Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4936

Search results for: Maximum Power Output

4936 Tuning of PV Array Layout Configurations for Maximum Power Delivery

Authors: Hadj Bourdoucen, Adel Gastli

Abstract:

In this paper, an approach for finding optimized layouts for connecting PV units delivering maximum array output power is suggested. The approach is based on considering the different varying parameters of PV units that might be extracted from a general two-diode model. These are mainly, solar irradiation, reverse saturation currents, ideality factors, series and shunt resistances in addition to operating temperature. The approach has been tested on 19 possible 2×3 configurations and allowed to determine the optimized configurations as well as examine the effects of the different units- parameters on the maximum output power. Thus, using this approach, standard arrays with n×m units can be configured for maximum generated power and allows designing PV based systems having reduced surfaces to fit specific required power, as it is the case for solar cars and other mobile systems.

Keywords: Photovoltaic, PV unit, optimum configuration, maximum power, Orcad.

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4935 Neural Networks and Particle Swarm Optimization Based MPPT for Small Wind Power Generator

Authors: Chun-Yao Lee, Yi-Xing Shen, Jung-Cheng Cheng, Yi-Yin Li, Chih-Wen Chang

Abstract:

This paper proposes the method combining artificial neural network (ANN) with particle swarm optimization (PSO) to implement the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) by controlling the rotor speed of the wind generator. First, the measurements of wind speed, rotor speed of wind power generator and output power of wind power generator are applied to train artificial neural network and to estimate the wind speed. Second, the method mentioned above is applied to estimate and control the optimal rotor speed of the wind turbine so as to output the maximum power. Finally, the result reveals that the control system discussed in this paper extracts the maximum output power of wind generator within the short duration even in the conditions of wind speed and load impedance variation.

Keywords: Maximum power point tracking, artificial neuralnetwork, particle swarm optimization.

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4934 Piezoelectric Power Output Predictions Using Single-Phase Flow to Power Flow Meters

Authors: Umar Alhaji Mukhtar, Abubakar Mohammed El-jummah

Abstract:

This research involved the utilization of fluid flow energy to predict power output using Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) piezoelectric stacks. The aim of this work is to extract energy from a controlled level of pressure fluctuation in single-phase flow which forms a part of the energy harvesting technology that powers flow meters. A device- Perspex box was developed and fixed to 50.8 mm rig to induce pressure fluctuation in the flow. An experimental test was carried out using the single-phase water flow in the developed rig in order to measure the power output generation from the piezoelectric stacks. 16 sets of experimental tests were conducted to ensure the maximum output result. The acquired signal of the pressure fluctuation was used to simulate the expected electrical output from the piezoelectric material. The results showed a maximum output voltage of 12 V with an instantaneous output power of 1 µW generated, when the pressure amplitude is 2.6 kPa at a frequency of 2.4 Hz.

Keywords: Energy harvesting, experimental test, perspex rig, pressure fluctuation.

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4933 A Maximum Power Point Tracker for PV Panels Using SEPIC Converter

Authors: S. Ganesh, J. Janani, G. Besliya Angel

Abstract:

Photovoltaic (PV) energy is one of the most important renewable energy sources. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) techniques should be used in photovoltaic systems to maximize the PV panel output power by tracking continuously the maximum power point which depends on panel’s temperature and on irradiance conditions. Incremental conductance control method has been used as MPPT algorithm. The methodology is based on connecting a pulse width modulated dc/dc SEPIC converter, which is controlled by a microprocessor based unit. The SEPIC converter is one of the buck-boost converters which maintain the output voltage as constant irrespective of the solar isolation level. By adjusting the switching frequency of the converter the maximum power point has been achieved. The main difference between the method used in the proposed MPPT systems and other technique used in the past is that PV array output power is used to directly control the dc/dc converter thus reducing the complexity of the system. The resulting system has high efficiency, low cost and can be easily modified. The tracking capability has been verified experimentally with a 10 W solar panel under a controlled experimental setup. The SEPIC converter and their control strategies has been analyzed and simulated using Simulink/Matlab software.

Keywords: Maximum Power Point Tracking, Microprocessor, PV Module, SEPIC Converter.

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4932 Maximum Power Point Tracking by ANN Controller for a Standalone Photovoltaic System

Authors: K. Ranjani, M. Raja, B. Anitha

Abstract:

In this paper, ANN controller for maximum power point tracking of photovoltaic (PV) systems is proposed and PV modeling is discussed. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods are used to maximize the PV array output power by tracking continuously the maximum power point. ANN controller with hill-climbing algorithm offers fast and accurate converging to the maximum operating point during steady-state and varying weather conditions compared to conventional hill-climbing. The proposed algorithm gives a good maximum power operation of the PV system. Simulation results obtained are presented and compared with the conventional hill-climbing algorithm. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

Keywords: Artificial neural network (ANN), hill-climbing, maximum power-point tracking (MPPT), photovoltaic.

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4931 Optimization Method Based MPPT for Wind Power Generators

Authors: Chun-Yao Lee , Yi-Xing Shen , Jung-Cheng Cheng , Chih-Wen Chang, Yi-Yin Li

Abstract:

This paper proposes the method combining artificial neural network with particle swarm optimization (PSO) to implement the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) by controlling the rotor speed of the wind generator. With the measurements of wind speed, rotor speed of wind generator and output power, the artificial neural network can be trained and the wind speed can be estimated. The proposed control system in this paper provides a manner for searching the maximum output power of wind generator even under the conditions of varying wind speed and load impedance.

Keywords: maximum power point tracking, artificial neural network, particle swarm optimization.

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4930 Performance Comparison between ĆUK and SEPIC Converters for Maximum Power Point Tracking Using Incremental Conductance Technique in Solar Power Applications

Authors: James Dunia, Bakari M. M. Mwinyiwiwa

Abstract:

Photovoltaic (PV) energy is one of the most important energy resources since it is clean, pollution free, and endless. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is used in photovoltaic (PV) systems to maximize the photovoltaic output power, irrespective the variations of temperature and radiation conditions. This paper presents a comparison between Ćuk and SEPIC converter in maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of photovoltaic (PV) system. In the paper, advantages and disadvantages of both converters are described. Incremental conductance control method has been used as maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm. The two converters and MPPT algorithm were modelled using MATLAB/Simulink software for simulation. Simulation results show that both Ćuk and SEPIC converters can track the maximum power point with some minor variations. 

Keywords: Ćuk Converter, Incremental Conductance, Maximum Power Point Tracking, PV Module, SEPIC Converter.

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4929 Fuzzy Logic Based Maximum Power Point Tracking Designed for 10kW Solar Photovoltaic System with Different Membership Functions

Authors: S. Karthika, K. Velayutham, P. Rathika, D. Devaraj

Abstract:

The electric power supplied by a photovoltaic power generation systems depends on the solar irradiation and temperature. The PV system can supply the maximum power to the load at a particular operating point which is generally called as maximum power point (MPP), at which the entire PV system operates with maximum efficiency and produces its maximum power. Hence, a Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods are used to maximize the PV array output power by tracking continuously the maximum power point. The proposed MPPT controller is designed for 10kW solar PV system installed at Cape Institute of Technology. This paper presents the fuzzy logic based MPPT algorithm. However, instead of one type of membership function, different structures of fuzzy membership functions are used in the FLC design. The proposed controller is combined with the system and the results are obtained for each membership functions in Matlab/Simulink environment. Simulation results are decided that which membership function is more suitable for this system.

Keywords: MPPT, DC-DC Converter, Fuzzy logic controller, Photovoltaic (PV) system.

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4928 Switched Reluctance Generator for Wind Power Applications

Authors: M. Nassereddine, J. Rizk, M. Nagrial

Abstract:

Green house effect has becomes a serious concern in many countries due to the increase consumption of the fossil fuel. There have been many studies to find an alternative power source. Wind energy found to be one of the most useful solutions to help in overcoming the air pollution and global. There is no agreed solution to conversion of wind energy to electrical energy. In this paper, the advantages of using a Switched Reluctance Generator (SRG) for wind energy applications. The theoretical study of the self excitation of a SRG and the determination of the variable parameters in a SRG design are discussed. The design parameters for the maximum power output of the SRG are computed using Matlab simulation. The designs of the circuit to control the variable parameters in a SRG to provide the maximum power output are also discussed.

Keywords: Switched Reluctance Generator, Wind Power, Electrical Machines.

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4927 Influence of Loudness Compression on Hearing with Bone Anchored Hearing Implants

Authors: Anja Kurz, Marc Flynn, Tobias Good, Marco Caversaccio, Martin Kompis

Abstract:

Bone Anchored Hearing Implants (BAHI) are  routinely used in patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss, e.g.  if conventional air conduction hearing aids cannot be used. New  sound processors and new fitting software now allow the adjustment  of parameters such as loudness compression ratios or maximum  power output separately. Today it is unclear, how the choice of these  parameters influences aided speech understanding in BAHI users.  In this prospective experimental study, the effect of varying the  compression ratio and lowering the maximum power output in a  BAHI were investigated.  Twelve experienced adult subjects with a mixed hearing loss  participated in this study. Four different compression ratios (1.0; 1.3;  1.6; 2.0) were tested along with two different maximum power output  settings, resulting in a total of eight different programs. Each  participant tested each program during two weeks. A blinded Latin  square design was used to minimize bias.  For each of the eight programs, speech understanding in quiet and  in noise was assessed. For speech in quiet, the Freiburg number test  and the Freiburg monosyllabic word test at 50, 65, and 80 dB SPL  were used. For speech in noise, the Oldenburg sentence test was  administered.  Speech understanding in quiet and in noise was improved  significantly in the aided condition in any program, when compared  to the unaided condition. However, no significant differences were  found between any of the eight programs. In contrast, on a subjective  level there was a significant preference for medium compression  ratios of 1.3 to 1.6 and higher maximum power output.

 

Keywords: Bone Anchored Hearing Implant, Compression, Maximum Power Output, Speech understanding.

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4926 A New Maximum Power Point Tracking for Photovoltaic Systems

Authors: Mohamed Azab

Abstract:

In this paper a new maximum power point tracking algorithm for photovoltaic arrays is proposed. The algorithm detects the maximum power point of the PV. The computed maximum power is used as a reference value (set point) of the control system. ON/OFF power controller with hysteresis band is used to control the operation of a Buck chopper such that the PV module always operates at its maximum power computed from the MPPT algorithm. The major difference between the proposed algorithm and other techniques is that the proposed algorithm is used to control directly the power drawn from the PV. The proposed MPPT has several advantages: simplicity, high convergence speed, and independent on PV array characteristics. The algorithm is tested under various operating conditions. The obtained results have proven that the MPP is tracked even under sudden change of irradiation level.

Keywords: Photovoltaic, maximum power point tracking, MPPT.

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4925 The Effect of the Thermal Temperature and Injected Current on Laser Diode 808 nm Output Power

Authors: Hassan H. Abuelhassan, M. Ali Badawi, Abdelrahman A. Elbadawi, Adam A. Elbashir

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of the injected current and temperature into the output power of the laser diode module operating at 808nm were applied, studied and discussed. Low power diode laser was employed as a source. The experimental results were demonstrated and then the output power of laser diode module operating at 808nm was clearly changed by the thermal temperature and injected current. The output power increases by the increasing the injected current and temperature. We also showed that the increasing of the injected current results rising in heat, which also, results into decreasing of the laser diode output power during the highest temperature as well. The best ranges of characteristics made by diode module operating at 808nm were carefully handled and determined.

Keywords: Laser diode, light amplification, injected current, output power.

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4924 Design and Layout of a X-Band MMIC Power Amplifier in a Phemt Technology

Authors: Renbin Dai, Rana Arslan Ali Khan

Abstract:

The design of Class A and Class AB 2-stage X band Power Amplifier is described in this report. This power amplifier is part of a transceiver used in radar for monitoring iron characteristics in a blast furnace. The circuit was designed using foundry WIN Semiconductors. The specification requires 15dB gain in the linear region, VSWR nearly 1 at input as well as at the output, an output power of 10 dBm and good stable performance in the band 10.9-12.2 GHz. The design was implemented by using inter-stage configuration, the Class A amplifier was chosen for driver stage i.e. the first amplifier focusing on the gain and the output amplifier conducted at Class AB with more emphasis on output power.

Keywords: Power amplifier, Class AB, Class A, MMIC, 2-stage, X band.

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4923 Maximum Power Point Tracking for Small Scale Wind Turbine Using Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network Implementation without Mechanical Sensor

Authors: Piyangkun Kukutapan, Siridech Boonsang

Abstract:

The article proposes maximum power point tracking without mechanical sensor using Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network (MLPNN). The aim of article is to reduce the cost and complexity but still retain efficiency. The experimental is that duty cycle is generated maximum power, if it has suitable qualification. The measured data from DC generator, voltage (V), current (I), power (P), turnover rate of power (dP), and turnover rate of voltage (dV) are used as input for MLPNN model. The output of this model is duty cycle for driving the converter. The experiment implemented using Arduino Uno board. This diagram is compared to MPPT using MLPNN and P&O control (Perturbation and Observation control). The experimental results show that the proposed MLPNN based approach is more efficiency than P&O algorithm for this application.

Keywords: Maximum power point tracking, multilayer perceptron neural network, optimal duty cycle.

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4922 Study of Two MPPTs for Photovoltaic Systems Using Controllers Based in Fuzzy Logic and Sliding Mode

Authors: N. Ouldcherchali, M. S. Boucherit, L. Barazane, A. Morsli

Abstract:

In this study, we proposed two techniques to track the maximum power point (MPPT) of a photovoltaic system. The first is an intelligent control technique, and the second is robust used for variable structure system. In fact the characteristics I-V and P–V of the photovoltaic generator depends on the solar irradiance and temperature. These climate changes cause the fluctuation of maximum power point; a maximum power point tracking technique (MPPT) is required to maximize the output power. For this we have adopted a control by fuzzy logic (FLC) famous for its stability and robustness. And a Siding Mode Control (SMC) widely used for variable structure system. The system comprises a photovoltaic panel (PV), a DC-DC converter, which is considered as an adaptation stage between the PV and the load. The modelling and simulation of the system is developed using MATLAB/Simulink. SMC technique provides a good tracking speed in fast changing irradiation and when the irradiation changes slowly or it is constant the panel power of FLC technique presents a much smoother signal with less fluctuations.

Keywords: Fuzzy logic controller, maximum power point, photovoltaic system, tracker, sliding mode controller.

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4921 A Grid Current-controlled Inverter with Particle Swarm Optimization MPPT for PV Generators

Authors: Hanny H. Tumbelaka, Masafumi Miyatake

Abstract:

This paper proposes a three-phase four-wire currentcontrolled Voltage Source Inverter (CC-VSI) for both power quality improvement and PV energy extraction. For power quality improvement, the CC-VSI works as a grid current-controlling shunt active power filter to compensate for harmonic and reactive power of loads. Then, the PV array is coupled to the DC bus of the CC-VSI and supplies active power to the grid. The MPPT controller employs the particle swarm optimization technique. The output of the MPPT controller is a DC voltage that determines the DC-bus voltage according to PV maximum power. The PSO method is simple and effective especially for a partially shaded PV array. From computer simulation results, it proves that grid currents are sinusoidal and inphase with grid voltages, while the PV maximum active power is delivered to loads.

Keywords: Active Power Filter, MPPT, PV Energy Conversion.

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4920 Novel Approach to Design of a Class-EJ Power Amplifier Using High Power Technology

Authors: F. Rahmani, F. Razaghian, A. R. Kashaninia

Abstract:

This article proposes a new method for application in communication circuit systems that increase efficiency, PAE, output power and gain in the circuit. The proposed method is based on a combination of switching class-E and class-J and has been termed class-EJ. This method was investigated using both theory and simulation to confirm ∼72% PAE and output power of >39dBm. The combination and design of the proposed power amplifier accrues gain of over 15dB in the 2.9 to 3.5GHz frequency bandwidth. This circuit was designed using MOSFET and high power transistors. The loadand source-pull method achieved the best input and output networks using lumped elements. The proposed technique was investigated for fundamental and second harmonics having desirable amplitudes for the output signal.

Keywords: Power Amplifier (PA), GaN HEMT, Class-J and Class-E, High Efficiency.

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4919 Power Efficiency Characteristics of Magnetohydrodynamic Thermodynamic Gas Cycle

Authors: Mahmoud Huleihil

Abstract:

In this study, the performance of a thermodynamic gas cycle of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation is considered and presented in terms of power efficiency curves. The dissipation mechanisms considered include: fluid friction modeled by means of the isentropic efficiency of the compressor, heat transfer leakage directly from the hot reservoir to the cold heat reservoir, and constant velocity of the MHD generator. The study demonstrates that power and efficiency vanish at the extremes of both slow and fast operating conditions. These points are demonstrated on power efficiency curves and the locus of efficiency at maximum power and the locus of maximum efficiency. Qualitatively, the considered loss mechanisms have a similar effect on the efficiency at maximum power operation and on maximum efficiency operation, thus these efficiencies are reduced, even for small values of the loss mechanisms.

Keywords: Magnetohydrodynamic generator, electrical efficiency, maximum power, maximum efficiency, heat engine.

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4918 Comparative Study of IC and Perturb and Observe Method of MPPT Algorithm for Grid Connected PV Module

Authors: Arvind Kumar, Manoj Kumar, Dattatraya H. Nagaraj, Amanpreet Singh, Jayanthi Prattapati

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to study and compare two maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms in a photovoltaic simulation system and also show a simulation study of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for photovoltaic systems using perturb and observe algorithm and Incremental conductance algorithm. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) plays an important role in photovoltaic systems because it maximize the power output from a PV system for a given set of conditions, and therefore maximize the array efficiency and minimize the overall system cost. Since the maximum power point (MPP) varies, based on the irradiation and cell temperature, appropriate algorithms must be utilized to track the (MPP) and maintain the operation of the system in it. MATLAB/Simulink is used to establish a model of photovoltaic system with (MPPT) function. This system is developed by combining the models established of solar PV module and DC-DC Boost converter. The system is simulated under different climate conditions. Simulation results show that the photovoltaic simulation system can track the maximum power point accurately.

Keywords: Incremental conductance Algorithm, Perturb and Observe Algorithm, Photovoltaic System and Simulation Results.

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4917 A Voltage Based Maximum Power Point Tracker for Low Power and Low Cost Photovoltaic Applications

Authors: Jawad Ahmad, Hee-Jun Kim

Abstract:

This paper describes the design of a voltage based maximum power point tracker (MPPT) for photovoltaic (PV) applications. Of the various MPPT methods, the voltage based method is considered to be the simplest and cost effective. The major disadvantage of this method is that the PV array is disconnected from the load for the sampling of its open circuit voltage, which inevitably results in power loss. Another disadvantage, in case of rapid irradiance variation, is that if the duration between two successive samplings, called the sampling period, is too long there is a considerable loss. This is because the output voltage of the PV array follows the unchanged reference during one sampling period. Once a maximum power point (MPP) is tracked and a change in irradiation occurs between two successive samplings, then the new MPP is not tracked until the next sampling of the PV array voltage. This paper proposes an MPPT circuit in which the sampling interval of the PV array voltage, and the sampling period have been shortened. The sample and hold circuit has also been simplified. The proposed circuit does not utilize a microcontroller or a digital signal processor and is thus suitable for low cost and low power applications.

Keywords: Maximum power point tracker, Sample and hold amplifier, Sampling interval, Sampling period.

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4916 Development of PSS/E Dynamic Model for Controlling Battery Output to Improve Frequency Stability in Power Systems

Authors: Dae-Hee Son, Soon-Ryul Nam

Abstract:

The power system frequency falls when disturbance such as rapid increase of system load or loss of a generating unit occurs in power systems. Especially, increase in the number of renewable generating units has a bad influence on the power system because of loss of generating unit depending on the circumstance. Conventional technologies use frequency droop control battery output for the frequency regulation and balance between supply and demand. If power is supplied using the fast output characteristic of the battery, power system stability can be further more improved. To improve the power system stability, we propose battery output control using ROCOF (Rate of Change of Frequency) in this paper. The bigger the power difference between the supply and the demand, the bigger the ROCOF drops. Battery output is controlled proportionally to the magnitude of the ROCOF, allowing for faster response to power imbalances. To simulate the control method of battery output system, we develop the user defined model using PSS/E and confirm that power system stability is improved by comparing with frequency droop control.

Keywords: PSS/E user defined model, power deviation, frequency droop control, ROCOF, rate of change of frequency.

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4915 Evaluation of A 50MW Two-Axis Tracking Photovoltaic Power Plant for AL-Jagbob, Libya: Energetic, Economic, and Environmental Impact Analysis

Authors: Y. Aldali, F. Ahwide

Abstract:

This paper investigates the application of large scale (LS-PV) two-axis tracking photovoltaic power plant in Al-Jagbob, Libya. A 50MW PV-grid connected (two-axis tracking) power plant design in Al-Jagbob, Libya has been carried out presently. A hetero-junction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) type PV module has been selected and modeled. A Microsoft Excel-VBA program has been constructed to compute slope radiation, dew-point, sky temperature, and then cell temperature, maximum power output and module efficiency for this system, for tracking system. The results for energy production show that the total energy output is 128.5 GWh/year. The average module efficiency is 16.6%. The electricity generation capacity factor (CF) and solar capacity factor (SCF) were found to be 29.3% and 70.4% respectively. A 50MW two axis tracking power plant with a total energy output of 128.5 GWh/year would reduce CO2 pollution by 85,581 tonnes of each year. The payback time for the proposed LS-PV photovoltaic power plant was found to be 4 years.

Keywords: Large PV power plant, solar energy, environmental impact, Dual-axis tracking system.

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4914 A Study of Wind Speed Characteristic in PI Controller based DFIG Wind Turbine

Authors: T. Unchim, A. Oonsivilai

Abstract:

The Wind Turbine Modeling in Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) using Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) PI Controller based design is presented. To study about the variable wind speed. The PI controller performs responding to the dynamic performance. The objective is to study the characteristic of wind turbine and finding the optimum wind speed suitable for wind turbine performance. This system will allow the specification setting (2.5MW). The output active power also corresponding same the input is given. And the reactive power produced by the wind turbine is regulated at 0 Mvar. Variable wind speed is optimum for drive train performance at 12.5 m/s (at maximum power coefficient point) from the simulation of DFIG by Simulink is described.

Keywords: DFIG, wind speed, PI controller, the output power.

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4913 Changes of Power-Velocity Relationship in Female Volleyball Players during an Annual Training Cycle

Authors: K. Busko

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to follow changes of powervelocity relationship in female volleyball players during an annual training cycle. The study was conducted on eleven female volleyball players: age 21.6±1.7 years, body height 177.9±4.7 cm, body mass 71.3±6.6 kg and training experience 8.6±3.3 years. Power–velocity relationship was determined from five maximal 10-second cycloergometer efforts with external loads equal: 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5% of body weight (BW) before (I) and after (II) the preparatory period, after the first (III) and second (IV) competitive season. The maximal power output increased from 9.30±0.85 W•kg–1 (I) to 9.50±0.96 W•kg–1 (II), 9.77±0.96 W•kg–1 (III) and 9.95±1.13 W•kg–1 (IV, p<0,05). The power output at the load of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0% BW were statistically significant increased after the first and second competitive season. Power output at load of 12.5% BW was insignificant increased.

Keywords: Female, Force-velocity relationship, Power output, Volleyball

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4912 An Active Rectifier with Time-Domain Delay Compensation to Enhance the Power Conversion Efficiency

Authors: Shao-Ku Kao

Abstract:

This paper presents an active rectifier with time-domain delay compensation to enhance the efficiency. A delay calibration circuit is designed to convert delay time to voltage and adaptive control on/off delay in variable input voltage. This circuit is designed in 0.18 mm CMOS process. The input voltage range is from 2 V to 3.6 V with the output voltage from 1.8 V to 3.4 V. The efficiency can maintain more than 85% when the load from 50 Ω ~ 1500 Ω for 3.6 V input voltage. The maximum efficiency is 92.4 % at output power to be 38.6 mW for 3.6 V input voltage.

Keywords: Wireless power transfer, active diode, delay compensation, time to voltage converter, PCE.

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4911 Typical Day Prediction Model for Output Power and Energy Efficiency of a Grid-Connected Solar Photovoltaic System

Authors: Yan Su, L. C. Chan

Abstract:

A novel typical day prediction model have been built and validated by the measured data of a grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) system in Macau. Unlike conventional statistical method used by previous study on PV systems which get results by averaging nearby continuous points, the present typical day statistical method obtain the value at every minute in a typical day by averaging discontinuous points at the same minute in different days. This typical day statistical method based on discontinuous point averaging makes it possible for us to obtain the Gaussian shape dynamical distributions for solar irradiance and output power in a yearly or monthly typical day. Based on the yearly typical day statistical analysis results, the maximum possible accumulated output energy in a year with on site climate conditions and the corresponding optimal PV system running time are obtained. Periodic Gaussian shape prediction models for solar irradiance, output energy and system energy efficiency have been built and their coefficients have been determined based on the yearly, maximum and minimum monthly typical day Gaussian distribution parameters, which are obtained from iterations for minimum Root Mean Squared Deviation (RMSD). With the present model, the dynamical effects due to time difference in a day are kept and the day to day uncertainty due to weather changing are smoothed but still included. The periodic Gaussian shape correlations for solar irradiance, output power and system energy efficiency have been compared favorably with data of the PV system in Macau and proved to be an improvement than previous models.

Keywords: Grid Connected, RMSD, Solar PV System, Typical Day.

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4910 Maximum Power Point Tracking Based on Estimated Power for PV Energy Conversion System

Authors: Zainab Almukhtar, Adel Merabet

Abstract:

In this paper, a method for maximum power point tracking of a photovoltaic energy conversion system is presented. This method is based on using the difference between the power from the solar panel and an estimated power value to control the DC-DC converter of the photovoltaic system. The difference is continuously compared with a preset error permitted value. If the power difference is more than the error, the estimated power is multiplied by a factor and the operation is repeated until the difference is less or equal to the threshold error. The difference in power will be used to trigger a DC-DC boost converter in order to raise the voltage to where the maximum power point is achieved. The proposed method was experimentally verified through a PV energy conversion system driven by the OPAL-RT real time controller. The method was tested on varying radiation conditions and load requirements, and the Photovoltaic Panel was operated at its maximum power in different conditions of irradiation.

Keywords: Control system, power error, solar panel, MPPT.

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4909 Modeling and Design of MPPT Controller Using Stepped P&O Algorithm in Solar Photovoltaic System

Authors: R. Prakash, B. Meenakshipriya, R. Kumaravelan

Abstract:

This paper presents modeling and simulation of Grid Connected Photovoltaic (PV) system by using improved mathematical model. The model is used to study different parameter variations and effects on the PV array including operating temperature and solar irradiation level. In this paper stepped P&O algorithm is proposed for MPPT control. This algorithm will identify the suitable duty ratio in which the DC-DC converter should be operated to maximize the power output. Photo voltaic array with proposed stepped P&O-MPPT controller can operate in the maximum power point for the whole range of solar data (irradiance and temperature).

Keywords: Photovoltaic (PV), Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT), Boost converter, Stepped Perturb & Observe method (Stepped P&O).

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4908 H∞ Fuzzy Integral Power Control for DFIG Wind Energy System

Authors: N. Chayaopas, W. Assawinchaichote

Abstract:

In order to maximize energy capturing from wind energy, controlling the doubly fed induction generator to have optimal power from the wind, generator speed and output electrical power control in wind energy system have a great importance due to the nonlinear behavior of wind velocities. In this paper purposes the design of a control scheme is developed for power control of wind energy system via H∞ fuzzy integral controller. Firstly, the nonlinear system is represented in term of a TS fuzzy control design via linear matrix inequality approach to find the optimal controller to have an H∞ performance are derived. The proposed control method extract the maximum energy from the wind and overcome the nonlinearity and disturbances problems of wind energy system which give good tracking performance and high efficiency power output of the DFIG.

Keywords: H∞ fuzzy integral control, linear matrix inequality, wind energy system, doubly fed induction generator (DFIG).

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4907 An Inductive Coupling Based CMOS Wireless Powering Link for Implantable Biomedical Applications

Authors: Lei Yao, Jia Hao Cheong, Rui-Feng Xue, Minkyu Je

Abstract:

A closed-loop controlled wireless power transmission circuit block for implantable biomedical applications is described in this paper. The circuit consists of one front-end rectifier, power management sub-block including bandgap reference and low drop-out regulators (LDOs) as well as transmission power detection / feedback circuits. Simulation result shows that the front-end rectifier achieves 80% power efficiency with 750-mV single-end peak-to-peak input voltage and 1.28-V output voltage under load current of 4 mA. The power management block can supply 1.8mA average load current under 1V consuming only 12μW power, which is equivalent to 99.3% power efficiency. The wireless power transmission block described in this paper achieves a maximum power efficiency of 80%. The wireless power transmission circuit block is designed and implemented using UMC 65-nm CMOS/RF process. It occupies 1 mm × 1.2 mm silicon area.

Keywords: Implantable biomedical devices, wireless power transfer, LDO, rectifier, closed-loop power control

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