Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: Precipitation hardening

6 A Study on the Effect of Mg and Ag Additions and Age Hardening Treatment on the Properties of As-Cast Al-Cu-Mg-Ag Alloys

Authors: Ahmed. S. Alasmari, M. S. Soliman, Magdy M. El-Rayes

Abstract:

This study focuses on the effect of the addition of magnesium (Mg) and silver (Ag) on the mechanical properties of aluminum based alloys. The alloying elements will be added at different levels using the factorial design of experiments of 22; the two factors are Mg and Ag at two levels of concentration. The superior mechanical properties of the produced Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloys after aging will be resulted from a unique type of precipitation named as Ω-phase. The formed precipitate enhanced the tensile strength and thermal stability. This paper further investigated the microstructure and mechanical properties of as cast Al–Cu–Mg–Ag alloys after being complete homogenized treatment at 520 °C for 8 hours followed by isothermally age hardening process at 190 °C for different periods of time. The homogenization at 520 °C for 8 hours was selected based on homogenization study at various temperatures and times. The alloys’ microstructures were studied by using optical microscopy (OM). In addition to that, the fracture surface investigation was performed using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM). Studying the microstructure of aged Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloys reveal that the grains are equiaxed with an average grain size of about 50 µm. A detailed fractography study for fractured surface of the aged alloys exhibited a mixed fracture whereby the random fracture suggested crack propagation along the grain boundaries while the dimples indicated that the fracture was ductile. The present result has shown that alloy 5 has the highest hardness values and the best mechanical behaviors.

Keywords: Precipitation hardening, aluminum alloys, aging, design of experiments, analysis of variance, heat treatments.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 373
5 Enhancement of Hardness Related Properties of Grey Cast Iron Powder Reinforced AA7075 Metal Matrix Composites through T6 and T8 Heat Treatments

Authors: S. S. Sharma, P. R. Prabhu, K. Jagannath, Achutha Kini U., Gowri Shankar M. C.

Abstract:

In present global scenario, aluminum alloys are coining the attention of many innovators as competing structural materials for automotive and space applications. Comparing to other challenging alloys, especially, 7xxx series aluminum alloys have been studied seriously because of benefits such as moderate strength; better deforming characteristics and affordable cost. It is expected that substitution of aluminum alloys for steels will result in great improvements in energy economy, durability and recyclability. However, it is necessary to improve the strength and the formability levels at low temperatures in aluminum alloys for still better applications. Aluminum–Zinc–Magnesium with or without other wetting agent denoted as 7XXX series alloys are medium strength heat treatable alloys. In addition to Zn, Mg as major alloying additions, Cu, Mn and Si are the other solute elements which contribute for the improvement in mechanical properties by suitable heat treatment process. Subjecting to suitable treatments like age hardening or cold deformation assisted heat treatments; known as low temperature thermomechanical treatments (LTMT) the challenging properties might be incorporated. T6 is the age hardening or precipitation hardening process with artificial aging cycle whereas T8 comprises of LTMT treatment aged artificially with X% cold deformation. When the cold deformation is provided after solution treatment, there is increase in hardness related properties such as wear resistance, yield and ultimate strength, toughness with the expense of ductility. During precipitation hardening both hardness and strength of the samples are increasing. The hardness value may further improve when room temperature deformation is positively supported with age hardening known as thermomechanical treatment. It is intended to perform heat treatment and evaluate hardness, tensile strength, wear resistance and distribution pattern of reinforcement in the matrix. 2 to 2.5 and 3 to 3.5 times increase in hardness is reported in age hardening and LTMT treatments respectively as compared to as-cast composite. There was better distribution of reinforcements in the matrix, nearly two fold increase in strength levels and up to 5 times increase in wear resistance are also observed in the present study.

Keywords: Reinforcement, precipitation, thermomechanical, dislocation, strain hardening.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1472
4 Effect of Aging Condition on Semisolid Cast 2024 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: Wisutmethangoon S., Pannaray S., Plookphol T., Wannasin J.

Abstract:

2024 Aluminum alloy was squeezed cast by the Gas Induced Semi Solid (GISS) process. Effect of artificial aging on microstructure and mechanical properties of this alloy was studied in the present work. The solutionized specimens were aged hardened at temperatures of 175°C, 200°C, and 225°C under various time durations. The highest hardness of about 77.7 HRE was attained from specimen aged at the temperature of 175°C for 36h. Upon investigation the microstructure by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the S’ phase was mainly attributed to the strengthening effect in the aged alloy. The apparent activation energy for precipitation hardening of the alloy was calculated as 133,805 J/mol.

Keywords: 2024 aluminum alloy, Gas induced semi solid, T6 heat treatment, Aged hardening, Transmission electron microscopy.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2596
3 Precipitation Hardening Behavior of Directly Cold Rolled Al-6Mg Alloy Containing Ternary Sc and Quaternary Zi/Ti

Authors: M. S. Kaiser

Abstract:

Ageing of 75% cold rolled Al-6Mg alloy with ternary 0.4 wt% scandium and quaternary zirconium and titanium has been carried out. Alloy samples are naturally, isochronally and isothermally aged for different time and temperatures. Hardness values of the differently processed alloys have been measured to understand the ageing behavior of Al-6Mg alloy with scandium and quaternary zirconium and titanium addition. Resistivity changes with annealing time and temperature were measured to understand the precipitation behavior and recovery of strain of the alloy. Attempts were also made to understand the grain refining effect of scandium in Al-6Mg alloy. It is observed that significant hardening takes place in the aged alloys due to the precipitation of scandium aluminides and the dendrites of the Al-6Mg alloy have been refined significantly due to addition of scandium.

Keywords: Al-Mg alloys, age hardening, resistivity, metastable phase.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1731
2 Microstructure and Mechanical Characterization of Heat Treated Stir Cast Silica (Sea Sand) Reinforced 7XXX Al Alloy MMCs

Authors: S. S. Sharma, Jagannath K, P. R. Prabhu

Abstract:

Metal matrix composites consists of a metallic matrix combined with dispersed particulate phase as reinforcement. Aluminum alloys have been the primary material of choice for structural components of aircraft since about 1930. Well known performance characteristics, known fabrication costs, design experience, and established manufacturing methods and facilities, are just a few of the reasons for the continued confidence in 7XXX Al alloys that will ensure their use in significant quantities for the time to come. Particulate MMCs are of special interest owing to the low cost of their raw materials (primarily natural river sand here) and their ease of fabrication, making them suitable for applications requiring relatively high volume production. 7XXX Al alloys are precipitation hardenable and therefore amenable for thermomechanical treatment. Al–Zn alloys reinforced with particulate materials are used in aerospace industries in spite of the drawbacks of susceptibility to stress corrosion, poor wettability, poor weldability and poor fatigue resistance. The resistance offered by these particulates for the moving dislocations impart secondary hardening in turn contributes strain hardening. Cold deformation increases lattice defects, which in turn improves the properties of solution treated alloy. In view of this, six different Al–Zn–Mg alloy composites reinforced with silica (3 wt. % and 5 wt. %) are prepared by conventional semisolid synthesizing process. The cast alloys are solution treated and aged. The solution treated alloys are further severely cold rolled to enhance the properties. The hardness and strength values are analyzed and compared with silica free Al – Zn-Mg alloys. Precipitation hardening phenomena is accelerated due to the increased number of potential sites for precipitation. Higher peak hardness and lesser aging time are the characteristics of thermo mechanically treated samples. For obtaining maximum hardness, optimum number and volume of precipitate particles are required. The Al-5Zn-1Mg with 5% SiO2 alloy composite shows better result.

Keywords: Dislocation, hardness, matrix, thermomechanical, precipitation hardening, reinforcement.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1505
1 The Effect of Ageing Treatment of Aluminum Alloys for Fuselage Structure-Light Aircraft

Authors: Shwe Wut Hmon Aye, Kay Thi Lwin, Waing Waing Kay Khine Oo

Abstract:

As the material used for fuselage structure must possess low density, high strength to weight ratio, the selection of appropriate materials for fuselage structure is one of the most important tasks. Aluminum metal itself is soft and low in strength. It can be made stronger by giving proper combination of suitable alloy addition, mechanical treatment and thermal treatment. The usual thermal treatment given to aluminum alloys is called age-hardening or precipitation hardening. In this paper, the studies are carried out on 7075 aluminum alloy which is how to improve strength level for fuselage structure. The marked effect of the strength on the ternary alloy is clearly demonstrated at several ageing times and temperatures. It is concluded that aluminum-zinc-magnesium alloy can get the highest strength level in natural ageing.

Keywords: Aluminum alloy, ageing, heat treatment, strength.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1976