Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: Geographic information systems (GIS)

10 The “Ecological Approach” to GIS Implementation in Low Income Countries’ and the Role of Universities: Union of Municipalities of Joumeh Case Study

Authors: A. Iaaly, O. Jadayel, R. Jadayel

Abstract:

This paper explores the effectiveness of approaches used for the implementation of technology within central governments specifically Geographic Information Systems (GIS). It examines the extent to which various strategies to GIS implementation and its roll out to users within an organization is crucial for its long term assimilation. Depending on the contextual requirements, various implementation strategies exist spanning from the most revolutionary to the most evolutionary, which have an influence on the success of GIS projects and the realization of resulting business benefits within the central governments. This research compares between two strategies of GIS implementation within the Lebanese Municipalities. The first strategy is the “Technological Approach” which is focused on technology acquisition, overlaid on existing governmental frameworks. This approach gives minimal attention to capability building and the long term sustainability of the implemented program. The second strategy, referred to as the “Ecological Approach”, is naturally oriented to the function of the organization. This approach stresses on fostering the evolution of the program and on building the human capabilities. The Union of the Joumeh Municipalities will be presented as a case study under the “Ecological Approach” and the role of the GIS Center at the University of Balamand will be highlighted. Thus, this research contributes to the development of knowledge on technology implementation and the vital role of academia in the specific context of the Lebanese public sector so that this experience may pave the way for further applications.

Keywords: GIS, Ecological Approach, low income countries, technological approach

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9 PhilSHORE: Development of a WebGIS-Based Marine Spatial Planning Tool for Tidal Current Energy Resource Assessment and Site Suitability Analysis

Authors: Ma. Rosario Concepcion O. Ang, Luis Caezar Ian K. Panganiban, Charmyne B. Mamador, Oliver Dan G. De Luna, Michael D. Bausas, Joselito P. Cruz

Abstract:

PhilSHORE is a multi-site, multi-device and multicriteria decision support tool designed to support the development of tidal current energy in the Philippines. Its platform is based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) which allows for the collection, storage, processing, analyses and display of geospatial data. Combining GIS tools with open source web development applications, PhilSHORE becomes a webGIS-based marine spatial planning tool. To date, PhilSHORE displays output maps and graphs of power and energy density, site suitability and site-device analysis. It enables stakeholders and the public easy access to the results of tidal current energy resource assessments and site suitability analyses. Results of the initial development show that PhilSHORE is a promising decision support tool for ORE project developments.

Keywords: GIS, WebGIS, Site Suitability Analysis, Tidal Current Energy Resource Assessment

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8 Geospatial Network Analysis Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Varun Singh, Mainak Bandyopadhyay, Maharana Pratap Singh

Abstract:

The shortest path (SP) problem concerns with finding the shortest path from a specific origin to a specified destination in a given network while minimizing the total cost associated with the path. This problem has widespread applications. Important applications of the SP problem include vehicle routing in transportation systems particularly in the field of in-vehicle Route Guidance System (RGS) and traffic assignment problem (in transportation planning). Well known applications of evolutionary methods like Genetic Algorithms (GA), Ant Colony Optimization, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) have come up to solve complex optimization problems to overcome the shortcomings of existing shortest path analysis methods. It has been reported by various researchers that PSO performs better than other evolutionary optimization algorithms in terms of success rate and solution quality. Further Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have emerged as key information systems for geospatial data analysis and visualization. This research paper is focused towards the application of PSO for solving the shortest path problem between multiple points of interest (POI) based on spatial data of Allahabad City and traffic speed data collected using GPS. Geovisualization of results of analysis is carried out in GIS.

Keywords: GIS, Traffic Data, PSO, outliers

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7 Determination the Curve Number Catchment by Using GIS and Remote Sensing

Authors: Abouzar Nasiri, Hamid Alipur

Abstract:

In recent years, geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing using has increased to estimate runoff catchment. In this research, runoff curve number maps for captive catchment of Tehran by helping GIS and also remote sensing which based on factors such as vegetation, lands using, group of soil hydrology and hydrological conditions were obtained. Runoff curve numbers map was obtained by combining these maps in ARC GIS and SCS table. To evaluate the accuracy of the results, the maximum flow rate of flood which was obtained from curve numbers, was compared with the measured maximum flood rate at the watershed outlet and correctness of curve numbers were approved.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, GIS, runoff, curve number

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6 An Evaluation of Land Use Control in Hokkaido, Japan

Authors: Kayoko Yamamoto

Abstract:

This study focuses on an evaluation of Hokkaido which is the northernmost and largest prefecture by surface area in Japan and particularly on two points: the rivalry between all kinds of land use such as urban land and agricultural and forestry land in various cities and their surrounding areas and the possibilities for forestry biomass in areas other than those mentioned above and grasps which areas require examination of the nature of land use control and guidance through conducting land use analysis at the district level using GIS (Geographic Information Systems). The results of analysis in this study demonstrated that it is essential to divide the whole of Hokkaido into two areas: those within delineated city planning areas and those outside of delineated city planning areas and to conduct an evaluation of each land use control. In delineated urban areas, particularly urban areas, it is essential to re-examine land use from the point of view of compact cities or smart cities along with conducting an evaluation of land use control that focuses on issues of rivalry between all kinds of land use such as urban land and agricultural and forestry land. In areas outside of delineated urban areas, it is desirable to aim to build a specific community recycling range based on forest biomass utilization by conducting an evaluation of land use control concerning the possibilities for forest biomass focusing particularly on forests within and outside of city planning areas.

Keywords: Urbanization, geographic information systems (GIS), Land Use Control, Forestry Biomass, Hokkaido

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5 An Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Trading among Enterprises -The Tokyo Cap and Trade Program-

Authors: Hiroki Satou, Kayoko Yamamoto

Abstract:

This study aims to propose three evaluation methods to evaluate the Tokyo Cap and Trade Program when emissions trading is performed virtually among enterprises, focusing on carbon dioxide (CO2), which is the only emitted greenhouse gas that tends to increase. The first method clarifies the optimum reduction rate for the highest cost benefit, the second discusses emissions trading among enterprises through market trading, and the third verifies long-term emissions trading during the term of the plan (2010-2019), checking the validity of emissions trading partly using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The findings of this study can be summarized in the following three points. 1. Since the total cost benefit is the greatest at a 44% reduction rate, it is possible to set it more highly than that of the Tokyo Cap and Trade Program to get more total cost benefit. 2. At a 44% reduction rate, among 320 enterprises, 8 purchasing enterprises and 245 sales enterprises gain profits from emissions trading, and 67 enterprises perform voluntary reduction without conducting emissions trading. Therefore, to further promote emissions trading, it is necessary to increase the sales volumes of emissions trading in addition to sales enterprises by increasing the number of purchasing enterprises. 3. Compared to short-term emissions trading, there are few enterprises which benefit in each year through the long-term emissions trading of the Tokyo Cap and Trade Program. Only 81 enterprises at the most can gain profits from emissions trading in FY 2019. Therefore, by setting the reduction rate more highly, it is necessary to increase the number of enterprises that participate in emissions trading and benefit from the restraint of CO2 emissions.

Keywords: Global Warming, carbon dioxide (CO2), geographic information systems (GIS), Emissions Trading, Tokyo Cap and Trade Program

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4 Flood Hazard Mapping in Dikrong Basin of Arunachal Pradesh (India)

Authors: Aditi Bhadra, Sutapa Choudhury, Daita Kar

Abstract:

Flood zoning studies have become more efficient in recent years because of the availability of advanced computational facilities and use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). In the present study, flood inundated areas were mapped using GIS for the Dikrong river basin of Arunachal Pradesh, India, corresponding to different return periods (2, 5, 25, 50, and 100 years). Further, the developed inundation maps corresponding to 25, 50, and 100 year return period floods were compared to corresponding maps developed by conventional methods as reported in the Brahmaputra Board Master Plan for Dikrong basin. It was found that, the average deviation of modelled flood inundation areas from reported map inundation areas is below 5% (4.52%). Therefore, it can be said that the modelled flood inundation areas matched satisfactorily with reported map inundation areas. Hence, GIS techniques were proved to be successful in extracting the flood inundation extent in a time and cost effective manner for the remotely located hilly basin of Dikrong, where conducting conventional surveys is very difficult.

Keywords: GIS, return period, Flood hazard mapping, inundation area

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3 Application of Geographic Information Systems(GIS) in the History of Cartography

Authors: Bangbo Hu

Abstract:

This paper discusses applications of a revolutionary information technology, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), in the field of the history of cartography by examples, including assessing accuracy of early maps, establishing a database of places and historical administrative units in history, integrating early maps in GIS or digital images, and analyzing social, political, and economic information related to production of early maps. GIS provides a new mean to evaluate the accuracy of early maps. Four basic steps using GIS for this type of study are discussed. In addition, several historical geographical information systems are introduced. These include China Historical Geographic Information Systems (CHGIS), the United States National Historical Geographic Information System (NHGIS), and the Great Britain Historical Geographical Information System. GIS also provides digital means to display and analyze the spatial information on the early maps or to layer them with modern spatial data. How GIS relational data structure may be used to analyze social, political, and economic information related to production of early maps is also discussed in this paper. Through discussion on these examples, this paper reveals value of GIS applications in this field.

Keywords: History, Cartography, GIS, Maps

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2 Role of GIS in Distribution Power Systems

Authors: N. Rezaee, M Nayeripour, A. Roosta, T. Niknam

Abstract:

With the prevalence of computer and development of information technology, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have long used for a variety of applications in electrical engineering. GIS are designed to support the analysis, management, manipulation and mapping of spatial data. This paper presents several usages of GIS in power utilities such as automated route selection for the construction of new power lines which uses a dynamic programming model for route optimization, load forecasting and optimizing planning of substation-s location and capacity with comprehensive algorithm which involves an accurate small-area electric load forecasting procedure and simulates the different cost functions of substations.

Keywords: geographic information systems (GIS), optimallocation and capacity, power distribution planning, route selection, spatial load forecasting

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1 Investigating Crime Hotspot Places and their Implication to Urban Environmental Design: A Geographic Visualization and Data Mining Approach

Authors: Donna R. Tabangin, Jacqueline C. Flores, Nelson F. Emperador

Abstract:

Information is power. Geographical information is an emerging science that is advancing the development of knowledge to further help in the understanding of the relationship of “place" with other disciplines such as crime. The researchers used crime data for the years 2004 to 2007 from the Baguio City Police Office to determine the incidence and actual locations of crime hotspots. Combined qualitative and quantitative research methodology was employed through extensive fieldwork and observation, geographic visualization with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS), and data mining. The paper discusses emerging geographic visualization and data mining tools and methodologies that can be used to generate baseline data for environmental initiatives such as urban renewal and rejuvenation. The study was able to demonstrate that crime hotspots can be computed and were seen to be occurring to some select places in the Central Business District (CBD) of Baguio City. It was observed that some characteristics of the hotspot places- physical design and milieu may play an important role in creating opportunities for crime. A list of these environmental attributes was generated. This derived information may be used to guide the design or redesign of the urban environment of the City to be able to reduce crime and at the same time improve it physically.

Keywords: Data Mining, Environmental Design, GIS, Geographic Visualization, crime mapping

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