Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Search results for: F. El Kamel

37 Optimization of Passive Vibration Damping of Space Structures

Authors: Emad Askar, Eldesoky Elsoaly, Mohamed Kamel, Hisham Kamel

Abstract:

The objective of this article is to improve the passive vibration damping of solar array (SA) used in space structures, by the effective application of numerical optimization. A case study of a SA is used for demonstration. A finite element (FE) model was created and verified by experimental testing. Optimization was then conducted by implementing the FE model with the genetic algorithm, to find the optimal placement of aluminum circular patches, to suppress the first two bending mode shapes. The results were verified using experimental testing. Finally, a parametric study was conducted using the FE model where patch locations, material type, and shape were varied one at a time, and the results were compared with the optimal ones. The results clearly show that through the proper application of FE modeling and numerical optimization, passive vibration damping of space structures has been successfully achieved.

Keywords: Damping optimization, genetic algorithm optimization, passive vibration damping, solar array vibration damping.

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36 Modeling of Radiative Heat Transfer in 2D Complex Heat Recuperator of Biomass Pyrolysis Furnace: A Study of Baffles Shadow and Soot Volume Fraction Effects

Authors: Mohamed Ammar Abbassi, Kamel Guedri, Mohamed Naceur Borjini, Kamel Halouani, Belkacem Zeghmati

Abstract:

The radiative heat transfer problem is investigated numerically for 2D complex geometry biomass pyrolysis reactor composed of two pyrolysis chambers and a heat recuperator. The fumes are a mixture of carbon dioxide and water vapor charged with absorbing and scattering particles and soot. In order to increase gases residence time and heat transfer, the heat recuperator is provided with many inclined, vertical, horizontal, diffuse and grey baffles of finite thickness and has a complex geometry. The Finite Volume Method (FVM) is applied to study radiative heat transfer. The blocked-off region procedure is used to treat the geometrical irregularities. Eight cases are considered in order to demonstrate the effect of adding baffles on the walls of the heat recuperator and on the walls of the pyrolysis rooms then choose the best case giving the maximum heat flux transferred to the biomass in the pyrolysis chambers. Ray effect due to the presence of baffles is studied and demonstrated to have a crucial effect on radiative heat flux on the walls of the pyrolysis rooms. Shadow effect caused by the presence of the baffles is also studied. The non grey radiative heat transfer is studied for the real existent configuration. The Weighted Sum of The Grey Gases (WSGG) Model of Kim and Song is used as non grey model. The effect of soot volumetric fraction on the non grey radiative heat flux is investigated and discussed.

Keywords: Baffles, Blocked-off region procedure, FVM, Heat recuperation, Radiative heat transfer, Shadow effect.

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35 Stability of Electrical Motor Supplied by a Five Level Inverter

Authors: Kelaiaia Mounia Samira, Labar Hocine, Bounaya Kamel, Kelaiaia Samia

Abstract:

The development of the power electronics has allowed increasing the precision and reliability of the electrical trainings, thanks to the adjustable inverters, as the Pulse Wide Modulation (PWM) five level inverters, which is the object of study in this article.The authors treat the relation between the law order adopted for a given system and the oscillations of the electrical and mechanical parameters of which the tolerance depends on the process with which they are integrated (paper factory, lifting of the heavy loads, etc.).Thus the best choice of the regulation indexes allows us to achieve stability and safety training without investment (management of existing equipment).

Keywords: multi level inverter, PWM, Harmonics, oscillation, control

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34 Similarity Based Membership of Elements to Uncertain Concept in Information System

Authors: M. Kamel El-Sayed

Abstract:

The process of determining the degree of membership for an element to an uncertain concept has been found in many ways, using equivalence and symmetry relations in information systems. In the case of similarity, these methods did not take into account the degree of symmetry between elements. In this paper, we use a new definition for finding the membership based on the degree of symmetry. We provide an example to clarify the suggested methods and compare it with previous methods. This method opens the door to more accurate decisions in information systems.

Keywords: Information system, uncertain concept, membership function, similarity relation, degree of similarity.

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33 Design of an Intelligent Tutor using a Multiagent Approach

Authors: Kamel Khoualdi, Radia Benghezal

Abstract:

Research in distributed artificial intelligence and multiagent systems consider how a set of distributed entities can interact and coordinate their actions in order to solve a given problem. In this paper an overview of this concept and its evolution is presented particularly its application in the design of intelligent tutoring systems. An intelligent tutor based on the concept of agent and centered specifically on the design of a pedagogue agent is illustrated. Our work has two goals: the first one concerns the architecture aspect and the design of a tutor using multiagent approach. The second one deals particularly with the design of a part of a tutor system: the pedagogue agent.

Keywords: Intelligent tutoring systems, Multiagent systems, Pedagogue agent, Planning.

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32 Mineralogical Characterization and Petrographic Classification of the Soil of Casablanca City

Authors: I. Fahi, T. Remmal, F. El Kamel, B. Ayoub

Abstract:

The treatment of the geotechnical database of the region of Casablanca was difficult to achieve due to the heterogeneity of the nomenclature of the lithological formations composing its soil. It appears necessary to harmonize the nomenclature of the facies and to produce cartographic documents useful for construction projects and studies before any investment program. To achieve this, more than 600 surveys made by the Public Laboratory for Testing and Studies (LPEE) in the agglomeration of Casablanca, were studied. Moreover, some local observations were made in different places of the metropolis. Each survey was the subject of a sheet containing lithological succession, macro and microscopic description of petrographic facies with photographic illustration, as well as measurements of geomechanical tests. In addition, an X-ray diffraction analysis was made in order to characterize the surficial formations of the region.

Keywords: Casablanca, guidebook, petrography, soil.

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31 A Remote Sensing Approach to Calculate Population Using Roads Network Data in Lebanon

Authors: Kamel Allaw, Jocelyne Adjizian Gerard, Makram Chehayeb, Nada Badaro Saliba

Abstract:

In developing countries, such as Lebanon, the demographic data are hardly available due to the absence of the mechanization of population system. The aim of this study is to evaluate, using only remote sensing data, the correlations between the number of population and the characteristics of roads network (length of primary roads, length of secondary roads, total length of roads, density and percentage of roads and the number of intersections). In order to find the influence of the different factors on the demographic data, we studied the degree of correlation between each factor and the number of population. The results of this study have shown a strong correlation between the number of population and the density of roads and the number of intersections.

Keywords: Population, road network, statistical correlations, remote sensing.

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30 On Two Control Approaches for The Output Voltage Regulation of a Boost Converter

Authors: Abdelaziz Sahbani, Kamel Ben Saad, Mohamed Benrejeb

Abstract:

This paper deals with the comparison between two proposed control strategies for a DC-DC boost converter. The first control is a classical Sliding Mode Control (SMC) and the second one is a distance based Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control (FSMC). The SMC is an analytical control approach based on the boost mathematical model. However, the FSMC is a non-conventional control approach which does not need the controlled system mathematical model. It needs only the measures of the output voltage to perform the control signal. The obtained simulation results show that the two proposed control methods are robust for the case of load resistance and the input voltage variations. However, the proposed FSMC gives a better step voltage response than the one obtained by the SMC.

Keywords: Boost DC-DC converter, Sliding Mode Control (SMC), Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control (FSMC), Robustness.

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29 Utilization and Characterizations of Olive Oil Industry By-Products

Authors: Sawsan Dacrory, Hussein Abou-Yousef, Samir Kamel, Ragab E. Abou-Zeid, Mohamed S. Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed Elbadry

Abstract:

A considerable amount of lignocellulosic by-product could be obtained from olive pulp during olive oil extraction industry. The major constituents of the olive pulp are husks and seeds. The separation of each portion of olive pulp (seeds and husks) was carried out by water flotation where seeds were sediment in the bottom. Both seeds and husks were dignified by 15% NaOH followed by complete lignin removal by using sodium chlorite in acidic medium. The isolated holocellulose, α-cellulose, hydrogel and CMC of both seeds and husk fractions were characterized by FTIR and SEM. The present study focused on the investigation of the chemical components of the lignocellulosic fraction of olive pulp and using them in medical application. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is produced and applied in the preparation of antimicrobial hydrogel.

Keywords: Carboxymethyl cellulose, cellulose, hydrogel olive pulp.

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28 Stand Alone Multiple Trough Solar Desalination with Heat Storage

Authors: Abderrahmane Diaf, Kamel Benabdellaziz

Abstract:

Remote arid areas of the vast expanses of the African deserts hold huge subterranean reserves of brackish water resources waiting for economic development. This work presents design guidelines as well as initial performance data of new autonomous solar desalination equipment which could help local communities produce their own fresh water using solar energy only and, why not, contribute to transforming desert lands into lush gardens. The output of solar distillation equipments are typically low and in the range of 3 l/m2/day on the average. This new design with an integrated, water based, environmentally-friendly solar heat storage system produced 5 l/m2/day in early spring weather. Equipment output during summer exceeded 9 liters per m2 per day.

Keywords: Multiple trough distillation, solar desalination, solar distillation with heat storage, water based heat storage system.

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27 Transformer Diagnosis Based on Coupled Circuits Method Modelling

Authors: Labar Hocine, Rekik Badri, Bounaya Kamel, Kelaiaia Mounia Samira

Abstract:

Diagnostic goal of transformers in service is to detect the winding or the core in fault. Transformers are valuable equipment which makes a major contribution to the supply security of a power system. Consequently, it is of great importance to minimize the frequency and duration of unwanted outages of power transformers. So, Frequency Response Analysis (FRA) is found to be a useful tool for reliable detection of incipient mechanical fault in a transformer, by finding winding or core defects. The authors propose as first part of this article, the coupled circuits method, because, it gives most possible exhaustive modelling of transformers. And as second part of this work, the application of FRA in low frequency in order to improve and simplify the response reading. This study can be useful as a base data for the other transformers of the same categories intended for distribution grid.

Keywords: Diagnostic, Coupled Circuit Method, FRA, Transformer Faults

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26 Chattering Phenomenon Supression of Buck Boost DC-DC Converter with Fuzzy Sliding Modes Control

Authors: Abdelaziz Sahbani, Kamel Ben Saad, Mohamed Benrejeb

Abstract:

This paper proposes a Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control (FSMC) as a control strategy for Buck-Boost DC-DC converter. The proposed fuzzy controller specifies changes in the control signal based on the knowledge of the surface and the surface change to satisfy the sliding mode stability and attraction conditions. The performances of the proposed fuzzy sliding controller are compared to those obtained by a classical sliding mode controller. The satisfactory simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed control law which reduces the chattering phenomenon. Moreover, the obtained results prove the robustness of the proposed control law against variation of the load resistance and the input voltage of the studied converter.

Keywords: Buck Boost converter, Sliding Mode Control, Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control, robustness, chattering.

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25 A Contribution to the Polynomial Eigen Problem

Authors: Malika Yaici, Kamel Hariche, Tim Clarke

Abstract:

The relationship between eigenstructure (eigenvalues and eigenvectors) and latent structure (latent roots and latent vectors) is established. In control theory eigenstructure is associated with the state space description of a dynamic multi-variable system and a latent structure is associated with its matrix fraction description. Beginning with block controller and block observer state space forms and moving on to any general state space form, we develop the identities that relate eigenvectors and latent vectors in either direction. Numerical examples illustrate this result. A brief discussion of the potential of these identities in linear control system design follows. Additionally, we present a consequent result: a quick and easy method to solve the polynomial eigenvalue problem for regular matrix polynomials.

Keywords: Eigenvalues/Eigenvectors, Latent values/vectors, Matrix fraction description, State space description.

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24 Parametric Studies of Wood Pyrolysis Particles

Authors: W. Afef, A. Mohamed Ammar, G. Kamel, O. Ahmed

Abstract:

In the present study, a numerical approach to describe the pyrolysis of a single solid particle of wood is used to study the influence of various conditions such as particle size, heat transfer coefficient, reactor temperature and heating rate. The influence of these parameters in the change of the duration of the pyrolysis cycle was studied. Mathematical modeling was employed to simulate the heat, mass transfer, and kinetic processes inside the reactor. The evolutions of the mass loss as well as the evolution of temperature inside the thick piece are investigated numerically. The elaborated model was also employed to study the effect of the reactor temperature and the rate of heating on the change of the temperature and the local loss of the mass inside the piece of wood. The obtained results are in good agreement with the experimental data available in the literature.

Keywords: Wood, Pyrolysis, Modeling, Convective heat transfer, Kinetic.

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23 Effect of Flaying Capacitors on Improving the 4 Level Three-Cell Inverter

Authors: Kelaiaia Mounia Samira, Labar Hocine, Bounaya Kamel, Kelaiaia Samia

Abstract:

With the rapid advanced of technology, the industrial processes become increasingly demanding, from the point of view, power quality and controllability. The advent of multi levels inverters responds partially to these requirements. But actually, the new generation of multi-cells inverters permits to reach more performances, since, it offers more voltage levels. The disadvantage in the increase of voltage levels by the number of cells in cascades is on account of series igbts synchronisation loss, from where, a limitation of cells in cascade to 4. Regarding to these constraints, a new topology is proposed in this paper, which increases the voltage levels of the three-cell inverter from 4 to 8; with the same number of igbts, and using less stored energy in the flaying capacitors. The details of operation and modelling of this new inverter structure are also presented, then tested thanks to a three phase induction motor. KeywordsFlaying capacitors, Multi-cells inverter, pwm, switchers, modelling.

Keywords: Flaying capacitors, Multi-cells inverter, pwm, switchers, modelling.

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22 Numerical Modeling of Waves and Currents by Using a Hydro-Sedimentary Model

Authors: Mustapha Kamel Mihoubi, Hocine Dahmani

Abstract:

Over recent years much progress has been achieved in the fields of numerical modeling shoreline processes: waves, currents, waves and current. However, there are still some problems in the existing models to link the on the first, the hydrodynamics of waves and currents and secondly, the sediment transport processes and due to the variability in time, space and interaction and the simultaneous action of wave-current near the shore. This paper is the establishment of a numerical modeling to forecast the sediment transport from development scenarios of harbor structure. It is established on the basis of a numerical simulation of a water-sediment model via a 2D model using a set of codes calculation MIKE 21-DHI software. This is to examine the effect of the sediment transport drivers following the dominant incident wave in the direction to pass input harbor work under different variants planning studies to find the technical and economic limitations to the sediment transport and protection of the harbor structure optimum solution.

Keywords: Swell, current, radiation, stress, mesh, MIKE21, sediment.

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21 High-performance Second-Generation Controlled Current Conveyor CCCII and High Frequency Applications

Authors: Néjib Hassen, Thouraya Ettaghzouti, Kamel Besbes

Abstract:

In this paper, a modified CCCII is presented. We have used a current mirror with low supply voltage. This circuit is operated at low supply voltage of ±1V. Tspice simulations for TSMC 0.18μm CMOS Technology has shown that the current and voltage bandwidth are respectively 3.34GHz and 4.37GHz, and parasitic resistance at port X has a value of 169.320 for a control current of 120μA. In order to realize this circuit, we have implemented in this first step a universal current mode filter where the frequency can reach the 134.58MHz. In the second step, we have implemented two simulated inductors: one floating and the other grounded. These two inductors are operated in high frequency and variable depending on bias current I0. Finally, we have used the two last inductors respectively to implement two sinusoidal oscillators domains of frequencies respectively: [470MHz, 692MHz], and [358MHz, 572MHz] for bias currents I0 [80μA, 350μA].

Keywords: Current controlled current conveyor CCCII, floating inductor, grounded inductor, oscillator, universal filter.

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20 Utilization and Characterizations of Olive Oil Industry By-Products

Authors: Sawsan Dacrory, Hussein Abou-Yousef, Samir Kamel, Ragab E. Abou-Zeid, Mohamed S. Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed Elbadry

Abstract:

A considerable amount of lignocellulosic by-product could be obtained from olive pulp during olive oil extraction industry. The major constituents of the olive pulp are husks and seeds. The separation of each portion of olive pulp (seeds and husks) was carried out by water flotation where seeds were sediment in the bottom. Both seeds and husks were dignified by 15% NaOH followed by complete lignin removal by using sodium chlorite in acidic medium. The isolated holocellulose, α-cellulose, hydrogel and CMC which prepared from cellulose of both seeds and husk fractions were characterized by FTIR and SEM. The present study focused on the investigation of the chemical components of the lignocellulosic fraction of olive pulp. Biofunctionlization of hydrogel was achieved through loading of silver nanoparticles AgNPs in to the prepared hydrogel. The antimicrobial activity of the loaded silver hydrogel against G-ve, and G+ve, and candida was demonstrated.

Keywords: Antimicrobial hydrogel, carboxymethyl cellulose, cellulose, grafting, olive pulp.

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19 A Proposed Technique for Software Development Risks Identification by using FTA Model

Authors: Hatem A. Khater, A. Baith Mohamed, Sara M. Kamel

Abstract:

Software Development Risks Identification (SDRI), using Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), is a proposed technique to identify not only the risk factors but also the causes of the appearance of the risk factors in software development life cycle. The method is based on analyzing the probable causes of software development failures before they become problems and adversely affect a project. It uses Fault tree analysis (FTA) to determine the probability of a particular system level failures that are defined by A Taxonomy for Sources of Software Development Risk to deduce failure analysis in which an undesired state of a system by using Boolean logic to combine a series of lower-level events. The major purpose of this paper is to use the probabilistic calculations of Fault Tree Analysis approach to determine all possible causes that lead to software development risk occurrence

Keywords: Software Development Risks Identification (SDRI), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), Taxonomy for Software Development Risks (TSDR), Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA).

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18 Closely Parametrical Model for an Electrical Arc Furnace

Authors: Labar Hocine, Dgeghader Yacine, Kelaiaia Mounia Samira, Bounaya Kamel

Abstract:

To maximise furnace production it-s necessary to optimise furnace control, with the objectives of achieving maximum power input into the melting process, minimum network distortion and power-off time, without compromise on quality and safety. This can be achieved with on the one hand by an appropriate electrode control and on the other hand by a minimum of AC transformer switching. Electrical arc is a stochastic process; witch is the principal cause of power quality problems, including voltages dips, harmonic distortion, unbalance loads and flicker. So it is difficult to make an appropriate model for an Electrical Arc Furnace (EAF). The factors that effect EAF operation are the melting or refining materials, melting stage, electrode position (arc length), electrode arm control and short circuit power of the feeder. So arc voltages, current and power are defined as a nonlinear function of the arc length. In this article we propose our own empirical function of the EAF and model, for the mean stages of the melting process, thanks to the measurements in the steel factory.

Keywords: Modelling, electrical arc, melting, power, EAF, steel.

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17 Possible Protective Effect of Kombucha Tea Ferment on Cadmium Chloride Induced Liver and Kidney Damage in Irradiated Rats

Authors: Nashwa Kamel Ibrahim

Abstract:

Kombucha Tea Ferment (KT), was given to male albino rats, (1ml/Kg of body weight), via gavages, during 2 weeks before intraperitoneal administration of 3.5 mg/Kg body weight CdCl2 and/or whole body γ-irradiation with 4Gy, and during 4 weeks after each treatment. Hepatic and nephritic pathological changes included significant increases of serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and creatinine and urea contents with significant decrease in serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Increase in oxidative stress markers in liver and kidney tissues expressed by significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) contents associated to significant depletion in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were recorded. KT administration results in recovery of all the pathological changes. It could be concluded that KT might protect liver and kidney from oxidative damage induced by exposure to cadmium and/ or γ-irradiation.

Keywords: Cadmium, Kombucha, radiation, rats

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16 Low Voltage High Gain Linear Class AB CMOS OTA with DC Level Input Stage

Authors: Houda Bdiri Gabbouj, Néjib Hassen, Kamel Besbes

Abstract:

This paper presents a low-voltage low-power differential linear transconductor with near rail-to-rail input swing. Based on the current-mirror OTA topology, the proposed transconductor combines the Flipped Voltage Follower (FVF) technique to linearize the transconductor behavior that leads to class- AB linear operation and the virtual transistor technique to lower the effective threshold voltages of the transistors which offers an advantage in terms of low supply requirement. Design of the OTA has been discussed. It operates at supply voltages of about ±0.8V. Simulation results for 0.18μm TSMC CMOS technology show a good input range of 1Vpp with a high DC gain of 81.53dB and a total harmonic distortion of -40dB at 1MHz for an input of 1Vpp. The main aim of this paper is to present and compare new OTA design with high transconductance, which has a potential to be used in low voltage applications.

Keywords: Amplifier class AB, current mirror, flipped voltage follower, low voltage.

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15 Neural Network Ensemble-based Solar Power Generation Short-Term Forecasting

Authors: A. Chaouachi, R.M. Kamel, R. Ichikawa, H. Hayashi, K. Nagasaka

Abstract:

This paper presents the applicability of artificial neural networks for 24 hour ahead solar power generation forecasting of a 20 kW photovoltaic system, the developed forecasting is suitable for a reliable Microgrid energy management. In total four neural networks were proposed, namely: multi-layred perceptron, radial basis function, recurrent and a neural network ensemble consisting in ensemble of bagged networks. Forecasting reliability of the proposed neural networks was carried out in terms forecasting error performance basing on statistical and graphical methods. The experimental results showed that all the proposed networks achieved an acceptable forecasting accuracy. In term of comparison the neural network ensemble gives the highest precision forecasting comparing to the conventional networks. In fact, each network of the ensemble over-fits to some extent and leads to a diversity which enhances the noise tolerance and the forecasting generalization performance comparing to the conventional networks.

Keywords: Neural network ensemble, Solar power generation, 24 hour forecasting, Comparative study

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14 Promoting Complex Systems Learning through the use of Computer Modeling

Authors: Kamel Hashem, David Mioduser

Abstract:

This paper describes part of a project about Learningby- Modeling (LbM). Studying complex systems is increasingly important in teaching and learning many science domains. Many features of complex systems make it difficult for students to develop deep understanding. Previous research indicates that involvement with modeling scientific phenomena and complex systems can play a powerful role in science learning. Some researchers argue with this view indicating that models and modeling do not contribute to understanding complexity concepts, since these increases the cognitive load on students. This study will investigate the effect of different modes of involvement in exploring scientific phenomena using computer simulation tools, on students- mental model from the perspective of structure, behavior and function. Quantitative and qualitative methods are used to report about 121 freshmen students that engaged in participatory simulations about complex phenomena, showing emergent, self-organized and decentralized patterns. Results show that LbM plays a major role in students' concept formation about complexity concepts.

Keywords: Complexity, Educational technology, Learning by modeling, Mental models

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13 Biometric Authentication Using Fast Correlation of Near Infrared Hand Vein Patterns

Authors: Mohamed Shahin, Ahmed Badawi, Mohamed Kamel

Abstract:

This paper presents a hand vein authentication system using fast spatial correlation of hand vein patterns. In order to evaluate the system performance, a prototype was designed and a dataset of 50 persons of different ages above 16 and of different gender, each has 10 images per person was acquired at different intervals, 5 images for left hand and 5 images for right hand. In verification testing analysis, we used 3 images to represent the templates and 2 images for testing. Each of the 2 images is matched with the existing 3 templates. FAR of 0.02% and FRR of 3.00 % were reported at threshold 80. The system efficiency at this threshold was found to be 99.95%. The system can operate at a 97% genuine acceptance rate and 99.98 % genuine reject rate, at corresponding threshold of 80. The EER was reported as 0.25 % at threshold 77. We verified that no similarity exists between right and left hand vein patterns for the same person over the acquired dataset sample. Finally, this distinct 100 hand vein patterns dataset sample can be accessed by researchers and students upon request for testing other methods of hand veins matching.

Keywords: Biometrics, Verification, Hand Veins, PatternsSimilarity, Statistical Performance.

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12 Contrast Enhancement of Color Images with Color Morphing Approach

Authors: Javed Khan, Aamir Saeed Malik, Nidal Kamel, Sarat Chandra Dass, Azura Mohd Affandi

Abstract:

Low contrast images can result from the wrong setting of image acquisition or poor illumination conditions. Such images may not be visually appealing and can be difficult for feature extraction. Contrast enhancement of color images can be useful in medical area for visual inspection. In this paper, a new technique is proposed to improve the contrast of color images. The RGB (red, green, blue) color image is transformed into normalized RGB color space. Adaptive histogram equalization technique is applied to each of the three channels of normalized RGB color space. The corresponding channels in the original image (low contrast) and that of contrast enhanced image with adaptive histogram equalization (AHE) are morphed together in proper proportions. The proposed technique is tested on seventy color images of acne patients. The results of the proposed technique are analyzed using cumulative variance and contrast improvement factor measures. The results are also compared with decorrelation stretch. Both subjective and quantitative analysis demonstrates that the proposed techniques outperform the other techniques.

Keywords: Contrast enhancement, normalized RGB, adaptive histogram equalization, cumulative variance.

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11 Extracting Single Trial Visual Evoked Potentials using Selective Eigen-Rate Principal Components

Authors: Samraj Andrews, Ramaswamy Palaniappan, Nidal Kamel

Abstract:

In single trial analysis, when using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to extract Visual Evoked Potential (VEP) signals, the selection of principal components (PCs) is an important issue. We propose a new method here that selects only the appropriate PCs. We denote the method as selective eigen-rate (SER). In the method, the VEP is reconstructed based on the rate of the eigen-values of the PCs. When this technique is applied on emulated VEP signals added with background electroencephalogram (EEG), with a focus on extracting the evoked P3 parameter, it is found to be feasible. The improvement in signal to noise ratio (SNR) is superior to two other existing methods of PC selection: Kaiser (KSR) and Residual Power (RP). Though another PC selection method, Spectral Power Ratio (SPR) gives a comparable SNR with high noise factors (i.e. EEGs), SER give more impressive results in such cases. Next, we applied SER method to real VEP signals to analyse the P3 responses for matched and non-matched stimuli. The P3 parameters extracted through our proposed SER method showed higher P3 response for matched stimulus, which confirms to the existing neuroscience knowledge. Single trial PCA using KSR and RP methods failed to indicate any difference for the stimuli.

Keywords: Electroencephalogram, P3, Single trial VEP.

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10 Promoting Mathematical Understanding Using ICT in Teaching and Learning

Authors: Kamel Hashem, Ibrahim Arman

Abstract:

Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in mathematical education is a very active field of research and innovation, where learning is understood to be meaningful and grasping multiple linked representation rather than rote memorization, a great amount of literature offering a wide range of theories, learning approaches, methodologies and interpretations, are generally stressing the potentialities for teaching and learning using ICT. Despite the utilization of new learning approaches with ICT, students experience difficulties in learning concepts relevant to understanding mathematics, much remains unclear about the relationship between the computer environment, the activities it might support, and the knowledge that might emerge from such activities. Many questions that might arise in this regard: to what extent does the use of ICT help students in the process of understanding and solving tasks or problems? Is it possible to identify what aspects or features of students' mathematical learning can be enhanced by the use of technology? This paper will highlight the interest of the integration of information and communication technologies (ICT) into the teaching and learning of mathematics (quadratic functions), it aims to investigate the effect of four instructional methods on students- mathematical understanding and problem solving. Quantitative and qualitative methods are used to report about 43 students in middle school. Results showed that mathematical thinking and problem solving evolves as students engage with ICT activities and learn cooperatively.

Keywords: Dynamic Geometry Software, Information and Communication Technologies, Visualization, Mathematical Education.

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9 Large Eddy Simulation of Compartment Fire with Gas Combustible

Authors: Mliki Bouchmel, Abbassi Mohamed Ammar, Kamel Geudri, Chrigui Mouldi, Omri Ahmed

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to use the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) to investigate the behavior of a kerosene small-scale fire. FDS is a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool developed specifically for fire applications. Throughout its development, FDS is used for the resolution of practical problems in fire protection engineering. At the same time FDS is used to study fundamental fire dynamics and combustion. Predictions are based on Large Eddy Simulation (LES) with a Smagorinsky turbulence model. LES directly computes the large-scale eddies and the sub-grid scale dissipative processes are modeled. This technique is the default turbulence model which was used in this study. The validation of the numerical prediction is done using a direct comparison of combustion output variables to experimental measurements. Effect of the mesh size on the temperature evolutions is investigated and optimum grid size is suggested. Effect of width openings is investigated. Temperature distribution and species flow are presented for different operating conditions. The effect of the composition of the used fuel on atmospheric pollution is also a focus point within this work. Good predictions are obtained where the size of the computational cells within the fire compartment is less than 1/10th of the characteristic fire diameter.

Keywords: Large eddy simulation, Radiation, Turbulence, combustion, pollution.

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8 Alkali Silica Reaction Mitigation and Prevention Measures for Arkansas Local Aggregates

Authors: Amin Kamal Akhnoukh, Lois Zaki Kamel, Magued Mourad Barsoum

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to mitigate and prevent the alkali silica reactivity (ASR) in highway construction projects. ASR is a deleterious reaction initiated when the silica content of the aggregate reacts with alkali hydroxides in cement in the presence of relatively high moisture content. The ASR results in the formation of an expansive white colored gel-like material which forms the destructive tensile stresses inside hardened concrete. In this research, different types of local aggregates available in the State of Arkansas were mixed and mortar bars were poured according to the ASTM specifications. Mortar bars expansion was measured versus time and aggregates with potential ASR problems were detected. Different types of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) were used in remixing mortar bars with highly reactive aggregates. Length changes for remixed bars proved that different types of SCMs can be successfully used in reducing the expansive effect of ASR. SCMs percentage by weight is highly dependent on the SCM type. The result of this study will help avoiding future losses due to ASR cracking in construction project and reduce the maintenance, repair, and replacement budgets required for highways network.

Keywords: Alkali Silica Reaction, Aggregates, Moisture, Cracks, Mortar Bar Test supplementary cementitious materials.

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