is solved through Wi-Fi fingerprint positioning to implement a low cost deployment. A wireless fingerprint matching algorithm based on the similarity of unequal length sequences is presented. Candidate sequences selection is defined as a set of mappings, and detection errors caused by wireless hotspot stability and the change of interior pattern can be corrected by transforming the unequal length sequences into equal length sequences. The presented scheme was verified experimentally to achieve the accuracy requirements for an indoor positioning system with low deployment cost.

Keywords: Fingerprint match, indoor positioning, mobile robot positioning system, Wi-Fi, wireless fingerprint.

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195 Impacts of the Courtyard with Glazed Roof on House Winter Thermal Conditions

Authors: Bin Su

Abstract:

The 'wind-rain' house has a courtyard with glazed roof, which allows more direct sunlight to come into indoor spaces during the winter. The glazed roof can be partially opened or closed and automatically controlled to provide natural ventilation in order to adjust for indoor thermal conditions and the roof area can be shaded by reflective insulation materials during the summer. Two field studies for evaluating indoor thermal conditions of the two 'windrain' houses have been carried out by author in 2009 and 2010. Indoor and outdoor air temperature and relative humidity adjacent to floor and ceiling of the two sample houses were continuously tested at 15-minute intervals, 24 hours a day during the winter months. Based on field study data, this study investigates relationships between building design and indoor thermal condition of the 'windrain' house to improve the future house design for building thermal comfort and energy efficiency

Keywords: Courtyard, house design, indoor thermal comfort, 'wind-rain' house

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194 Evaluation of Indoor-Outdoor Particle Size Distribution in Tehran's Elementary Schools

Authors: F. Halek, A. Kavousi, F. Hassani

Abstract:

A simultaneous study on indoor and outdoor particulate matter concentrations was done in five elementary schools in central parts of Tehran, Iran. Three sizes of particles including PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 were measured in 13 classrooms within this schools during winter (January, February and March) 2009. A laserbased portable aerosol spectrometer Model Grimm-1.108, was used for the continuous measurement of particles. The average indoor concentration of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 in studied schools were 274 μg/m3, 42 μg/m3 and 19 μg/m3 respectively; and average outdoor concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 were evaluated to be 22 μg/m3, 38 μg/m3 and 140 μg/m3 respectively.

Keywords: Elementary school, Indoor pollution, particulate matter, PM10, PM2.5, PM1.0, outdoor pollution, Tehran air pollution.

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193 Tomographic Images Reconstruction Simulation for Defects Detection in Specimen

Authors: Kedit J.

Abstract:

This paper is the tomographic images reconstruction simulation for defects detection in specimen. The specimen is the thin cylindrical steel contained with low density materials. The defects in material are simulated in three shapes.The specimen image function will be transformed to projection data. Radon transform and its inverse provide the mathematical for reconstructing tomographic images from projection data. The result of the simulation show that the reconstruction images is complete for defect detection.

Keywords: Tomography, Tomography Reconstruction, Radon Transform

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192 Enhance Indoor Environment in Buildings and Its Effect on Improving Occupant's Health

Authors: Imad M. Assali

Abstract:

Recently, the world main problem is a global warming and climate change affecting both outdoor and indoor environments, especially the air quality (AQ) as a result of vast migration of people from rural areas to urban areas. Therefore, cities became more crowded and denser from an irregular population increase, along with increasing urbanization caused many problems for the environment such as increasing the land prices, changes in life style, and the new buildings are not adapted to the climate producing uncomfortable and unhealthy indoor building conditions. As interior environments are the places that create the most intimate relationship with the user. Consequently, the indoor environment quality (IEQ) for buildings became uncomfortable and unhealthy for its occupants. The symptoms commonly associated with poor indoor environment such as itchy, headache, fatigue, and respiratory complaints such as cough and congestion, etc. The symptoms tend to improve over time or even disappear when people are away from the building. Therefore, designing a healthy indoor environment to fulfill human needs is the main concern for architects and interior designer. However, this research explores how occupant expectations and environmental attitudes may influence occupant health and satisfaction within the context of the indoor environment. In doing so, it reviews and contributes to the methods and tools used to evaluate only the indoor environment quality (IEQ) components of building performance. Its main aim is to review the literature on indoor human comfort. This is followed by a review of previous papers published related to human comfort. Finally, this paper will provide possible approaches in design level of healthy buildings.

Keywords: Sustainable building, indoor environment quality (IEQ), occupant's health, active system, sick building syndrome (SBS).

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191 Design and Implementation of Cricket-based Location Tracking System

Authors: Byung Ki Kim, Ho Min Jung, Jae-Bong Yoo, Wan Yeon Lee, Chan Young Park, Young Woong Ko

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a novel approach to location system under indoor environment. The key idea of our work is accurate distance estimation with cricket-based location system using A* algorithm. We also use magnetic sensor for detecting obstacles in indoor environment. Finally, we suggest how this system can be used in various applications such as asset tracking and monitoring.

Keywords: Cricket, Indoor Location Tracking, Mobile Robot, Localization.

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