Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30302
Effect of Fuel Spray Angle on Soot Formation in Turbulent Spray Flames

Authors: M. Moghiman, K. Bashirnezhad, M. Javadi Amoli, F. Tofighi, S. Zabetnia


Results are presented from a combined experimental and modeling study undertaken to understand the effect of fuel spray angle on soot production in turbulent liquid spray flames. The experimental work was conducted in a cylindrical laboratory furnace at fuel spray cone angle of 30º, 45º and 60º. Soot concentrations inside the combustor are measured by filter paper technique. The soot concentration is modeled by using the soot particle number density and the mass density based acetylene concentrations. Soot oxidation occurred by both hydroxide radicals and oxygen molecules. The comparison of calculated results against experimental measurements shows good agreement. Both the numerical and experimental results show that the peak value of soot and its location in the furnace depend on fuel spray cone angle. An increase in spray angle enhances the evaporating rate and peak temperature near the nozzle. Although peak soot concentration increase with enhance of fuel spray angle but soot emission from the furnace decreases.

Keywords: Turbulent Flames, liquid fuel, soot, spray angle

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1567


[1] I. Glassman, "Sooting laminar diffusion flames, effect of dilution, additives, pressure, and microgravity," Proc Combust Instit, 27:1589 (1998).
[2] J. F. Roesler, S. Martinot, C. S. McEnally, L. D. Pfefferle, J. L. Delfau, and C. Vovelle, "Investigating the role of methane on the growth of aromatic hydrocarbons and soot in fundamental combustion processes," Comb. Flame J., vol. 134, pp. 249-260, 2003.
[3] S. J. Brookes, and J. B. Moss, "Predictions of soot thermal radiation properties in confined turbulent jet diffusion flames," Comb. Flame J., vol. 116, pp. 486-503, 1999.
[4] T. M. Gruenberger, M. Moghiman, P. J. Bowen and N. Syred, "Dynamic of soot formation by turbulent combustion and thermal decomposition of natural gas," Comb. sci. tech. J., vol. 174, pp. 67-86, 2002.
[5] B. Yang, and U. O. Koylu, "Detailed soot field in a turbulent nonpremixed ethylene/air flame from laser scattering and extinction experiments," Comb. Flame J., vol. 141, pp. 55-65, 2005.
[6] A. Beltrame, P. Porshnev, W. Merchan-Merchan, A. Saveliev, A. Fridman, L. A. Kennedy, O. Petrova, S. Zhdanok, F. Amouri. O. and Charon, "Soot and NO Formation in Methane-Oxygen Enriched Diffusion Flames," Comb. Flame J., vol. 124, pp. 295-310, 2001.
[7] M. Moghiman, and M. R Maneshkarimi, "On the dependence of spray evaporation and combustion on atomization techniques," Iranian Sci. Tech. J., vol. 25, pp. 241-252, 2001.
[8] M. Sommerfeld, and H. H. Qiu, "Experimental studies of spray evaporation in turbulent flows," Heat Fluid Flow J., vol. 19, pp. 10-22, 1998.
[9] AVL Smoke Measurement, AVL LIST GMBH, Graz (2001).
[10] A. E. German, and T. Mahmud, "Modeling of non-premixed swirl burner flows using a Reynolds-stress turbulence closure," Fuel J., vol. 84, pp. 583-594, 2005.
[11] J. Zhang, S. Nieh, and L. Zhou, "A new version of algebraic stress model for simulating strongly swirling flows," Numerical Heat Transfer J., vol. 22, pp. 49-62, 1992.
[12] P. M. Patterson, A. G. Kyne, M. Pourkashanian, A. Williams, and C. W. Wilson, "Combustion of kerosene in counter flow diffusion flames," Propulsion Power J., vol. 6, pp. 453-460, 2001.
[13] C. K. Westbrook, and F. L. Dryer, "Simplified reaction mechanisms for the oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels in flames," Comb. Sci. Tech. J., vol. 27, pp. 31-45, 1981.
[14] N. Y. Sharma, and S. K. Dom, "Influence of fuel volatility and spray parameters on combustion characteristics and NOx emission in a gas turbine combustor," Applied Thermal Eng. J., vol. 24, pp. 885-903, 2004.
[15] J. B. Moss, C. D. Stewart, and K. J. Young, "Modeling soot formation and oxidation in a high temperature laminar diffusion flame burning under oxygen-enriched conditions," Comb. Flame J., vol. 101, pp. 491- 500, 1995.
[16] G. M. Faeth,, "Evaporation and combustion of sprays," Prog. Energy Comb. Sci. J., vol. 9 pp. 1-76, 1983.
[17] K. M Lueng, R. P. Lindstedt, and W. P. Jones, "A simplified reaction mechanism for soot formation in non premixed flames," Comb. Flame J., vol. 87, pp. 289-305, 1991.
[18] Z. Wen, S. Yun, M. J. Thomson, and M. F. Lightstone, "Modeling soot formation in turbulent kerosene/air jet diffusion flames," Comb. Flame J., vol. 135, pp. 323-340, 2003.