Low Voltage High Gain Linear Class AB CMOS OTA with DC Level Input Stage
This paper presents a low-voltage low-power differential linear transconductor with near rail-to-rail input swing. Based on the current-mirror OTA topology, the proposed transconductor combines the Flipped Voltage Follower (FVF) technique to linearize the transconductor behavior that leads to class- AB linear operation and the virtual transistor technique to lower the effective threshold voltages of the transistors which offers an advantage in terms of low supply requirement. Design of the OTA has been discussed. It operates at supply voltages of about ±0.8V. Simulation results for 0.18μm TSMC CMOS technology show a good input range of 1Vpp with a high DC gain of 81.53dB and a total harmonic distortion of -40dB at 1MHz for an input of 1Vpp. The main aim of this paper is to present and compare new OTA design with high transconductance, which has a potential to be used in low voltage applications.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1077371Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4023
 Tien-Yu Lo and Chung-Chih Hung, "A wide tuning range Gm-C continuous- time analog filter," IEEE Trans.Circuits Syst. I, vol. 54, no. 4, pp.713-722, 2007.
 J. Ramirez-Angulo, R.G. Carvajal, A. Torralba, J. Galan, A.P. Vega- Leal and J. Tombs, "The Flipped Voltage Follower: A useful cell for low voltage low power circuit design," IEEE Int, Symp. on Circuits and Systems, vol.3, pp. 615-618, 2002.
 Markus Helfenstein, Qiuting Huang and Geoge S. Moschytz, "90 dB, 90 MHz, 30 mW CMOS OTA for a high capacitive load," International Journal of Circuit Theory and Application, Int. J. Circ. Theor. Appl. , vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 473-483, 1999.
 Stanislaw Szczepanski, Bogdan Pankiewicz and Slawomir Koziel "Programmable feedforward linearized CMOS OTA for fully differential continuous-time filter design," International Journal of Circuit Theory and Design, Int. J. Circ. Theor. Appl. 2009.
 Antonio J. Lopez-Martin, Sushmita Baswa, Jaime Ramirez -Angulo and Ramon Gonzalez Carvajal, "Low voltage super class AB CMOS OTA cells with very high slew rate and power efficiency," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits; vol. 40, no. 5, pp.1068-1077, 2005.
 Antonio J. Lopez-Martin, Jaime Ramirez -Angulo, Chandrika Durbha and Ramon Gonzalez Carvajal, "A CMOS Transconductor with multidecade tuning using balanced current scaling in moderate inversion," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 40, no. 5, pp.1078-1083, 2005.
 Renato Rimolo-Donadio, Alexander Mora-Sanchez and Dietmar Schroeder, "High slew rate configurable class AB fully differential operational transconductance amplifier for switched capacitor circuit applications," Workshop on Circuits, Systems and Signal Processing PRORISC 2006 Veldhoven (The Netherlands).
 Juan A. Galan, Antonio J. Lopez-Martin, Ramon Gonzalez Carvajal, Jaime Ramirez-Angulo and Carlos Rubia-Marcos, "Super class AB OTAs with adaptive biasing and dynamic output current scaling," IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems-I: regular papers, vol. 54, no. 3pp.449-457, 2007,.
 S. Baswa, Antonio J. Lopez-Martin, Jaime Ramirez-Angulo and Ramon Gonzalez Carvajal, "Low voltage micro-power super class AB CMOS OTA," Electronics letters, vol. 40, no. 4, pp.216-217, 2004.
 F. Palma and S. Durante, "Gm-Extraction for rail-to-rail input stage linearization," International Journal of Circuit Theory and Design, Int. J. Circ. Theor. Appl., vol. 33, no. 6, pp.541-552, 2005.
 Carrillo JM, Duque-Carrillo JF, Torelli G, Ausin JL, "Constant-gm constant-slew-rate high-bandwidth low-voltage rail-to-rail CMOS input stage for VLSI cell libraries," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 38, no. 8, pp.1364-1372, 2003.
 Monsuro P, Pennisi S, Scotti G, Trifeletti A, "Linearization technique for source-degenerated CMOS differential transconductors," IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II, vol. 54, no. 10, pp.848-852, 2007.
 Ergun B. S. and Kuntman H, "On the design of new CMOS DO-OTA topologies providing high output impedance and extended linearized range," Istanbul University, Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, vol. 5, no. 2, pp.1449-1461, 2005.
 Chen J., Sanchez-Sinencio E., Fellow IEEE, and Silva-Martinez J., "Frequency-Dependent Harmonic-Distortion Analysis of a Linearized Cross-Coupled CMOS OTA and its Application to OTA-C Filters," IEEE Transaction on Circuit and Systems, vol. 53, no. 3, pp.499-510, 2006.
 Manuel Carrasco-Robles and Luis Serrano, "Obtaining maximally flat transconductances with any number of multiple coupled differential pairs," International Journal of Circuit Theory and Application, Int. J. Circ. Theor. Appl. 2009.
 M. Laguna, C. De la Cruz-Blas, A. Torralba, R.G. Carvajal, A. Lopez- Martin and A. Carlosena , " A novel low voltage low power class AB linear transconductor," IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems ISCAS, vol.1, pp. 725-728, 2004.
 J.A. Galan, R. G. Carvajal, F. Munog, A. Torralba and J. Ramirez- Angulo, "Low power low voltage class AB linear OTA for HF filters with a large tuning range," IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, vol. 2, pp. 9-12, 2002.
 M. G. Degrauwe, J.Rijmenants and E. A. Vittoz, "Adaptive biasing CMOS amplifiers," IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 522-528, 1982.
 S. Sengupta, "Adaptively biased linear transconductor," IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, vol. 52, no. 11, pp. 2369-2375, 2005.
 Ayman A. Fayed and Mohammed Ismail , "A Low-Voltage, Highly Linear Voltage-Controlled Transconductor," IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems-II: Express briefs, vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 831-835, 2005.
 Ko-Chi Kuo and Hsing-Hui Wu "A Low-Voltage, Highly Linear, and Tunable Triode Transconductor," Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits EDSSC, pp. 365-368; 2007.
 A. Gharbiya and M. Syrzycki, "Highly linear, tunable, pseudo differential transconductor circuit for the design of Gm-C filters," IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering CCECE; vol.1, pp. 521-526, 2002.
 B. Calvo, S. Celma, J. Ramirez-Angulo and M.T. Sanz, "Low-voltage pseudo-differential transconductor with improved tunability-linearity trade-off," Electronics Letters, vol.42, no. 5, pp.862-863, 2006.
 SzczepanskiS. and Koziel S., "Phase compensation scheme for feedforward linearized CMOS operational transconductance amplifier," Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 141-148, 2004.
 Giuseppe Ferri, Vincenzo Stornelli, and Angelo Celeste, "Integrated Rail-to-Rail Low-Voltage Low-Power Enhanced DC-Gain Fully Differential Operational Transconductance Amplifier," ETRI Journal, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 785- 793, December 2007.
 R. G. Carvajal, J. Ramirez Angulo, A. J. L├│pez-Mart├¡n, A. Torralba, J Gal├ín, A. Carlosena, F. Mu├▒oz, "The Flipped Voltage Follower: A useful cell for low-voltage low-power circuit design," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, vol. 52, no. 7, pp.1276-1291, 2005.
 Pietro Monsurr`o, Salvatore Pennisi, Giuseppe Scotti and Alessandro Trifiletti, "0.9-V CMOS cascade amplifier with body-driven gain boosting," International Journal of Circuit Theory and Design, Int. J. Circ. Theor. Appl. 2009.
 Xuguang Zhang and Ezz. I. El-Masry "A low voltage body driven CMOS transconductor," Midwest Symposium Circuits and Systems MWSCAS; vol.1, pp.328-331, 2002.
 J. Ramirez-Angulo; S.C. Choi; G. Gonzalez-Altamirano "Low-voltage circuits building blocks using multiple-input floating-gate transistors," IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and Applications; vol. 42, no. 11, pp. 971 -974, 1995.
 Chong-Gun Yu; R. L. Geiger, "Very low voltage operational amplifiers using floating gate MOS Transistor," IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, pp. 1152 -1155, 1993.
 G. Giustolisi; G. Palmisano; T. Segreto. "1.2-V CMOS op-amp with a dynamically biased output stage," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 632 -636, 2000.
 A.Torralba, R.G. Carvajal, J. Ramirez-Angulo and F. Munoz "Output stage for low supply voltage, high performance CMOS current mirrors," Electronics letters, vol. 38, no. 24, pp.1528-1529, 2002.
 Néjib Hassen, Houda Bdiri Gabbouj and Kamel Besbes, "Low voltage high performance current mirros: application to linear voltage to current converter," International Journal of Circuit Theory and Design, Int. J. Circ. Theor. Appl. 2009.
 The MOSIS service, "Wafer electrical test dada and spice model parameters," http://www.mosis.org/test/
 Juan Antonio G├│mez Gal├ín, Manuel Pedro Carrasco, Melita Pennisi, Antonio Lopez Martin, Ramon Gonz├ílez Carvajal, and Jaime Ram├¡rez- Angulo, "Low-Voltage Tunable Pseudo-Differential Transconductor with High Linearity," ETRI Journal, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 576- 584, October 2009.