Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3592

Search results for: Virtual crack closure technique.

3592 Numerical Study of Fatigue Crack Growth at a Web Stiffener of Ship Structural Details

Authors: Wentao He, Jingxi Liu, De Xie

Abstract:

It is necessary to manage the fatigue crack growth (FCG) once those cracks are detected during in-service inspections. In this paper, a simulation program (FCG-System) is developed utilizing the commercial software ABAQUS with its object-oriented programming interface to simulate the fatigue crack path and to compute the corresponding fatigue life. In order to apply FCG-System in large-scale marine structures, the substructure modeling technique is integrated in the system under the consideration of structural details and load shedding during crack growth. Based on the nodal forces and nodal displacements obtained from finite element analysis, a formula for shell elements to compute stress intensity factors is proposed in the view of virtual crack closure technique. The cracks initiating from the intersection of flange and the end of the web-stiffener are investigated for fatigue crack paths and growth lives under water pressure loading and axial force loading, separately. It is found that the FCG-System developed by authors could be an efficient tool to perform fatigue crack growth analysis on marine structures.

Keywords: Crack path, Fatigue crack, Fatigue live, FCG-System, Virtual crack closure technique.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2250
3591 Mode III Interlaminar Fracture in Woven Glass/Epoxy Composite Laminates

Authors: Farhad Asgari Mehrabadi, Mohammad Reza Khoshravan

Abstract:

In the present study, fracture behavior of woven fabric-reinforced glass/epoxy composite laminates under mode III crack growth was experimentally investigated and numerically modeled. Two methods were used for the calculation of the strain energy release rate: the experimental compliance calibration (CC) method and the Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT). To achieve this aim ECT (Edge Crack Torsion) was used to evaluate fracture toughness in mode III loading (out of plane-shear) at different crack lengths. Load–displacement and associated energy release rates were obtained for various case of interest. To calculate fracture toughness JIII, two criteria were considered including non-linearity and maximum points in load-displacement curve and it is observed that JIII increases with the crack length increase. Both the experimental compliance method and the virtual crack closure technique proved applicable for the interpretation of the fracture mechanics data of woven glass/epoxy laminates in mode III.

Keywords: Mode III, Fracture, Composite, Crack growth Finite Element.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2215
3590 Corrosion Fatigue Crack Growth Studies in Ni-Cr-Mn Steel

Authors: Chinnaiah Madduri, Raghu V. Prakash

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of corrosion fatigue crack growth behaviour of a Ni-Cr-Mn steel commonly used in marine applications. The effect of mechanical variables such as frequency and load ratio on fatigue crack growth rate at various stages has been studied using compact tension (C(T)) specimens along the rolling direction of steel plate under 3.5% saturated NaCl aqueous environment. The significance of crack closure on corrosion fatigue, and the validity of Elber-s empirical linear crack closure model with the ASTM compliance offset method have been examined. Fatigue crack growth rate is higher and threshold stress intensities are lower in aqueous environment compared to the lab air conditions. It is also observed that the crack growth rate increases at lower frequencies. The higher stress ratio promotes the crack growth. The effect of oxidization and corrosion pit formation is very less as the stress ratio is increased. It is observed that as stress ratios are increased, the Elber-s crack closure model agrees well with the crack closure estimated by the ASTM compliance offset method for tests conducted at 5Hz frequency compared to tests conducted at 1Hz in corrosive environment.

Keywords: Corrosion fatigue, oxide induced crack closure, Elber's crack closure, ASTM compliance offset method.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1856
3589 Prediction of Fatigue Crack Growth of Aeronautical Aluminum Alloy

Authors: M. Benachour, M. Benguediab, A. Hadjoui, N. Benachour

Abstract:

In this paper fatigue crack growth behavior of aeronautical aluminum alloy 2024 T351 was studied. Effects of various loading and geometrical parameters are studied such as stress ratio, amplitude loading, etc. The fatigue crack growth with constant amplitude is studied using the AFGROW code when NASGRO model is used. The effect of the stress ratio is highlighted, where one notices a shift of the curves of crack growth. The comparative study between two orientations L-T and T-L on fatigue behavior are presented and shows the variation on the fatigue life. L-T orientation presents a good fatigue crack growth resistance. Effects of crack closure are shown in Paris domain and that no crack closure phenomenons are present at high stress intensity factor.

Keywords: Fatigue crack, orientation effect, crack closure, aluminum alloy.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1975
3588 Stress Intensity Factors for Plates with Collinear and Non-Aligned Straight Cracks

Authors: Surendran M, Palani G. S, Nagesh R. Iyer

Abstract:

Multi-site damage (MSD) has been a challenge to aircraft, civil and power plant structures. In real life components are subjected to cracking at many vulnerable locations such as the bolt holes. However, we do not consider for the presence of multiple cracks. Unlike components with a single crack, these components are difficult to predict. When two cracks approach one another, their stress fields influence each other and produce enhancing or shielding effect depending on the position of the cracks. In the present study, numerical studies on fracture analysis have been conducted by using the developed code based on the modified virtual crack closure integral (MVCCI) technique and finite element analysis (FEA) software ABAQUS for computing SIF of plates with multiple cracks. Various parametric studies have been carried out and the results have been compared with literature where ever available and also with the solution, obtained by using ABAQUS. By conducting extensive numerical studies expressions for SIF have been obtained for collinear cracks and non-aligned cracks.

Keywords: Crack interaction, Fracture mechanics, Multiple site damage, stress intensity factor, collinear cracks, non-aligned cracks.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2646
3587 Numerical Analysis of Effect of Crack Location on the Crack Breathing Behavior

Authors: H. M. Mobarak, Helen Wu, Keqin Xiao

Abstract:

In this work, a three-dimensional finite element model was developed to investigate the crack breathing behavior at different crack locations considering the effect of unbalance force. A two-disk rotor with a crack is simulated using ABAQUS. The duration of each crack status (open, closed and partially open/closed) during a full shaft rotation was examined to analyse the crack breathing behavior. Unbalanced shaft crack breathing behavior was found to be different at different crack locations. The breathing behavior of crack along the shaft length is divided into different regions depending on the unbalance force and crack location. The simulated results in this work can be further utilised to obtain the time-varying stiffness matrix of the cracked shaft element under the influence of unbalance force.

Keywords: Crack breathing, crack location, slant crack, unbalance force, rotating shaft.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 597
3586 Dependence of Shaft Stiffness on the Crack Location

Authors: H. M. Mobarak, Helen Wu, Chunhui Yang

Abstract:

In this study, an analytical model is developed to study crack breathing behavior under the effect of crack location and unbalance force. Crack breathing behavior is determined using effectual bending angle by studying the transient change in closed area of the crack. The status of the crack of a balanced shaft is symmetrical about shaft rotational angle and the duration of each crack status remains unchanged. The global stiffness of the balanced shaft is independent of crack location. Different crack breathing behavior for the unbalanced shaft has been observed. The influence of crack location on the unbalanced shaft stiffness can be divided into three regions. When the crack is located between 0.3L and 0.8335L, where L is the total length of the shaft, the unbalanced shaft is less stiff and when located outside this region it is stiffer than the balanced shaft. It was also found that unbalanced shaft stiffness has a maximum value with a crack at 0.1946L, a minimum value at 0.8053L and same value as balanced shaft at 0.3L and 0.8335L.

Keywords: Cracked shaft, crack location, shaft stiffness, unbalanced force.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 676
3585 IVE: Virtual Humans’ AI Prototyping Toolkit

Authors: Cyril Brom, Zuzana Vlckova

Abstract:

IVE toolkit has been created for facilitating research,education and development in the field of virtual storytelling and computer games. Primarily, the toolkit is intended for modelling action selection mechanisms of virtual humans, investigating level-of-detail AI techniques for large virtual environments, and for exploring joint behaviour and role-passing technique (Sec. V). Additionally, the toolkit can be used as an AI middleware without any changes. The main facility of IVE is that it serves for prototyping both the AI and virtual worlds themselves. The purpose of this paper is to describe IVE's features in general and to present our current work - including an educational game - on this platform.

Keywords: AI middleware, simulation, virtual world.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1479
3584 A Step-wise Zoom Technique for Exploring Image-based Virtual Reality Applications

Authors: D. R. Awang Rambli, S. Sulaiman, M.Y. Nayan, A.R. Asoruddin

Abstract:

Existing image-based virtual reality applications allow users to view image-based 3D virtual environment in a more interactive manner. User could “walkthrough"; looks left, right, up and down and even zoom into objects in these virtual worlds of images. However what the user sees during a “zoom in" is just a close-up view of the same image which was taken from a distant. Thus, this does not give the user an accurate view of the object from the actual distance. In this paper, a simple technique for zooming in an object in a virtual scene is presented. The technique is based on the 'hotspot' concept in existing application. Instead of navigation between two different locations, the hotspots are used to focus into an object in the scene. For each object, several hotspots are created. A different picture is taken for each hotspot. Each consecutive hotspot created will take the user closer to the object. This will provide the user with a correct of view of the object based on his proximity to the object. Implementation issues and the relevance of this technique in potential application areas are highlighted.

Keywords: Hotspots, image-based VR, camera zooms, virtualreality.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1296
3583 Numerical Implementation of an Interfacial Edge Dislocation Solution in a Multi-Layered Medium

Authors: Aditya Khanna, Andrei Kotousov

Abstract:

A novel method is presented for obtaining the stress field induced by an edge dislocation in a multilayered composite. To demonstrate the applications of the obtained solution, we consider the problem of an interfacial crack in a periodically layered bimaterial medium. The crack is modelled as a continuous distribution of edge dislocations and the Distributed Dislocation Technique (DDT) is utilized to obtain numerical results for the energy release rate (ERR). The numerical implementation of the dislocation solution in MATLAB is also provided.

Keywords: Distributed dislocation technique, Edge dislocation, Elastic field, Interfacial crack, Multi-layered composite.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1529
3582 IVE: Virtual Humans AI Prototyping Toolkit

Authors: Cyril Brom, Zuzana Vlckova

Abstract:

IVE toolkit has been created for facilitating research,education and development in the ?eld of virtual storytelling andcomputer games. Primarily, the toolkit is intended for modellingaction selection mechanisms of virtual humans, investigating level-of-detail AI techniques for large virtual environments, and for exploringjoint behaviour and role-passing technique (Sec. V). Additionally, thetoolkit can be used as an AI middleware without any changes. Themain facility of IVE is that it serves for prototyping both the AI andvirtual worlds themselves. The purpose of this paper is to describeIVE?s features in general and to present our current work - includingan educational game - on this platform.Keywords? AI middleware, simulation, virtual world.

Keywords: AI middleware, simulation, virtual world

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1379
3581 Crack Width Evaluation for Flexural RC Members with Axial Tension

Authors: Sukrit Ghorai

Abstract:

Proof of controlling crack width is a basic condition for securing suitable performance in serviceability limit state. The cracking in concrete can occur at any time from the casting of time to the years after the concrete has been set in place. Most codes struggle with offering procedure for crack width calculation. There is lack in availability of design charts for designers to compute crack width with ease. The focus of the study is to utilize design charts and parametric equations in calculating crack width with minimum error. The paper contains a simplified procedure to calculate crack width for reinforced concrete (RC) sections subjected to bending with axial tensile force following the guidelines of Euro code [DS EN-1992-1-1 & DS EN-1992-1-2]. Numerical examples demonstrate the application of the suggested procedure. Comparison with parallel analytical tools supports the validity of result and show the percentage deviation of crack width in both the procedures. The technique is simple, user friendly and ready to evolve for a greater spectrum of section sizes and materials.

Keywords: Concrete structures, crack width calculation, serviceability limit state, structural design, bridge engineering.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 6266
3580 The Investigation of Crack's Parameters on the V-Notch using Photoelasticity Method

Authors: M. Saravani, M. Azizi,

Abstract:

The V-notches are most possible case for initiation of cracks in parts. The specifications of cracks on the tip of the notch will be influenced via opening angle, tip radius and depth of V-notch. In this study, the effects of V-notch-s opening angle on stress intensity factor and T-stress of crack on the notch has been investigated. The experiment has been done in different opening angles and various crack length in mode (I) loading using Photoelasticity method. The results illustrate that while angle increases in constant crack-s length, SIF and T-stress will decrease. Beside, the effect of V-notch angle in short crack is more than long crack. These V-notch affects are negligible by increasing the length of crack, and the crack-s behavior can be considered as a single-edge crack specimen. Finally, the results have been evaluated with numerical finite element analysis and good agreement was obvious.

Keywords: Photoelasticity, Stress intensity factor, T-stress, V-notch.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1529
3579 Analytical Crack Propagation Scenario for Gear Teeth and Time-Varying Gear Mesh Stiffness

Authors: Omar D. Mohammed, Matti Rantatalo, Uday Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper an analytical crack propagation scenario is proposed which assumes that a crack propagates in the tooth root in both the crack depth direction and the tooth width direction, and which is more reasonable and realistic for non-uniform load distribution cases than the other presented scenarios. An analytical approach is used for quantifying the loss of time-varying gear mesh stiffness with the presence of crack propagation in the gear tooth root. The proposed crack propagation scenario can be applied for crack propagation modelling and monitoring simulation, but further research is required for comparison and evaluation of all the presented crack propagation scenarios from the condition monitoring point of view.

Keywords: Crack propagation, Gear tooth crack, Time varying gear mesh stiffness.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2464
3578 A Fault Analysis Cracked-Rotor-to-Stator Rub and Unbalance by Vibration Analysis Technique

Authors: B. X. Tchomeni, A. A. Alugongo, L. M. Masu

Abstract:

An analytical 4-DOF nonlinear model of a de Laval rotor-stator system based on Energy Principles has been used theoretically and experimentally to investigate fault symptoms in a rotating system. The faults, namely rotor-stator-rub, crack and unbalance are modeled as excitations on the rotor shaft. Mayes steering function is used to simulate the breathing behaviour of the crack. The fault analysis technique is based on waveform signal, orbits and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) derived from simulated and real measured signals. Simulated and experimental results manifest considerable mutual resemblance of elliptic-shaped orbits and FFT for a same range of test data.

Keywords: A breathing crack, fault, FFT, nonlinear, orbit, rotorstator rub, vibration analysis.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2644
3577 The Effect of Stress Biaxiality on Crack Shape Development

Authors: Osama A. Terfas

Abstract:

The development of shape and size of a crack in a pressure vessel under uniaxial and biaxial loadings is important in fitness-for-service evaluations such as leak-before-break. In this work finite element modelling was used to evaluate the mean stress and the J-integral around a front of a surface-breaking crack. A procedure on the basis of ductile tearing resistance curves of high and low constrained fracture mechanics geometries was developed to estimate the amount of ductile crack extension for surface-breaking cracks and to show the evolution of the initial crack shape. The results showed non-uniform constraint levels and crack driving forces around the crack front at large deformation levels. It was also shown that initially semi-elliptical surface cracks under biaxial load developed higher constraint levels around the crack front than in uniaxial tension. However similar crack shapes were observed with more extensions associated with cracks under biaxial loading.

Keywords: biaxial load, crack shape, fracture toughness, surface crack, uniaxial load.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1285
3576 Influence of Maximum Fatigue Load on Probabilistic Aspect of Fatigue Crack Propagation Life at Specified Grown Crack in Magnesium Alloys

Authors: Seon Soon Choi

Abstract:

The principal purpose of this paper is to find the influence of maximum fatigue load on the probabilistic aspect of fatigue crack propagation life at a specified grown crack in magnesium alloys. The experiments of fatigue crack propagation are carried out in laboratory air under different conditions of the maximum fatigue loads to obtain the fatigue crack propagation data for the statistical analysis. In order to analyze the probabilistic aspect of fatigue crack propagation life, the goodness-of fit test for probability distribution of the fatigue crack propagation life at a specified grown crack is implemented through Anderson-Darling test. The good probability distribution of the fatigue crack propagation life is also verified under the conditions of the maximum fatigue loads.

Keywords: Fatigue crack propagation life, magnesium alloys, maximum fatigue load, probability.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 651
3575 Effect of Specimen Thickness on Probability Distribution of Grown Crack Size in Magnesium Alloys

Authors: Seon Soon Choi

Abstract:

The fatigue crack growth is stochastic because of the fatigue behavior having an uncertainty and a randomness. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the probability distribution of a grown crack size at a specific fatigue crack propagation life for maintenance of structure as well as reliability estimation. The essential purpose of this study is to present the good probability distribution fit for the grown crack size at a specified fatigue life in a rolled magnesium alloy under different specimen thickness conditions. Fatigue crack propagation experiments are carried out in laboratory air under three conditions of specimen thickness using AZ31 to investigate a stochastic crack growth behavior. The goodness-of-fit test for probability distribution of a grown crack size under different specimen thickness conditions is performed by Anderson-Darling test. The effect of a specimen thickness on variability of a grown crack size is also investigated.

Keywords: Crack size, Fatigue crack propagation, Magnesium alloys, Probability distribution, Specimen thickness.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1623
3574 Effect of Load Ratio on Probability Distribution of Fatigue Crack Propagation Life in Magnesium Alloys

Authors: Seon Soon Choi

Abstract:

It is necessary to predict a fatigue crack propagation life for estimation of structural integrity. Because of an uncertainty and a randomness of a structural behavior, it is also required to analyze stochastic characteristics of the fatigue crack propagation life at a specified fatigue crack size. The essential purpose of this study is to find the effect of load ratio on probability distribution of the fatigue crack propagation life at a specified grown crack size and to confirm the good probability distribution in magnesium alloys under various fatigue load ratio conditions. To investigate a stochastic crack growth behavior, fatigue crack propagation experiments are performed in laboratory air under several conditions of fatigue load ratio using AZ31. By Anderson-Darling test, a goodness-of-fit test for probability distribution of the fatigue crack propagation life is performed. The effect of load ratio on variability of fatigue crack propagation life is also investigated.

Keywords: Load ratio, fatigue crack propagation life, Magnesium alloys, probability distribution.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1450
3573 Methodologies for Crack Initiation in Welded Joints Applied to Inspection Planning

Authors: Guang Zou, Kian Banisoleiman, Arturo González

Abstract:

Crack initiation and propagation threatens structural integrity of welded joints and normally inspections are assigned based on crack propagation models. However, the approach based on crack propagation models may not be applicable for some high-quality welded joints, because the initial flaws in them may be so small that it may take long time for the flaws to develop into a detectable size. This raises a concern regarding the inspection planning of high-quality welded joins, as there is no generally acceptable approach for modeling the whole fatigue process that includes the crack initiation period. In order to address the issue, this paper reviews treatment methods for crack initiation period and initial crack size in crack propagation models applied to inspection planning. Generally, there are four approaches, by: 1) Neglecting the crack initiation period and fitting a probabilistic distribution for initial crack size based on statistical data; 2) Extrapolating the crack propagation stage to a very small fictitious initial crack size, so that the whole fatigue process can be modeled by crack propagation models; 3) Assuming a fixed detectable initial crack size and fitting a probabilistic distribution for crack initiation time based on specimen tests; and, 4) Modeling the crack initiation and propagation stage separately using small crack growth theories and Paris law or similar models. The conclusion is that in view of trade-off between accuracy and computation efforts, calibration of a small fictitious initial crack size to S-N curves is the most efficient approach.

Keywords: Crack initiation, fatigue reliability, inspection planning, welded joints.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1085
3572 Ductile Crack Growth in Surface Cracked Pressure Vessels

Authors: Osama A. Terfas, Abdusalam A. Alaktiwi

Abstract:

Pressure vessels are usually operating at temperatures where the conditions of linear elastic fracture mechanics are no longer met because massive plasticity precedes crack propagation. In this work the development of a surface crack in a pressure vessel subject to bending and tension under elastic-plastic fracture mechanics conditions was investigated. Finite element analysis was used to evaluate the hydrostatic stress, the J-integral and crack growth for semi-elliptical surface-breaking cracks. The results showed non-uniform stress triaxiality and crack driving force around the crack front at large deformation levels. Different ductile crack extensions were observed which emphasis the dependent of ductile tearing on crack geometry and type of loading. In bending the crack grew only beneath the surface, and growth was suppressed at the deepest segment. This contrasts to tension where the crack breaks through the thickness with uniform growth along the entire crack front except at the free surface. Current investigations showed that the crack growth developed under linear elastic fracture mechanics conditions will no longer be applicable under ductile tearing scenarios.

Keywords: Bending, ductile tearing, fracture toughness, stress triaxiality, tension.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2252
3571 Predicting Crack Initiation Due to Ratchetting in Rail Heads Using Critical Element Analysis

Authors: I. U. Wickramasinghe, D. J. Hargreaves, D. V. De Pellegrin

Abstract:

This paper presents a strategy to predict the lifetime of rails subjected to large rolling contact loads that induce ratchetting strains in the rail head. A critical element concept is used to calculate the number of loading cycles needed for crack initiation to occur in the rail head surface. In this technique the finite element method (FEM) is used to determine the maximum equivalent ratchetting strain per load cycle, which is calculated by combining longitudinal and shear stains in the critical element. This technique builds on a previously developed critical plane concept that has been used to calculate the number of cycles to crack initiation in rolling contact fatigue under ratchetting failure conditions. The critical element concept simplifies the analytical difficulties of critical plane analysis. Finite element analysis (FEA) is used to identify the critical element in the mesh, and then the strain values of the critical element are used to calculate the ratchetting rate analytically. Finally, a ratchetting criterion is used to calculate the number of cycles to crack initiation from the ratchetting rate calculated.

Keywords: Critical element analysis, finite element modeling (FEM), wheel/rail contact.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2647
3570 Compressive Stresses near Crack Tip Induced by Thermo-Electric Field

Authors: Thomas Jin-Chee Liu

Abstract:

In this paper, the thermo-electro-structural coupledfield in a cracked metal plate is studied using the finite element analysis. From the computational results, the compressive stresses reveal near the crack tip. This conclusion agrees with the past reference. Furthermore, the compressive condition can retard and stop the crack growth during the Joule heating process.

Keywords: Compressive stress, crack tip, Joule heating, finite element.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1789
3569 The Cracks Propagation Monitoring of a Cantilever Beam Using Modal Analysis

Authors: Morteza Raki, Abolghasem Zabihollah, Omid Askari

Abstract:

Cantilever beam is a simplified sample of a lot of mechanical components used in a wide range of applications, including many industries such as gas turbine blade. Due to the nature of the operating conditions, beams are subject to variety of damages especially crack propagates. Crack propagation may lead to catastrophic failure during operation. Therefore, online detection of crack presence and its propagation is very important and may reduce possible significant cost of the whole system failure. This paper aims to investigate the effect of cracks presence and crack propagation on one end fixed beam`s vibration. A finite element model will be developed for the blade in which the modal response of the structure with and without crack will be studied. 

Keywords: Blade, crack propagation, health monitoring, modal analysis.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1179
3568 Study of Anti-Symmetric Flexural Mode Propagation along Wedge Tip with a Crack

Authors: Manikanta Prasad Banda, Che Hua Yang

Abstract:

Anti-symmetric wave propagation along the particle motion of the wedge waves is known as anti-symmetric flexural (ASF) modes which travel along the wedge tips of the mid-plane apex with a small truncation. This paper investigates the characteristics of the ASF modes propagation with the wedge tip crack. The simulation and experimental results obtained by a three-dimensional (3-D) finite element model explained the contact acoustic non-linear (CAN) behavior in explicit dynamics in ABAQUS and the ultrasonic non-destructive testing (NDT) method is used for defect detection. The effect of various parameters on its high and low-level conversion modes are known for complex reflections and transmissions involved with direct reflections and transmissions. The results are used to predict the location of crack through complex transmission and reflection coefficients.

Keywords: ASF mode, crack detection, finite elements method, laser ultrasound technique, wedge waves.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 153
3567 Diagonal Crack Width of RC Members with High Strength Materials

Authors: J. Y. Lee, H. S. Lim, S. H. Yoon

Abstract:

This paper presents an analysis of the diagonal crack widths of RC members with various types of materials by simulating a compatibility-aided truss model. The analytical results indicated that the diagonal crack width was influenced by not only the shear reinforcement ratio but also the yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete. The yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete decreased the diagonal shear crack width of RC members for the same shear force because of the change of shear failure modes. However, regarding the maximum shear crack width at shear failure, the shear crack width of the beam with high strength materials was greater than that of the beam with normal strength materials.

Keywords: Diagonal crack width, high strength stirrups, high strength concrete, RC members, shear behavior.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 947
3566 Monotonic and Cyclic J-integral Estimation for Through-Wall Cracked Straight Pipes

Authors: Rohit, S. Vishnuvardhan, P. Gandhi, Nagesh R. Iyer

Abstract:

The evaluation of energy release rate and centre Crack Opening Displacement (COD) for circumferential Through-Wall Cracked (TWC) pipes is an important issue in the assessment of critical crack length for unstable fracture. The ability to predict crack growth continues to be an important component of research for several structural materials. Crack growth predictions can aid the understanding of the useful life of a structural component and the determination of inspection intervals and criteria. In this context, studies were carried out at CSIR-SERC on Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) piping components subjected to monotonic as well as cyclic loading to assess the damage for crack growth due to low-cycle fatigue in circumferentially TWC pipes.

Keywords: 304LN stainless steel, cyclic J-integral, Elastic- Plastic Fracture Mechanics, J-integral, Through-wall crack

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2329
3565 High Sensitivity Crack Detection and Locating with Optimized Spatial Wavelet Analysis

Authors: A. Ghanbari Mardasi, N. Wu, C. Wu

Abstract:

In this study, a spatial wavelet-based crack localization technique for a thick beam is presented. Wavelet scale in spatial wavelet transformation is optimized to enhance crack detection sensitivity. A windowing function is also employed to erase the edge effect of the wavelet transformation, which enables the method to detect and localize cracks near the beam/measurement boundaries. Theoretical model and vibration analysis considering the crack effect are first proposed and performed in MATLAB based on the Timoshenko beam model. Gabor wavelet family is applied to the beam vibration mode shapes derived from the theoretical beam model to magnify the crack effect so as to locate the crack. Relative wavelet coefficient is obtained for sensitivity analysis by comparing the coefficient values at different positions of the beam with the lowest value in the intact area of the beam. Afterward, the optimal wavelet scale corresponding to the highest relative wavelet coefficient at the crack position is obtained for each vibration mode, through numerical simulations. The same procedure is performed for cracks with different sizes and positions in order to find the optimal scale range for the Gabor wavelet family. Finally, Hanning window is applied to different vibration mode shapes in order to overcome the edge effect problem of wavelet transformation and its effect on the localization of crack close to the measurement boundaries. Comparison of the wavelet coefficients distribution of windowed and initial mode shapes demonstrates that window function eases the identification of the cracks close to the boundaries.

Keywords: Edge effect, scale optimization, small crack locating, spatial wavelet.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 711
3564 The Relationship between Fatigue Crack Growth and Residual Stress in Rails

Authors: F. Husem, M. E. Turan, Y. Sun, H. Ahlatci, I. Tozlu

Abstract:

Residual stress and fatigue crack growth rates are important to determine mechanical behavior of rails. This study aims to make relationship between residual stress and fatigue crack growth values in rails. For this purpose, three R260 quality rails (0.6-0.8% C, 0.6-1.25 Mn) were chosen. Residual stress of samples was measured by cutting method that is related in railway standard. Then samples were machined for fatigue crack growth test and analyze was completed according to the ASTM E647 standard which gives information about parameters of rails for this test. Microstructure characterizations were examined by Light Optic Microscope (LOM). The results showed that residual stress change with fatigue crack growth rate. The sample has highest residual stress exhibits highest crack growth rate and pearlitic structure can be seen clearly for all samples by microstructure analyze.

Keywords: Residual stress, fatigue crack growth, R260, LOM, ASTM E647.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1018
3563 Fatigue Crack Initiation and Propagation through Residual Stress Field

Authors: M. Benachour, N. Benachour, M. Benguediab

Abstract:

In this paper fatigue crack initiation and propagation in notched plate under constant amplitude loading through tensile residual stress field of 2024 T351 Al-alloy plate were investigated. Residual stress field was generated by plastic deformation using finite element method (FEM) where isotropic hardening in Von Mises model was applied. Simulation of fatigue behavior was made on AFGROW code. It was shown that the fatigue crack initiation and propagation were affected by level of residual stress filed. In this investigation, the presence of tensile residual stresses at notch (hole) reduces considerably the total fatigue life. It was shown that the decreasing in stress reduces the fatigue crack growth rates.

Keywords: Residual stress, fatigue crack initiation, fatigue crack growth, Al-alloy.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2418