Search results for: Dynamic Pricing (DP)
1957 Potentials and Influencing Factors of Dynamic Pricing in Business: Empirical Insights of European Experts
Authors: Christopher Reichstein, Ralf-Christian Härting, Martina Häußler
Abstract:With a continuously increasing speed of information exchange on the World Wide Web, retailers in the E-Commerce sector are faced with immense possibilities regarding different online purchase processes like dynamic price settings. By use of Dynamic Pricing, retailers are able to set short time price changes in order to optimize producer surplus. The empirical research illustrates the basics of Dynamic Pricing and identifies six influencing factors of Dynamic Pricing. The results of a structural equation modeling approach show five main drivers increasing the potential of dynamic price settings in the E-Commerce. Influencing factors are the knowledge of customers’ individual willingness to pay, rising sales, the possibility of customization, the data volume and the information about competitors’ pricing strategy.
Keywords: E-commerce, empirical research, experts, Dynamic Pricing (DP), influencing factors, potentials.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1246
1956 Joint Optimization of Pricing and Advertisement for Seasonal Branded Products
Authors: Mohammad Modarres, Shirin Aslani
Abstract:The goal of this paper is to develop a model to integrate “pricing" and “advertisement" for short life cycle products, such as branded fashion clothing products. To achieve this goal, we apply the concept of “Dynamic Pricing". There are two classes of advertisements, for the brand (regardless of product) and for a particular product. Advertising the brand affects the demand and price of all the products. Thus, the model considers all these products in relation with each other. We develop two different methods to integrate both types of advertisement and pricing. The first model is developed within the framework of dynamic programming. However, due to the complexity of the model, this method cannot be applicable for large size problems. Therefore, we develop another method, called hieratical approach, which is capable of handling the real world problems. Finally, we show the accuracy of this method, both theoretically and also by simulation.
Keywords: Advertising, Dynamic programming, Dynamic pricing, Promotion.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1488
1955 A Dynamic Hybrid Option Pricing Model by Genetic Algorithm and Black- Scholes Model
Authors: Yi-Chang Chen, Shan-Lin Chang, Chia-Chun Wu
Abstract:Unlike this study focused extensively on trading behavior of option market, those researches were just taken their attention to model-driven option pricing. For example, Black-Scholes (B-S) model is one of the most famous option pricing models. However, the arguments of B-S model are previously mentioned by some pricing models reviewing. This paper following suggests the importance of the dynamic character for option pricing, which is also the reason why using the genetic algorithm (GA). Because of its natural selection and species evolution, this study proposed a hybrid model, the Genetic-BS model which combining GA and B-S to estimate the price more accurate. As for the final experiments, the result shows that the output estimated price with lower MAE value than the calculated price by either B-S model or its enhanced one, Gram-Charlier garch (G-C garch) model. Finally, this work would conclude that the Genetic-BS pricing model is exactly practical.
Keywords: genetic algorithm, Genetic-BS, option pricing model.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2089
1954 Quality Monitoring and Dynamic Pricing in Cold Chain Management
Authors: Myo Min Aung, Yoon Seok Chang, Woo Ram Kim
This paper presents a cold chain monitoring system which focuses on assessment of quality and dynamic pricing information about food in cold chain. Cold chain is composed of many actors and stages; however it can be seen as a single entity since a breakdown in temperature control at any stage can impact the final quality of the product. In a cold chain, the shelf life, quality, and safety of perishable food throughout the supply chain is greatly impacted by environmental factors especially temperature. In this paper, a prototype application is implemented to retrieve timetemperature history, the current quality and the dynamic price setting according to changing quality impacted by temperature fluctuations in real-time.
Keywords: Cold chain, monitoring, quality, temperature, traceability.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2916
1953 Hybrid Equity Warrants Pricing Formulation under Stochastic Dynamics
Authors: Teh Raihana Nazirah Roslan, Siti Zulaiha Ibrahim, Sharmila Karim
A warrant is a financial contract that confers the right but not the obligation, to buy or sell a security at a certain price before expiration. The standard procedure to value equity warrants using call option pricing models such as the Black–Scholes model had been proven to contain many flaws, such as the assumption of constant interest rate and constant volatility. In fact, existing alternative models were found focusing more on demonstrating techniques for pricing, rather than empirical testing. Therefore, a mathematical model for pricing and analyzing equity warrants which comprises stochastic interest rate and stochastic volatility is essential to incorporate the dynamic relationships between the identified variables and illustrate the real market. Here, the aim is to develop dynamic pricing formulations for hybrid equity warrants by incorporating stochastic interest rates from the Cox-Ingersoll-Ross (CIR) model, along with stochastic volatility from the Heston model. The development of the model involves the derivations of stochastic differential equations that govern the model dynamics. The resulting equations which involve Cauchy problem and heat equations are then solved using partial differential equation approaches. The analytical pricing formulas obtained in this study comply with the form of analytical expressions embedded in the Black-Scholes model and other existing pricing models for equity warrants. This facilitates the practicality of this proposed formula for comparison purposes and further empirical study.
Keywords: Cox-Ingersoll-Ross model, equity warrants, Heston model, hybrid models, stochastic.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 398
1952 Implied Adjusted Volatility by Leland Option Pricing Models: Evidence from Australian Index Options
Authors: Mimi Hafizah Abdullah, Hanani Farhah Harun, Nik Ruzni Nik Idris
With the implied volatility as an important factor in financial decision-making, in particular in option pricing valuation, and also the given fact that the pricing biases of Leland option pricing models and the implied volatility structure for the options are related, this study considers examining the implied adjusted volatility smile patterns and term structures in the S&P/ASX 200 index options using the different Leland option pricing models. The examination of the implied adjusted volatility smiles and term structures in the Australian index options market covers the global financial crisis in the mid-2007. The implied adjusted volatility was found to escalate approximately triple the rate prior the crisis.
Keywords: Implied adjusted volatility, Financial crisis, Leland option pricing models.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2823
1951 Multi-Stakeholder Road Pricing Game: Solution Concepts
Authors: Anthony E. Ohazulike, Georg Still, Walter Kern, Eric C. van Berkum
A road pricing game is a game where various stakeholders and/or regions with different (and usually conflicting) objectives compete for toll setting in a given transportation network to satisfy their individual objectives. We investigate some classical game theoretical solution concepts for the road pricing game. We establish results for the road pricing game so that stakeholders and/or regions playing such a game will beforehand know what is obtainable. This will save time and argument, and above all, get rid of the feelings of unfairness among the competing actors and road users. Among the classical solution concepts we investigate is Nash equilibrium. In particular, we show that no pure Nash equilibrium exists among the actors, and further illustrate that even “mixed Nash equilibrium" may not be achievable in the road pricing game. The paper also demonstrates the type of coalitions that are not only reachable, but also stable and profitable for the actors involved.
Keywords: Road pricing game, Equilibrium problem with equilibrium constraint (EPEC), Nash equilibrium, Game stability.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1356
1950 A Study on the Relation of Corporate Governance and Pricing for Initial Public Offerings
Authors: Chei-Chang Chiou, Sen-Wei Wang, Yu-Min Wang
Abstract:The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between corporate governance and pricing for initial public offerings (IPOs). Empirical result finds that the prediction of pricing of IPOs with corporate governance added can have a rather higher degree of predicting accuracy than that of non governance added during the training and testing samples. Therefore, it can be observed that corporate governance mechanism can affect the pricing of IPOs
Keywords: Artificial neural networks, corporate governance, initial public offerings.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1658
1949 Investigating the Effective Parameters in Determining the Type of Traffic Congestion Pricing Schemes in Urban Streets
Authors: Saeed Sayyad Hagh Shomar
Abstract:Traffic congestion pricing – as a strategy in travel demand management in urban areas to reduce traffic congestion, air pollution and noise pollution – has drawn many attentions towards itself. Unlike the satisfying findings in this method, there are still problems in determining the best functional congestion pricing scheme with regard to the situation. The so-called problems in this process will result in further complications and even the scheme failure. That is why having proper knowledge of the significance of congestion pricing schemes and the effective factors in choosing them can lead to the success of this strategy. In this study, first, a variety of traffic congestion pricing schemes and their components are introduced; then, their functional usage is discussed. Next, by analyzing and comparing the barriers, limitations and advantages, the selection criteria of pricing schemes are described. The results, accordingly, show that the selection of the best scheme depends on various parameters. Finally, based on examining the effective parameters, it is concluded that the implementation of area-based schemes (cordon and zonal) has been more successful in non-diversion of traffic. That is considering the topology of the cities and the fact that traffic congestion is often created in the city centers, area-based schemes would be notably functional and appropriate.
Keywords: Congestion pricing, demand management, flat toll, variable toll.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 472
1948 Optimization of Transfer Pricing in a Recession with Reflection on Croatian Situation
Authors: Jasminka Radolović
Abstract:Countries in recession, among them Croatia, have lower tax revenues as a result of unfavorable economic situation, which is decrease of the economic activities and unemployment. The global tax base has decreased. In order to create larger state revenues, states use the institute of tax authorities. By controlling transfer pricing in the international companies and using certain techniques, tax authorities can create greater tax obligations for the companies in a short period of time.
Keywords: Documentation, Methods, Tax Optimization, Transfer PricingProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1365
1947 Derivation of Fractional Black-Scholes Equations Driven by Fractional G-Brownian Motion and Their Application in European Option Pricing
Authors: Changhong Guo, Shaomei Fang, Yong He
Abstract:In this paper, fractional Black-Scholes models for the European option pricing were established based on the fractional G-Brownian motion (fGBm), which generalizes the concepts of the classical Brownian motion, fractional Brownian motion and the G-Brownian motion, and that can be used to be a tool for considering the long range dependence and uncertain volatility for the financial markets simultaneously. A generalized fractional Black-Scholes equation (FBSE) was derived by using the Taylor’s series of fractional order and the theory of absence of arbitrage. Finally, some explicit option pricing formulas for the European call option and put option under the FBSE were also solved, which extended the classical option pricing formulas given by F. Black and M. Scholes.
Keywords: European option pricing, fractional Black-Scholes equations, fractional G-Brownian motion, Taylor’s series of fractional order, uncertain volatility.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 563
1946 An Asymptotic Formula for Pricing an American Exchange Option
Authors: Hsuan-Ku Liu
In this paper, the American exchange option (AEO) valuation problem is modelled as a free boundary problem. The critical stock price for an AEO is satisfied an integral equation implicitly. When the remaining time is large enough, an asymptotic formula is provided for pricing an AEO. The numerical results reveal that our asymptotic pricing formula is robust and accurate for the long-term AEO.
Keywords: Integral equation, asymptotic solution, free boundary problem, American exchange option.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1516
1945 Pricing Strategy Selection Using Fuzzy Linear Programming
Authors: Elif Alaybeyoğlu, Y. Esra Albayrak
Marketing establishes a communication network between producers and consumers. Nowadays, marketing approach is customer-focused and products are directly oriented to meet customer needs. Marketing, which is a long process, needs organization and management. Therefore strategic marketing planning becomes more and more important in today’s competitive conditions. Main focus of this paper is to evaluate pricing strategies and select the best pricing strategy solution while considering internal and external factors influencing the company’s pricing decisions associated with new product development. To reflect the decision maker’s subjective preference information and to determine the weight vector of factors (attributes), the fuzzy linear programming technique for multidimensional analysis of preference (LINMAP) under intuitionistic fuzzy (IF) environments is used.
Keywords: IF Sets, LINMAP, MAGDM, Marketing.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2139
1944 Transmission Pricing based on Voltage Angle Decomposition
Authors: M. Oloomi-Buygi, M. Reza Salehizadeh
Abstract:In this paper a new approach for transmission pricing is presented. The main idea is voltage angle allocation, i.e. determining the contribution of each contract on the voltage angle of each bus. DC power flow is used to compute a primary solution for angle decomposition. To consider the impacts of system non-linearity on angle decomposition, the primary solution is corrected in different iterations of decoupled Newton-Raphson power flow. Then, the contribution of each contract on power flow of each transmission line is computed based on angle decomposition. Contract-related flows are used as a measure for “extent of use" of transmission network capacity and consequently transmission pricing. The presented approach is applied to a 4-bus test system and IEEE 30-bus test system.
Keywords: Deregulation, Power electric markets, Transmission pricing methodologies, decoupled Newton-Raphson power flow.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1497
1943 Pricing European Options under Jump Diffusion Models with Fast L-stable Padé Scheme
Authors: Salah Alrabeei, Mohammad Yousuf
Abstract:The goal of option pricing theory is to help the investors to manage their money, enhance returns and control their financial future by theoretically valuing their options. Modeling option pricing by Black-School models with jumps guarantees to consider the market movement. However, only numerical methods can solve this model. Furthermore, not all the numerical methods are efficient to solve these models because they have nonsmoothing payoffs or discontinuous derivatives at the exercise price. In this paper, the exponential time differencing (ETD) method is applied for solving partial integrodifferential equations arising in pricing European options under Merton’s and Kou’s jump-diffusion models. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm is used as a matrix-vector multiplication solver, which reduces the complexity from O(M2) into O(M logM). A partial fraction form of Pad`e schemes is used to overcome the complexity of inverting polynomial of matrices. These two tools guarantee to get efficient and accurate numerical solutions. We construct a parallel and easy to implement a version of the numerical scheme. Numerical experiments are given to show how fast and accurate is our scheme.
Keywords: Integral differential equations, L-stable methods, pricing European options, Jump–diffusion model.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 345
1942 A Nodal Transmission Pricing Model based on Newly Developed Expressions of Real and Reactive Power Marginal Prices in Competitive Electricity Markets
Authors: Ashish Saini, A.K. Saxena
In competitive electricity markets all over the world, an adoption of suitable transmission pricing model is a problem as transmission segment still operates as a monopoly. Transmission pricing is an important tool to promote investment for various transmission services in order to provide economic, secure and reliable electricity to bulk and retail customers. The nodal pricing based on SRMC (Short Run Marginal Cost) is found extremely useful by researchers for sending correct economic signals. The marginal prices must be determined as a part of solution to optimization problem i.e. to maximize the social welfare. The need to maximize the social welfare subject to number of system operational constraints is a major challenge from computation and societal point of views. The purpose of this paper is to present a nodal transmission pricing model based on SRMC by developing new mathematical expressions of real and reactive power marginal prices using GA-Fuzzy based optimal power flow framework. The impacts of selecting different social welfare functions on power marginal prices are analyzed and verified with results reported in literature. Network revenues for two different power systems are determined using expressions derived for real and reactive power marginal prices in this paper.
Keywords: Deregulation, electricity markets, nodal pricing, social welfare function, short run marginal cost.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1536
1941 Basket Option Pricing under Jump Diffusion Models
Authors: Ali Safdari-Vaighani
Abstract:Pricing financial contracts on several underlying assets received more and more interest as a demand for complex derivatives. The option pricing under asset price involving jump diffusion processes leads to the partial integral differential equation (PIDEs), which is an extension of the Black-Scholes PDE with a new integral term. The aim of this paper is to show how basket option prices in the jump diffusion models, mainly on the Merton model, can be computed using RBF based approximation methods. For a test problem, the RBF-PU method is applied for numerical solution of partial integral differential equation arising from the two-asset European vanilla put options. The numerical result shows the accuracy and efficiency of the presented method.
Keywords: Radial basis function, basket option, jump diffusion, RBF-PUM.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 939
1940 Analysis and Evaluation of the Public Responses to Traffic Congestion Pricing Schemes in Urban Streets
Authors: Saeed Sayyad Hagh Shomar
Traffic congestion pricing in urban streets is one of the most suitable options for solving the traffic problems and environment pollutions in the cities of the country. Unlike its acceptable outcomes, there are problems concerning the necessity to pay by the mass. Regarding the fact that public response in order to succeed in this strategy is so influential, studying their response and behavior to get the feedback and improve the strategies is of great importance. In this study, a questionnaire was used to examine the public reactions to the traffic congestion pricing schemes at the center of Tehran metropolis and the factors involved in people’s decision making in accepting or rejecting the congestion pricing schemes were assessed based on the data obtained from the questionnaire as well as the international experiences. Then, by analyzing and comparing the schemes, guidelines to reduce public objections to them are discussed. The results of reviewing and evaluating the public reactions show that all the pros and cons must be considered to guarantee the success of these projects. Consequently, with targeted public education and consciousness-raising advertisements, prior to initiating a scheme and ensuring the mechanism of the implementation after the start of the project, the initial opposition is reduced and, with the gradual emergence of the real and tangible benefits of its implementation, users’ satisfaction will increase.
Keywords: Demand management, international experiences, traffic congestion pricing, public acceptance, public objection.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 519
1939 Analysis of Dynamic Loads Induced by Spectator Movements in Stadium
Authors: Gee-Cheol Kim, Sang-Hoon Lee, Joo-Won Kang
Abstract:In the stadium structure, the significant dynamic responses such as resonance or similar behavior can be occurred by spectator rhythmical activities. Thus, accurate analysis and precise investigation of stadium structure that is subjected to dynamic loads are required for practical design and serviceability check of stadium structures. Moreover, it is desirable to measure and analyze the dynamic loads of spectator activities because these dynamic loads can not be easily expressed in numerical formula. In this study, various dynamic loads induced by spectator movements are measured and analyzed. These dynamic loads induced by spectators movement of stadium structure can be classified into the impact load and the periodic load. These dynamic loads can be expressed as Fourier harmonic load. And, these dynamic loads could be applied for the accurate vibration analysis of a stadium structure.
Keywords: stadium structure, spectator rhythmical activities, vibration analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2650
1938 Movies and Dynamic Mathematical Objects on Trigonometry for Mobile Phones
Authors: Kazuhisa Takagi
1937 The Nematode Fauna Dynamics Peculiarities of Highlands Different Ecosystems (Eastern Georgia)
Authors: E. Tskitishvili, I. Eliava, T. Tskitishvili, N. Bagathuria, L. Zghenti, M. Gigolashvili
Abstract:There was studied dynamic of the number of nematodes fauna of various ecosystems of Gombori Mountain Ridge that belongs to peak of fauna dynamic. The nature of dynamic is in general similar in all six biotypes and the difference is evident only in total number of nematodes.
Keywords: Nematoda, dynamic, highland, ecosystemProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1211
1936 Optimal Route Policy in Air Traffic Control with Competing Airlines
Authors: Siliang Wang, Minghui Wang
This work proposes a novel market-based air traffic flow control model considering competitive airlines in air traffic network. In the flow model, an agent based framework for resources (link/time pair) pricing is described. Resource agent and auctioneer for groups of resources are also introduced to simulate the flow management in Air Traffic Control (ATC). Secondly, the distributed group pricing algorithm is introduced, which efficiently reflect the competitive nature of the airline industry. Resources in the system are grouped according to the degree of interaction, and each auctioneer adjust s the price of one group of resources respectively until the excess demand of resources becomes zero when the demand and supply of resources of the system changes. Numerical simulation results show the feasibility of solving the air traffic flow control problem using market mechanism and pricing algorithms on the air traffic network.
Keywords: Air traffic control, Nonlinear programming, Marketmechanism, Route policy.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1677
1935 Identifying Unknown Dynamic Forces Applied on Two Dimensional Frames
Authors: H. Katkhuda
A time domain approach is used in this paper to identify unknown dynamic forces applied on two dimensional frames using the measured dynamic structural responses for a sub-structure in the two dimensional frame. In this paper a sub-structure finite element model with short length of measurement from only three or four accelerometers is required, and an iterative least-square algorithm is used to identify the unknown dynamic force applied on the structure. Validity of the method is demonstrated with numerical examples using noise-free and noise-contaminated structural responses. Both harmonic and impulsive forces are studied. The results show that the proposed approach can identify unknown dynamic forces within very limited iterations with high accuracy and shows its robustness even noise- polluted dynamic response measurements are utilized.
Keywords: Dynamic Force Identification, Dynamic Responses, Sub-structure and Time Domain.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1419
1934 Dynamic Amplification Factors of Some City Bridges
Authors: I. Paeglite, A. Paeglitis
Paper presents a study about dynamic effects obtained from the dynamic load testing of the city highway bridges in Latvia carried out from 2005 to 2012. 9 prestressed concrete bridges and 4 composite bridges were considered. 11 of 13 bridges were designed according to the Eurocodes but two according to the previous structural codes used in Latvia (SNIP 2.05.03-84). The dynamic properties of the bridges were obtained by heavy vehicle passing the bridge roadway with different driving speeds and with or without even pavement. The obtained values of the Dynamic amplification factor (DAF) and the bridge natural frequency were analyzed and compared to the values of built-in traffic load models provided in Eurocode 1. The actual DAF values for even bridge pavement in the most cases are smaller than the value adopted in Eurocode 1. Vehicle speed for uneven pavements significantly influence Dynamic amplification factor values.
Keywords: Bridge, dynamic effects, load testing, dynamic amplification factor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2833
1933 Combining Ant Colony Optimization and Dynamic Programming for Solving a Dynamic Facility Layout Problem
Authors: A. Udomsakdigool, S. Bangsaranthip
Abstract:This paper presents an algorithm which combining ant colony optimization in the dynamic programming for solving a dynamic facility layout problem. The problem is separated into 2 phases, static and dynamic phase. In static phase, ant colony optimization is used to find the best ranked of layouts for each period. Then the dynamic programming (DP) procedure is performed in the dynamic phase to evaluate the layout set during multi-period planning horizon. The proposed algorithm is tested over many problems with size ranging from 9 to 49 departments, 2 and 4 periods. The experimental results show that the proposed method is an alternative way for the plant layout designer to determine the layouts during multi-period planning horizon.
Keywords: Ant colony optimization, Dynamicprogramming, Dynamic facility layout planning, MetaheuristicProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1808
1932 An Adverse Model for Price Discrimination in the Case of Monopoly
Authors: Daniela Elena Marinescu, Ioana Manafi, Dumitru Marin
Abstract:We consider a Principal-Agent model with the Principal being a seller who does not know perfectly how much the buyer (the Agent) is willing to pay for the good. The buyer-s preferences are hence his private information. The model corresponds to the nonlinear pricing problem of Maskin and Riley. We assume there are three types of Agents. The model is solved using “informational rents" as variables. In the last section we present the main characteristics of the optimal contracts in asymmetric information and some possible extensions of the model.
Keywords: Adverse selection, asymmetric information, informational rent, nonlinear pricing, optimal contractProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1226
1931 The Use of Artificial Neural Network in Option Pricing: The Case of S and P 100 Index Options
Authors: Zeynep İltüzer Samur, Gül Tekin Temur
Due to the increasing and varying risks that economic units face with, derivative instruments gain substantial importance, and trading volumes of derivatives have reached very significant level. Parallel with these high trading volumes, researchers have developed many different models. Some are parametric, some are nonparametric. In this study, the aim is to analyse the success of artificial neural network in pricing of options with S&P 100 index options data. Generally, the previous studies cover the data of European type call options. This study includes not only European call option but also American call and put options and European put options. Three data sets are used to perform three different ANN models. One only includes data that are directly observed from the economic environment, i.e. strike price, spot price, interest rate, maturity, type of the contract. The others include an extra input that is not an observable data but a parameter, i.e. volatility. With these detail data, the performance of ANN in put/call dimension, American/European dimension, moneyness dimension is analyzed and whether the contribution of the volatility in neural network analysis make improvement in prediction performance or not is examined. The most striking results revealed by the study is that ANN shows better performance when pricing call options compared to put options; and the use of volatility parameter as an input does not improve the performance.
Keywords: Option Pricing, Neural Network, S&P 100 Index, American/European optionsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2882
1930 Dynamic Load Modeling for KHUZESTAN Power System Voltage Stability Studies
Authors: M. Sedighizadeh, A. Rezazadeh
Abstract:Based on the component approach, three kinds of dynamic load models, including a single –motor model, a two-motor model and composite load model have been developed for the stability studies of Khuzestan power system. The study results are presented in this paper. Voltage instability is a dynamic phenomenon and therefore requires dynamic representation of the power system components. Industrial loads contain a large fraction of induction machines. Several models of different complexity are available for the description investigations. This study evaluates the dynamic performances of several dynamic load models in combination with the dynamics of a load changing transformer. Case study is steel industrial substation in Khuzestan power systems.
Keywords: Dynamic load, modeling, Voltage Stability.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1738
1929 Dynamic Stall Vortex Formation of OA-209 Airfoil at Low Reynolds Number
Authors: Aung Myo Thu, Sang Eon Jeon, Yung Hwan Byun, Soo Hyung Park
The unsteady flow field around oscillating OA-209 airfoil at a Reynolds number of 3.5×105 were investigated. Three different reduced frequencies were tested in order to see how it affects the hysteresis loop of an airfoil. At a reduced frequency of 0.05 the deep dynamic stall phenomenon was observed. Lift overshooting was observed as a result of dynamic stall vortex (DSV) shedding. Further investigation was carried out to find out the cause of DSV formation and shedding over airfoil. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) and CFD tools were used and it was found out that dynamic stall separation (DSS), which is separated from leading edge separation (LES) and trailing edge separation (TES), triggered the dynamic stall vortex (DSV).
Keywords: Airfoil Flow, CFD, PIV, Dynamic Stall, Flow Separation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3040
1928 A Review on Enhanced Dynamic Clustering in WSN
Authors: M. Sangeetha, A. Sabari, K. Elakkiya
Abstract:Recent advancement in wireless internetworking has presented a number of dynamic routing protocols based on sensor networks. At present, a number of revisions are made based on their energy efficiency, lifetime and mobility. However, to the best of our knowledge no extensive survey of this special type has been prepared. At present, review is needed in this area where cluster-based structures for dynamic wireless networks are to be discussed. In this paper, we examine and compare several aspects and characteristics of some extensively explored hierarchical dynamic clustering protocols in wireless sensor networks. This document also presents a discussion on the future research topics and the challenges of dynamic hierarchical clustering in wireless sensor networks.
Keywords: Dynamic cluster, Hierarchical clustering, Wireless sensor networks.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1174