Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 205

Search results for: Non-uniformity correction

205 A New Physical Modeling for Multiquantum Well Structure APD Considering Nonuniformity of Electric Field in Active Regin

Authors: F. Barzegar, M. H. Sheikhi

Abstract:

In the present work we model a Multiquantum Well structure Separate Absorption and Charge Multiplication Avalanche Photodiode (MQW-SACM-APD), while the Absorption region coincide with the MQW. We consider the nonuniformity of electric field using split-step method in active region. This model is based on the carrier rate equations in the different regions of the device. Using the model we obtain the photocurrent, and dark current. As an example, InGaAs/InP SACM-APD and MQW-SACM-APD are simulated. There is a good agreement between the simulation and experimental results.

Keywords: Avalanche Photodiode, Physical Model, MultiquantumWell, Split Step Method.

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204 A Novel Non-Uniformity Correction Algorithm Based On Non-Linear Fit

Authors: Yang Weiping, Zhang Zhilong, Zhang Yan, Chen Zengping

Abstract:

Infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPA) sensors, due to their high sensitivity, high frame frequency and simple structure, have become the most prominently used detectors in military applications. However, they suffer from a common problem called the fixed pattern noise (FPN), which severely degrades image quality and limits the infrared imaging applications. Therefore, it is necessary to perform non-uniformity correction (NUC) on IR image. The algorithms of non-uniformity correction are classified into two main categories, the calibration-based and scene-based algorithms. There exist some shortcomings in both algorithms, hence a novel non-uniformity correction algorithm based on non-linear fit is proposed, which combines the advantages of the two algorithms. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm acquires a good effect of NUC with a lower non-uniformity ratio.

Keywords: Non-uniformity correction, non-linear fit, two-point correction, temporal Kalman filter.

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203 A Novel Slip Correction Factor for Spherical Aerosol Particles

Authors: Abouzar Moshfegh, Mehrzad Shams, Goodarz Ahmadi, Reza Ebrahimi

Abstract:

A 3D simulation study for an incompressible slip flow around a spherical aerosol particle was performed. The full Navier-Stokes equations were solved and the velocity jump at the gas-particle interface was treated numerically by imposition of the slip boundary condition. Analytical solution to the Stokesian slip flow past a spherical particle was used as a benchmark for code verification, and excellent agreement was achieved. The Simulation results showed that in addition to the Knudsen number, the Reynolds number affects the slip correction factor. Thus, the Cunningham-based slip corrections must be augmented by the inclusion of the effect of Reynolds number for application to Lagrangian tracking of fine particles. A new expression for the slip correction factor as a function of both Knudsen number and Reynolds number was developed.

Keywords: CFD, Cunningham correction, Slip correction factor, Spherical aerosol.

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202 Program Memories Error Detection and Correction On-Board Earth Observation Satellites

Authors: Y. Bentoutou

Abstract:

Memory Errors Detection and Correction aim to secure the transaction of data between the central processing unit of a satellite onboard computer and its local memory. In this paper, the application of a double-bit error detection and correction method is described and implemented in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology. The performance of the proposed EDAC method is measured and compared with two different EDAC devices, using the same FPGA technology. Statistical analysis of single-event upset (SEU) and multiple-bit upset (MBU) activity in commercial memories onboard the first Algerian microsatellite Alsat-1 is given.

Keywords: Error Detection and Correction, On-board computer, small satellite missions.

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201 A Parallel Architecture for the Real Time Correction of Stereoscopic Images

Authors: Zohir Irki, Michel Devy

Abstract:

In this paper, we will present an architecture for the implementation of a real time stereoscopic images correction's approach. This architecture is parallel and makes use of several memory blocs in which are memorized pre calculated data relating to the cameras used for the acquisition of images. The use of reduced images proves to be essential in the proposed approach; the suggested architecture must so be able to carry out the real time reduction of original images.

Keywords: Image reduction, Real-time correction, Parallel architecture, Parallel treatment.

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200 An Efficient Energy Adaptive Hybrid Error Correction Technique for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Ammar Elyas babiker, M.Nordin B. Zakaria, Hassan Yosif, Samir B. Ibrahim

Abstract:

Variable channel conditions in underwater networks, and variable distances between sensors due to water current, leads to variable bit error rate (BER). This variability in BER has great effects on energy efficiency of error correction techniques used. In this paper an efficient energy adaptive hybrid error correction technique (AHECT) is proposed. AHECT adaptively changes error technique from pure retransmission (ARQ) in a low BER case to a hybrid technique with variable encoding rates (ARQ & FEC) in a high BER cases. An adaptation algorithm depends on a precalculated packet acceptance rate (PAR) look-up table, current BER, packet size and error correction technique used is proposed. Based on this adaptation algorithm a periodically 3-bit feedback is added to the acknowledgment packet to state which error correction technique is suitable for the current channel conditions and distance. Comparative studies were done between this technique and other techniques, and the results show that AHECT is more energy efficient and has high probability of success than all those techniques.

Keywords: Underwater communication, wireless sensornetworks, error correction technique, energy efficiency

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199 Optimal Synthesis of Multipass Heat Exchanger without Resorting to Correction Factor

Authors: Bharat B. Gulyani, Anuj Jain, Shalendra Kumar

Abstract:

Customarily, the LMTD correction factor, FT, is used to screen alternative designs for a heat exchanger. Designs with unacceptably low FT values are discarded. In this paper, authors have proposed a more fundamental criterion, based on feasibility of a multipass exchanger as the only criteria, followed by economic optimization. This criterion, coupled with asymptotic energy targets, provide the complete optimization space in a heat exchanger network (HEN), where cost-optimization of HEN can be performed with only Heat Recovery Approach temperature (HRAT) and number-of-shells as variables.

Keywords: heat exchanger, heat exchanger networks, LMTD correction factor, shell targeting.

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198 Error Correction Method for 2D Ultra-Wideband Indoor Wireless Positioning System Using Logarithmic Error Model

Authors: Phornpat Chewasoonthorn, Surat Kwanmuang

Abstract:

Indoor positioning technologies have been evolved rapidly. They augment the Global Positioning System (GPS) which requires line-of-sight to the sky to track the location of people or objects. In this study, we developed an error correction method for an indoor real-time location system (RTLS) based on an ultra-wideband (UWB) sensor from Decawave. Multiple stationary nodes (anchor) were installed throughout the workspace. The distance between stationary and moving nodes (tag) can be measured using a two-way-ranging (TWR) scheme. The result has shown that the uncorrected ranging error from the sensor system can be as large as 1 m. To reduce ranging error and thus increase positioning accuracy, we present an online correction algorithm using the Kalman filter. The results from experiments have shown that the system can reduce ranging error down to 5 cm.

Keywords: Indoor positioning, ultra-wideband, error correction, Kalman filter.

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197 A Survey of 2nd Year Students’ Frequent English Writing Errors and the Effects of Participatory Error Correction Process

Authors: Chaiwat Tantarangsee

Abstract:

The purposes of this study are 1) to study the effects of participatory error correction process and 2) to find out the students’ satisfaction of such error correction process. This study is a Quasi Experimental Research with single group, in which data is collected 5 times preceding and following 4 experimental studies of participatory error correction process including providing coded indirect corrective feedback in the students’ texts with error treatment activities. Samples include 52 2nd year English Major students, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Tool for experimental study includes the lesson plan of the course; Reading and Writing English for Academic Purposes II, and tools for data collection include 5 writing tests of short texts and a questionnaire. Based on formative evaluation of the students’ writing ability prior to and after each of the 4 experiments, the research findings disclose the students’ higher scores with statistical difference at 0.00. Moreover, in terms of the effect size of such process, it is found that for mean of the students’ scores prior to and after the 4 experiments; d equals 0.6801, 0.5093, 0.5071, and 0.5296 respectively. It can be concluded that participatory error correction process enables all of the students to learn equally well and there is improvement in their ability to write short texts. Finally the students’ overall satisfaction of the participatory error correction process is in high level (Mean = 4.39, S.D. = 0.76).

Keywords: Coded indirect corrective feedback, participatory error correction process, error treatment.

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196 Analysis and Experimentation of Interleaved Boost Converter with Ripple Steering for Power Factor Correction

Authors: A. Inba Rexy, R. Seyezhai

Abstract:

Through the fast growing technologies, design of power factor correction (PFC) circuit is facing several challenges. In this paper, a two-phase interleaved boost converter with ripple steering technique is proposed. Among the various topologies, Interleaved Boost converter (IBC) is considered as superior due to enriched performance, lower ripple content, compact weight and size. A thorough investigation is presented here for the proposed topology. Simulation study for the IBC has been carried out using MATLAB/SIMULINK. Theoretical analysis and hardware prototype has been performed to validate the results.

Keywords: Interleaved Boost Converter (IBC), Power Factor Correction (PFC), Ripple Steering Technique, Ripple, and Simulation.

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195 A Sliding Mesh Technique and Compressibility Correction Effects of Two-equation Turbulence Models for a Pintle-Perturbed Flow Analysis

Authors: J. Y. Heo, H. G. Sung

Abstract:

Numerical simulations have been performed for assessment of compressibility correction of two-equation turbulence models suitable for large scale separation flows perturbed by pintle strokes. In order to take into account pintle movement, a sliding mesh method was applied. The chamber pressure, mass flow rate, and thrust have been analyzed, and the response lag and sensitivity at the chamber and nozzle were estimated for a movable pintle. The nozzle performance for pintle reciprocating as its insertion and extraction processes, were analyzed to better understand the dynamic performance of the pintle nozzle.

Keywords: Pintle, sliding mesh, turbulent model, compressibility correction.

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194 A Simple and Empirical Refraction Correction Method for UAV-Based Shallow-Water Photogrammetry

Authors: I GD Yudha Partama, A. Kanno, Y. Akamatsu, R. Inui, M. Goto, M. Sekine

Abstract:

The aerial photogrammetry of shallow water bottoms has the potential to be an efficient high-resolution survey technique for shallow water topography, thanks to the advent of convenient UAV and automatic image processing techniques Structure-from-Motion (SfM) and Multi-View Stereo (MVS)). However, it suffers from the systematic overestimation of the bottom elevation, due to the light refraction at the air-water interface. In this study, we present an empirical method to correct for the effect of refraction after the usual SfM-MVS processing, using common software. The presented method utilizes the empirical relation between the measured true depth and the estimated apparent depth to generate an empirical correction factor. Furthermore, this correction factor was utilized to convert the apparent water depth into a refraction-corrected (real-scale) water depth. To examine its effectiveness, we applied the method to two river sites, and compared the RMS errors in the corrected bottom elevations with those obtained by three existing methods. The result shows that the presented method is more effective than the two existing methods: The method without applying correction factor and the method utilizes the refractive index of water (1.34) as correction factor. In comparison with the remaining existing method, which used the additive terms (offset) after calculating correction factor, the presented method performs well in Site 2 and worse in Site 1. However, we found this linear regression method to be unstable when the training data used for calibration are limited. It also suffers from a large negative bias in the correction factor when the apparent water depth estimated is affected by noise, according to our numerical experiment. Overall, the good accuracy of refraction correction method depends on various factors such as the locations, image acquisition, and GPS measurement conditions. The most effective method can be selected by using statistical selection (e.g. leave-one-out cross validation).

Keywords: Bottom elevation, multi-view stereo, river, structure-from-motion.

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193 A Parallel Algorithm for 2-D Cylindrical Geometry Transport Equation with Interface Corrections

Authors: Wei Jun-xia, Yuan Guang-wei, Yang Shu-lin, Shen Wei-dong

Abstract:

In order to make conventional implicit algorithm to be applicable in large scale parallel computers , an interface prediction and correction of discontinuous finite element method is presented to solve time-dependent neutron transport equations under 2-D cylindrical geometry. Domain decomposition is adopted in the computational domain.The numerical experiments show that our parallel algorithm with explicit prediction and implicit correction has good precision, parallelism and simplicity. Especially, it can reach perfect speedup even on hundreds of processors for large-scale problems.

Keywords: Transport Equation, Discontinuous Finite Element, Domain Decomposition, Interface Prediction And Correction

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192 Bridgeless Boost Power Factor Correction Rectifier with Hold-Up Time Extension Circuit

Authors: Chih-Chiang Hua, Yi-Hsiung Fang, Yuan-Jhen Siao

Abstract:

A bridgeless boost (BLB) power factor correction (PFC) rectifier with hold-up time extension circuit is proposed in this paper. A full bridge rectifier is widely used in the front end of the ac/dc converter. Since the shortcomings of the full bridge rectifier, the bridgeless rectifier is developed. A BLB rectifier topology is utilized with the hold-up time extension circuit. Unlike the traditional hold-up time extension circuit, the proposed extension scheme uses fewer active switches to achieve a longer hold-up time. Simulation results are presented to verify the converter performance.

Keywords: Bridgeless boost, boost converter, power factor correction, hold-up time.

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191 SURF Based Image Matching from Different Angle of Viewpoints using Rectification and Simplified Orientation Correction

Authors: K.M.Goh, M.M.Mokji, S.A.R. Abu-Bakar

Abstract:

Speeded-Up Robust Feature (SURF) is commonly used for feature matching in stereovision because of their robustness towards scale changes and rotational changes. However, SURF feature cannot cope with large viewpoint changes or skew distortion. This paper introduces a method which can help to improve the wide baseline-s matching performance in term of accuracy by rectifying the image using two vanishing points. Simplified orientation correction was used to remove the false matching..

Keywords: Affine, orientation, projective, SURF.

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190 Application of Residual Correction Method on Hyperbolic Thermoelastic Response of Hollow Spherical Medium in Rapid Transient Heat Conduction

Authors: Po-Jen Su, Huann-Ming Chou

Abstract:

In this article, we used the residual correction method to deal with transient thermoelastic problems with a hollow spherical region when the continuum medium possesses spherically isotropic thermoelastic properties. Based on linear thermoelastic theory, the equations of hyperbolic heat conduction and thermoelastic motion were combined to establish the thermoelastic dynamic model with consideration of the deformation acceleration effect and non-Fourier effect under the condition of transient thermal shock. The approximate solutions of temperature and displacement distributions are obtained using the residual correction method based on the maximum principle in combination with the finite difference method, making it easier and faster to obtain upper and lower approximations of exact solutions. The proposed method is found to be an effective numerical method with satisfactory accuracy. Moreover, the result shows that the effect of transient thermal shock induced by deformation acceleration is enhanced by non-Fourier heat conduction with increased peak stress. The influence on the stress increases with the thermal relaxation time.

Keywords: Maximum principle, non-Fourier heat conduction, residual correction method, thermo-elastic response.

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189 1 kW Power Factor Correction Soft Switching Boost Converter with an Active Snubber Cell

Authors: Yakup Sahin, Naim Suleyman Ting, Ismail Aksoy

Abstract:

A 1 kW power factor correction boost converter with an active snubber cell is presented in this paper. In the converter, the main switch turns on under zero voltage transition (ZVT) and turns off under zero current transition (ZCT) without any additional voltage or current stress. The auxiliary switch turns on and off under zero current switching (ZCS). Besides, the main diode turns on under ZVS and turns off under ZCS. The output current and voltage are controlled by the PFC converter in wide line and load range. The simulation results of converter are obtained for 1 kW and 100 kHz. One of the most important feature of the given converter is that it has direct power transfer as well as excellent soft switching techniques. Also, the converter has 0.99 power factor with the sinusoidal input current shape.

Keywords: Power factor correction, direct power transfer, zero-voltage transition, zero-current transition, soft switching.

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188 The Effect of a Free -Trade Agreement upon Agricultural Imports

Authors: Andres G. Victorio, Montita Rungswang

Abstract:

A free-trade agreement is found to increase Thailand-s agricultural imports from New Zealand, despite the short span of time for which the agreement has been operational. The finding is described by autoregressive estimates that correct for possible unit roots in the data. The agreement-s effect upon imports is also estimated while considering an error-correction model of imports against gross domestic product.

Keywords: Agricultural imports, free trade, unit roots, cointegration, error correction.

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187 Evaluation of the MCFLIRT Correction Algorithm in Head Motion from Resting State fMRI Data

Authors: V. Sacca, A. Sarica, F. Novellino, S. Barone, T. Tallarico, E. Filippelli, A. Granata, P. Valentino, A. Quattrone

Abstract:

In the last few years, resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) was widely used to investigate the architecture of brain networks by investigating the Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent response. This technique represented an interesting, robust and reliable approach to compare pathologic and healthy subjects in order to investigate neurodegenerative diseases evolution. On the other hand, the elaboration of rs-fMRI data resulted to be very prone to noise due to confounding factors especially the head motion. Head motion has long been known to be a source of artefacts in task-based functional MRI studies, but it has become a particularly challenging problem in recent studies using rs-fMRI. The aim of this work was to evaluate in MS patients a well-known motion correction algorithm from the FMRIB's Software Library - MCFLIRT - that could be applied to minimize the head motion distortions, allowing to correctly interpret rs-fMRI results.

Keywords: Head motion correction, MCFLIRT algorithm, multiple sclerosis, resting state fMRI.

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186 A Study of Methods for Preservation of River Banks in order to Reduce Sediments

Authors: Emad Hazbkhah. Abdolreza Zahiri, Hossein Ghorbanizade Kharazi

Abstract:

Reducing river sediments through path correction and preservation of river walls leads to considerable reduction of sedimentation at the pumping stations. Path correction and preservation of walls is not limited to one particular method but, depending on various conditions, a combination of several methods can be employed. In this article, we try to review and evaluate methods for preservation of river banks in order to reduce sediments.

Keywords: Erosion , River Banks , Sediments

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185 A Single Phase ZVT-ZCT Power Factor Correction Boost Converter

Authors: Yakup Sahin, Naim Suleyman Ting, Ismail Aksoy

Abstract:

In this paper, a single phase soft switched Zero Voltage Transition and Zero Current Transition (ZVT-ZCT) Power Factor Correction (PFC) boost converter is proposed. In the proposed PFC converter, the main switch turns on with ZVT and turns off with ZCT without any additional voltage or current stresses. Auxiliary switch turns on and off with zero current switching (ZCS). Also, the main diode turns on with zero voltage switching (ZVS) and turns off with ZCS. The proposed converter has features like low cost, simple control and structure. The output current and voltage are controlled by the proposed PFC converter in wide line and load range. The theoretical analysis of converter is clarified and the operating steps are given in detail. The simulation results of converter are obtained for 500 W and 100 kHz. It is observed that the semiconductor devices operate with soft switching (SS) perfectly. So, the switching power losses are minimum. Also, the proposed converter has 0.99 power factor with sinusoidal current shape.

Keywords: Power factor correction, zero-voltage transition, zero-current transition, soft switching.

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184 Correction of Frequent English Writing Errors by Using Coded Indirect Corrective Feedback and Error Treatment

Authors: Chaiwat Tantarangsee

Abstract:

The purposes of this study are 1) to study the frequent English writing errors of students registering the course: Reading and Writing English for Academic Purposes II, and 2) to find out the results of writing error correction by using coded indirect corrective feedback and writing error treatments. Samples include 28 2nd year English Major students, Faculty of Education, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Tool for experimental study includes the lesson plan of the course; Reading and Writing English for Academic Purposes II, and tool for data collection includes 4 writing tests of short texts. The research findings disclose that frequent English writing errors found in this course comprise 7 types of grammatical errors, namely Fragment sentence, Subject-verb agreement, Wrong form of verb tense, Singular or plural noun endings, Run-ons sentence, Wrong form of verb pattern and Lack of parallel structure. Moreover, it is found that the results of writing error correction by using coded indirect corrective feedback and error treatment reveal the overall reduction of the frequent English writing errors and the increase of students’ achievement in the writing of short texts with the significance at .05.

Keywords: Coded indirect corrective feedback, error correction, error treatment, frequent English writing errors.

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183 Ultra High Speed Approach for Document Skew Detection and Correction Based On Centre of Gravity

Authors: Seyyed Yasser Hashemi

Abstract:

Skew detection and correction (SDC) has a direct effect in efficiency and exactitude of documents’ segmentation and analysis and thus is considered as a very important step in documents’ analysis field. Skew is a major problem in documents’ analysis for every language. For Arabic/Persian document scripts this problem is more severe because of special features of these languages. In this paper an efficient and fast algorithm for Document Skew Detection (DSD) based on the concept of segmentation and Center of Gravity (COG) is proposed. This algorithm is examined for 150 Arabic/Persian and English documents and SDC process are done successfully for 93 percent of documents with error rate of less than 1°. This algorithm shows better results for English documents compared to Arabic/Persian documents. The proposed method is also represents favorable results for handwritten, printed and also complicated documents such as newspapers and journals even with very low quality and resolution.

Keywords: Arabic/Persian document, Baseline, Centre of gravity, Document segmentation, Skew detection and correction.

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182 Correction of Frequent English Writing Errors by Using Coded Indirect Corrective Feedback and Error Treatment: The Case of Reading and Writing English for Academic Purposes II

Authors: Chaiwat Tantarangsee

Abstract:

The purposes of this study are 1) to study the frequent English writing errors of students registering the course: Reading and Writing English for Academic Purposes II, and 2) to find out the results of writing error correction by using coded indirect corrective feedback and writing error treatments. Samples include 28 2nd year English Major students, Faculty of Education, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Tool for experimental study includes the lesson plan of the course; Reading and Writing English for Academic Purposes II, and tool for data collection includes 4 writing tests of short texts. The research findings disclose that frequent English writing errors found in this course comprise 7 types of grammatical errors, namely Fragment sentence, Subject-verb agreement, Wrong form of verb tense, Singular or plural noun endings, Run-ons sentence, Wrong form of verb pattern and Lack of parallel structure. Moreover, it is found that the results of writing error correction by using coded indirect corrective feedback and error treatment reveal the overall reduction of the frequent English writing errors and the increase of students’ achievement in the writing of short texts with the significance at .05.

Keywords: Coded indirect corrective feedback, error correction, and error treatment.

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181 Design and Simulation of CCM Boost Converter for Power Factor Correction Using Variable Duty Cycle Control

Authors: M. Nirmala

Abstract:

Power quality in terms of power factor, THD and precisely regulated output voltage are the major key factors for efficient operation of power electronic converters. This paper presents an easy and effective active wave shaping control scheme for the pulsed input current drawn by the uncontrolled diode bridge rectifier thereby achieving power factor nearer to unity and also satisfying the THD specifications. It also regulates the output DC-bus voltage. CCM boost power factor correction with constant frequency operation features smaller inductor current ripple resulting in low RMS currents on inductor and switch thus leading to low electromagnetic interference. The objective of this work is to develop an active PFC control circuit using CCM boost converter implementing variable duty cycle control. The proposed scheme eliminates inductor current sensing requirements yet offering good performance and satisfactory results for maintaining the power quality. Simulation results have been presented which covers load changes also.

Keywords: CCM Boost converter, Power factor Correction, Total harmonic distortion, Variable Duty Cycle.

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180 The Link between Unemployment and Inflation Using Johansen’s Co-Integration Approach and Vector Error Correction Modelling

Authors: Sagaren Pillay

Abstract:

In this paper bi-annual time series data on unemployment rates (from the Labour Force Survey) are expanded to quarterly rates and linked to quarterly unemployment rates (from the Quarterly Labour Force Survey). The resultant linked series and the consumer price index (CPI) series are examined using Johansen’s cointegration approach and vector error correction modeling. The study finds that both the series are integrated of order one and are cointegrated. A statistically significant co-integrating relationship is found to exist between the time series of unemployment rates and the CPI. Given this significant relationship, the study models this relationship using Vector Error Correction Models (VECM), one with a restriction on the deterministic term and the other with no restriction.

A formal statistical confirmation of the existence of a unique linear and lagged relationship between inflation and unemployment for the period between September 2000 and June 2011 is presented. For the given period, the CPI was found to be an unbiased predictor of the unemployment rate. This relationship can be explored further for the development of appropriate forecasting models incorporating other study variables.

Keywords: Forecasting, lagged, linear, relationship.

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179 Closed Loop Control of Bridgeless Cuk Converter Using Fuzzy Logic Controller for PFC Applications

Authors: Nesapriya. P., S. Rajalaxmi

Abstract:

This paper is based on the bridgeless single-phase Ac–Dc Power Factor Correction (PFC) converters with Fuzzy Logic Controller. High frequency isolated Cuk converters are used as a modular dc-dc converter in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM) of operation of Power Factor Correction. The aim of this paper is to simplify the program complexity of the controller by reducing the number of fuzzy sets of the Membership Functions (MFs) and to improve the efficiency and to eliminate the power quality problems. The output of Fuzzy controller is compared with High frequency triangular wave to generate PWM gating signals of Cuk converter. The proposed topologies are designed to work in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM) to achieve a unity power factor and low total harmonic distortion of the input current. The Fuzzy Logic Controller gives additional advantages such as accurate result, uncertainty and imprecision and automatic control circuitry. Performance comparisons between the proposed and conventional controllers and circuits are performed based on circuit simulations.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC), Bridgeless rectifier, Cuk converter, Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), Power Factor Correction, Total Harmonic Distortion (THD).

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178 Damage of Tubular Equipment in Process Industry

Authors: Pavel Losak, Tomas Letal, Radek Nejezchleb

Abstract:

Tubular process equipment is often damaged in industrial processes. The damage occurs both on devices working at high temperatures and also on less exposed devices. In case of sudden damage of key equipment a shutdown of the whole production unit and resulting significant economic losses are imminent. This paper presents a solution of several types of tubular process equipment. The causes of damage and suggestions of correction actions are discussed in all cases. Very important part is the analysis of operational conditions, determination of unfavourable working states decreasing lifetime of devices and suggestions of correction actions. Lately very popular numerical methods are used for analysis of the equipment.

Keywords: creep, damage, fatigue, FEM, FSI, lifetime, tubular equipment

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177 A Unification and Relativistic Correction for Boltzmann’s Law

Authors: Lloyd G. Allred

Abstract:

The distribution of velocities of particles in plasma is a well understood discipline of plasma physics. Boltzmann’s law and the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution describe the distribution of velocity of a particle in plasma as a function of mass and temperature. Particles with the same mass tend to have the same velocity. By expressing the same law in terms of energy alone, the author obtains a distribution independent of mass. In summary, for particles in plasma, the energies tend to equalize, independent of the masses of the individual particles. For high-energy plasma, the original law predicts velocities greater than the speed of light. If one uses Einstein’s formula for energy (E=mc2), then a relativistic correction is not required.

Keywords: Cosmology, EMP, Euclidean, plasma physics, relativity.

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176 14-Bit 1MS/s Cyclic-Pipelined ADC

Authors: S. Saisundar, Shan Jiang, Kevin T. C. Chai, David Nuttman, Minkyu Je

Abstract:

This paper presents a 14-bit cyclic-pipelined Analog to digital converter (ADC) running at 1 MS/s. The architecture is based on a 1.5-bit per stage structure utilizing digital correction for each stage. The ADC consists of two 1.5-bit stages, one shift register delay line, and digital error correction logic. Inside each 1.5-bit stage, there is one gain-boosting op-amp and two comparators. The ADC was implemented in 0.18µm CMOS process and the design has an area of approximately 0.2 mm2. The ADC has a differential input range of 1.2 Vpp. The circuit has an average power consumption of 3.5mA with 10MHz sampling clocks. The post-layout simulations of the design satisfy 12-bit SNDR with a full-scale sinusoid input.


Keywords: Analog to digital converter, cyclic, gain-boosting, pipelined.

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