Effectiveness of Radon Remedial Action Implemented in a School on the Island of Ischia
The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of radon remedial action in a school on the Ischia island, South Italy, affected by indoor radon concentration higher than the value of 500 Bq/m3. This value is the limit imposed by the Italian legislation, to above which corrective actions in schools are necessary. Before the application of remedial action, indoor radon concentrations were measured in 9 rooms of the school. The measurements were performed with LR-115 passive alpha detectors (SSNTDs) and E-Perm. The remedial action was conducted in one of the office affected by high radon concentration using a Radonstop paint applied after the construction of a concrete slab under the floor. The effect of remedial action was the reduction of the concentration of radon of 41% and moreover it has demonstrated to be durable over time. The chosen method is cheap and easy to apply and it could be designed for various types of building. This method can be applied to new and existing buildings that show high dose values.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1129671Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
 J. Chen, Canadian Lung Cancer Relative Risk from Radon Exposure for Short Periods in Childhood Compared to a Lifetime, Inter J. Env Res Public Health; 2003, 10: 1916-1926.
 M. Pugliese, M. Quarto, F. De Cicco, C. De Sterlich, V. Roca, Radon exposure assessment for sewerage system’s workers in Naples, South Italy, Indoor and Built Environment; 2013, 3:575-579.
 A. Clouvas , S. Xanthos and G. Takoudis, Indoor radon levels in Greek schools, J Environ Radioact; 2011, 102: 881-885.
 International Commission on Radiological Protection, and (ICRP), Protection against Radon-222 at home and at work, ICRP Publication 65. Ann. ICRP 23(2), 1993 Pergamon Press.
 M. Abd El-Zaher, Seasonal variation of indoor radon concentration in dwellings of Alexandria city, Egypt. Rad Prot Dosim; 2011, 143(1): 56-62.
 R.W. Hornung and T.J. Meinhardt, Quantitative risk assessment of lung cancer in U.S. uranium miners, Health Phys; 1987, 52(4): 417-430.
 M.K. Schubauer-Berigan, R.D. Daniels and L.E. Pinkerton, Radon exposure and mortality among white and American Indian uranium miners: an update of the Colorado plateau cohort. Am J Epidemiol; 2009, 169(6): 718-730.
 X. Xiang-Zhen, J.H. Lubin, L. Jun-Yao, et al., A cohort study in southern China of tin miners exposed to radon and radon decay products, Health Phys; 1993, 64(2): 120-131.
 A. Woodward, D. Roder, A.J. McMichael, P. Crouch, A. Mylvaganam, Radon daughter exposures at the Radium Hill uranium mine and lung cancer rates among former workers, 1952-87. Cancer Causes Control; 1991, 2: 213-220.
 D. Krewski, J.H. Lubin, J.M. Zielinski, M. Alavanja, V. S. Catalan, R. W. Field, et al., Residential radon and risk of lung cancer: a combined analysis of 7 north American case-controls studies. Epidemiology; 2005, 16(2): 137-145.
 F. Bochicchio, F. Forastiere, S. Farchi, M. Quarto, O. Axelson, Residential radon exposure, diet and lung cancer: A case-control study in a Mediterranean region; Int.J. Cancer, 2005, 114: 983-991.
 S. Darby, D. Hill, A. Auvinen, J.M. Barros-Dios, H. Bayssonet, F. Bochicchio et al., Radon in homes and lung cancer risk: collaborative analysis of individual data from 13 European case-control studies, British Med J, 2005, 330: 223-226.
 Decreto Legislativo n.241, 2000, In Italian.
 Ministry of Health, 2002
 A. Denman, C. Groves-Kirkby, T. Coskeran, S. Parkinson, P. Phillips, R. Tornberg, Evaluating the health benefits and cost-effectiveness of the radon remediation programme in domestic properties in Northamptonshire, UK, Health Pol, 2005, 73:39-150.
 S. Long, D. Fenton, M. Cremin and A. Morgan, The effectiveness of radon preventive and remedial measures in Irish homes, J Rad Prot, 2013, 33:141–149.
 A.R. Denman, J. Sinclair, P.S. Phillips, R.G.M. Crockett, C.J. Groves-Kirkby, The cost effectiveness of radon reduction programmers in domestic housing in England and Wales: The impact of improved radon mapping and housing trends, Env Internal; 2013, 59: 73–85.
 K.D. Clift, S.P. Naismith, C. Scivyer and R. Stephen, The efficacy and durability of radon remedial measures, Rad Prot Dosim, 1994, 56(1-4): 65-69.
 P. Frattini, B. De Vivo, A. Lima and D. Cicchella, Elemental and gamma-ray survey in the volcanic soil of Ischia Island, Italy. Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis, 2006, 6:325-339.
 M. Quarto, M. Pugliese, F. Loffredo and V. Roca, Indoor radon concentration measurements in some dwellings of Penisola Sorrentina, South Italy. Rad Prot Dosim; 2013, 156(2): 207-212.
 P. Kotrappa, J.C. Dempsey, J.R. Hickey, L.R. Stieff, An Electret Passive Environmental 222Rn Monitor Based on Ionization Measurement. Health Phys, 1988, 54(1): 47-56.
 P. Kotrappa, J.C. Dempsey, R.W. Ramsey, L.R. Stieff, A Practical E-PERMTM (Electret Passive Environmental Radon Monitor) System for Indoor 222Rn Measurement, Health Phys, 1988, 58(4): 461-467.
 M. Pugliese, M. Quarto, F. Loffredo, A. Mazzella, V. Roca, Indoor Radon Concentrations in dwellings of Ischia Island, Journal of Environmental Protection, 2013, 04(08).
 E.J. Bradely, Responses to radon remediation advice, Proceedings of 9th International Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association, 1996 April 14-19, Vienne, Austria.4