Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 54

Search results for: Ad hoc networks

54 Communication in a Heterogeneous Ad Hoc Network

Authors: C. Benjbara, A. Habbani

Abstract:

Wireless networks are getting more and more used in every new technology or feature, especially those without infrastructure (Ad hoc mode) which provide a low cost alternative to the infrastructure mode wireless networks and a great flexibility for application domains such as environmental monitoring, smart cities, precision agriculture, and so on. These application domains present a common characteristic which is the need of coexistence and intercommunication between modules belonging to different types of ad hoc networks like wireless sensor networks, mesh networks, mobile ad hoc networks, vehicular ad hoc networks, etc. This vision to bring to life such heterogeneous networks will make humanity duties easier but its development path is full of challenges. One of these challenges is the communication complexity between its components due to the lack of common or compatible protocols standard. This article proposes a new patented routing protocol based on the OLSR standard in order to resolve the heterogeneous ad hoc networks communication issue. This new protocol is applied on a specific network architecture composed of MANET, VANET, and FANET.

Keywords: Ad hoc, heterogeneous, ID-Node, OLSR.

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53 Blockchain Security in MANETs

Authors: Nada Mouchfiq, Ahmed Habbani, Chaimae Benjbara

Abstract:

The security aspect of the IoT occupies a place of great importance especially after the evolution that has known this field lastly because it must take into account the transformations and the new applications .Blockchain is a new technology dedicated to the data sharing. However, this does not work the same way in the different systems with different operating principles. This article will discuss network security using the Blockchain to facilitate the sending of messages and information, enabling the use of new processes and enabling autonomous coordination of devices. To do this, we will discuss proposed solutions to ensure a high level of security in these networks in the work of other researchers. Finally, our article will propose a method of security more adapted to our needs as a team working in the ad hoc networks, this method is based on the principle of the Blockchain and that we named ”MPR Blockchain”.

Keywords: Ad hoc networks, blockchain, MPR, security.

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52 Evaluation of Context Information for Intermittent Networks

Authors: S. Balaji, E. Golden Julie, Y. Harold Robinson

Abstract:

The context aware adaptive routing protocol is presented for unicast communication in intermittently connected mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). The selection of the node is done by the Kalman filter prediction theory and it also makes use of utility functions. The context aware adaptive routing is defined by spray and wait technique, but the time consumption in delivering the message is too high and also the resource wastage is more. In this paper, we describe the spray and focus routing scheme for avoiding the existing problems.

Keywords: Context aware adaptive routing, Kalman filter prediction, spray and wait, spray and focus, intermittent networks.

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51 Bandwidth and Delay Aware Routing Protocol with Scheduling Algorithm for Multi Hop Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Y. Harold Robinson, E. Golden Julie, S. Balaji

Abstract:

The scheduling based routing scheme is presented in this paper to avoid link failure. The main objective of this system is to introduce a cross-layer protocol framework that integrates routing with priority-based traffic management and distributed transmission scheduling. The reservation scheme is based on ID. The presented scheme guarantees that bandwidth reserved time slot is used by another packet in which end-to-end reservation is achieved. The Bandwidth and Delay Aware Routing Protocol with Scheduling Algorithm is presented to allocate channels efficiently. The experimental results show that the presented schemes performed well in various parameters compared to existing methods.

Keywords: Integrated routing, scheduling, MAC layer, IEEE 802.11.

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50 TBOR: Tree Based Opportunistic Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Y. Harold Robinson, M. Rajaram, E. Golden Julie, S. Balaji

Abstract:

A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a wireless communication network where nodes that are not within direct transmission range establish their communication via the help of other nodes to forward data. Routing protocols in MANETs are usually categorized as proactive. Tree Based Opportunistic Routing (TBOR) finds a multipath link based on maximum probability of the throughput. The simulation results show that the presented method is performed very well compared to the existing methods in terms of throughput, delay and routing overhead.

Keywords: Mobile ad hoc networks, opportunistic data forwarding, proactive Source routing, BFS.

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49 A Signature-Based Secure Authentication Framework for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: J. Jenefa, E. A. Mary Anita

Abstract:

Vehicular Ad hoc NETwork (VANET) is a kind of Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET). It allows the vehicles to communicate with one another as well as with nearby Road Side Units (RSU) and Regional Trusted Authorities (RTA). Vehicles communicate through On-Board Units (OBU) in which privacy has to be assured which will avoid the misuse of private data. A secure authentication framework for VANETs is proposed in which Public Key Cryptography (PKC) based adaptive pseudonym scheme is used to generate self-generated pseudonyms. Self-generated pseudonyms are used instead of real IDs for privacy preservation and non-repudiation. The ID-Based Signature (IBS) and ID-Based Online/Offline Signature (IBOOS) schemes are used for authentication. IBS is used to authenticate between vehicle and RSU whereas IBOOS provides authentication among vehicles. Security attacks like impersonation attack in the network are resolved and the attacking nodes are rejected from the network, thereby ensuring secure communication among the vehicles in the network. Simulation results shows that the proposed system provides better authentication in VANET environment.

Keywords: Non-repudiation, privacy preservation, public key cryptography, self- generated pseudonym.

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48 An Enhanced Associativity Based Routing with Fuzzy Based Trust to Mitigate Network Attacks

Authors: K. Geetha, P. Thangaraj

Abstract:

Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) is a collection of mobile devices forming a communication network without infrastructure. MANET is vulnerable to security threats due to network’s limited security, dynamic topology, scalability and the lack of central management. The Quality of Service (QoS) routing in such networks is limited by network breakage caused by node mobility or nodes energy depletions. The impact of node mobility on trust establishment is considered and its use to propagate trust through a network is investigated in this paper. This work proposes an enhanced Associativity Based Routing (ABR) with Fuzzy based Trust (Fuzzy- ABR) routing protocol for MANET to improve QoS and to mitigate network attacks.

Keywords: Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET), Associativity Based Routing (ABR), Fuzzy based Computed Trust.

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47 A Survey on Opportunistic Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: R. Poonkuzhali, M. Y. Sanavullah, A. Sabari, T. Dhivyaa

Abstract:

Opportunistic Routing (OR) increases the transmission reliability and network throughput. Traditional routing protocols preselects one or more predetermined nodes before transmission starts and uses a predetermined neighbor to forward a packet in each hop. The opportunistic routing overcomes the drawback of unreliable wireless transmission by broadcasting one transmission can be overheard by manifold neighbors. The first cooperation-optimal protocol for Multirate OR (COMO) used to achieve social efficiency and prevent the selfish behavior of the nodes. The novel link-correlation-aware OR improves the performance by exploiting the miscellaneous low correlated forward links. Context aware Adaptive OR (CAOR) uses active suppression mechanism to reduce packet duplication. The Context-aware OR (COR) can provide efficient routing in mobile networks. By using Cooperative Opportunistic Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (CORMAN), the problem of opportunistic data transfer can be tackled. While comparing to all the protocols, COMO is the best as it achieves social efficiency and prevents the selfish behavior of the nodes.

Keywords: CAOR, COMO, COR, CORMAN, MANET, Opportunistic Routing, Reliability, Throughput.

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46 Investigation on Bio-Inspired Population Based Metaheuristic Algorithms for Optimization Problems in Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: C. Rajan, K. Geetha, C. Rasi Priya, R. Sasikala

Abstract:

Nature is a great source of inspiration for solving complex problems in networks. It helps to find the optimal solution. Metaheuristic algorithm is one of the nature-inspired algorithm which helps in solving routing problem in networks. The dynamic features, changing of topology frequently and limited bandwidth make the routing, challenging in MANET. Implementation of appropriate routing algorithms leads to the efficient transmission of data in mobile ad hoc networks. The algorithms that are inspired by the principles of naturally-distributed/collective behavior of social colonies have shown excellence in dealing with complex optimization problems. Thus some of the bio-inspired metaheuristic algorithms help to increase the efficiency of routing in ad hoc networks. This survey work presents the overview of bio-inspired metaheuristic algorithms which support the efficiency of routing in mobile ad hoc networks.

Keywords: Ant colony optimization algorithm, Genetic algorithm, naturally inspired algorithms and particle swarm optimization algorithm.

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45 Investigation on Novel Based Naturally-Inspired Swarm Intelligence Algorithms for Optimization Problems in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: C. Rajan, K. Geetha, C. Rasi Priya, S. Geetha

Abstract:

Nature is the immense gifted source for solving complex problems. It always helps to find the optimal solution to solve the problem. Mobile Ad Hoc NETwork (MANET) is a wide research area of networks which has set of independent nodes. The characteristics involved in MANET’s are Dynamic, does not depend on any fixed infrastructure or centralized networks, High mobility. The Bio-Inspired algorithms are mimics the nature for solving optimization problems opening a new era in MANET. The typical Swarm Intelligence (SI) algorithms are Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), Artificial Bee Colony (ABC), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Modified Termite Algorithm, Bat Algorithm (BA), Wolf Search Algorithm (WSA) and so on. This work mainly concentrated on nature of MANET and behavior of nodes. Also it analyses various performance metrics such as throughput, QoS and End-to-End delay etc.

Keywords: Ant Colony Algorithm, Artificial Bee Colony algorithm, Bio-Inspired algorithm, Modified Termite Algorithm.

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44 Optimization of Bit Error Rate and Power of Ad-hoc Networks Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Anjana Choudhary

Abstract:

The ad hoc networks are the future of wireless technology as everyone wants fast and accurate error free information so keeping this in mind Bit Error Rate (BER) and power is optimized in this research paper by using the Genetic Algorithm (GA). The digital modulation techniques used for this paper are Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK), M-ary Phase Shift Keying (M-ary PSK), and Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). This work is implemented on Wireless Ad Hoc Networks (WLAN). Then it is analyze which modulation technique is performing well to optimize the BER and power of WLAN.

Keywords: Bit Error Rate, Genetic Algorithm, Power, Phase Shift Keying, Quadrature Amplitude Modulation, Signal to Noise Ratio, Wireless Ad Hoc Networks.

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43 A Comparative Study of Novel Opportunistic Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: R. Poonkuzhali, M. Y. Sanavullah, M. R. Gurupriya

Abstract:

Opportunistic routing is used, where the network has the features like dynamic topology changes and intermittent network connectivity. In Delay tolerant network or Disruption tolerant network opportunistic forwarding technique is widely used. The key idea of opportunistic routing is selecting forwarding nodes to forward data packets and coordination among these nodes to avoid duplicate transmissions. This paper gives the analysis of pros and cons of various opportunistic routing techniques used in MANET.

Keywords: Expected Transmission Count (ETX), Opportunistic routing, Proactive Source Routing (PSR), throughput.

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42 Back Bone Node Based Black Hole Detection Mechanism in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Nidhi Gupta, Sanjoy Das, Khushal Singh

Abstract:

Mobile Ad hoc Network is a set of self-governing nodes which communicate through wireless links. Dynamic topology MANETs makes routing a challenging task. Various routing protocols are there, but due to various fundamental characteristic open medium, changing topology, distributed collaboration and constrained capability, these protocols are tend to various types of security attacks. Black hole is one among them. In this attack, malicious node represents itself as having the shortest path to the destination but that path not even exists. In this paper, we aim to develop a routing protocol for detection and prevention of black hole attack by modifying AODV routing protocol. This protocol is able to detect and prevent the black hole attack. Simulation is done using NS-2, which shows the improvement in network performance.

Keywords: Ad hoc, AODV, Back Bone, routing, Security.

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41 Investigation on Novel Based Metaheuristic Algorithms for Combinatorial Optimization Problems in Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: C. Rajan, N. Shanthi, C. Rasi Priya, K. Geetha

Abstract:

Routing in MANET is extremely challenging because of MANETs dynamic features, its limited bandwidth, frequent topology changes caused by node mobility and power energy consumption. In order to efficiently transmit data to destinations, the applicable routing algorithms must be implemented in mobile ad-hoc networks. Thus we can increase the efficiency of the routing by satisfying the Quality of Service (QoS) parameters by developing routing algorithms for MANETs. The algorithms that are inspired by the principles of natural biological evolution and distributed collective behavior of social colonies have shown excellence in dealing with complex optimization problems and are becoming more popular. This paper presents a survey on few meta-heuristic algorithms and naturally-inspired algorithms.

Keywords: Ant colony optimization, genetic algorithm, Naturally-inspired algorithms and particle swarm optimization.

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40 Factorial Design Analysis for Quality of Video on MANET

Authors: Hyoup-Sang Yoon

Abstract:

The quality of video transmitted by mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) can be influenced by several factors, including protocol layers; parameter settings of each protocol. In this paper, we are concerned with understanding the functional relationship between these influential factors and objective video quality in MANETs. We illustrate a systematic statistical design of experiments (DOE) strategy can be used to analyze MANET parameters and performance. Using a 2k factorial design, we quantify the main and interactive effects of 7 factors on a response metric (i.e., mean opinion score (MOS) calculated by PSNR with Evalvid package) we then develop a first-order linear regression model between the influential factors and the performance metric.

Keywords: Evalvid, full factorial design, mobile ad hoc networks, ns-2.

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39 Survey on Energy Efficient Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Swapnil Singh, Sanjoy Das

Abstract:

Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) is a network without infrastructure dynamically formed by autonomous system of mobile nodes that are connected via wireless links. Mobile nodes communicate with each other on the fly. In this network each node also acts as a router. The battery power and the bandwidth are very scarce resources in this network. The network lifetime and connectivity of nodes depend on battery power. Therefore, energy is a valuable constraint which should be efficiently used. In this paper we survey various energy efficient routing protocols. The energy efficient routing protocols are classified on the basis of approaches they use to minimize the energy consumption. The purpose of this paper is to facilitate the research work and combine the existing solution and to develop a more energy efficient routing mechanism.

Keywords: Delaunay Triangulation, deployment, energy efficiency, MANET.

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38 An Anonymity-Based Secure On-Demand Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: M. Gunasekaran, K. Premalatha

Abstract:

Privacy and Security have emerged as an important research issue in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) due to its unique nature such as scarce of resources and absence of centralized authority. There are number of protocols have been proposed to provide privacy and security for data communication in an adverse environment, but those protocols are compromised in many ways by the attackers. The concept of anonymity (in terms of unlinkability and unobservability) and pseudonymity has been introduced in this paper to ensure privacy and security. In this paper, a Secure Onion Throat (SOT) protocol is proposed to provide complete anonymity in an adverse environment. The SOT protocol is designed based on the combination of group signature and onion routing with ID-based encryption for route discovery. The security analysis demonstrates the performance of SOT protocol against all categories of attacks. The simulation results ensure the necessity and importance of the proposed SOT protocol in achieving such anonymity.

Keywords: Routing, anonymity, privacy, security and MANET.

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37 Broadcasting Mechanism with Less Flooding Packets by Optimally Constructing Forwarding and Non-Forwarding Nodes in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: R. Reka, R. S. D. Wahidabanu

Abstract:

The conventional routing protocol designed for MANET fail to handle dynamic movement and self-starting behavior of the node effectively. Every node in MANET is considered as forward as well receiver node and all of them participate in routing the packet from source to the destination. While the interconnection topology is highly dynamic, the performance of the most of the routing protocol is not encouraging. In this paper, a reliable broadcast approach for MANET is proposed for improving the transmission rate. The MANET is considered with asymmetric characteristics and the properties of the source and destination nodes are different. The non-forwarding node list is generated with a downstream node and they do not participate in the routing. While the forwarding and non-forwarding node is constructed in a conventional way, the number of nodes in non-forwarding list is more and increases the load. In this work, we construct the forwarding and non-forwarding node optimally so that the flooding and broadcasting is reduced to certain extent. The forwarded packet is considered as acknowledgements and the non-forwarding nodes explicitly send the acknowledgements to the source. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated in NS2 environment. Since the proposed approach reduces the flooding, we have considered functionality of the proposed approach with AODV variants. The effect of network density on the overhead and collision rate is considered for performance evaluation. The performance is compared with the AODV variants found that the proposed approach outperforms all the variants.

Keywords: Flooding, Forwarded Nodes, MANET, Non-forwarding nodes, Routing protocols.

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36 Efficient Aggregate Signature Algorithm and Its Application in MANET

Authors: Daxing Wang, Jikai Teng

Abstract:

An aggregate signature scheme can aggregate n signatures on n distinct messages from n distinct signers into a single signature. Thus, n verification equations can be reduced to one. So the aggregate signature adapts to Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET). In this paper, we propose an efficient ID-based aggregate signature scheme with constant pairing computations. Compared with the existing ID-based aggregate signature scheme, this scheme greatly improves the efficiency of signature communication and verification. In addition, in this work, we apply our ID-based aggregate sig- nature to authenticated routing protocol to present a secure routing scheme. Our scheme not only provides sound authentication and a secure routing protocol in ad hoc networks, but also meets the nature of MANET.

Keywords: Identity-based cryptography, Aggregate signature, Bilinear pairings, Authenticated routing scheme.

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35 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks and It’s Routing Protocols

Authors: Rakesh Kumar, Piush Verma, Yaduvir Singh

Abstract:

A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a self configuring network, without any centralized control. The topology of this network is not always defined. The main objective of this paper is to introduce the fundamental concepts of MANETs to the researchers and practitioners, who are involved in the work in the area of modeling and simulation of MANETs. This paper begins with an overview of mobile ad hoc networks. Then it proceeds with the overview of routing protocols used in the MANETS, their properties and simulation methods. A brief tabular comparison between the routing protocols is also given in this paper considering different routing protocol parameters. This paper introduces a new routing scheme developed by the use of evolutionary algorithms (EA) and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) which will be used for getting the optimized output of MANET. In this paper cryptographic technique, ceaser cipher is also employed for making the optimized route secure.

Keywords: AHP, AODV, Cryptography, EA, MANET, Optimized output.

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34 Lifetime Maximization in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Network Coding and Matrix Game

Authors: Jain-Shing Liu

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a matrix game-theoretic cross-layer optimization formulation to maximize the network lifetime in wireless ad hoc networks with network coding. To this end, we introduce a cross-layer formulation of general NUM (network utility maximization) that accommodates routing, scheduling, and stream control from different layers in the coded networks. Specifically, for the scheduling problem and then the objective function involved, we develop a matrix game with the strategy sets of the players corresponding to hyperlinks and transmission modes, and design the payoffs specific to the lifetime. In particular, with the inherit merit that matrix game can be solved with linear programming, our cross-layer programming formulation can benefit from both game-based and NUM-based approaches at the same time by cooperating the programming model for the matrix game with that for the other layers in a consistent framework. Finally, our numerical example demonstrates its performance results on a well-known wireless butterfly network to verify the cross-layer optimization scheme.

Keywords: Cross-layer design, Lifetime maximization, Matrix game, Network coding

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33 Life Time Based Analysis of MAC Protocols of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks in WSN Applications

Authors: R. Alageswaran, S. Selvakumar, P. Neelamegam

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are emerging because of the developments in wireless communication technology and miniaturization of the hardware. WSN consists of a large number of low-cost, low-power, multifunctional sensor nodes to monitor physical conditions, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion, etc. The MAC protocol to be used in the sensor networks must be energy efficient and this should aim at conserving the energy during its operation. In this paper, with the focus of analyzing the MAC protocols used in wireless Adhoc networks to WSN, simulation experiments were conducted in Global Mobile Simulator (GloMoSim) software. Number of packets sent by regular nodes, and received by sink node in different deployment strategies, total energy spent, and the network life time have been chosen as the metric for comparison. From the results of simulation, it is evident that the IEEE 802.11 protocol performs better compared to CSMA and MACA protocols.

Keywords: CSMA, DCF, MACA, TelosB

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32 Local Algorithm for Establishing a Virtual Backbone in 3D Ad Hoc Network

Authors: Alaa E. Abdallah, M. Bsoul, Emad E. Abdallah, Ahmad Al-Khasawneh, Muath Alzghool

Abstract:

Due to the limited lifetime of the nodes in ad hoc and sensor networks, energy efficiency needs to be an important design consideration in any routing algorithm. It is known that by employing a virtual backbone in a wireless network, the efficiency of any routing scheme for the network can be improved. One common design for routing protocols in mobile ad hoc networks is to use positioning information; we use the node-s geometric locations to introduce an algorithm that can construct the virtual backbone structure locally in 3D environment. The algorithm construction has a constant time.

Keywords: Virtual backbone, dominating set, UDG.

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31 Simulated Annealing Algorithm for Data Aggregation Trees in Wireless Sensor Networks and Comparison with Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Ladan Darougaran, Hossein Shahinzadeh, Hajar Ghotb, Leila Ramezanpour

Abstract:

In ad hoc networks, the main issue about designing of protocols is quality of service, so that in wireless sensor networks the main constraint in designing protocols is limited energy of sensors. In fact, protocols which minimize the power consumption in sensors are more considered in wireless sensor networks. One approach of reducing energy consumption in wireless sensor networks is to reduce the number of packages that are transmitted in network. The technique of collecting data that combines related data and prevent transmission of additional packages in network can be effective in the reducing of transmitted packages- number. According to this fact that information processing consumes less power than information transmitting, Data Aggregation has great importance and because of this fact this technique is used in many protocols [5]. One of the Data Aggregation techniques is to use Data Aggregation tree. But finding one optimum Data Aggregation tree to collect data in networks with one sink is a NP-hard problem. In the Data Aggregation technique, related information packages are combined in intermediate nodes and form one package. So the number of packages which are transmitted in network reduces and therefore, less energy will be consumed that at last results in improvement of longevity of network. Heuristic methods are used in order to solve the NP-hard problem that one of these optimization methods is to solve Simulated Annealing problems. In this article, we will propose new method in order to build data collection tree in wireless sensor networks by using Simulated Annealing algorithm and we will evaluate its efficiency whit Genetic Algorithm.

Keywords: Data aggregation, wireless sensor networks, energy efficiency, simulated annealing algorithm, genetic algorithm.

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30 Improving Survivability in Wireless Ad Hoc Network

Authors: Seyed Ali Sadat Noori, Elham Sahebi Bazaz

Abstract:

Topological changes in mobile ad hoc networks frequently render routing paths unusable. Such recurrent path failures have detrimental effects on quality of service. A suitable technique for eliminating this problem is to use multiple backup paths between the source and the destination in the network. This paper proposes an effective and efficient protocol for backup and disjoint path set in ad hoc wireless network. This protocol converges to a highly reliable path set very fast with no message exchange overhead. The paths selection according to this algorithm is beneficial for mobile ad hoc networks, since it produce a set of backup paths with more high reliability. Simulation experiments are conducted to evaluate the performance of our algorithm in terms of route numbers in the path set and its reliability. In order to acquire link reliability estimates, we use link expiration time (LET) between two nodes.

Keywords: Wireless Ad Hoc Networks, Reliability, Routing, Disjoint Path

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29 Wireless Control for an Induction Motor

Authors: Benmabrouk. Zaineb, Ben Hamed. Mouna, Lassaad. Sbita

Abstract:

This paper discusses the development of wireless structure control of an induction motor scalar drives. This was realised up on the wireless WiFi networks. This strategy of control is ensured by the use of Wireless ad hoc networks and a virtual network interface based on VNC which is used to make possible to take the remote control of a PC connected on a wireless Ethernet network. Verification of the proposed strategy of control is provided by experimental realistic tests on scalar controlled induction motor drives. The experimental results of the implementations with their analysis are detailed.

Keywords: Digital drives, Induction motor, Remote control, Virtual Network Computing VNC, Wireless Local Area NetworkWiFi.

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28 Analysis of Delay and Throughput in MANET for DSR Protocol

Authors: Kumar Manoj, Ramesh Kumar, Kumari Arti

Abstract:

A wireless Ad-hoc network consists of wireless nodes communicating without the need for a centralized administration, in which all nodes potentially contribute to the routing process.In this paper, we report the simulation results of four different scenarios for wireless ad hoc networks having thirty nodes. The performances of proposed networks are evaluated in terms of number of hops per route, delay and throughput with the help of OPNET simulator. Channel speed 1 Mbps and simulation time 600 sim-seconds were taken for all scenarios. For the above analysis DSR routing protocols has been used. The throughput obtained from the above analysis (four scenario) are compared as shown in Figure 3. The average media access delay at node_20 for two routes and at node_20 for four different scenario are compared as shown in Figures 4 and 5. It is observed that the throughput will degrade when it will follow different hops for same source to destination (i.e. it has dropped from 1.55 Mbps to 1.43 Mbps which is around 9.7%, and then dropped to 0.48Mbps which is around 35%).

Keywords: Throughput, Delay, DSR, OPNET, MANET, DSSS

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27 A Comparative Analysis of Performance and QoS Issues in MANETs

Authors: Javed Parvez, Mushtaq Ahmad Peer

Abstract:

Mobile Ad hoc networks (MANETs) are collections of wireless mobile nodes dynamically reconfiguring and collectively forming a temporary network. These types of networks assume existence of no fixed infrastructure and are often useful in battle-field tactical operations or emergency search-and-rescue type of operations where fixed infrastructure is neither feasible nor practical. They also find use in ad hoc conferences, campus networks and commercial recreational applications carrying multimedia traffic. All of the above applications of MANETs require guaranteed levels of performance as experienced by the end-user. This paper focuses on key challenges in provisioning predetermined levels of such Quality of Service (QoS). It also identifies functional areas where QoS models are currently defined and used. Evolving functional areas where performance and QoS provisioning may be applied are also identified and some suggestions are provided for further research in this area. Although each of the above functional areas have been discussed separately in recent research studies, since these QoS functional areas are highly correlated and interdependent, a comprehensive and comparative analysis of these areas and their interrelationships is desired. In this paper we have attempted to provide such an overview.

Keywords: Bandwidth Reservation, Congestion, DynamicNetwork Topology, End-to-End Delay, Flexible QoS Model forMANET(FQMM), Hidden Terminal, Mobile AdhocNetwork(MANET), Packet Jitter, Queuing, Quality-of-Service(QoS), Relative Bandwidth Service Differentiation(RBSD), Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP).

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26 Performance Evaluation of Energy Efficient Communication Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Toshihiko Sasama, Kentaro Kishida, Kazunori Sugahara, Hiroshi Masuyama

Abstract:

A mobile ad hoc network is a network of mobile nodes without any notion of centralized administration. In such a network, each mobile node behaves not only as a host which runs applications but also as a router to forward packets on behalf of others. Clustering has been applied to routing protocols to achieve efficient communications. A CH network expresses the connected relationship among cluster-heads. This paper discusses the methods for constructing a CH network, and produces the following results: (1) The required running costs of 3 traditional methods for constructing a CH network are not so different from each other in the static circumstance, or in the dynamic circumstance. Their running costs in the static circumstance do not differ from their costs in the dynamic circumstance. Meanwhile, although the routing costs required for the above 3 methods are not so different in the static circumstance, the costs are considerably different from each other in the dynamic circumstance. Their routing costs in the static circumstance are also very different from their costs in the dynamic circumstance, and the former is one tenths of the latter. The routing cost in the dynamic circumstance is mostly the cost for re-routing. (2) On the strength of the above results, we discuss new 2 methods regarding whether they are tolerable or not in the dynamic circumstance, that is, whether the times of re-routing are small or not. These new methods are revised methods that are based on the traditional methods. We recommended the method which produces the smallest routing cost in the dynamic circumstance, therefore producing the smallest total cost.

Keywords: cluster, mobile ad hoc network, re-routing cost, simulation

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25 Dynamic TDMA Slot Reservation Protocol for QoS Provisioning in Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: S. M. Kamruzzaman

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a dynamic TDMA slot reservation (DTSR) protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc networks. Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee plays a critically important role in such networks. We consider the problem of providing QoS guarantee to users as well as to maintain the most efficient use of scarce bandwidth resources. According to one hop neighboring information and the bandwidth requirement, our proposed protocol dynamically changes the frame length and the transmission schedule. A dynamic frame length expansion and shrinking scheme that controls the excessive increase of unassigned slots has been proposed. This method efficiently utilizes the channel bandwidth by assigning unused slots to new neighboring nodes and increasing the frame length when the number of slots in the frame is insufficient to support the neighboring nodes. It also shrinks the frame length when half of the slots in the frame of a node are empty. An efficient slot reservation protocol not only guarantees successful data transmissions without collisions but also enhance channel spatial reuse to maximize the system throughput. Our proposed scheme, which provides both QoS guarantee and efficient resource utilization, be employed to optimize the channel spatial reuse and maximize the system throughput. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed mechanism achieves desirable performance in multichannel multi-rate cognitive radio ad hoc networks.

Keywords: TDMA, cognitive radio, ad hoc networks, QoSguarantee, dynamic frame length.

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