Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32727
Investigating the Effective Parameters in Determining the Type of Traffic Congestion Pricing Schemes in Urban Streets

Authors: Saeed Sayyad Hagh Shomar


Traffic congestion pricing – as a strategy in travel demand management in urban areas to reduce traffic congestion, air pollution and noise pollution – has drawn many attentions towards itself. Unlike the satisfying findings in this method, there are still problems in determining the best functional congestion pricing scheme with regard to the situation. The so-called problems in this process will result in further complications and even the scheme failure. That is why having proper knowledge of the significance of congestion pricing schemes and the effective factors in choosing them can lead to the success of this strategy. In this study, first, a variety of traffic congestion pricing schemes and their components are introduced; then, their functional usage is discussed. Next, by analyzing and comparing the barriers, limitations and advantages, the selection criteria of pricing schemes are described. The results, accordingly, show that the selection of the best scheme depends on various parameters. Finally, based on examining the effective parameters, it is concluded that the implementation of area-based schemes (cordon and zonal) has been more successful in non-diversion of traffic. That is considering the topology of the cities and the fact that traffic congestion is often created in the city centers, area-based schemes would be notably functional and appropriate.

Keywords: Congestion pricing, demand management, flat toll, variable toll.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 543


[1] D. Schrank, T. Lomax, “The 2009 urban mobility report,” College Station: Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University, 2009.
[2] J. Eliasson, “A cost–benefit analysis of the Stockholm congestion charging system,” Transportation Research Part A, vol. 43, no. 4, pp 468–480, 2009.
[3] T. Litman, “London congestion pricing: implications for other cities.” Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, 2006.
[4] A. Conway, M.C. Walton, “Policy options for truck user charging,” In: Paper Presented at the 88th Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, Washington, DC., 2009.
[5] FHWA, “Transit and congestion pricing: A primer”, U.S. Department of Transportation, 2009.
[6] J. Dong, S. Erdogan, H.S. Mahmassani,“State-dependent pricing for real-time freeway management: static, reactive and anticipatory,” In Paper presented at: the 86th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC., 2009.
[7] P. Swan, M. Belzer, “Empirical evidence of toll road traffic diversion and implications for highway infrastructure privatization,” In Paper Presented at: the 87th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2008
[8] P. A. Sorensen, B. D. Taylor, “Review and synthesis of road-use metering and charging systems.” Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC., 2005.
[9] K. A. Small, C. Winston, J. Yan, “Differentiated road pricing, express lanes, and carpools: exploiting heterogeneous preferences in policy design,” Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs 53, 96, 2006.
[10] A. De Palma, R. Lindsey, E. Quinet, “Time-varying road pricing and choice of toll locations,” In: Santos, G. (Ed.), Road Pricing: Theory and Evidence, Research in Transportation Economics, vol. 9. Elsevier Science, pp. 107–131, 2004.
[11] A. May, S. Shepherd, A. Sumalee, A. Koh, “Design tools for road pricing cordons,” In: Richardson, H., Bae, C. (Eds.), Road Congestion Pricing in Europe: Implications for the United States. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA, pp. 138–155, 2008.
[12] H. Richardson, C. H. C. Bae, “Road Congestion Pricing in Europe: Implications for the United State,” Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA, 2008.
[13] V. Chew, “Electronic road pricing: developments after phase I,” National Library Singapore, Singapore Infopedia, 2008, URL:
[14] P. Bonsall, J. Knockaert, “Recommendations for differentiated charges for car drivers,” Deliverable 9.3, DIFFERENT: User Reaction and Efficient Differentiation of Charges and Tolls, 2008, URL: