Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 356

Search results for: Prototype.

356 A Computationally Efficient Design for Prototype Filters of an M-Channel Cosine Modulated Filter Bank

Authors: Neela. R. Rayavarapu, Neelam Rup Prakash

Abstract:

The paper discusses a computationally efficient method for the design of prototype filters required for the implementation of an M-band cosine modulated filter bank. The prototype filter is formulated as an optimum interpolated FIR filter. The optimum interpolation factor requiring minimum number of multipliers is used. The model filter as well as the image suppressor will be designed using the Kaiser window. The method will seek to optimize a single parameter namely cutoff frequency to minimize the distortion in the overlapping passband.

Keywords: Cosine modulated filter bank, interpolated FIR filter, optimum interpolation factor, prototype filter.

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355 Bifurcations of a Delayed Prototype Model

Authors: Changjin Xu

Abstract:

In this paper, a delayed prototype model is studied. Regarding the delay as a bifurcation parameter, we prove that a sequence of Hopf bifurcations will occur at the positive equilibrium when the delay increases. Using the normal form method and center manifold theory, some explicit formulae are worked out for determining the stability and the direction of the bifurcated periodic solutions. Finally, Computer simulations are carried out to explain some mathematical conclusions.

Keywords: Prototype model, Stability, Hopf bifurcation, Delay, Periodic solution.

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354 Structural Performance of a Timber-Concrete Bridge Prototype

Authors: Pedro Gutemberg de Alcântara Segundinho, José Antonio Matthiesen, Marcelo Rodrigo Carreira

Abstract:

Timber-concrete structures were recently introduced in Brazil as a viable option for bridge construction on side roads. Binding between timber and concrete is fundamentally important to assure the rigidity and performance of this structural system. The objective of this study was to assess the structural performance of a timber-concrete bridge prototype with width of 170cm and span of 400cm, whose binding among timber beams and concrete slabs was made with metal pins, obtained from CA 50 construction steel bars of 12.5mm diameter. It was possible to conclude, from the results obtained experimentally in laboratory, that the timber-concrete bridge prototype showed a good structural performance. This structural system provides an economical, rapid implementation solution, which may be used on side roads, favoring regional integration and agricultural production flow.

Keywords: Binding, bridge prototype, timber and concrete

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353 A Mathematical Representation for Mechanical Model Assessment: Numerical Model Qualification Method

Authors: Keny Ordaz-Hernandez, Xavier Fischer, Fouad Bennis

Abstract:

This article illustrates a model selection management approach for virtual prototypes in interactive simulations. In those numerical simulations, the virtual prototype and its environment are modelled as a multiagent system, where every entity (prototype,human, etc.) is modelled as an agent. In particular, virtual prototyp ingagents that provide mathematical models of mechanical behaviour inform of computational methods are considered. This work argues that selection of an appropriate model in a changing environment,supported by models? characteristics, can be managed by the deter-mination a priori of specific exploitation and performance measures of virtual prototype models. As different models exist to represent a single phenomenon, it is not always possible to select the best one under all possible circumstances of the environment. Instead the most appropriate shall be selecting according to the use case. The proposed approach consists in identifying relevant metrics or indicators for each group of models (e.g. entity models, global model), formulate their qualification, analyse the performance, and apply the qualification criteria. Then, a model can be selected based on the performance prediction obtained from its qualification. The authors hope that this approach will not only help to inform engineers and researchers about another approach for selecting virtual prototype models, but also assist virtual prototype engineers in the systematic or automatic model selection.

Keywords: Virtual prototype models, domain, qualification criterion, model qualification, model assessment, environmental modelling.

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352 Prototype for Enhancing Information Security Awareness in Industry

Authors: E. Kritzinger, E. Smith

Abstract:

Human-related information security breaches within organizations are primarily caused by employees who have not been made aware of the importance of protecting the information they work with. Information security awareness is accordingly attracting more attention from industry, because stakeholders are held accountable for the information with which they work. The authors developed an Information Security Retrieval and Awareness model – entitled “ISRA" – that is tailored specifically towards enhancing information security awareness in industry amongst all users of information, to address shortcomings in existing information security awareness models. This paper is principally aimed at expounding a prototype for the ISRA model to highlight the advantages of utilizing the model. The prototype will focus on the non-technical, humanrelated information security issues in industry. The prototype will ensure that all stakeholders in an organization are part of an information security awareness process, and that these stakeholders are able to retrieve specific information related to information security issues relevant to their job category, preventing them from being overburdened with redundant information.

Keywords: Information security, information security awareness, information security awareness programs

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351 The Development of the Prototype of Bamboo Shading Device

Authors: N. Tuaycharoen, W. Konisranukul

Abstract:

The main aim of this research was to investigate a prototype bamboo shading device. There were two objectives to this study: first, to investigate the effects of non-chemical treatments on bamboo shading devices damaged by powder-post beetles and fungi, and second to develop a prototype bamboo shading device. This study of the effects of non-chemical treatments on bamboo shading devices damage by powder-post beetles in the laboratory showed that, among seven treatments tested, wood vinegar treatment can protect powder-post beetles better than the original method by up to 92.91%. It was also found that wood vinegar treatment shows the best performance in fungi protection and works better than the original method by up to 40%. A second experiment was carried out by constructing four bamboo shading devices and installing them on a building for 28 days. All aspects of shading device were investigated in terms of their beauty, durability, and ease of construction and assembly. The final prototype was developed from the lessons learned from the test results. In conclusion, this study showed the effectiveness of some natural preservatives against insect and fungi damage, and it also illustrated the characteristics of a prototype bamboo shading device that can be constructed by rural workers within one week.

Keywords: Bamboo, shading device, energy conservation, alternative materials.

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350 The Design and Development of Driving Game as an Evaluation Instrument for Driving License Test

Authors: Abdul Hadi Abdul Razak, Mohd Hairy Manap

Abstract:

The focus of this paper is to highlight the design and development of an educational game prototype as an evaluation instrument for the Malaysia driving license static test. This educational game brings gaming technology into the conventional objective static test to make it more effective, real and interesting. From the feeling of realistic, the future driver can learn something, memorized and use it in the real life. The current online objective static test only make the user memorized the answer without knowing and understand the true purpose of the question. Therefore, in real life, they will not behave as expected due to behavior and moral lacking. This prototype has been developed inform of multiple-choice questions integrated with 3D gaming environment to make it simulate the real environment and scenarios. Based on the testing conducted, the respondent agrees with the use of this game prototype it can increase understanding and promote obligation towards traffic rules.

Keywords: Educational game, evaluation instrument, game, game prototype.

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349 Prototype of Business Directory for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Using Google Maps API and Multimedia

Authors: Suselo Thomas, Suyoto, Dwiandiyanta B. Yudi

Abstract:

This paper explain about prototype of a business directory for micro-scale businesses, small and medium enterprises (SMEs), the third phase of the research. The third phase is the phase of software development based on the model of SME business directory that had been developed, to create prototype software SME business directory. In the fourth phase, namely the implementation, these units have been developed are tested to obtain input from potential users. The fifth phase is the testing phase to determine the strengths and weaknesses of software has been developed. The result of this phase is the software in the form of on-line (web based) and multimedia-based. Business Directory, if implemented will facilitate and optimize the access of SMEs to ease supplier access to marketing. Business Directory will be equipped with the power of geocoding, so each location can be easily viewed SMEs on the map. The map will be constructed by using the functionality of a web-based Google Maps API. The information presented in the form of multimedia that can be more interesting and interactive. Methodology used to achieve the goal: observation, interviews, modeling and classifying business directory for SMEs. 

Keywords: Business directories, SMEs, Google Maps API, Multimedia, Prototype.

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348 Reducing Cognitive Load in Learning Computer Programming

Authors: Muhammed Yousoof, Mohd Sapiyan, Khaja Kamaluddin

Abstract:

Many difficulties are faced in the process of learning computer programming. This paper will propose a system framework intended to reduce cognitive load in learning programming. In first section focus is given on the process of learning and the shortcomings of the current approaches to learning programming. Finally the proposed prototype is suggested along with the justification of the prototype. In the proposed prototype the concept map is used as visualization metaphor. Concept maps are similar to the mental schema in long term memory and hence it can reduce cognitive load well. In addition other method such as part code method is also proposed in this framework to can reduce cognitive load.

Keywords: Cognitive load, concept maps, working memory, split attention effect, partial code programs.

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347 Development of Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion (ALIF) PEEK Cage Based On the Korean Lumbar Anatomical Information

Authors: Chang Soo Chon, Cheol Woong Ko, Han Sung Kim

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to develop an anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) PEEK cage suitable for Korean people. In this study, CT images were obtained from Korean male (173cm, 71kg) and 3D Korean lumbar models were reconstructed based on the CT images to investigate anatomical characteristics. Major design parameters of anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) PEEK Cage were selected using the morphological measurement information of the Korean Lumbar models. Through finite element analysis and mechanical tests, the developed ALIFPEEK Cage prototype was compared with the Fidji Cage (Zimmer. Inc, USA) and it was found that the ALIF prototype showed similar and/or superior mechanical performance compared to the FidJi Cage. Also, clinical validation for the ALIF PEEK Cage prototype was carried out to check predictable troubles in surgical operations. Finally, it is considered that the convenience and stability of the prototype was clinically verified.

Keywords: Interbody fusion, PEEK, implant, finite element analysis, lumbar, spine.

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346 Investigating the Fiber Content, Fiber Length, and Curing Characteristics of 3D Printed Recycled Carbon Fiber

Authors: Peng Hao Wang, Ronald Sterkenburg, Garam Kim, Yuwei He

Abstract:

As composite materials continue to gain popularity in the aerospace industry; large airframe sections made out of composite materials are becoming the standard for aerospace manufacturers. However, the heavy utilization of these composite materials also increases the importance of the recycling of these composite materials. A team of Purdue University School of Aviation and Transportation Technology (SATT) faculty and students have partnered to investigate the characteristics of 3D printed recycled carbon fiber. A prototype of a 3D printed recycled carbon fiber part was provided by an industry partner and different sections of the prototype were used to create specimens. A furnace was utilized in order to remove the polymer from the specimens and the specimen’s fiber content and fiber length was calculated from the remaining fibers. A differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) test was also conducted on the 3D printed recycled carbon fiber prototype in order to determine the prototype’s degree of cure at different locations. The data collected from this study provided valuable information in the process improvement and understanding of 3D printed recycled carbon fiber.

Keywords: 3D printed, carbon fiber, fiber content, recycling.

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345 Health Post A Sustainable Prototype for the Third World

Authors: Chizzoniti Domenico, Beggiora Klizia, Cattani Letizia, Moscatelli Monica

Abstract:

This paper concerns the study of sustainable construction materials applied on the "Health Post", a prototype for the primary health care situated in alienated areas of the world. It's suitable for social and climatic Sub-Saharan context; however, it could be moved in other countries of the world with similar urgent needs. The idea is to create a Health Post with local construction materials that have a low environmental impact and promote the local workforce allowing reuse of traditional building techniques lowering production costs and transport. The aim of Primary Health Care Centre is to be a flexible and expandable structure identifying a modular form that can be repeated several times to expand its existing functions. In this way it could be not only a health care centre but also a socio-cultural facility.

Keywords: Low costs building, sustainable construction materials, green construction system, prototype, health care, emergency.

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344 Enhanced Automated Teller Machine Using Short Message Service Authentication Verification

Authors: Rasheed Gbenga Jimoh, Akinbowale Nathaniel Babatunde

Abstract:

The use of Automated Teller Machine (ATM) has become an important tool among commercial banks, customers of banks have come to depend on and trust the ATM conveniently meet their banking needs. Although the overwhelming advantages of ATM cannot be over-emphasized, its alarming fraud rate has become a bottleneck in it’s full adoption in Nigeria. This study examined the menace of ATM in the society another cost of running ATM services by banks in the country. The researcher developed a prototype of an enhanced Automated Teller Machine Authentication using Short Message Service (SMS) Verification. The developed prototype was tested by Ten (10) respondents who are users of ATM cards in the country and the data collected was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Based on the results of the analysis, it is being envisaged that the developed prototype will go a long way in reducing the alarming rate of ATM fraud in Nigeria.

Keywords: ATM, ATM Fraud, E-banking, Prototyping.

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343 Face Image Coding Using Face Prototyping

Authors: Jaroslav Polec, Lenka Krulikovská, Natália Helešová, Tomáš Hirner

Abstract:

In this paper we present a novel approach for face image coding. The proposed method makes a use of the features of video encoders like motion prediction. At first encoder selects appropriate prototype from the database and warps it according to features of encoding face. Warped prototype is placed as first I frame. Encoding face is placed as second frame as P frame type. Information about features positions, color change, selected prototype and data flow of P frame will be sent to decoder. The condition is both encoder and decoder own the same database of prototypes. We have run experiment with H.264 video encoder and obtained results were compared to results achieved by JPEG and JPEG2000. Obtained results show that our approach is able to achieve 3 times lower bitrate and two times higher PSNR in comparison with JPEG. According to comparison with JPEG2000 the bitrate was very similar, but subjective quality achieved by proposed method is better.

Keywords: Triangulation, H.264, Model-based coding, Average face

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342 Development of Star Tracker for Satellite

Authors: S. Yelubayev, V. Ten, B. Albazarov, E. Sarsenbayev, К. Аlipbayev, A. Shamro, Т. Bopeyev, А. Sukhenko

Abstract:

Much attention is paid to the development of space branch in Kazakhstan at present. Two Earth remote sensing satellites of Kazakhstan have been launched successfully. Many projects related to the development of components for satellite are carried in Kazakhstan, in particular the project related to the development of star tracker experimental model. It is planned to use the results of this project for development of star tracker prototype in the future. This article describes the main stages of development of star tracker experimental model.

Keywords: Development, prototype, satellite, star tracker.

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341 FleGSens – Secure Area Monitoring Using Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Peter Rothenpieler, Daniela Kruger, Dennis Pfisterer, Stefan Fischer, Denise Dudek, Christian Haas, Martina Zitterbart

Abstract:

In the project FleGSens, a wireless sensor network (WSN) for the surveillance of critical areas and properties is currently developed which incorporates mechanisms to ensure information security. The intended prototype consists of 200 sensor nodes for monitoring a 500m long land strip. The system is focused on ensuring integrity and authenticity of generated alarms and availability in the presence of an attacker who may even compromise a limited number of sensor nodes. In this paper, two of the main protocols developed in the project are presented, a tracking protocol to provide secure detection of trespasses within the monitored area and a protocol for secure detection of node failures. Simulation results of networks containing 200 and 2000 nodes as well as the results of the first prototype comprising a network of 16 nodes are presented. The focus of the simulations and prototype are functional testing of the protocols and particularly demonstrating the impact and cost of several attacks.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, Security, Trespass Detection, Testbed.

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340 Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Weis–Fogh Type Ship-s Propulsion Mechanism Having Elastic Wing

Authors: K. D. Ro, J. T. Park, J. H. Kim

Abstract:

This experiment was conducted in attempt of improving hydrodynamic efficiency of the propulsion mechanism by installing a spring to the wing so that the opening angle of the wing in one stroke can be changed automatically, compared to the existing method of fixed maximum opening angle in Weis-Fogh type ship propulsion mechanism. Average thrust coefficient was almost fixed with all velocity ratio with the prototype, but with the spring type, thrust coefficient increased sharply as velocity ratio increased. Average propulsive efficiency was larger with bigger opening angle in the prototype, but in the spring type, the one with smaller spring coefficient had larger value. In the range over 1.0 in velocity ratio where big thrust can be generated, spring type had more than twice of propulsive efficiency increase compared to the prototype.

Keywords: Hydraulic Machine, Propulsion Mechanism, FluidForce, Elastic Wing.

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339 A Cost-Effective Design and Analysis of Full Bridge LLC Resonant Converter

Authors: Kaibalya Prasad Panda, Sreyasee Rout

Abstract:

LLC (Inductor-inductor-capacitor) resonant converter has lots of advantages over other type of resonant converters which include high efficiency, more reliable and have high power density. This paper presents the design and analysis of a full bridge LLC resonant converter. In addition to the operational principle, the ZVS and ZCS conditions are also explained with the DC characteristics. Simulation of the LLC resonant converter is performed in MATLAB/ Simulink and the practical prototype setup is analyzed in Proteus software. The result is verified through analysis and design of a low cost, 200 watt prototype converter.

Keywords: LLC, Proteus, Resonant converter ZCS, ZVS.

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338 Pin type Clamping Attachment for Remote Setup of Machining Process

Authors: Afzeri, R. Muhida, Darmawan, A. N. Berahim

Abstract:

Sharing the manufacturing facility through remote operation and monitoring of a machining process is challenge for effective use the production facility. Several automation tools in term of hardware and software are necessary for successfully remote operation of a machine. This paper presents a prototype of workpiece holding attachment for remote operation of milling process by self configuration the workpiece setup. The prototype is designed with mechanism to reorient the work surface into machining spindle direction with high positioning accuracy. Variety of parts geometry is hold by attachment to perform single setup machining. Pin type with array pattern additionally clamps the workpiece surface from two opposite directions for increasing the machining rigidity. Optimum pins configuration for conforming the workpiece geometry with minimum deformation is determined through hybrid algorithms, Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). Prototype with intelligent optimization technique enables to hold several variety of workpiece geometry which is suitable for machining low of repetitive production in remote operation.

Keywords: Optimization, Remote machining, GeneticAlgorithms, Machining Fixture.

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337 2D Image Processing for DSO Astrophotography

Authors: R. Suszynski, K. Wawryn, R. Wirski

Abstract:

The new concept of two–dimensional (2D) image processing implementation for auto-guiding system is shown in this paper. It is dedicated to astrophotography and operates with astronomy CCD guide cameras or with self-guided dual-detector CCD cameras and ST4 compatible equatorial mounts. This idea was verified by MATLAB model, which was used to test all procedures and data conversions. Next the circuit prototype was implemented at Altera MAX II CPLD device and tested for real astronomical object images. The digital processing speed of CPLD prototype board was sufficient for correct equatorial mount guiding in real-time system.

Keywords: DSO astrophotography, image processing, twodimensionalconvolution method, two-dimensional filtering.

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336 Critical Approach to Define the Architectural Structure of a Health Prototype in a Rural Area of Brazil

Authors: Domenico Chizzoniti, Monica Moscatelli, Letizia Cattani, Luca Preis

Abstract:

A primary healthcare facility in developing countries should be a multifunctional space able to respond to different requirements: Flexibility, modularity, aggregation and reversibility. These basic features could be better satisfied if applied to an architectural artifact that complies with the typological, figurative and constructive aspects of the context in which it is located. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to identify a procedure that can define the figurative aspects of the architectural structure of the health prototype for the marginal areas of developing countries through a critical approach. The application context is the rural areas of the Northeast of Bahia in Brazil. The prototype should be located in the rural district of Quingoma, in the municipality of Lauro de Freitas, a particular place where there is still a cultural fusion of black and indigenous populations. Based on the historical analysis of settlement strategies and architectural structures in spaces of public interest or collective use, this paper aims to provide a procedure able to identify the categories and rules underlying typological and figurative aspects, in order to detect significant and generalizable elements, as well as materials and constructive techniques typically adopted in the rural areas of Brazil. The object of this work is therefore not only the recovery of certain constructive approaches but also the development of a procedure that integrates the requirements of the primary healthcare prototype with its surrounding economic, social, cultural, settlement and figurative conditions.

Keywords: Architectural typology, Developing countries, Local construction techniques, Primary health care.

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335 Modeling and Simulation of In-vessel Core Handling in PFBR Operator Training Simulator

Authors: Bindu Sankar, Jaideep Chakraborty, Rashmi Nawlakha, A. Venkatesan, S. Raghupathy, T. Jayanthi, S.A.V. Satya Murty

Abstract:

Component handling system is one of the important sub systems of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) used for fuel handling. Core handling system is again a sub system of component handling system. Core handling system consists of in-vessel and ex-vessel subassembly handling. In-vessel core handling involves transfer arm, large rotatable plug and small rotatable plug operations. Modeling and simulation of in-vessel core handling is a part of development of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor Operator Training Simulator. This paper deals with simulation and modeling of operations of transfer arm, large rotatable plug and small rotatable plug needed for in-vessel core handling. Process modeling was developed in house using platform independent Cµ code with OpenGL (Open Graphics Library). The control logic models and virtual panel were modeled using simulation tool.

Keywords: Animation, Core Handling System, Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor, Simulator

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334 Building an Interactive Web-Based GIS System for Planning of Geological Survey Works

Authors: Wu Defu, Kiefer Chiam, Yang Kin Seng

Abstract:

The planning of geological survey works is an iterative process which involves planner, geologist, civil engineer and other stakeholders, who perform different roles and have different points of view. Traditionally, the team used paper maps or CAD drawings to present the proposal which is not an efficient way to present and share idea on the site investigation proposal such as sitting of borehole location or seismic survey lines. This paper focuses on how a GIS approach can be utilised to develop a webbased system to support decision making process in the planning of geological survey works and also to plan site activities carried out by Singapore Geological Office (SGO). The authors design a framework of building an interactive web-based GIS system, and develop a prototype, which enables the users to obtain rapidly existing geological information and also to plan interactively borehole locations and seismic survey lines via a web browser. This prototype system is used daily by SGO and has shown to be effective in increasing efficiency and productivity as the time taken in the planning of geological survey works is shortened. The prototype system has been developed using the ESRI ArcGIS API 3.7 for Flex which is based on the ArcGIS 10.2.1 platform.

Keywords: Engineering geology, Flex, Geological survey planning, Geoscience, GIS, Site investigation, WebGIS.

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333 Piezoelectric Micro-generator Characterization for Energy Harvesting Application

Authors: José E. Q. Souza, Marcio Fontana, Antonio C. C. Lima

Abstract:

This paper presents analysis and characterization of a piezoelectric micro-generator for energy harvesting application. A low-cost experimental prototype was designed to operate as piezoelectric micro-generator in the laboratory. An input acceleration of 9.8m/s2 using a sine signal (peak-to-peak voltage: 1V, offset voltage: 0V) at frequencies ranging from 10Hz to 160Hz generated a maximum average power of 432.4μW (linear mass position = 25mm) and an average power of 543.3μW (angular mass position = 35°). These promising results show that the prototype can be considered for low consumption load application as an energy harvesting micro-generator.

Keywords: Piezoelectric, microgenerator, energy harvesting, cantilever beam.

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332 Development of Autonomous Line-Following Soccer Robots

Authors: A. A. Shafie, M. F. Alias, M. H. Ali

Abstract:

The main objective of this project is to build an autonomous microcontroller-based mobile robot for a local robot soccer competition. The black competition field is equipped with white lines to serve as the guidance path for competing robots. Two prototypes of soccer robot embedded with the Basic Stamp II microcontroller have been developed. Two servo motors are used as the drive train for the first prototype whereas the second prototype uses two DC motors as its drive train. To sense the lines, lightdependent resistors (LDRs) supply the analog inputs for the microcontroller. The performances of both prototypes are evaluated. The DC motor-driven robot has produced better trajectory control over the one using servo motors and has brought the team into the final round.

Keywords: Soccer robot, Obstacle detection, Differential drive, Line following.

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331 A Hypermap for Supply Chain Management

Authors: James K. Ho

Abstract:

We present a prototype interactive (hyper) map of strategic, tactical, and logistic options for Supply Chain Management. The map comprises an anthology of options, broadly classified within the strategic spectrum of efficiency versus responsiveness, and according to logistic and cross-functional drivers. They are exemplified by cases in diverse industries. We seek to get all these information and ideas organized to help supply chain managers identify effective choices for specific business environments. The key and innovative linkage we introduce is the configuration of competitive forces. Instead of going through seemingly endless and isolated cases and wondering how one can borrow from them, we aim to provide a guide by force comparisons. The premise is that best practices in a different industry facing similar forces may be a most productive resource in supply chain design and planning. A prototype template is demonstrated.

Keywords: Competitive forces, strategic innovation, supplychain management.

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330 Influence of Driving Strategy on Power and Fuel Consumption of Lightweight PEM Fuel Cell Vehicle Powertrain

Authors: Suhadiyana Hanapi, Alhassan Salami Tijani, W. A. N Wan Mohamed

Abstract:

In this paper, a prototype PEM fuel cell vehicle integrated with a 1 kW air-blowing proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack as a main power sources has been developed for a lightweight cruising vehicle. The test vehicle is equipped with a PEM fuel cell system that provides electric power to a brushed DC motor. This vehicle was designed to compete with industrial lightweight vehicle with the target of consuming least amount of energy and high performance. Individual variations in driving style have a significant impact on vehicle energy efficiency and it is well established from the literature. The primary aim of this study was to assesses the power and fuel consumption of a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle operating at three difference driving technique (i.e. 25 km/h constant speed, 22-28 km/h speed range, 20-30 km/h speed range). The goal is to develop the best driving strategy to maximize performance and minimize fuel consumption for the vehicle system. The relationship between power demand and hydrogen consumption has also been discussed. All the techniques can be evaluated and compared on broadly similar terms. Automatic intelligent controller for driving prototype fuel cell vehicle on different obstacle while maintaining all systems at maximum efficiency was used. The result showed that 25 km/h constant speed was identified for optimal driving with less fuel consumption.

Keywords: Prototype fuel cell electric vehicles, energy efficient, control/driving technique, fuel economy.

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329 An Ergonomic Evaluation of Three Load Carriage Systems for Reducing Muscle Activity of Trunk and Lower Extremities during Giant Puppet Performing Tasks

Authors: Cathy SW. Chow, Kristina Shin, Faming Wang, B. C. L. So

Abstract:

During some dynamic giant puppet performances, an ergonomically designed load carrier system is necessary for the puppeteers to carry a giant puppet body’s heavy load with minimum muscle stress. A load carrier (i.e. prototype) was designed with two small wheels on the foot; and a hybrid spring device on the knee in order to assist the sliding and knee bending movements respectively. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of three load carriers including two other commercially available load mounting systems, Tepex and SuitX, and the prototype. Ten male participants were recruited for the experiment. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was used to collect the participants’ muscle activities during forward moving and bouncing and with and without load of 11.1 kg that was 60 cm above the shoulder. Five bilateral muscles including the lumbar erector spinae (LES), rectus femoris (RF), bicep femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and gastrocnemius (GM) were selected for data collection. During forward moving task, the sEMG data showed smallest muscle activities by Tepex harness which exhibited consistently the lowest, compared with the prototype and SuitX which were significantly higher on left LES 68.99% and 64.99%, right LES 26.57% and 82.45%; left RF 87.71% and 47.61%, right RF 143.57% and 24.28%; left BF 80.21% and 22.23%, right BF 96.02% and 21.83%; right TA 6.32% and 4.47%; left GM 5.89% and 12.35% respectively. The result above reflected mobility was highly restricted by tested exoskeleton devices. On the other hand, the sEMG data from bouncing task showed the smallest muscle activities by prototype which exhibited consistently the lowest, compared with the Tepex harness and SuitX which were significantly lower on lLES 6.65% and 104.93, rLES 23.56% and 92.19%; lBF 33.21% and 93.26% and rBF 24.70% and 81.16%; lTA 46.51% and 191.02%; rTA 12.75% and 125.76%; IGM 31.54% and 68.36%; rGM 95.95% and 96.43% respectively.

Keywords: Exoskeleton, load carriage aid, giant puppet performers, electromyography.

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328 A Knee Modular Orthosis Design Based on Kinematic Considerations

Authors: C. Copilusi, C. Ploscaru

Abstract:

This paper addresses attention to a research regarding the design of a knee orthosis in a modular form used on children walking rehabilitation. This research is focused on the human lower limb kinematic analysis which will be used as input data on virtual simulations and prototype validation. From this analysis, important data will be obtained and used as input for virtual simulations of the knee modular orthosis. Thus, a knee orthosis concept was obtained and validated through virtual simulations by using MSC Adams software. Based on the obtained results, the modular orthosis prototype will be manufactured and presented in this article.

Keywords: Human lower limb, children orthoses, kinematic analysis, knee orthosis.

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327 Design Transformation to Reduce Cost in Irrigation Using Value Engineering

Authors: F. S. Al-Anzi, M. Sarfraz, A. Elmi, A. R. Khan

Abstract:

Researchers are responding to the environmental challenges of Kuwait in localized, innovative, effective and economic ways. One of the vital and significant examples of the natural challenges is lack or water and desertification. In this research, the project team focuses on redesigning a prototype, using Value Engineering Methodology, which would provide similar functionalities to the well-known technology of Waterboxx kits while reducing the capital and operational costs and simplifying the process of manufacturing and usability by regular farmers. The design employs used tires and recycled plastic sheets as raw materials. Hence, this approach is going to help not just fighting desertification but also helping in getting rid of ever growing huge tire dumpsters in Kuwait, as well as helping in avoiding hazards of tire fires yielding in a safer and friendlier environment. Several alternatives for implementing the prototype have been considered. The best alternative in terms of value has been selected after thorough Function Analysis System Technique (FAST) exercise has been developed. A prototype has been fabricated and tested in a controlled simulated lab environment that is being followed by real environment field testing. Water and soil analysis conducted on the site of the experiment to cross compare between the composition of the soil before and after the experiment to insure that the prototype being tested is actually going to be environment safe. Experimentation shows that the design was equally as effective as, and may exceed, the original design with significant savings in cost. An estimated total cost reduction using the VE approach of 43.84% over the original design. This cost reduction does not consider the intangible costs of environmental issue of waste recycling which many further intensify the total savings of using the alternative VE design. This case study shows that Value Engineering Methodology can be an important tool in innovating new designs for reducing costs.

Keywords: Desertification, functional analysis, scrap tires, value engineering, waste recycling, water irrigation rationing.

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