Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 120

Search results for: Superheated steam

120 Ziegler Nichols Based Integral Proportional Controller for Superheated Steam Temperature Control System

Authors: Amil Daraz, Suheel Abdullah Malik, Tahir Saleem, Sajid Ali Bhati

Abstract:

In this paper, Integral Proportional (I-P) controller is employed for superheated steam temperature control system. The Ziegler-Nichols (Z-N) method is used for the tuning of I-P controller. The performance analysis of Z-N based I-P controller is assessed on superheated steam system of 500-MW boiler. The comparison of transient response parameters such as rise time, settling time, and overshoot is made with Z-N based Proportional Integral (PI) controller. It is observed from the results that Z-N based I-P controller completely eliminates the overshoot in the output response.

Keywords: Superheated steam, process reaction curve, PI and I-P controller, Ziegler-Nichols tuning.

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119 Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage: A Recipe for Success

Authors: Mohsen Ebrahimi

Abstract:

In this paper, Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) is introduced and its advantages over ordinary steam injection is demonstrated. A simple simulation model is built and three scenarios of natural production, ordinary steam injection, and SAGD are compared in terms of their cumulative oil production and cumulative oil steam ratio. The results show that SAGD can significantly enhance oil production in quite a short period of time. However, since the distance between injection and production wells is short, the oil to steam ratio decreases gradually through time.

Keywords: Thermal recovery, Steam injection, SAGD, Enhanced oil recovery

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118 Steam Gasification of Palm Kernel Shell (PKS): Effect of Fe/BEA and Ni/BEA Catalysts and Steam to Biomass Ratio on Composition of Gaseous Products

Authors: M.F. Mohamad, Anita Ramli, S.E.E Misi, S. Yusup

Abstract:

This work presents the hydrogen production from steam gasification of palm kernel shell (PKS) at 700 oC in the presence of 5% Ni/BEA and 5% Fe/BEA as catalysts. The steam gasification was performed in two-staged reactors to evaluate the effect of calcinations temperature and the steam to biomass ratio on the product gas composition. The catalytic activity of Ni/BEA catalyst decreases with increasing calcinations temperatures from 500 to 700 oC. The highest H2 concentration is produced by Fe/BEA (600) with more than 71 vol%. The catalytic activity of the catalysts tested is found to correspond to its physicochemical properties. The optimum range for steam to biomass ratio if found to be between 2 to 4. Excess steam content results in temperature drop in the gasifier which is undesirable for the gasification reactions.

Keywords: Hydrogen, Palm Kernel Shell, Steam gasification, Ni/BEA, Fe/BEA

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117 Design of a MSF Desalination Plant to be Supplied by a New Specific 42 MW Power Plant Located in Iran

Authors: Rouzbeh Shafaghat, Hoda Shafaghat, Fatemeh Ghanbari, Pouya Sirous Rezaei, Rohollah Espanani

Abstract:

Nowadays, desalination of salt water is considered an important industrial process. In many parts of the world, particularly in the gulf countries, the multi-stage flash (MSF) water desalination has an essential contribution in the production of fresh water. In this study, a simple mathematical model is defined to design a MSF desalination system and the feasibility of using the MSF desalination process in proximity of a 42 MW power plant is investigated. This power plant can just provide 10 ton/h superheated steam from low pressure (LP) section of heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) for thermal desalting system. The designed MSF system with gained output ratio (GOR) of 10.3 has 24 flashing stages and can produce 2480 ton/d of fresh water. The expected performance characteristics of the designed MSF desalination plant are determined. In addition, the effect of motive water pressure on the amount of non-condensable gases removed by water jet vacuum pumps is investigated.

Keywords: Design, dual-purpose power plant, mathematical model, MSF desalination.

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116 Pinch Analysis of Triple Pressure Reheat Supercritical Combined Cycle Power Plant

Authors: Sui Yan Wong, Keat Ping Yeoh, Chi Wai Hui

Abstract:

In this study, supercritical steam is introduced to Combined Cycle Power Plant (CCPP) in an attempt to further optimize energy recovery. Subcritical steam is commonly used in the CCPP, operating at maximum pressures around 150-160 bar. Supercritical steam is an alternative to increase heat recovery during vaporization period of water. The idea of improvement using supercritical steam is further examined with the use of exergy, pinch analysis and Aspen Plus simulation.

Keywords: Exergy, pinch, combined cycle power plant, CCPP, supercritical steam.

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115 Thermodynamic Performance Assessment of Steam-Injection Gas-Turbine Systems

Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim, Giman Kim

Abstract:

The cycles of the steam-injection gas-turbine systems are studied. The analyses of the parametric effects and the optimal operating conditions for the steam-injection gas-turbine (STIG) system and the regenerative steam-injection gas-turbine (RSTIG) system are investigated to ensure the maximum performance. Using the analytic model, the performance parameters of the system such as thermal efficiency, fuel consumption and specific power, and also the optimal operating conditions are evaluated in terms of pressure ratio, steam injection ratio, ambient temperature and turbine inlet temperature (TIT). It is shown that the computational results are presented to have a notable enhancement of thermal efficiency and specific power.

Keywords: gas turbine, RSTIG, steam injection, STIG, thermal efficiency.

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114 Simulation of Loss-of-Flow Transient in a Radiant Steam Boiler with Relap5/Mod3.2

Authors: A.L.Deghal.Cheridi, A.Chaker, A.Loubar

Abstract:

loss of feedwater accident is one of the frequently sever accidents in steam boiler facilities. It threatens the system structural integrity and generates serious hazards and economic loses. The safety analysis of the thermal installations, based extensively on the numeric simulation. The simulation analysis using realistic computer codes like Relap5/Mod3.2 will help understand steam boiler thermal-hydraulic behavior during normal and abnormal conditions. In this study, we are interested on the evaluation of the radiant steam boiler assessment and response to loss-of-feedwater accident. Pressure, temperature and flow rate profiles are presented in various steam boiler system components. The obtained results demonstrate the importance and capability of the Relap5/Mod3.2 code in the thermal-hydraulic analysis of the steam boiler facilities.

Keywords: Radiant steam boiler, Relap5/Mod3.2 code system, Steady-state simulation, Transient simulation, Loss of feedwateraccident

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113 Exergetic Analysis of Steam Turbine Power Plant Operated in Chemical Industry

Authors: F. Hafdhi, T. Khir, A. Ben Yahia, A. Ben Brahim

Abstract:

An Energetic and exergetic analysis is conducted on a Steam Turbine Power Plant of an existing Phosphoric Acid Factory. The heat recovery systems used in different parts of the plant are also considered in the analysis. Mass, thermal and exergy balances are established on the main compounds of the factory. A numerical code is established using EES software to perform the calculations required for the thermal and exergy plant analysis. The effects of the key operating parameters such as steam pressure and temperature, mass flow rate as well as seawater temperature, on the cycle performances are investigated. A maximum Exergy Loss Rate of about 72% is obtained for the melters, followed by the condensers, heat exchangers and the pumps. The heat exchangers used in the phosphoric acid unit present exergetic efficiencies around 33% while 60% to 72% are obtained for steam turbines and blower. For the explored ranges of HP steam temperature and pressure, the exergy efficiencies of steam turbine generators STGI and STGII increase of about 2.5% and 5.4% respectively. In the same way optimum HP steam flow rate values, leading to the maximum exergy efficiencies are defined.

Keywords: Steam turbine generator, energy efficiency, exergy efficiency, phosphoric acid plant.

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112 Experimental Study on a Solar Heat Concentrating Steam Generator

Authors: Qiangqiang Xu, Xu Ji, Jingyang Han, Changchun Yang, Ming Li

Abstract:

Replacing of complex solar concentrating unit, this paper designs a solar heat-concentrating medium-temperature steam-generating system. Solar radiation is collected by using a large solar collecting and heat concentrating plate and is converged to the metal evaporating pipe with high efficient heat transfer. In the meantime, the heat loss is reduced by employing a double-glazed cover and other heat insulating structures. Thus, a high temperature is reached in the metal evaporating pipe. The influences of the system's structure parameters on system performance are analyzed. The steam production rate and the steam production under different solar irradiance, solar collecting and heat concentrating plate area, solar collecting and heat concentrating plate temperature and heat loss are obtained. The results show that when solar irradiance is higher than 600 W/m2, the effective heat collecting area is 7.6 m2 and the double-glazing cover is adopted, the system heat loss amount is lower than the solar irradiance value. The stable steam is produced in the metal evaporating pipe at 100 ℃, 110 ℃, and 120 ℃, respectively. When the average solar irradiance is about 896 W/m2, and the steaming cumulative time is about 5 hours, the daily steam production of the system is about 6.174 kg. In a single day, the solar irradiance is larger at noon, thus the steam production rate is large at that time. Before 9:00 and after 16:00, the solar irradiance is smaller, and the steam production rate is almost 0.

Keywords: Heat concentrating, heat loss, medium temperature, solar steam production.

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111 Application of Model Free Adaptive Control in Main Steam Temperature System of Thermal Power Plant

Authors: Khaing Yadana Swe, Lillie Dewan

Abstract:

At present, the cascade PID control is widely used to control the superheating temperature (main steam temperature). As Main Steam Temperature has the characteristics of large inertia, large time-delay and time varying, etc., conventional PID control strategy cannot achieve good control performance. In order to overcome the bad performance and deficiencies of main steam temperature control system, Model Free Adaptive Control (MFAC) - P cascade control system is proposed in this paper. By substituting MFAC in PID of the main control loop of the main steam temperature control, it can overcome time delays, non-linearity, disturbance and time variation.

Keywords: Model free Adaptive Control, Cascade Control, Adaptive Control, PID.

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110 Study and Enhancement of Flash Evaporation Desalination Utilizing the Ocean Thermocline and Discharged heat

Authors: Sami Mutair, Yasuyuki Ikegami

Abstract:

This paper reports on the results of experimental investigations of flash evaporation from superheated jet issues vertically upward from a round straight nozzle of 81.3 mm diameter. For the investigated range of jet superheat degree and velocity, it was shown that flash evaporation enhances with initial temperature increase. Due to the increase of jet inertia and subsequently the delay of jet shattering, increase of jet velocity was found to result in increase of evaporation "delay period". An empirical equation predicts the jet evaporation completion height was developed, this equation is thought to be useful in designing the flash evaporation chamber. In attempts for enhancement of flash evaporation, use of steel wire mesh located at short distance downstream was found effective with no consequent pressure drop.

Keywords: Enhancement; Flash Evaporation; OTEC; superheated jet

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109 Finite Element Solution of Navier-Stokes Equations for Steam Flow and Heat Transfer

Authors: Igor Nedelkovski, Ilios Vilos, Tale Geramitcioski

Abstract:

Computational simulation of steam flow and heat transfer in power plant condensers on the basis of the threedimensional mathematical model for the flow through porous media is presented. In order to solve the mathematical model of steam flow and heat transfer in power plant condensers, the Streamline Upwind Petrov-Galerkin finite element method is applied. By comparison of the results of simulation with experimental results about an experimental condenser, it is confirmed that SUPG finite element method can be successfully applied for solving the three-dimensional mathematical model of steam flow and heat transfer in power plant condensers.

Keywords: Navier-Stokes, FEM, condensers, steam.

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108 Robust Steam Temperature Regulation for Distillation of Essential Oil Extraction Process using Hybrid Fuzzy-PD plus PID Controller

Authors: Nurhani Kasuan, Zakariah Yusuf, Mohd Nasir Taib, Mohd Hezri Fazalul Rahiman, Nazurah Tajuddin, Mohd Azri Abdul Aziz

Abstract:

This paper presents a hybrid fuzzy-PD plus PID (HFPP) controller and its application to steam distillation process for essential oil extraction system. Steam temperature is one of the most significant parameters that can influence the composition of essential oil yield. Due to parameter variations and changes in operation conditions during distillation, a robust steam temperature controller becomes nontrivial to avoid the degradation of essential oil quality. Initially, the PRBS input is triggered to the system and output of steam temperature is modeled using ARX model structure. The parameter estimation and tuning method is adopted by simulation using HFPP controller scheme. The effectiveness and robustness of proposed controller technique is validated by real time implementation to the system. The performance of HFPP using 25 and 49 fuzzy rules is compared. The experimental result demonstrates the proposed HFPP using 49 fuzzy rules achieves a better, consistent and robust controller compared to PID when considering the test on tracking the set point and the effects due to disturbance.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic controller, steam temperature, steam distillation, real time control.

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107 An Experimental Study on Evacuated Tube Solar Collector for Steam Generation in India

Authors: Avadhesh Yadav, Anunaya Saraswat

Abstract:

An evacuated tube solar collector is experimentally studied for steam generation. When the solar radiation falls on evacuated tubes, this energy is absorbed by the tubes and transferred to water with natural conduction and convection. A natural circulation of water occurs due to the inclination in tubes and header. In this experimental study, the efficiency of collector has been calculated. The result shows that the collector attains the maximum efficiency of 46.26% during 14:00 to 15:00h. Steam has been generated for two hours from 13:30 to 15:30 h on a winter day. Maximum solar intensity and maximum ambient temperatures are 795W/m2 and 19oC respectively on this day.

Keywords: Evacuated tube, solar collector, hot water, steam generation.

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106 Calculating the Efficiency of Steam Boilers Based on Its Most Effecting Factors: A Case Study

Authors: Nabil M. Muhaisen, Rajab Abdullah Hokoma

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with calculating boiler efficiency as one of the most important types of performance measurements in any steam power plant. That has a key role in determining the overall effectiveness of the whole system within the power station. For this calculation, a Visual-Basic program was developed, and a steam power plant known as El-Khmus power plant, Libya was selected as a case study. The calculation of the boiler efficiency was applied by using heating balance method. The findings showed how the maximum heat energy which produced from the boiler increases the boiler efficiency through increasing the temperature of the feed water, and decreasing the exhaust temperature along with humidity levels of the of fuel used within the boiler.

Keywords: Boiler, Calculation, Efficiency, Performance. Steam

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105 Feasibility Study on Vanillin Production from Jatropha curcas Stem Using Steam Explosion as a Pretreatment

Authors: Pilanee Vaithanomsat, Waraporn Apiwatanapiwat

Abstract:

Jatropha curcas stem was analyzed for chemical compositions: 19.11% pentosan, 42.99% alphacellulose and 24.11% lignin based on dry weight of 100-g raw material. The condition to fractionate cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in J. curcas stem using steam explosion was optimized. The procedure started from cutting J. curcas stem into small pieces and soaked in water for overnight. After that, they were steam exploded at 214 °C and 21 kg/cm2 for 5 min. The obtained hydrolysate contained 1.55 g/L ferulic acid which after that was used as substrate for vanillin production by Aspergillus niger and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus in one-step process. The maximum 0.65 g/L of vanillin were obtained with the conversion rate of 45.2% based on the initial ferulic acid.

Keywords: Vanillin, production, Jatropha curcas stem, steam explosion.

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104 Multi-Objective Optimization of a Steam Turbine Stage

Authors: Alvise Pellegrini, Ernesto Benini

Abstract:

The design of a steam turbine is a very complex engineering operation that can be simplified and improved thanks to computer-aided multi-objective optimization. This process makes use of existing optimization algorithms and losses correlations to identify those geometries that deliver the best balance of performance (i.e. Pareto-optimal points). This paper deals with a one-dimensional multi-objective and multi-point optimization of a single-stage steam turbine. Using a genetic optimization algorithm and an algebraic one-dimensional ideal gas-path model based on loss and deviation correlations, a code capable of performing the optimization of a predefined steam turbine stage was developed. More specifically, during this study the parameters modified (i.e. decision variables) to identify the best performing geometries were solidity and angles both for stator and rotor cascades, while the objective functions to maximize were totalto- static efficiency and specific work done. Finally, an accurate analysis of the obtained results was carried out.

Keywords: Steam turbine, optimization, genetic algorithms.

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103 Simulation Study of Radial Heat and Mass Transfer Inside a Fixed Bed Catalytic Reactor

Authors: K. Vakhshouri, M.M. Y. Motamed Hashemi

Abstract:

A rigorous two-dimensional model is developed for simulating the operation of a less-investigated type steam reformer having a considerably lower operating Reynolds number, higher tube diameter, and non-availability of extra steam in the feed compared with conventional steam reformers. Simulation results show that reasonable predictions can only be achieved when certain correlations for wall to fluid heat transfer equations are applied. Due to severe operating conditions, in all cases, strong radial temperature gradients inside the reformer tubes have been found. Furthermore, the results show how a certain catalyst loading profile will affect the operation of the reformer.

Keywords: Steam reforming, direct reduction, heat transfer, two-dimensional model, simulation.

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102 Development of Better Quality Low-Cost Activated Carbon from South African Pine Tree (Pinus patula) Sawdust: Characterization and Comparative Phenol Adsorption

Authors: L. Mukosha, M. S. Onyango, A. Ochieng, H. Kasaini

Abstract:

The remediation of water resources pollution in developing countries requires the application of alternative sustainable cheaper and efficient end-of-pipe wastewater treatment technologies. The feasibility of use of South African cheap and abundant pine tree (Pinus patula) sawdust for development of lowcost AC of comparable quality to expensive commercial ACs in the abatement of water pollution was investigated. AC was developed at optimized two-stage N2-superheated steam activation conditions in a fixed bed reactor, and characterized for proximate and ultimate properties, N2-BET surface area, pore size distribution, SEM, pHPZC and FTIR. The sawdust pyrolysis activation energy was evaluated by TGA. Results indicated that the chars prepared at 800oC and 2hrs were suitable for development of better quality AC at 800oC and 47% burn-off having BET surface area (1086m2/g), micropore volume (0.26cm3/g), and mesopore volume (0.43cm3/g) comparable to expensive commercial ACs, and suitable for water contaminants removal. The developed AC showed basic surface functionality at pHPZC at 10.3, and a phenol adsorption capacity that was higher than that of commercial Norit (RO 0.8) AC. Thus, it is feasible to develop better quality low-cost AC from (Pinus patula) sawdust using twostage N2-steam activation in fixed-bed reactor.

Keywords: Activated carbon, phenol adsorption, sawdust integrated utilization, economical wastewater treatment.

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101 Growth of Droplet in Radiation-Induced Plasma of Own Steam

Authors: Pavlo Selyshchev

Abstract:

The theoretical approach is developed to describe the change of drops in the atmosphere of own steam and buffer gas under irradiation. It is shown that the irradiation influences on size of stable droplet and on the conditions under which the droplet exists. Under irradiation the change of drop becomes more complex: the not monotone and periodical change of size of drop becomes possible. All possible solutions are represented by means of phase portrait. It is found all qualitatively different phase portraits as function of critical parameters: rate generation of clusters and substance density.

Keywords: Irradiation, steam, plasma, cluster formation, liquid droplets, evolution.

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100 Coordinated Q–V Controller for Multi-machine Steam Power Plant: Design and Validation

Authors: Jasna Dragosavac, Žarko Janda, J.V. Milanović, Dušan Arnautović

Abstract:

This paper discusses coordinated reactive power - voltage (Q-V) control in a multi machine steam power plant. The drawbacks of manual Q-V control are briefly listed, and the design requirements for coordinated Q-V controller are specified. Theoretical background and mathematical model of the new controller are presented next followed by validation of developed Matlab/Simulink model through comparison with recorded responses in real steam power plant and description of practical realisation of the controller. Finally, the performance of commissioned controller is illustrated on several examples of coordinated Q-V control in real steam power plant and compared with manual control.

Keywords: Coordinated Voltage Control, Power Plant Control, Reactive Power Control, Sensitivity Matrix

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99 Performance of Derna Steam Power Plant at Varying Super-Heater Operating Conditions Based on Exergy

Authors: Idris Elfeituri

Abstract:

In the current study, energy and exergy analysis of a 65 MW steam power plant was carried out. This study investigated the effect of variations of overall conductance of the super heater on the performance of an existing steam power plant located in Derna, Libya. The performance of the power plant was estimated by a mathematical modelling which considers the off-design operating conditions of each component. A fully interactive computer program based on the mass, energy and exergy balance equations has been developed. The maximum exergy destruction has been found in the steam generation unit. A 50% reduction in the design value of overall conductance of the super heater has been achieved, which accordingly decreases the amount of the net electrical power that would be generated by at least 13 MW, as well as the overall plant exergy efficiency by at least 6.4%, and at the same time that would cause an increase of the total exergy destruction by at least 14 MW. The achieved results showed that the super heater design and operating conditions play an important role on the thermodynamics performance and the fuel utilization of the power plant. Moreover, these considerations are very useful in the process of the decision that should be taken at the occasions of deciding whether to replace or renovate the super heater of the power plant.

Keywords: Exergy, super-heater, fouling, steam power plant, off-design.

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98 Bioethanol Production from Enzymatically Saccharified Sunflower Stalks Using Steam Explosion as Pretreatment

Authors: Pilanee Vaithanomsat, Sinsupha Chuichulcherm, Waraporn Apiwatanapiwat

Abstract:

Sunflower stalks were analysed for chemical compositions: pentosan 15.84%, holocellulose 70.69%, alphacellulose 45.74%, glucose 27.10% and xylose 7.69% based on dry weight of 100-g raw material. The most optimum condition for steam explosion pretreatment was as follows. Sunflower stalks were cut into small pieces and soaked in 0.02 M H2SO4 for overnight. After that, they were steam exploded at 207 C and 21 kg/cm2 for 3 minutes to fractionate cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The resulting hydrolysate, containing hemicellulose, and cellulose pulp contained xylose sugar at 2.53% and 7.00%, respectively.The pulp was further subjected to enzymatic saccharification at 50 C, pH 4.8 citrate buffer) with pulp/buffer 6% (w/w)and Celluclast 1.5L/pulp 2.67% (w/w) to obtain single glucose with maximum yield 11.97%. After fixed-bed fermentation under optimum condition using conventional yeast mixtures to produce bioethanol, it indicated maximum ethanol yield of 0.028 g/100 g sunflower stalk.

Keywords: Enzymatic, steam explosion, sunflower stalk, ethanol production.

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97 Design and Fabrication of a Parabolic Trough Collector and Experimental Investigation of Wind Impact on Direct Steam Production in Tehran

Authors: H. Akhbari, M. Bidi, A. Bakhtiari, S. Eslami

Abstract:

The present paper aims to the techno-economic feasibility of enhancing low-cost parabolic trough collectors in the light of developing the use of solar energy in under-developed regions where expensive high-tech solar devices cannot be afforded. Moreover, the collector is aimed to produce steam so that its performance is based on heat which can be discovered. In this regard, the manufacturing process and the detailed design models in Solidworks software are elaborated. Furthermore, the colletor’s material is chosen in a way to minimize the costs. Finally, to assess the performance of the built collector, it is installed in the site of Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, and the values of the effective peripheral parameters, such as temperature, wind speed, and most importantly, solar irradiance, are recorded simultaneously in June. According to the results obtained, the manufactured collector with the aperture area of 2 m2 (1×2 m) is capable of producing 350 ml.h-1 steam. Also, the wind influence is comprehensively investigated in this paper. As a case in point, it was measured that as the wind speed maximized to 9.77 km/h, the amount of steam outlet is minimized to 580 ml.

Keywords: Direct steam production, design and fabrication parabolic trough collector, solar water heater, wind impact, experimental investigation.

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96 Operating Conditions Optimization of Steam Injection in Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Duelist Algorithm

Authors: Totok R. Biyanto, Sonny Irawan, Hiskia J. Ginting, Matradji, Ya’umar, A. I. Fitri

Abstract:

Steam injection is the most suitable of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) methods to recover high viscosity oil. This is due to the capabilities of steam to reduce oil viscosity and increase the sweep capability of oil from the injection well toward the production well. Oil operating conditions in production should be match well with the operating condition target at the bottom of the production well. It is influenced by oil properties and reservoir rock properties. Hence, the operating condition should be optimized. Optimization requires three components i.e., objective function, model, and optimization technique. In this paper, the objective function is to obtain the optimum operating condition at the production well. The model was built using Darcy equation and mass-energy balance. The optimization technique utilizes Duelist Algorithm due to the effectiveness of its algorithm to obtain the desirable optimization results at the optimum operating condition.

Keywords: Enhanced oil recovery, steam injection, operating conditions, modeling, optimization, Duelist algorithm.

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95 Determination of Stress Concentration Factors of a Steam Turbine Rotor by FEA

Authors: R. Nagendra Babu, K. V. Ramana, K. Mallikarjuna Rao

Abstract:

Stress Concentration Factors are significant in machine design as it gives rise to localized stress when any change in the design of surface or abrupt change in the cross section occurs. Almost all machine components and structural members contain some form of geometrical or microstructural discontinuities. These discontinuities are very dangerous and lead to failure. So, it is very much essential to analyze the stress concentration factors for critical applications like Turbine Rotors. In this paper Finite Element Analysis (FEA) with extremely fine mesh in the vicinity of the blades of Steam Turbine Rotor is applied to determine stress concentration factors. A model of Steam Turbine Rotor is shown in Fig. 1.

Keywords: Stress Concentration Factors, Finite Element Analysis, and ANSYS.

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94 On The Design of Robust Governors of Steam Power Systems Using Polynomial and State-Space Based H∞ Techniques: A Comparative Study

Authors: Rami A. Maher, Ibraheem K. Ibraheem

Abstract:

This work presents a comparison study between the state-space and polynomial methods for the design of the robust governor for load frequency control of steam turbine power systems. The robust governor is synthesized using the two approaches and the comparison is extended to include time and frequency domains performance, controller order, and uncertainty representation, weighting filters, optimality and sub-optimality. The obtained results are represented through tables and curves with reasons of similarities and dissimilarities.

Keywords: Robust control, load frequency control, steam turbine, H∞-norm, system uncertainty, load disturbance.

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93 Effect of Tube Materials and Special Coating on Coke Deposition in the Steam Cracking of Hydrocarbons

Authors: A. Niaei, D. Salari , N. Daneshvar, A. Chamandeh, R. Nabavi

Abstract:

The steam cracking reactions are always accompanied with the formation of coke which deposits on the walls of the tubular reactors. The investigation has attempted to control catalytic coking by the applying aluminum, zinc and ceramic coating like aluminum-magnesium by thermal spray and pack cementation method. Rate of coke formation during steam cracking of naphtha has been investigated both for uncoated stainless steel (with different alloys) and metal coating constructed with thermal Spray and pack cementation method with metal powders of Aluminum, Aluminum-Magnesium, zinc, silicon, nickel and chromium. The results of the study show that passivating the surface of SS321 with a coating of Aluminum and Aluminum-Magnesium can significantly reduce the rate of coke deposition during naphtha pyrolysis. SEM and EDAX techniques (Philips XL Series) were used to examine the coke deposits formed by the metal-hydrocarbon reactions. Our objective was to separate the different stages by identifying the characteristic morphologies.

Keywords: Steam Cracking, Pyrolysis, Coke deposition, thermalspray, Pack Cementation.

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92 Effect of Carbon-Free Fly Ash and Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag on Compressive Strength of Mortar under Different Curing Conditions

Authors: Abdul Khaliq Amiri, Shigeyuki Date

Abstract:

This study investigates the effect of using carbon-free fly ash (CfFA) and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS) on the compressive strength of mortar. The CfFA used in this investigation is high-quality fly ash and the carbon content is 1.0% or less. In this study, three types of blends with a 30% water-binder ratio (w/b) were prepared: control, binary and ternary blends. The Control blend contained only Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), in binary and ternary blends OPC was partially replaced with CfFA and GGBFS at different substitution rates. Mortar specimens were cured for 1 day, 7 days and 28 days under two curing conditions: steam curing and water curing. The steam cured specimens were exposed to two different pre-curing times (1.5 h and 2.5 h) and one steam curing duration (6 h) at 45 °C. The test results showed that water cured specimens revealed higher compressive strength than steam cured specimens at later ages. An increase in CfFA and GGBFS contents caused a decrease in the compressive strength of mortar. Ternary mixes exhibited better compressive strength than binary mixes containing CfFA with the same replacement ratio of mineral admixtures.

Keywords: Carbon-free fly ash, compressive strength, ground granulated blast-furnace slag, steam curing, water curing.

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91 ROSA/LSTF Test on Pressurized Water Reactor Steam Generator Tube Rupture Accident Induced by Main Steam Line Break with Recovery Actions

Authors: Takeshi Takeda

Abstract:

An experiment was performed for the OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Project employing the ROSA/LSTF (rig of safety assessment/large-scale test facility), which simulated a steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) accident induced by main steam line break (MSLB) with operator recovery actions in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The primary pressure decreased to the pressure level nearly-equal to the intact steam generator (SG) secondary-side pressure even with coolant injection from the high-pressure injection (HPI) system of emergency core cooling system (ECCS) into cold legs. Multi-dimensional coolant behavior appeared such as thermal stratification in both hot and cold legs in intact loop. The RELAP5/MOD3.3 code indicated the insufficient predictions of the primary pressure, the SGTR break flow rate, and the HPI flow rate, and failed to predict the fluid temperatures in the intact loop hot and cold legs. Results obtained from the comparison among three LSTF SGTR-related tests clarified that the thermal stratification occurs in the horizontal legs by different mechanisms.

Keywords: LSTF, SGTR, thermal stratification, RELAP5.

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