Search results for: Thermoacoustic instabilities.
41 Spray Combustion Dynamics under Thermoacoustic Oscillations
Authors: Wajid A. Chishty, Stephen D. Lepera, Uri Vandsburger
Abstract:Thermoacoustic instabilities in combustors have remained a topic of investigation for over a few decades due to the challenges it posses to the operation of low emission gas turbines. For combustors burning liquid fuel, understanding the cause-andeffect relationship between spray combustion dynamics and thermoacoustic oscillations is imperative for the successful development of any control methodology for its mitigation. The paper presents some very unique operating characteristics of a kerosene-fueled diffusion type combustor undergoing limit-cycle oscillations. Combustor stability limits were mapped using three different-sized injectors. The results show that combustor instability depends on the characteristics of the fuel spray. A simple analytic analysis is also reported in support of a plausible explanation for the unique combustor behavior. The study indicates that high amplitude acoustic pressure in the combustor may cause secondary breakdown of fuel droplets resulting in premixed pre-vaporized type burning of the diffusion type combustor.
Keywords: Secondary droplet breakup, Spray dynamics, Taylor Analogy Breakup Model, Thermoacoustic instabilities.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1723
40 Construction and Performance Characterization of the Looped-Tube Travelling-Wave Thermoacoustic Engine with Ceramic Regenerator
Authors: Abdulrahman S. Abduljalil, Zhibin Yu, Artur J. Jaworski, Lei Shi
Abstract:In a travelling wave thermoacoustic device, the regenerator sandwiched between a pair of (hot and cold) heat exchangers constitutes the so-called thermoacoustic core, where the thermoacoustic energy conversion from heat to acoustic power takes place. The temperature gradient along the regenerator caused by the two heat exchangers excites and maintains the acoustic wave in the resonator. The devices are called travelling wave thermoacoustic systems because the phase angle difference between the pressure and velocity oscillation is close to zero in the regenerator. This paper presents the construction and testing of a thermoacoustic engine equipped with a ceramic regenerator, made from a ceramic material that is usually used as catalyst substrate in vehicles- exhaust systems, with fine square channels (900 cells per square inch). The testing includes the onset temperature difference (minimum temperature difference required to start the acoustic oscillation in an engine), the acoustic power output, thermal efficiency and the temperature profile along the regenerator.
Keywords: Regenerator, Temperature gradient, Thermoacoustic, Travelling-wave.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2152
39 Experimental Investigation on the Optimal Operating Frequency of a Thermoacoustic Refrigerator
Authors: Kriengkrai Assawamartbunlue, Channarong Wantha
This paper presents effects of the mean operating pressure on the optimal operating frequency based on temperature differences across stack ends in a thermoacoustic refrigerator. In addition to the length of the resonance tube, components of the thermoacoustic refrigerator have an influence on the operating frequency due to their acoustic properties, i.e., absorptivity, reflectivity and transmissivity. The interference of waves incurs and distorts the original frequency generated by the driver so that the optimal operating frequency differs from the designs. These acoustic properties are not parameters in the designs and be very complicated to infer their responses. A prototype thermoacoustic refrigerator is constructed and used to investigate its optimal operating frequency compared to the design at various operating pressures. Helium and air are used as working fluids during the experiments. The results indicate that the optimal operating frequency of the prototype thermoacoustic refrigerator using helium is at 6 bar and 490Hz or approximately 20% away from the design frequency. The optimal operating frequency at other mean pressures differs from the design in an unpredictable manner, however, the optimal operating frequency and pressure can be identified by testing.
Keywords: Acoustic properties, Carnot’s efficiency, Interference of waves, Operating pressure, Optimal operating frequency, Stack performance, Standing Wave, Thermoacoustic refrigerator.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1673
38 A Study of Standing-Wave Thermoacoustic Refrigerator
Authors: Patcharin Saechan, Isares Dhuchakallaya
Abstract:Thermoacoustic refrigerator is a cooling device which uses the acoustic waves to produce the cooling effect. The aim of this paper is to explore the experimental and numerical feasibility of a standing-wave thermoacoustic refrigerator. The effects of the stack length, position of stack and operating frequency on the cooling performance are carried out. The circular pore stacks are tested under the atmospheric pressure. A low-cost loudspeaker is used as an acoustic driver. The results show that the location of stack installed in resonator tube has a greater effect on the cooling performance, than the stack length and operating frequency, respectively. The temperature difference across the ends of stack can be generated up to 13.7°C, and the temperature of cold-end is dropped down by 5.3°C from the ambient temperature.
Keywords: Cooling performance, Refrigerator, Standing-wave, Thermoacoustics.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2227
37 Experimental Characterization of a Thermoacoustic Travelling-Wave Refrigerator
Authors: M. Pierens, J.-P. Thermeau, T. Le Pollès, P. Duthil
Abstract:The performances of a thermoacoustic travelling-wave refrigerator are presented. Developed in the frame of the European project called THATEA, it is designed for providing 600 W at a temperature of 233 K with an efficiency of 40 % relative to the Carnot efficiency. This paper presents the device and the results of the first measurements. For a cooling power of 210 W, a coefficient of performance relative to Carnot of 30 % is achieved when the refrigerator is coupled with an existing standing-wave engine.
Keywords: Refrigeration, sustainable energy, thermoacoustics, travelling-wave type heat pumpProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1511
36 Impact of Viscous and Heat Relaxation Loss on the Critical Temperature Gradients of Thermoacoustic Stacks
Authors: Zhibin Yu, Artur J. Jaworski, Abdulrahman S. Abduljalil
Abstract:A stack with a small critical temperature gradient is desirable for a standing wave thermoacoustic engine to obtain a low onset temperature difference (the minimum temperature difference to start engine-s self-oscillation). The viscous and heat relaxation loss in the stack determines the critical temperature gradient. In this work, a dimensionless critical temperature gradient factor is obtained based on the linear thermoacoustic theory. It is indicated that the impedance determines the proportion between the viscous loss, heat relaxation losses and the power production from the heat energy. It reveals the effects of the channel dimensions, geometrical configuration and the local acoustic impedance on the critical temperature gradient in stacks. The numerical analysis shows that there exists a possible optimum combination of these parameters which leads to the lowest critical temperature gradient. Furthermore, several different geometries have been tested and compared numerically.
Keywords: Critical temperature gradient, heat relaxation, stack, viscous effect.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1700
35 TACS : Thermo Acoustic Cooling System
Authors: Z. Zarid, C. Gamba, A. Brusseaux, C. Laborie, K. Briens
Abstract:Cooling with sound is a physical phenomenon allowed by Thermo-Acoustics in which acoustic energy is transformed into a negative heat transfer, in other words: into cooling! Without needing any harmful gas, the transformation is environmentally friendly and can respond to many needs in terms of air conditioning, food refrigeration for domestic use, and cooling medical samples for example. To explore the possibilities of this cooling solution on a small scale, the TACS prototype has been designed, consisting of a low cost thermoacoustic refrigerant “pipe” able to lower the temperature by a few degrees. The obtained results are providing an interesting element for possible future of thermo-acoustic refrigeration.
Keywords: Domestic Scale Cooling System, Thermoacoustic, Environmental Friendly Refrigeration.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2290
34 Shear-Layer Instabilities of a Pulsed Stack-Issued Transverse Jet
Authors: Ching M. Hsu, Rong F. Huang, Michael E. Loretero
Abstract:Shear-layer instabilities of a pulsed stack-issued transverse jet were studied experimentally in a wind tunnel. Jet pulsations were induced by means of acoustic excitation. Streak pictures of the smoke-flow patterns illuminated by the laser-light sheet in the median plane were recorded with a high-speed digital camera. Instantaneous velocities of the shear-layer instabilities in the flow were digitized by a hot-wire anemometer. By analyzing the streak pictures of the smoke-flow visualization, three characteristic flow modes, synchronized flapping jet, transition, and synchronized shear-layer vortices, are identified in the shear layer of the pulsed stack-issued transverse jet at various excitation Strouhal numbers. The shear-layer instabilities of the pulsed stack-issued transverse jet are synchronized by acoustic excitation except for transition mode. In transition flow mode, the shear-layer vortices would exhibit a frequency that would be twice as great as the acoustic excitation frequency.
Keywords: Acoustic excitation, jet in crossflow, shear-layer instability.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1586
33 Nonlinear Thermal Hydraulic Model to Analyze Parallel Channel Density Wave Instabilities in Natural Circulation Boiling Water Reactor with Asymmetric Power Distribution
Authors: Sachin Kumar, Vivek Tiwari, Goutam Dutta
Abstract:The paper investigates parallel channel instabilities of natural circulation boiling water reactor. A thermal-hydraulic model is developed to simulate two-phase flow behavior in the natural circulation boiling water reactor (NCBWR) with the incorporation of ex-core components and recirculation loop such as steam separator, down-comer, lower-horizontal section and upper-horizontal section and then, numerical analysis is carried out for parallel channel instabilities of the reactor undergoing both in-phase and out-of-phase modes of oscillations. To analyze the relative effect on stability of the reactor due to inclusion of various ex-core components and recirculation loop, marginal stable point is obtained at a particular inlet enthalpy of the reactor core without the inclusion of ex-core components and recirculation loop and then with the inclusion of the same. Numerical simulations are also conducted to determine the relative dominance between two modes of oscillations i.e. in-phase and out-of-phase. Simulations are also carried out when the channels are subjected to asymmetric power distribution keeping the inlet enthalpy same.
Keywords: Asymmetric power distribution, Density wave oscillations, In-phase and out-of-phase modes of instabilities, Natural circulation boiling water reactorProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1992
32 Numerical Investigation of Instabilities in Free Shear Layer Produced by NS-DBD Actuator
Authors: Ilya Popov, Steven Hulshoff
Abstract:A numerical investigation of the effects of nanosecond barrier discharge on the stability of a two-dimensional free shear layer is performed. The computations are carried out using a compressible Navier-Stokes algorithm coupled with a thermodynamic model of the discharge. The results show that significant increases in the shear layer-s momentum thickness and Reynolds stresses occur due to actuation. Dependence on both frequency and amplitude of actuation are considered, and a comparison is made of the computed growth rates with those predicted by linear stability theory. Amplitude and frequency ranges for the efficient promotion of shear-layer instabilities are identified.
Keywords: NS-DBD, plasma, actuator, flow control, instability, shear layerProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1593
31 Vortex Shedding at the End of Parallel-plate Thermoacoustic Stack in the Oscillatory Flow Conditions
Authors: Lei Shi, Zhibin Yu, Artur J. Jaworski, Abdulrahman S. Abduljalil
Abstract:This paper investigates vortex shedding processes occurring at the end of a stack of parallel plates, due to an oscillating flow induced by an acoustic standing wave within an acoustic resonator. Here, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is used to quantify the vortex shedding processes within an acoustic cycle phase-by-phase, in particular during the “ejection" of the fluid out of the stack. Standard hot-wire anemometry measurement is also applied to detect the velocity fluctuations near the end of the stack. Combination of these two measurement techniques allowed a detailed analysis of the vortex shedding phenomena. The results obtained show that, as the Reynolds number varies (by varying the plate thickness and drive ratio), different flow patterns of vortex shedding are observed by the PIV measurement. On the other hand, the time-dependent hot-wire measurements allow obtaining detailed frequency spectra of the velocity signal, used for calculating characteristic Strouhal numbers. The impact of the plate thickness and the Reynolds number on the vortex shedding pattern has been discussed. Furthermore, a detailed map of the relationship between the Strouhal number and Reynolds number has been obtained and discussed.
Keywords: Oscillatory flow, Parallel-plate thermoacoustic stack, Strouhal numbers, Vortex shedding.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1727
30 Multi-Modal Film Boiling Simulations on Adaptive Octree Grids
Authors: M. Wasy Akhtar
Multi-modal film boiling simulations are carried out on adaptive octree grids. The liquid-vapor interface is captured using the volume-of-fluid framework adjusted to account for exchanges of mass, momentum, and energy across the interface. Surface tension effects are included using a volumetric source term in the momentum equations. The phase change calculations are conducted based on the exact location and orientation of the interface; however, the source terms are calculated using the mixture variables to be consistent with the one field formulation used to represent the entire fluid domain. The numerical model on octree representation of the computational grid is first verified using test cases including advection tests in severely deforming velocity fields, gravity-based instabilities and bubble growth in uniformly superheated liquid under zero gravity. The model is then used to simulate both single and multi-modal film boiling simulations. The octree grid is dynamically adapted in order to maintain the highest grid resolution on the instability fronts using markers of interface location, volume fraction, and thermal gradients. The method thus provides an efficient platform to simulate fluid instabilities with or without phase change in the presence of body forces like gravity or shear layer instabilities.
Keywords: Boiling flows, dynamic octree grids, heat transfer, interface capturing, phase change.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 583
29 Acoustic Instabilities on Swirling Flames
Authors: T. Parra, R. Z. Szasz, C. Duwig, R. Pérez, V. Mendoza, F. Castro
The POD makes possible to reduce the complete high-dimensional acoustic field to a low-dimensional subspace where different modes are identified and let reconstruct in a simple way a high percentage of the variance of the field.
Rotating modes are instabilities which are commonly observed in swirling flows. Such modes can appear under both cold and reacting conditions but that they have different sources: while the cold flow rotating mode is essentially hydrodynamic and corresponds to the wellknown PVC (precessing vortex core) observed in many swirled unconfined flows, the rotating structure observed for the reacting case inside the combustion chamber might be not hydrodynamically but acoustically controlled. The two transverse acoustic modes of the combustion chamber couple and create a rotating motion of the flame which leads to a self-sustained turning mode which has the features of a classical PVC but a very different source (acoustics and not hydrodynamics).
Keywords: Acoustic field, POD, swirling flames.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2214
28 Experimental Investigations on the Mechanism of Stratified Liquid Mixing in a Cylinder
Authors: Chai Mingming, Li Lei, Lu Xiaoxia
In this paper, the mechanism of stratified liquids’ mixing in a cylinder is investigated. It is focused on the effects of Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) and rotation of the cylinder on liquid interface mixing. For miscible liquids, Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) technique is applied to record the concentration field for one liquid. Intensity of Segregation (IOS) is used to describe the mixing status. For immiscible liquids, High Speed Camera is adopted to record the development of the interface. The experiment of RTI indicates that it plays a great role in the mixing process, and meanwhile the large-scale mixing is triggered, and subsequently the span of the stripes decreases, showing that the mesoscale mixing is coming into being. The rotation experiments show that the spin-down process has a great role in liquid mixing, during which the upper liquid falls down rapidly along the wall and crashes into the lower liquid. During this process, a lot of interface instabilities are excited. Liquids mix rapidly in the spin-down process. It can be concluded that no matter what ways have been adopted to speed up liquid mixing, the fundamental reason is the interface instabilities which increase the area of the interface between liquids and increase the relative velocity of the two liquids.
Keywords: Interface instability, liquid mixing, Rayleigh-Taylor Instability, spin-down process, spin-up process.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 777
27 Piezoelectric Approach on Harvesting Acoustic Energy
Authors: Khin Fai Chen, Jee-Hou Ho, Eng Hwa Yap
Abstract:An Acoustic Micro-Energy Harvester (AMEH) is developed to convert wasted acoustical energy into useful electrical energy. AMEH is mathematically modeled using Lumped Element Modelling (LEM) and Euler-Bernoulli beam (EBB) modelling. An experiment is designed to validate the mathematical model and assess the feasibility of AMEH. Comparison of theoretical and experimental data on critical parameter value such as Mm, Cms, dm and Ceb showed the variances are within 1% to 6%, which is reasonably acceptable. Then, AMEH undergoes bandwidth tuning for performance optimization. The AMEH successfully produces 0.9V/(m/s^2) and 1.79μW/(m^2/s^4) at 60Hz and 400kΩ resistive load which only show variances about 7% compared to theoretical data. At 1g and 60Hz resonance frequency, the averaged power output is about 2.2mW which fulfilled a range of wireless sensors and communication peripherals power requirements. Finally, the design for AMEH is assessed, validated and deemed as a feasible design.
Keywords: Piezoelectric, acoustic, energy harvester, thermoacoustic.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3145
26 Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability and Gas-Particle Interaction of Contoured Shock-Tube Flows: A Numerical Study
Authors: Yi Liu
In this paper, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is utilized to characterize a prototype biolistic delivery system, the biomedical device based on the contoured-shock-tube design (CST), with the aim at investigating shocks induced flow instabilities within the contoured shock tube. The shock/interface interactions, the growth of perturbation at an interface between two fluids of different density are interrogated. The key features of the gas dynamics and gas-particle interaction are discussed
Keywords: Simulation, Shock wave, Particle, Interface, Supersonic, Richtmyer-Meshkov InstabilityProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1620
25 Numerical Simulation of Interfacial Flow with Volume-Of-Fluid Method
Authors: Afshin Ahmadi Nadooshan
In this article, various models of surface tension force (CSF, CSS and PCIL) for interfacial flows have been applied to dynamic case and the results were compared. We studied the Kelvin- Helmholtz instabilities, which are produced by shear at the interface between two fluids with different physical properties. The velocity inlet is defined as a sinusoidal perturbation. When gravity and surface tension are taking into account, we observe the development of the Instability for a critic value of the difference of velocity of the both fluids. The VOF Model enables to simulate Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability as dynamic case.
Keywords: Interfacial flow, Incompressible flow, surface tension, Volume-Of-Fluid, Kelvin-Helmholtz.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2321
24 On Thermal Instabilities in a Viscoelastic Fluid Subject to Internal Heat Generation
Authors: Donna M. G. Comissiong, Tyrone D. Dass, Harold Ramkissoon, Alana R. Sankar
Abstract:The B'enard-Marangoni thermal instability problem for a viscoelastic Jeffreys- fluid layer with internal heat generation is investigated. The fluid layer is bounded above by a realistic free deformable surface and by a plane surface below. Our analysis shows that while the internal heat generation and the relaxation time both destabilize the fluid layer, its stability may be enhanced by an increased retardation time.
Keywords: Viscoelastic fluid, Jeffreys' model, Maxwell model, internal heat generation, retardation time, relaxation time.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1519
23 Experimental Investigations of a Modified Taylor-Couette Flow
Authors: A. Esmael, A. El Shrif
In this study the instability problem of a modified Taylor-Couette flow between two vertical coaxial cylinders of radius R1, R2 is considered. The modification is based on the wavy shape of the inner cylinder surface, where inner cylinders with different surface amplitude and wavelength are used. The study aims to discover the effect of the inner surface geometry on the instability phenomenon that undergoes Taylor-Couette flow. The study reveals that the transition processes depends strongly on the amplitude and wavelength of the inner cylinder surface and resulting in flow instabilities that are strongly different from that encountered in the case of the classical Taylor-Couette flow.
Keywords: Hydrodynamic Instability, Modified Taylor-Couette Flow, Turbulence, Taylor vortices.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2353
22 Analysis of Thermal Damping in Si Based Torsional Micromirrors
Authors: R. Resmi, M. R. Baiju
The thermal damping of a dynamic vibrating micromirror is an important factor affecting the design of MEMS based actuator systems. In the development process of new micromirror systems, assessing the extent of energy loss due to thermal damping accurately and predicting the performance of the system is very essential. In this paper, the depth of the thermal penetration layer at different eigenfrequencies and the temperature variation distributions surrounding a vibrating micromirror is analyzed. The thermal penetration depth corresponds to the thermal boundary layer in which energy is lost which is a measure of the thermal damping is found out. The energy is mainly dissipated in the thermal boundary layer and thickness of the layer is an important parameter. The detailed thermoacoustics is used to model the air domain surrounding the micromirror. The thickness of the boundary layer, temperature variations and thermal power dissipation are analyzed for a Si based torsional mode micromirror. It is found that thermal penetration depth decreases with eigenfrequency and hence operating the micromirror at higher frequencies is essential for reducing thermal damping. The temperature variations and thermal power dissipations at different eigenfrequencies are also analyzed. Both frequency-response and eigenfrequency analyses are done using COMSOL Multiphysics software.
Keywords: Eigen frequency analysis, micromirrors, thermal damping, thermoacoustic interactions.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 920
21 Behavioral Modeling Accuracy for RF Power Amplifier with Memory Effects
Authors: Chokri Jebali, Noureddine Boulejfen, Ali Gharsallah, Fadhel M. Ghannouchi
Abstract:In this paper, a system level behavioural model for RF power amplifier, which exhibits memory effects, and based on multibranch system is proposed. When higher order terms are included, the memory polynomial model (MPM) exhibits numerical instabilities. A set of memory orthogonal polynomial model (OMPM) is introduced to alleviate the numerical instability problem associated to MPM model. A data scaling and centring algorithm was applied to improve the power amplifier modeling accuracy. Simulation results prove that the numerical instability can be greatly reduced, as well as the model precision improved with nonlinear model.
Keywords: power amplifier, orthogonal model, polynomialmodel , memory effects.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2121
20 Stability of a Self-Excited Machine Due to the Mechanical Coupling
Authors: M. Soltan Rezaee, M. R. Ghazavi, A. Najafi, W.-H. Liao
Generally, different rods in shaft systems can be misaligned based on the mechanical system usages. These rods can be linked together via U-coupling easily. The system is self-stimulated and may cause instabilities due to the inherent behavior of the coupling. In this study, each rod includes an elastic shaft with an angular stiffness and structural damping. Moreover, the mass of shafts is considered via attached solid disks. The impact of the system architecture and shaft mass on the instability of such mechanism are studied. Stability charts are plotted via a method based on Floquet theory. Eventually, the unstable points have been found and analyzed in detail. The results show that stabilizing the driveline is feasible by changing the system characteristics which include shaft mass and architecture.
Keywords: Coupling, mechanical systems, oscillations, rotating shafts.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 634
19 Burning Rate Response of Solid Fuels in Laminar Boundary Layer
Authors: A. M. Tahsini
Abstract:Solid fuel transient burning behavior under oxidizer gas flow is numerically investigated. It is done using analysis of the regression rate responses to the imposed sudden and oscillatory variation at inflow properties. The conjugate problem is considered by simultaneous solution of flow and solid phase governing equations to compute the fuel regression rate. The advection upstream splitting method is used as flow computational scheme in finite volume method. The ignition phase is completely simulated to obtain the exact initial condition for response analysis. The results show that the transient burning effects which lead to the combustion instabilities and intermittent extinctions could be observed in solid fuels as the solid propellants.
Keywords: Extinction, Oscillation, Regression rate, Response, Transient burning.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2238
18 Characterization of Inertial Confinement Fusion Targets Based on Transmission Holographic Mach-Zehnder Interferometer
Authors: B. Zare-Farsani, M. Valieghbal, M. Tarkashvand, A. H. Farahbod
Abstract:To provide the conditions for nuclear fusion by high energy and powerful laser beams, it is required to have a high degree of symmetry and surface uniformity of the spherical capsules to reduce the Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instabilities. In this paper, we have used the digital microscopic holography based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer to study the quality of targets for inertial fusion. The interferometric pattern of the target has been registered by a CCD camera and analyzed by Holovision software. The uniformity of the surface and shell thickness are investigated and measured in reconstructed image. We measured shell thickness in different zone where obtained non uniformity 22.82 percent.
Keywords: Inertial confinement fusion, Mach-Zehnder interferometer, Digital holographic microscopy.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1191
17 On Use of Semiconductor Detector Arrays on COMPASS Tokamak
Authors: V. Weinzettl, M. Imrisek, J. Havlicek, J. Mlynar, D. Naydenkova, P. Hacek, M. Hron, F. Janky, D. Sarychev, M. Berta, A. Bencze, T. Szabolics
Abstract:Semiconductor detector arrays are widely used in high-temperature plasma diagnostics. They have a fast response, which allows observation of many processes and instabilities in tokamaks. In this paper, there are reviewed several diagnostics based on semiconductor arrays as cameras, AXUV photodiodes (referred often as fast “bolometers") and detectors of both soft X-rays and visible light installed on the COMPASS tokamak recently. Fresh results from both spring and summer campaigns in 2012 are introduced. Examples of the utilization of the detectors are shown on the plasma shape determination, fast calculation of the radiation center, two-dimensional plasma radiation tomography in different spectral ranges, observation of impurity inflow, and also on investigation of MHD activity in the COMPASS tokamak discharges.
Keywords: Bolometry, plasma diagnostics, soft X-rays, tokamak.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2478
16 Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Using Evolutionary Fuzzy PID Controller
Authors: M. Umabharathi, S. Vijayabaskar
Evolutionary Fuzzy PID Speed Controller for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) is developed to achieve the Speed control of PMSM in Closed Loop operation and to deal with the existence of transients. Consider a Fuzzy PID control design problem, based on common control Engineering Knowledge. If the transient error is big, that Good transient performance can be obtained by increasing the P and I gains and decreasing the D gains. To autotune the control parameters of the Fuzzy PID controller, the Evolutionary Algorithms (EA) are developed. EA based Fuzzy PID controller provides better speed control and guarantees the closed loop stability. The Evolutionary Fuzzy PID controller can be implemented in real time Applications without any concern about instabilities that leads to system failure or damage.
Keywords: Evolutionary Algorithm (EA), Fuzzy system, Genetic Algorithm (GA), Membership, Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2225
15 A Tool for Modeling Slope Instability Triggered by Piping
Authors: Paola Gattinoni, Vincenzo Francani
Abstract:The paper deals with the analysis of triggering conditions and evolution processes of piping phenomena, in relation to both mechanical and hydraulic aspects. In particular, the aim of the study is to predict slope instabilities triggered by piping, analysing the conditions necessary for a flow failure to occur. Really, the mechanical effect involved in the loads redistribution around the pipe is coupled to the drainage process arising from higher permeability of the pipe. If after the pipe formation, the drainage goes prevented for pipe clogging, the porewater pressure increase can lead to the failure or even the liquefaction, with a subsequent flow slide. To simulate the piping evolution and to verify relevant stability conditions, a iterative coupled modelling approach has been pointed out. As example, the proposed tool has been applied to the Stava Valley disaster (July, 1985), demonstrating that piping might be one of triggering phenomena of the tailings dams collapse.
Keywords: Flow failure, liquefaction, modeling, piping, porewater pressure.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2318
14 Analysis and Prediction of the Behavior of the Landslide at Ain El Hammam, Algeria Based on the Second Order Work Criterion
Authors: Zerarka Hizia, Akchiche Mustapha, Prunier Florent
Abstract:The landslide of Ain El Hammam (AEH) is characterized by a complex geology and a high hydrogeology hazard. AEH's perpetual reactivation compels us to look closely at its triggers and to better understand the mechanisms of its evolution in mass and in depth. This study builds a numerical model to simulate the influencing factors such as precipitation, non-saturation, and pore pressure fluctuations, using Plaxis software. For a finer analysis of instabilities, we use Hill's criterion, based on the sign of the second order work, which is the most appropriate material stability criterion for non-associated elastoplastic materials. The results of this type of calculation allow us, in theory, to predict the shape and position of the slip surface(s) which are liable to ground movements of the slope, before reaching the rupture given by the plastic limit of Mohr Coulomb. To validate the numerical model, an analysis of inclinometer measures is performed to confirm the direction of movement and kinematic of the sliding mechanism of AEH’s slope.
Keywords: Landslide, second order work, precipitation, inclinometers.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 671
13 The Role of Nozzle-Exit Conditions on the Flow Field of a Plane Jet
Authors: Ravinesh C. Deo
This article reviews the role of nozzle-exit conditions on the flow field of a plane jet. The jet issuing from a sharp-edged orifice plate at a Reynolds number (Re=18000) with nozzle aspect ratio (AR=72) exhibits the greatest shear-layer instabilities, highest entrainment and jet-spreading rates compared to the radially contoured nozzle. The growth rate of the shear-layer is the highest for the orifice-jet although this property could be amplified for larger Re or AR. A local peak in turbulent energy is found at x»10h. The peak appears to be elevated for an orifice-jet with lower Re or AR. The far-field energy sustained by the orifice-jet exceeds the contoured case although a higher Re and AR may enhance this value. The spectra demonstrated the largest eddy structures for the contoured nozzle. However, the frequency of coherent eddies is higher for the orifice-jet, with a larger magnitude achievable for lower Re and AR.
Keywords: Plane jet, Reynolds number, nozzle-exit conditions, nozzle geometry, aspect ratio.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2679
12 A Lagrangian Hamiltonian Computational Method for Hyper-Elastic Structural Dynamics
Authors: Hosein Falahaty, Hitoshi Gotoh, Abbas Khayyer
Performance of a Hamiltonian based particle method in simulation of nonlinear structural dynamics is subjected to investigation in terms of stability and accuracy. The governing equation of motion is derived based on Hamilton's principle of least action, while the deformation gradient is obtained according to Weighted Least Square method. The hyper-elasticity models of Saint Venant-Kirchhoff and a compressible version similar to Mooney- Rivlin are engaged for the calculation of second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor, respectively. Stability along with accuracy of numerical model is verified by reproducing critical stress fields in static and dynamic responses. As the results, although performance of Hamiltonian based model is evaluated as being acceptable in dealing with intense extensional stress fields, however kinds of instabilities reveal in the case of violent collision which can be most likely attributed to zero energy singular modes.
Keywords: Hamilton's principle of least action, particle based method, hyper-elasticity, analysis of stability.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1393