Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: Terminology

19 Solving Definition and Relation Problems in English Navigation Terminology

Authors: Ayşe Yurdakul, Eckehard Schnieder

Abstract:

Because of the increasing multidisciplinarity and multilinguality, communication problems in different technical fields grow more and more. Therefore, each technical field has its own specific language, terminology which is characterized by the different definition of terms. In addition to definition problems, there are also relation problems between terms. Among these problems of relation, there are the synonymy, antonymy, hypernymy/hyponymy, ambiguity, risk of confusion and translation problems etc.

Thus, the terminology management system iglos of the Institute for Traffic Safety and Automation Engineering of the Technische Universität Braunschweig has the target to solve these problems by a methodological standardisation of term definitions with the aid of the iglos sign model and iglos relation types. The focus of this paper should be on solving definition and relation problems between terms in English navigation terminology.

Keywords: Iglos, iglos sign model, methodological resolutions, navigation terminology, common language, technical language, positioning, definition problems, relation problems.

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18 Metaphor in Terminology: Visualization as a Way to Term Perception

Authors: Jeļena Tretjakova

Abstract:

Metaphor has recently gained extensive interest most probably due to developments in cognitive sciences and the study of language as the reflection of humans- world perception. Metaphor is no longer reckoned as solely literary expressive means. Nowadays it is studied in a whole number of discourses, such as politics, law, medicine, sports, etc. with the purpose of the analysis and determining its role. The scientific language is not an exception. It might seem that metaphor cannot suit it; we would dare to draw a hypothesis that metaphor has indeed found its stable place in terminology. In comprehension of metaphorically represented terms the stage of visualization plays a significant role. We proceeded on the assumption that this stage is the main in provision of better term comprehension and would try to exemplify it with metaphoricallyoriented terms.

Keywords: Comprehension, metaphor, terminology, visualization.

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17 Quantification of the Variables of the Information Model for the Use of School Terminology from 1884 to 2014 in Dalmatia

Authors: V. Vidučić, T. Brešan Ančić, M. Tomelić Ćurlin

Abstract:

Prior to quantifying the variables of the information model for using school terminology in Croatia's region of Dalmatia from 1884 to 2014, the most relevant model variables had to be determined: historical circumstances, standard of living, education system, linguistic situation, and media. The research findings show that there was no significant transfer of the 1884 school terms into 1949 usage; likewise, the 1949 school terms were not widely used in 2014. On the other hand, the research revealed that the meaning of school terms changed over the decades. The quantification of the variables will serve as the groundwork for creating an information model for using school terminology in Dalmatia from 1884 to 2014 and for defining direct growth rates in further research.

Keywords: Education system, historical circumstances, linguistic situation, media, school terminology, standard of living.

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16 Interface Terminologies: A Case Study on the International Classification of Primary Care

Authors: Laurent Letrilliart, Anne-Katty Bacis, François Mennerat, Cyrille Colin

Abstract:

The International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC), which belongs to the WHO Family of International Classifications (WHO-FIC), has a low granularity, which is convenient for describing general medical practice. However, its lack of specificity makes it useful to be used along with an interface terminology. An international survey has been performed, using a questionnaire sent by email to experts from 25 countries, in order to describe the terminologies interfacing with ICPC. Eleven interface terminologies have been identified, developed in Argentina, Australia, Belgium (2), Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Norway, South Africa, and The Netherlands. Globally, these systems have been poorly assessed until now.

Keywords: Terminology, controlled vocabulary, thesaurus, classification, International Classification of Primary Care.

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15 Learning to Order Terms: Supervised Interestingness Measures in Terminology Extraction

Authors: Jérôme Azé, Mathieu Roche, Yves Kodratoff, Michèle Sebag

Abstract:

Term Extraction, a key data preparation step in Text Mining, extracts the terms, i.e. relevant collocation of words, attached to specific concepts (e.g. genetic-algorithms and decisiontrees are terms associated to the concept “Machine Learning" ). In this paper, the task of extracting interesting collocations is achieved through a supervised learning algorithm, exploiting a few collocations manually labelled as interesting/not interesting. From these examples, the ROGER algorithm learns a numerical function, inducing some ranking on the collocations. This ranking is optimized using genetic algorithms, maximizing the trade-off between the false positive and true positive rates (Area Under the ROC curve). This approach uses a particular representation for the word collocations, namely the vector of values corresponding to the standard statistical interestingness measures attached to this collocation. As this representation is general (over corpora and natural languages), generality tests were performed by experimenting the ranking function learned from an English corpus in Biology, onto a French corpus of Curriculum Vitae, and vice versa, showing a good robustness of the approaches compared to the state-of-the-art Support Vector Machine (SVM).

Keywords: Text-mining, Terminology Extraction, Evolutionary algorithm, ROC Curve.

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14 Home Education in the Australian Context

Authors: A. Karaali

Abstract:

This paper will seek to clarify important key terms such as home schooling and home education as well as the legalities attached to such terms. It will reflect on the recent proposed changes to terminology in NSW, Australia. The various pedagogical approaches to home education will be explored including their prominence in the Australian context. There is a strong focus on literature from Australia. The historical background of home education in Australia will be explained as well as the difference between distance education and home education. The future of home education in Australia will be discussed.

Keywords: Alternative education, e-learning, home education, home schooling, online resources, technology.

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13 Regional Medical Imaging System

Authors: Michal Javornik, Otto Dostal, Karel Slavicek

Abstract:

The purpose of this article is to introduce an advanced system for the support of processing of medical image information, and the terminology related to this system, which can be an important element to a faster transition to a fully digitalized hospital. The core of the system is a set of DICOM compliant applications running over a dedicated computer network. The whole integrated system creates a collaborative platform supporting daily routines in the radiology community, developing communication channels, supporting the exchange of information and special consultations among various medical institutions as well as supporting medical training for practicing radiologists and medical students. It gives the users outside of hospitals the tools to work in almost the same conditions as in the radiology departments.

Keywords: DICOM, Integration, Medical Education, MedicalImaging

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12 An Ontology for Knowledge Representation and Applications

Authors: Nhon Do

Abstract:

Ontology is a terminology which is used in artificial intelligence with different meanings. Ontology researching has an important role in computer science and practical applications, especially distributed knowledge systems. In this paper we present an ontology which is called Computational Object Knowledge Base Ontology. It has been used in designing some knowledge base systems for solving problems such as the system that supports studying knowledge and solving analytic geometry problems, the program for studying and solving problems in Plane Geometry, the knowledge system in linear algebra.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, knowledge representation, knowledge base system, ontology.

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11 Effect of Different BER Performance Comparison of MAP and ML Detection

Authors: Naveed Ur Rehman, Rehan Jamil, Irfan Jamil

Abstract:

In this paper, we regard as a coded transmission over a frequency-selective channel. We plan to study analytically the convergence of the turbo-detector using a maximum a posteriori (MAP) equalizer and a MAP decoder. We demonstrate that the densities of the maximum likelihood (ML) exchanged during the iterations are e-symmetric and output-symmetric. Under the Gaussian approximation, this property allows to execute a one-dimensional scrutiny of the turbo-detector. By deriving the analytical terminology of the ML distributions under the Gaussian approximation, we confirm that the bit error rate (BER) performance of the turbo-detector converges to the BER performance of the coded additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel at high signal to noise ratio (SNR), for any frequency selective channel.

Keywords: MAP, ML, SNR, Decoder, BER, Coded transmission.

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10 Corporate Governance Networks and Interlocking Directorates in the Czech Republic

Authors: Ondřej Nowak

Abstract:

This paper presents an exploration into the structure of the corporate governance network and interlocking directorates in the Czech Republic. First a literature overview and a basic terminology of the network theory is presented. Further in the text, statistics and other calculations relevant to corporate governance networks are presented. For this purpose an empirical data set consisting of 2 906 joint stock companies in the Czech Republic was examined. Industries with the highest average number of interlocks per company were healthcare, and energy and utilities. There is no observable link between the financial performance of the company and the number of its interlocks. Also interlocks with financial companies are very rare.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Interlocking Directorates, Network Theory, Czech Republic.

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9 Value from Environmental and Cultural Perspectives or Two Sides of the Same Coin

Authors: Vilém Pařil, Dominika Tóthová

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This paper discusses the value theory in cultural heritage and the value theory in environmental economics. Two economic views of the value theory are compared, within the field of cultural heritage maintenance and within the field of the environment. The main aims are to find common features in these two differently structured theories under the layer of differently defined terms as well as really differing features of these two approaches; to clear the confusion which stems from different terminology as in fact these terms capture the same aspects of reality; and to show possible inspiration these two perspectives can offer one another. Another aim is to present these two value systems in one value framework. First, important moments of the value theory from the economic perspective are presented, leading to the marginal revolution of (not only) the Austrian School. Then the theory of value within cultural heritage and environmental economics are explored. Finally, individual approaches are compared and their potential mutual inspiration searched for.

Keywords: Cultural heritage, environmental economics, existence value, value theory.

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8 A POX Controller Module to Prepare a List of Flow Header Information Extracted from SDN Traffic

Authors: Wisam H. Muragaa, Kamaruzzaman Seman, Mohd Fadzli Marhusin

Abstract:

Software Defined Networking (SDN) is a paradigm designed to facilitate the way of controlling the network dynamically and with more agility. Network traffic is a set of flows, each of which contains a set of packets. In SDN, a matching process is performed on every packet coming to the network in the SDN switch. Only the headers of the new packets will be forwarded to the SDN controller. In terminology, the flow header fields are called tuples. Basically, these tuples are 5-tuple: the source and destination IP addresses, source and destination ports, and protocol number. This flow information is used to provide an overview of the network traffic. Our module is meant to extract this 5-tuple with the packets and flows numbers and show them as a list. Therefore, this list can be used as a first step in the way of detecting the DDoS attack. Thus, this module can be considered as the beginning stage of any flow-based DDoS detection method.

Keywords: Matching, OpenFlow tables, POX controller, SDN, table-miss.

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7 The Early Stages of the Standardization of Finnish Building Sector

Authors: A. Soikkeli

Abstract:

Early 20th century functionalism aimed at generalising living and rationalising construction, thus laying the foundation for the standardisation of construction components and products. From the 1930s onwards, all measurement and quality instructions for building products, different types of building components, descriptions of working methods complying with advisable building practises, planning, measurement and calculation guidelines, terminology, etc. were called standards. Standardisation was regarded as a necessary prerequisite for the mass production of housing.

This article examines the early stages of standardisation in Finland in the 1940s and 1950s, as reflected on the working history of an individual architect, ErkkiKoiso-Kanttila (1914-2006). In 1950 Koiso-Kanttila was appointed the Head of Design of the Finnish Association of Architects’ Building Standards Committee, a position which he held until 1958. His main responsibilities were the development of the RT Building Information File and compiling of the files.

Keywords: Architecture, Post WWII period, Reconstruction, Standardisation.

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6 Mathematical Modeling of Human Cardiovascular System: A Lumped Parameter Approach and Simulation

Authors: Ketan Naik, P. H. Bhathawala

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is to develop a mathematical model of Human Cardiovascular System using lumped parameter method. The model is divided in three parts: Systemic Circulation, Pulmonary Circulation and the Heart. The established mathematical model has been simulated by MATLAB software. The innovation of this study is in describing the system based on the vessel diameters and simulating mathematical equations with active electrical elements. Terminology of human physical body and required physical data like vessel’s radius, thickness etc., which are required to calculate circuit parameters like resistance, inductance and capacitance, are proceeds from well-known medical books. The developed model is useful to understand the anatomic of human cardiovascular system and related syndromes. The model is deal with vessel’s pressure and blood flow at certain time.

Keywords: Cardiovascular system, lumped parameter method, mathematical modeling, simulation.

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5 Particular Features of the First Romanian Multilingual Dictionaries

Authors: Mihaela Mocanu

Abstract:

The Romanian multilingual dictionaries – also named polyglot, plurilingual or polylingual dictionaries, have known a slow yet constant development starting with the end of the 17th century, when the first such work is attested, to the present time, when we witness a considerable increase of the number of polyglot dictionaries, especially the terminological ones. This paper aims at analyzing the context in which the first Romanian multilingual dictionaries were issued, as well as and the organization and structure particularities of the first lexicographic works of this type. The irretrievable loss of some of these works as well as the partial conservation of others renders the attempt to retrace the beginnings of Romanian lexicography extremely difficult. The research methodology is part of a descriptive and analytical approach based on two types of sources, subject to contrastive analysis: the notes made by the initiators of lexicographic projects and the testimonies of their contemporaries, respectively, along with the specialized studies regarding the history of the old Romanian lexicography. The analysis of the contents has indicated that these dictionaries lacked a scientific apparatus in the true sense of the phrase, failed to obey unitary organizational criteria, being limited, most of the times, to mere inventories of words, where the Romanian term was assigned its correspondent in other languages. Motivated by practical reasons, the first multilingual dictionaries were aimed at the clerics their purpose being to ensure the translators’ fidelity towards the original religious texts, regarded as sacred.

Keywords: Language, multilingual dictionary, Romanian lexicography, terminology.

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4 Development of a Roadmap for Assessment the Sustainability of Buildings in Saudi Arabia Using Building Information Modeling

Authors: Ibrahim A. Al-Sulaihi, Khalid S. Al-Gahtani, Abdullah M. Al-Sugair, Aref A. Abadel

Abstract:

Achieving environmental sustainability is one of the important issues considered in many countries’ vision. Green/Sustainable building is widely used terminology for describing a friendly environmental construction. Applying sustainable practices has a significant importance in various fields, including construction field that consumes an enormous amount of resource and causes a considerable amount of waste. The need for sustainability is increased in the regions that suffering from the limitation of natural resource and extreme weather conditions such as Saudi Arabia. Since buildings designs are getting sophisticated, the need for tools, which support decision-making for sustainability issues, is increasing, especially in the design and preconstruction stages. In this context, Building Information Modeling (BIM) can aid in performing complex building performance analyses to ensure an optimized sustainable building design. Accordingly, this paper introduces a roadmap towards developing a systematic approach for presenting the sustainability of buildings using BIM. The approach includes set of main processes including; identifying the sustainability parameters that can be used for sustainability assessment in Saudi Arabia, developing sustainability assessment method that fits the special circumstances in the Kingdom, identifying the sustainability requirements and BIM functions that can be used for satisfying these requirements, and integrating these requirements with identified functions. As a result, the sustainability-BIM approach can be developed which helps designers in assessing the sustainability and exploring different design alternatives at the early stage of the construction project.

Keywords: Green buildings, sustainability, BIM, rating systems, environment, Saudi Arabia.

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3 Energy Interaction among HVAC and Supermarket Environment

Authors: D. Woradechjumroen, H. Li, Y. Yu

Abstract:

Supermarkets are the most electricity-intensive type of commercial buildings. The unsuitable indoor environment of a supermarket provided by abnormal HVAC operations incurs waste energy consumption in refrigeration systems. This current study briefly describes significantly solid backgrounds and proposes easyto- use analysis terminology for investigating the impact of HVAC operations on refrigeration power consumption using the field-test data obtained from building automation system (BAS). With solid backgrounds and prior knowledge, expected energy interactions between HVAC and refrigeration systems are proposed through Pearson’s correlation analysis (R value) by considering correlations between equipment power consumption and dominantly independent variables (driving force conditions).The R value can be conveniently utilized to evaluate how strong relations between equipment operations and driving force parameters are. The calculated R values obtained from field data are compared to expected ranges of R values computed by energy interaction methodology. The comparisons can separate the operational conditions of equipment into faulty and normal conditions. This analysis can simply investigate the condition of equipment operations or building sensors because equipment could be abnormal conditions due to routine operations or faulty commissioning processes in field tests. With systematically solid and easy-to-use backgrounds of interactions provided in the present article, the procedures can be utilized as a tool to evaluate the proper commissioning and routine operations of HVAC and refrigeration systems to detect simple faults (e.g. sensors and driving force environment of refrigeration systems and equipment set-point) and optimize power consumption in supermarket buildings. Moreover, the analysis will be used to further study the FDD research for supermarkets in future.

Keywords: Energy interaction, HVAC, R-value, Supermarket buildings.

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2 A Paradigm Shift towards Personalized and Scalable Product Development and Lifecycle Management Systems in the Aerospace Industry

Authors: David E. Culler, Noah D. Anderson

Abstract:

Integrated systems for product design, manufacturing, and lifecycle management are difficult to implement and customize. Commercial software vendors, including CAD/CAM and third party PDM/PLM developers, create user interfaces and functionality that allow their products to be applied across many industries. The result is that systems become overloaded with functionality, difficult to navigate, and use terminology that is unfamiliar to engineers and production personnel. For example, manufacturers of automotive, aeronautical, electronics, and household products use similar but distinct methods and processes. Furthermore, each company tends to have their own preferred tools and programs for controlling work and information flow and that connect design, planning, and manufacturing processes to business applications. This paper presents a methodology and a case study that addresses these issues and suggests that in the future more companies will develop personalized applications that fit to the natural way that their business operates. A functioning system has been implemented at a highly competitive U.S. aerospace tooling and component supplier that works with many prominent airline manufacturers around the world including The Boeing Company, Airbus, Embraer, and Bombardier Aerospace. During the last three years, the program has produced significant benefits such as the automatic creation and management of component and assembly designs (parametric models and drawings), the extensive use of lightweight 3D data, and changes to the way projects are executed from beginning to end. CATIA (CAD/CAE/CAM) and a variety of programs developed in C#, VB.Net, HTML, and SQL make up the current system. The web-based platform is facilitating collaborative work across multiple sites around the world and improving communications with customers and suppliers. This work demonstrates that the creative use of Application Programming Interface (API) utilities, libraries, and methods is a key to automating many time-consuming tasks and linking applications together.

Keywords: CAD/CAM, CAPP, PDM, PLM, Scalable Systems.

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1 Evaluating Complexity – Ethical Challenges in Computational Design Processes

Authors: J.Partanen

Abstract:

Complexity, as a theoretical background has made it easier to understand and explain the features and dynamic behavior of various complex systems. As the common theoretical background has confirmed, borrowing the terminology for design from the natural sciences has helped to control and understand urban complexity. Phenomena like self-organization, evolution and adaptation are appropriate to describe the formerly inaccessible characteristics of the complex environment in unpredictable bottomup systems. Increased computing capacity has been a key element in capturing the chaotic nature of these systems. A paradigm shift in urban planning and architectural design has forced us to give up the illusion of total control in urban environment, and consequently to seek for novel methods for steering the development. New methods using dynamic modeling have offered a real option for more thorough understanding of complexity and urban processes. At best new approaches may renew the design processes so that we get a better grip on the complex world via more flexible processes, support urban environmental diversity and respond to our needs beyond basic welfare by liberating ourselves from the standardized minimalism. A complex system and its features are as such beyond human ethics. Self-organization or evolution is either good or bad. Their mechanisms are by nature devoid of reason. They are common in urban dynamics in both natural processes and gas. They are features of a complex system, and they cannot be prevented. Yet their dynamics can be studied and supported. The paradigm of complexity and new design approaches has been criticized for a lack of humanity and morality, but the ethical implications of scientific or computational design processes have not been much discussed. It is important to distinguish the (unexciting) ethics of the theory and tools from the ethics of computer aided processes based on ethical decisions. Urban planning and architecture cannot be based on the survival of the fittest; however, the natural dynamics of the system cannot be impeded on grounds of being “non-human". In this paper the ethical challenges of using the dynamic models are contemplated in light of a few examples of new architecture and dynamic urban models and literature. It is suggested that ethical challenges in computational design processes could be reframed under the concepts of responsibility and transparency.

Keywords: urban planning, architecture, dynamic modeling, ethics, complexity theory.

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