Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 616

Search results for: crank angle

616 Optimization of Slider Crank Mechanism Using Design of Experiments and Multi-Linear Regression

Authors: Galal Elkobrosy, Amr M. Abdelrazek, Bassuny M. Elsouhily, Mohamed E. Khidr

Abstract:

Crank shaft length, connecting rod length, crank angle, engine rpm, cylinder bore, mass of piston and compression ratio are the inputs that can control the performance of the slider crank mechanism and then its efficiency. Several combinations of these seven inputs are used and compared. The throughput engine torque predicted by the simulation is analyzed through two different regression models, with and without interaction terms, developed according to multi-linear regression using LU decomposition to solve system of algebraic equations. These models are validated. A regression model in seven inputs including their interaction terms lowered the polynomial degree from 3rd degree to 1st degree and suggested valid predictions and stable explanations.

Keywords: Design of experiments, regression analysis, SI Engine, statistical modeling.

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615 Power and Wear Reduction Using Composite Links of Crank-Rocker Mechanism with Optimum Transmission Angle

Authors: Khaled M. Khader, Mamdouh I. Elimy

Abstract:

Reducing energy consumption became the major concern for all countries of the world during the recent decades. In general, power saving is currently the nominal goal of most industrial countries. It is well known that fossil fuels are the main pillar of development of world countries. Unfortunately, the increased rate of fossil fuel consumption will lead to serious problems caused by an expected depletion of fuels. Moreover, dangerous gases and vapors emission lead to severe environmental problems during fuel burning. Consequently, most engineering sectors especially the mechanical sectors are looking for improving any machine accompanied by reducing its energy consumption. Crank-Rocker planar mechanism is the most applied in mechanical systems. Besides, it is one of the most significant parts of the machines for obtaining the oscillatory motion. The transmission angle of this mechanism can be considered as an optimum value when its extreme values are equally varied around 90°. In addition, the transmission angle plays an important role in decreasing the required driving power and improving the dynamic properties of the mechanism. Hence, appropriate selection of mechanism links lengthens, which assures optimum transmission angle leads to decreasing the driving power. Moreover, mechanism's links manufactured from composite materials afford link's lightweight, which decreases the required driving torque. Furthermore, wear and corrosion problems can be treated through using composite links instead of using metal ones. This paper is dealing with improving the performance of crank-rocker mechanism using composite links due to their flexural elastic modulus values and stiffness in addition to high damping of composite materials.

Keywords: Composite material, crank-rocker mechanism, transmission angle, design techniques, power saving.

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614 Influence of Injection Timing and Injector Opening Pressure on Combustion Performance and P-θ Characteristics of a CI Engine Operating on Jatropha B20 Fuel

Authors: A. B. V. Barboza, Madhwesh N., C.V.Sudhir, N.Yagnesh Sharma

Abstract:

The quest for alternatefuels for a CI engine has become all the more imperative considering its importance in the economy of a nation and from the standpoint of preserving the environment. Reported in this paper are the combustion performance and P-θ characteristics of a CI engine operating on B20 biodiesel fuel derived from Jatropha oil.Itis observed that the twin effect of advancing the injection timing and increasing the injector opening pressure (IOP) up to 220 barhas resulted in minimum brake specific energy consumption and higherpeak pressure. It is also observed that the crank angle of occurrence of peak pressure progressestowards top dead center (TDC) as the timing is advanced and IOP is increased.

Keywords: Crank angle, injector opening pressure, injection timing, peak pressure.

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613 Tumble Flow Analysis in an Unfired Engine Using Particle Image Velocimetry

Authors: B. Murali Krishna, J. M. Mallikarjuna

Abstract:

This paper deals with the experimental investigations of the in-cylinder tumble flows in an unfired internal combustion engine with a flat piston at the engine speeds ranging from 400 to 1000 rev/min., and also with the dome and dome-cavity pistons at an engine speed of 1000 rev/min., using particle image velocimetry. From the two-dimensional in-cylinder flow measurements, tumble flow analysis is carried out in the combustion space on a vertical plane passing through cylinder axis. To analyze the tumble flows, ensemble average velocity vectors are used and to characterize it, tumble ratio is estimated. From the results, generally, we have found that tumble ratio varies mainly with crank angle position. Also, at the end of compression stroke, average turbulent kinetic energy is more at higher engine speeds. We have also found that, at 330 crank angle position, flat piston shows an improvement of about 85 and 23% in tumble ratio, and about 24 and 2.5% in average turbulent kinetic energy compared to dome and dome-cavity pistons respectively

Keywords: In-cylinder flow, Dome piston, Cavity, Tumble, PIV

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612 Identification of an Mechanism Systems by Using the Modified PSO Method

Authors: Chih-Cheng Kao, Hsin- Hua Chu

Abstract:

This paper mainly proposes an efficient modified particle swarm optimization (MPSO) method, to identify a slidercrank mechanism driven by a field-oriented PM synchronous motor. In system identification, we adopt the MPSO method to find parameters of the slider-crank mechanism. This new algorithm is added with “distance" term in the traditional PSO-s fitness function to avoid converging to a local optimum. It is found that the comparisons of numerical simulations and experimental results prove that the MPSO identification method for the slider-crank mechanism is feasible.

Keywords: Slider-crank mechanism, distance, systemidentification, modified particle swarm optimization.

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611 Design and Analysis of Flexible Slider Crank Mechanism

Authors: Thanh-Phong Dao, Shyh-Chour Huang

Abstract:

This study presents the optimal design and formulation of a kinematic model of a flexible slider crank mechanism. The objective of the proposed innovative design is to take extra advantage of the compliant mechanism and maximize the fatigue life by applying the Taguchi method. A formulated kinematic model is developed using a pseudo-rigid-body model (PRBM). By means of mathematic models, the kinematic behaviors of the flexible slider crank mechanism are captured using MATLAB software. Finite element analysis (FEA) is used to show the stress distribution. The results show that the optimal shape of the flexible hinge includes a force of 8.5N, a width of 9mm and a thickness of 1.1mm. Analysis of variance shows that the thickness of the proposed hinge is the most significant parameter, with an F test of 15.5. Finally, a prototype is manufactured to prepare for testing the kinematic and dynamic behaviors.

Keywords: Kinematic behavior, fatigue life, pseudo-rigid-body model, flexible slider crank mechanism.

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610 New Explicit Group Newton's Iterative Methods for the Solutions of Burger's Equation

Authors: Tan K. B., Norhashidah Hj. M. Ali

Abstract:

In this article, we aim to discuss the formulation of two explicit group iterative finite difference methods for time-dependent two dimensional Burger-s problem on a variable mesh. For the non-linear problems, the discretization leads to a non-linear system whose Jacobian is a tridiagonal matrix. We discuss the Newton-s explicit group iterative methods for a general Burger-s equation. The proposed explicit group methods are derived from the standard point and rotated point Crank-Nicolson finite difference schemes. Their computational complexity analysis is discussed. Numerical results are given to justify the feasibility of these two proposed iterative methods.

Keywords: Standard point Crank-Nicolson (CN), Rotated point Crank-Nicolson (RCN), Explicit Group (EG), Explicit Decoupled Group (EDG).

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609 Analysis of One Dimensional Advection Diffusion Model Using Finite Difference Method

Authors: Vijay Kumar Kukreja, Ravneet Kaur

Abstract:

In this paper, one dimensional advection diffusion model is analyzed using finite difference method based on Crank-Nicolson scheme. A practical problem of filter cake washing of chemical engineering is analyzed. The model is converted into dimensionless form. For the grid Ω × ω = [0, 1] × [0, T], the Crank-Nicolson spatial derivative scheme is used in space domain and forward difference scheme is used in time domain. The scheme is found to be unconditionally convergent, stable, first order accurate in time and second order accurate in space domain. For a test problem, numerical results are compared with the analytical ones for different values of parameter.

Keywords: Consistency, Crank-Nicolson scheme, Gerschgorin circle, Lax-Richtmyer theorem, Peclet number, stability.

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608 Developing a Simple and an Accurate Formula for the Conduction Angle of a Single Phase Rectifier with RL Load

Authors: S. Ali Al-Mawsawi, Fadhel A. Albasri

Abstract:

The paper presents a simple and an accurate formula that has been developed for the conduction angle (δ) of a single phase half-wave or full-wave controlled rectifier with RL load. This formula can be also used for calculating the conduction angle (δ) in case of A.C. voltage regulator with inductive load under discontinuous current mode. The simulation results shows that the conduction angle calculated from the developed formula agree very well with that obtained from the exact solution arrived from the iterative method. Applying the developed formula can reduce the computational time and reduce the time for manual classroom calculation. In addition, the proposed formula is attractive for real time implementations.

Keywords: Conduction Angle, Firing Angle, Excitation Angle, Load Angle.

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607 Aerodynamic Bicycle Torque Augmentation with a Wells Turbine in Wheels

Authors: Tsuyoshi Yamazaki, Etsuo Morishita

Abstract:

Cyclists often run through a crosswind and sometimes we experience the adverse pressure. We came to an idea that Wells turbine can be used as power augmentation device in the crosswind something like sails of a yacht. Wells turbine always rotates in the same direction irrespective of the incoming flow direction, and we use it in the small-scale power generation in the ocean where waves create an oscillating flow. We incorporate the turbine to the wheel of a bike. A commercial device integrates strain gauges in the crank of a bike and transmitted force and torque applied to the pedal of the bike as an e-mail to the driver’s mobile phone. We can analyze the unsteady data in a spreadsheet sent from the crank sensor. We run the bike with the crank sensor on the rollers at the exit of a low-speed wind tunnel and analyze the effect of the crosswind to the wheel with a Wells turbine. We also test the aerodynamic characteristics of the turbine separately. Although power gain depends on the flow direction, several Watts increase might be possible by the Wells turbine incorporated to a bike wheel.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, wells turbine, bicycle, wind engineering.

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606 Crank-Nicolson Difference Scheme for the Generalized Rosenau-Burgers Equation

Authors: Kelong Zheng, Jinsong Hu,

Abstract:

In this paper, numerical solution for the generalized Rosenau-Burgers equation is considered and Crank-Nicolson finite difference scheme is proposed. Existence of the solutions for the difference scheme has been shown. Stability, convergence and priori error estimate of the scheme are proved. Numerical results demonstrate that the scheme is efficient and reliable.

Keywords: Generalized Rosenau-Burgers equation, difference scheme, stability, convergence.

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605 Finite Element Analysis of Connecting Rod

Authors: Mohammed Mohsin Ali H., Mohamed Haneef

Abstract:

The connecting rod transmits the piston load to the crank causing the latter to turn, thus converting the reciprocating motion of the piston into a rotary motion of the crankshaft. Connecting rods are subjected to forces generated by mass and fuel combustion. This study investigates and compares the fatigue behavior of forged steel, powder forged and ASTM a 514 steel cold quenched connecting rods. The objective is to suggest for a new material with reduced weight and cost with the increased fatigue life. This has entailed performing a detailed load analysis. Therefore, this study has dealt with two subjects: first, dynamic load and stress analysis of the connecting rod, and second, optimization for material, weight and cost. In the first part of the study, the loads acting on the connecting rod as a function of time were obtained. Based on the observations of the dynamic FEA, static FEA, and the load analysis results, the load for the optimization study was selected. It is the conclusion of this study that the connecting rod can be designed and optimized under a load range comprising tensile load and compressive load. Tensile load corresponds to 360o crank angle at the maximum engine speed. The compressive load is corresponding to the peak gas pressure. Furthermore, the existing connecting rod can be replaced with a new connecting rod made of ASTM a 514 steel cold quenched that is 12% lighter and 28% cheaper.

Keywords: Connecting rod, ASTM a514 cold quenched steel, static analysis, fatigue analysis, stress life approach.

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604 Optimal Digital Pitch Aircraft Control

Authors: N. Popovich, P. Yan

Abstract:

In this paper a controller for the pitch angle of an aircraft regarding to the elevator deflection angle is designed. The way how the elevator angle affects pitching motion of the aircraft is pointed out, as well as, how a pitch controller can be applied for the aircraft to reach certain pitch angle. In this digital optimal system, the elevator deflection angle and pitching angle of the plane are considered to be input and output respectively. A single input single output (SISO) system is presented. A digital pitch aircraft control is demonstrated. A simulation for the whole system has been performed. The optimal control weighting vectors, Q and R have been determined.

Keywords: Aircraft, control, digital, optimal, Q and Rmatrices.

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603 Optimization of Tilt Angle for Solar Collectors: A Case Study for Bursa, Turkey

Authors: N. Arslanoglu

Abstract:

This paper deals with the optimum tilt angle for the solar collector in order to collect the maximum solar radiation. The optimum angle for tilted surfaces varying from 0 to 90 in steps of 1was computed. In present study, a theoretical model is used to predict the global solar radiation on a tilted surface and to obtain the optimum tilt angle for a solar collector in Bursa, Turkey. Global solar energy radiation on the solar collector surface with an optimum tilt angle is calculated for specific periods. It is determined that the optimum slope angle varies between 0 (June) and 59 (December) throughout the year. In winter (December, January, and February) the tilt should be 55, in spring (March, April, and May) 19.6, in summer (June, July, and August) 5.6, and in autumn (September, October, and November) 44.3. The yearly average of this value was obtained to be 31.1 and this would be the optimum fixed slope throughout the year.

Keywords: Optimum tilt angle, global solar radiation, tilted surface.

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602 Effect of Amplitude and Mean Angle of Attack on Wake of an Oscillating Airfoil

Authors: Sadeghi H., Mani M., Ardakani M. A.

Abstract:

The unsteady wake of an EPPLER 361 airfoil in pitching motion has been investigated in a subsonic wind tunnel by hot-wire anemometry. The airfoil was given the pitching motion about the one-quarter chord axis at reduced frequency of 0182. Streamwise mean velocity profiles (wake profiles) were investigated at several vertically aligned points behind the airfoil at one-quarter chord downstream distance from trailing edge. Oscillation amplitude and mean angle of attack were varied to determine the effects on wake profiles. When the maximum dynamic angle of attack was below the static stall angle of attack, weak effects on wake were found by increasing oscillation amplitude and mean angle of attack. But, for higher angles of attack strong unsteady effects were appeared on the wake.

Keywords: Unsteady wake, amplitude, mean angle, EPPLER 361 airfoil.

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601 Research of Ring MEMS Rate Integrating Gyroscopes

Authors: Hui Liu, Haiyang Quan

Abstract:

This paper To get the angle value with a MEMS rate gyroscope in some specific field, the usual method is to make an integral operation to the rate output, which will lead the error cumulating effect. So the rate gyro is not suitable. MEMS rate integrating gyroscope (MRIG) will solve this problem. A DSP system has been developed to implement the control arithmetic. The system can measure the angle of rotation directly by the control loops that make the sensor work in whole-angle mode. Modeling the system with MATLAB, desirable results of angle outputs are got, which prove the feasibility of the control arithmetic.

Keywords: Rate gyroscope, Rate integrating gyroscope, Whole angle mode, MATLAB modeling, DSP control.

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600 Pythagorean-Platonic Lattice Method for Finding all Co-Prime Right Angle Triangles

Authors: Anthony Overmars, Sitalakshmi Venkatraman

Abstract:

This paper presents a method for determining all of the co-prime right angle triangles in the Euclidean field by looking at the intersection of the Pythagorean and Platonic right angle triangles and the corresponding lattice that this produces. The co-prime properties of each lattice point representing a unique right angle triangle are then considered. This paper proposes a conjunction between these two ancient disparaging theorists. This work has wide applications in information security where cryptography involves improved ways of finding tuples of prime numbers for secure communication systems. In particular, this paper has direct impact in enhancing the encryption and decryption algorithms in cryptography.

Keywords: Pythagorean triples, platonic triples, right angle triangles, co-prime numbers, cryptography.

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599 A Computational Comparison between Revetec Engine and Conventional Internal Combustion Engines on the Indicated Torque

Authors: Maisara Mohyeldin Gasim, A. K. Amirruddin, A. Shahrani

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effect of replacing crankshaft with cam on the indicated torque during compression and power strokes in internal combustion engines. A Cycloidal cam profile was used in Revetec engine to calculate and compare the torque to a conventional engine, using a computational method. Firstly, the cylinder pressure was calculated using Ferguson equation, and then the torque calculated depending on cylinder pressure values in every crank angle. the results showed that by using Cycloidal cam profile in Revetec engine the torque can increased by 14% compared with conventional engines, which means an increase in engine efficiency.

Keywords: Revetec engine, indicated torque, cam profile.

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598 Transmission Pricing based on Voltage Angle Decomposition

Authors: M. Oloomi-Buygi, M. Reza Salehizadeh

Abstract:

In this paper a new approach for transmission pricing is presented. The main idea is voltage angle allocation, i.e. determining the contribution of each contract on the voltage angle of each bus. DC power flow is used to compute a primary solution for angle decomposition. To consider the impacts of system non-linearity on angle decomposition, the primary solution is corrected in different iterations of decoupled Newton-Raphson power flow. Then, the contribution of each contract on power flow of each transmission line is computed based on angle decomposition. Contract-related flows are used as a measure for “extent of use" of transmission network capacity and consequently transmission pricing. The presented approach is applied to a 4-bus test system and IEEE 30-bus test system.

Keywords: Deregulation, Power electric markets, Transmission pricing methodologies, decoupled Newton-Raphson power flow.

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597 Off-Line Signature Recognition Based On Angle Features and GRNN Neural Networks

Authors: Laila Y. Fannas, Ahmed Y. Ben Sasi

Abstract:

This research presents a handwritten signature recognition based on angle feature vector using Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Each signature image will be represented by an Angle vector. The feature vector will constitute the input to the ANN. The collection of signature images will be divided into two sets. One set will be used for training the ANN in a supervised fashion. The other set which is never seen by the ANN will be used for testing. After training, the ANN will be tested for recognition of the signature. When the signature is classified correctly, it is considered correct recognition otherwise it is a failure.

Keywords: Signature Recognition, Artificial Neural Network, Angle Features.

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596 Tensile Properties of 3D Printed PLA under Unidirectional and Bidirectional Raster Angle: A Comparative Study

Authors: Shilpesh R. Rajpurohit, Harshit K. Dave

Abstract:

Fused deposition modeling (FDM) gains popularity in recent times, due to its capability to create prototype as well as functional end use product directly from CAD file. Parts fabricated using FDM process have mechanical properties comparable with those of injection-molded parts. However, performance of the FDM part is severally affected by the poor mechanical properties of the part due to nature of layered structure of printed part. Mechanical properties of the part can be improved by proper selection of process variables. In the present study, a comparative study between unidirectional and bidirectional raster angle has been carried out at a combination of different layer height and raster width. Unidirectional raster angle varied at five different levels, and bidirectional raster angle has been varied at three different levels. Fabrication of tensile specimen and tensile testing of specimen has been conducted according to ASTM D638 standard. From the results, it can be observed that higher tensile strength has been obtained at 0° raster angle followed by 45°/45° raster angle, while lower tensile strength has been obtained at 90° raster angle. Analysis of fractured surface revealed that failure takes place along with raster deposition direction for unidirectional and zigzag failure can be observed for bidirectional raster angle.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, fused deposition modeling, raster angle, tensile strength.

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595 Effects of Intake Temperature and Intake Pressure on Combustion and Exhaust Emissions of HCCI Engine

Authors: Fridhi Hadia, Soua Wadhah, Hidouri Ammar, Omri Ahmed

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of the intake temperature (IT) and intake pressure (IP) on ignition timing and pollutants emission of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine is investigated. Numerical computations are performed using the CHEMKIN computer code. The numerical temperature obtained using different boundary conditions is compared to published data and a good agreement is assigned. Results show that the HCCI combustion engine is significantly improved by increasing the IT. With a value of IT lower than 390 K, combustion cannot occur. However, with an IT greater than 420 K, the cylinder pressure decreases. An optimum crank rotation angle is achieved by using IT of 420 K. So, we can conclude that the variation of the IT and IP influence notably the emission concentration.

Keywords: HCCI engine, CEMKIN, intake temperature, intake pressure.

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594 Effect of Fuel Spray Angle on Soot Formation in Turbulent Spray Flames

Authors: K. Bashirnezhad, M. Moghiman, M. Javadi Amoli, F. Tofighi, S. Zabetnia

Abstract:

Results are presented from a combined experimental and modeling study undertaken to understand the effect of fuel spray angle on soot production in turbulent liquid spray flames. The experimental work was conducted in a cylindrical laboratory furnace at fuel spray cone angle of 30º, 45º and 60º. Soot concentrations inside the combustor are measured by filter paper technique. The soot concentration is modeled by using the soot particle number density and the mass density based acetylene concentrations. Soot oxidation occurred by both hydroxide radicals and oxygen molecules. The comparison of calculated results against experimental measurements shows good agreement. Both the numerical and experimental results show that the peak value of soot and its location in the furnace depend on fuel spray cone angle. An increase in spray angle enhances the evaporating rate and peak temperature near the nozzle. Although peak soot concentration increase with enhance of fuel spray angle but soot emission from the furnace decreases.

Keywords: Soot, spray angle, turbulent flames, liquid fuel.

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593 Characterization of Chemically Modified Biomass as a Coating Material for Controlled Released Urea by Contact Angle Measurement

Authors: Nur Zahirah Zulhaimi, KuZilati KuShaari, Zakaria Man

Abstract:

Controlled release urea has become popular in agricultural industry as it helps to solve environmental issues and increase crop yield. Recently biomass was identified to replace the polymer used as a coating material in the conventional coated urea. In this paper spreading and contact angle of biomass droplet (lignin, cellulose and clay) on urea surface are investigated experimentally. There were two tests were conducted, sessile drop for contact angle measurement and pendant drop for contact angle measurement. A different concentration of biomass droplet was released from 30 mm above a substrate. Glass was used as a controlled substrate. Images were recorded as soon as the droplet impacted onto the urea before completely adsorb into the urea. Digitized droplets were then used to identify the droplet-s surface tension and contact angle. There is large difference observed between the low surface tension and high surface tension liquids, where the wetting and spreading diameter is higher for lower surface tension. From the contact angle results, the data showed that the biomass coating films were possible as wetting liquid (θ < 90º). Contact angle of biomass coating material gives good indication for the wettablity of a liquid on urea surface.

Keywords: Fluid, Dynamics, Droplet, Spreading, Contact Angle, Surface Tension.

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592 Optimization of Wood Fiber Orientation Angle in Outer Layers of Variable Stiffness Plywood Plate

Authors: J. Sliseris, K. Rocens

Abstract:

The new optimization method for fiber orientation angle optimization of symmetrical multilayer plates like plywood is proposed. Optimization method consists of seeking for minimal compliance by choosing appropriate fiber orientation angle in outer layers of flexural plate. The discrete values of fiber orientation angles are used in method. Optimization results of simply supported plate and multispan plate with uniformly distributed load are provided. Results show that stiffness could be increased up to 20% by changing wood fiber orientation angle in one or two outer layers.

Keywords: Minimal compliance, flexural plate, plywood, discrete fiber angle optimization.

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591 Effect of Rolling Parameters on Thin Strip Profile in Cold Rolling

Authors: H. B. Tibar, Z. Y. Jiang

Abstract:

In this study, the influence of rolling process parameters such as the work roll cross angle and work roll shifting value on the strip shape and profile of aluminum have been investigated under dry conditions at a speed ratio of 1.3 using Hille 100 experimental mill. The strip profile was found to improve significantly with increase in work roll cross angle from 0o to 1o, with an associated decrease in rolling force. The effect of roll shifting (from 0 to 8mm) was not as significant as the roll cross angle. However, an increase in work roll shifting value achieved a similar decrease in rolling force as that of work roll cross angle. The effect of work roll shifting was also found to be maximum at an optimum roll speed of 0.0986 m/s for the desired thickness. Of all these parameters, the most significant effect of the strip shape profile was observed with variation of work roll cross angle. However, the rolling force can be a significantly reduced by either increasing the the work roll cross angle or work roll shifting.

Keywords: Rolling speed ratio, strip shape, work roll cross angle, work roll shifting.

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590 Design a single-phase BLDC Motor and Finite- Element Analysis of Stator Slots Structure Effects on the Efficiency

Authors: Abdolamir Nekoubin

Abstract:

In this paper effect of stator slots structure and switching angle on a cylindrical single-phase brushless direct current motor (BLDC) is analyzed. BLDC motor with three different structures for stator slots is designed by using RMxprt software and efficiency of BLDC motor for different structures in full-load condition has been presented. Then the BLDC motor in different conditions by using Maxwell 3D software is designed and with finite element method is analyzed electromagnetically. At the end with the use of MATLAB software influence of switching angle on motor performance investigated and optimal angle has been determined. The results indicate that with correct choosing of stator slots structure and switching angle, maximum efficiency can be found.

Keywords: Permanent magnets, Switching angle, BLDC motor

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589 Simulation and Experimentation of Multibody Mechanical Systems with Clearance Revolute Joints

Authors: A.F. Haroun, S.M. Megahed

Abstract:

Clearance in the joints of multibody mechanical systems such as linkage mechanisms and robots is a main source of vibration, and noise of the whole system, and wear of the joints themselves. This clearance is an inevitable matter and cannot be eliminated, since it allows the relative motion between joint components and make them assemblage. This paper presents an experimental verification of the obtained simulation results of a slider – crank mechanism of one clearance revolute joint. The simulation results are obtained with the aid of CAD and dynamic simulation softwares, which is an effective method of simulation multibody systems with clearance joints and have many advantages. The comparison between both simulation and experimental results shows that the simulation results are so close to the experimental ones which proves the accuracy and efficiency of this method of modeling and simulation of mechanical systems with clearance joints.

Keywords: CAD and dynamic simulator softwares, Clearance joints, , Experimental results, Slider – crank mechanism.

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588 New Moment Rotation Model of Single Web Angle Connections

Authors: Zhengyi Kong, Seung-Eock Kim

Abstract:

Single angle connections, which are bolted to the beam web and the column flange, are studied to investigate their moment-rotation behavior. Elastic–perfectly plastic material behavior is assumed. ABAQUS software is used to analyze the nonlinear behavior of a single angle connection. The identical geometric and material conditions with Lipson’s test are used for verifying finite element models. Since Kishi and Chen’s Power model and Lee and Moon’s Log model are accurate only for a limited range of mechanism, simpler and more accurate hyperbolic function models are proposed.

Keywords: Single-web angle connections, finite element method, moment and rotation, hyperbolic function models.

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587 Effects of Mach Number and Angle of Attack on Mass Flow Rates and Entropy Gain in a Supersonic Inlet

Authors: Taher Fodeibou, Ziaul Huque, Jenny Galvis

Abstract:

A parametric study of a mixed-compression supersonic inlet is performed and reported. The effects of inlet Mach Numbers, varying from 4 to 10, and angle of attack, varying from 0 to 10, are reported for a constant inlet dynamic pressure. The paper looked at the variations of mass flow rates through the inlet, gain in entropy through the inlet, and the angles of the external oblique shocks. The mass flow rates were found to decrease monotonically with Mach numbers and increase with angle of attacks. On the other hand the entropy gain through the inlet increased with increasing Mach number and angle of attack. The variation in static pressure was found to be identical from the inlet throat to the exit for Mach number values higher than 6.

Keywords: Angle of attack, entropy gain, mass flow rates, supersonic inlets.

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