Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 400

Search results for: hard handoff

400 Grey Prediction Based Handoff Algorithm

Authors: Seyed Saeed Changiz Rezaei, Babak Hossein Khalaj

Abstract:

As the demand for higher capacity in a cellular environment increases, the cell size decreases. This fact makes the role of suitable handoff algorithms to reduce both number of handoffs and handoff delay more important. In this paper we show that applying the grey prediction technique for handoff leads to considerable decrease in handoff delay with using a small number of handoffs, compared with traditional hystersis based handoff algorithms.

Keywords: Cellular network, Grey prediction, Handoff.

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399 An Overview of Handoff Techniques in Cellular Networks

Authors: Nasıf Ekiz, Tara Salih, Sibel Küçüköner, Kemal Fidanboylu

Abstract:

Continuation of an active call is one of the most important quality measurements in the cellular systems. Handoff process enables a cellular system to provide such a facility by transferring an active call from one cell to another. Different approaches are proposed and applied in order to achieve better handoff service. The principal parameters used to evaluate handoff techniques are: forced termination probability and call blocking probability. The mechanisms such as guard channels and queuing handoff calls decrease the forced termination probability while increasing the call blocking probability. In this paper we present an overview about the issues related to handoff initiation and decision and discuss about different types of handoff techniques available in the literature.

Keywords: Handoff, Forced Termination Probability, Blocking probability, Handoff Initiation, Handoff Decision, Handoff Prioritization Schemes.

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398 Satellite Beam Handoff Detection Algorithm Based On RCST Mobility Information

Authors: Ji Nyong Jang, Min Woo Lee, Eun Kyung Kim, Ki Keun Kim, Jae Sung Lim

Abstract:

Since DVB-RCS has been successively implemented, the mobile communication on the multi-beam satellite communication is attractive attention. And the DVB-RCS standard sets up to support mobility of a RCST. In the case of the spot-beam satellite system, the received signal strength does not differ largely between the center and the boundary of the beam. Thus, the RSS based handoff detection algorithm is not benefit to the satellite system as a terrestrial system. Therefore we propose an Adaptive handoff detection algorithm based on RCST mobility information. Our handoff detection algorithm not only can be used as centralized handoff detection algorithm but also removes uncertainties of handoff due to the variation of RSS. Performances were compared with RSS based handoff algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed handoff detection algorithm not only achieved better handoff and link degradation rate, but also achieved better forward link spectral efficiency.

Keywords: DVB-RCS, satellite multi-beam handoff, mobility information, handover.

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397 Optimization for Reducing Handoff Latency and Utilization of Bandwidth in ATM Networks

Authors: Pooja, Megha Kulshrestha, V. K. Banga, Parvinder S. Sandhu

Abstract:

To support mobility in ATM networks, a number of technical challenges need to be resolved. The impact of handoff schemes in terms of service disruption, handoff latency, cost implications and excess resources required during handoffs needs to be addressed. In this paper, a one phase handoff and route optimization solution using reserved PVCs between adjacent ATM switches to reroute connections during inter-switch handoff is studied. In the second phase, a distributed optimization process is initiated to optimally reroute handoff connections. The main objective is to find the optimal operating point at which to perform optimization subject to cost constraint with the purpose of reducing blocking probability of inter-switch handoff calls for delay tolerant traffic. We examine the relation between the required bandwidth resources and optimization rate. Also we calculate and study the handoff blocking probability due to lack of bandwidth for resources reserved to facilitate the rapid rerouting.

Keywords: Wireless ATM, Mobility, Latency, Optimization rateand Blocking Probability.

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396 Decentralized Handoff for Microcellular Mobile Communication System using Fuzzy Logic

Authors: G. M. Mir, N. A. Shah, Moinuddin

Abstract:

Efficient handoff algorithms are a cost-effective way of enhancing the capacity and QoS of cellular system. The higher value of hysteresis effectively prevents unnecessary handoffs but causes undesired cell dragging. This undesired cell dragging causes interference or could lead to dropped calls in microcellular environment. The problems are further exacerbated by the corner effect phenomenon which causes the signal level to drop by 20-30 dB in 10-20 meters. Thus, in order to maintain reliable communication in a microcellular system new and better handoff algorithms must be developed. A fuzzy based handoff algorithm is proposed in this paper as a solution to this problem. Handoff on the basis of ratio of slopes of normal signal loss to the actual signal loss is presented. The fuzzy based solution is supported by comparing its results with the results obtained in analytical solution.

Keywords: Slope ratio, handoff, corner effect, fuzzy logic.

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395 Study of the Vertical Handoff in Heterogeneous Networks and Implement Based On Opnet

Authors: W. Benaatou, A. Latif

Abstract:

In this document we studied more in detail the Performances of the vertical handover in the networks WLAN, WiMAX, UMTS before studying of it the Procedure of Handoff Vertical, the whole buckled by simulations putting forward the performances of the handover in the heterogeneous networks. The goal of Vertical Handover is to carry out several accesses in real-time in the heterogeneous networks. This makes it possible a user to use several networks (such as WLAN UMTS andWiMAX) in parallel, and the system to commutate automatically at another basic station, without disconnecting itself, as if there were no cut and with little loss of data as possible.

Keywords: Vertical handoff, WLAN, UMTS, WIMAX, Heterogeneous.

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394 A Dynamic Decision Model for Vertical Handoffs across Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

Authors: Pramod Goyal, S. K. Saxena

Abstract:

The convergence of heterogeneous wireless access technologies characterizes the 4G wireless networks. In such converged systems, the seamless and efficient handoff between different access technologies (vertical handoff) is essential and remains a challenging problem. The heterogeneous co-existence of access technologies with largely different characteristics creates a decision problem of determining the “best" available network at “best" time to reduce the unnecessary handoffs. This paper proposes a dynamic decision model to decide the “best" network at “best" time moment to handoffs. The proposed dynamic decision model make the right vertical handoff decisions by determining the “best" network at “best" time among available networks based on, dynamic factors such as “Received Signal Strength(RSS)" of network and “velocity" of mobile station simultaneously with static factors like Usage Expense, Link capacity(offered bandwidth) and power consumption. This model not only meets the individual user needs but also improve the whole system performance by reducing the unnecessary handoffs.

Keywords: Dynamic decision model, Seamless handoff, Vertical handoff, Wireless networks

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393 Performance Analysis of Cellular Wireless Network by Queuing Priority Handoff calls

Authors: Raj Kumar Samanta, Partha Bhattacharjee Gautam Sanyal

Abstract:

In this paper, a mathematical model is proposed to estimate the dropping probabilities of cellular wireless networks by queuing handoff instead of reserving guard channels. Usually, prioritized handling of handoff calls is done with the help of guard channel reservation. To evaluate the proposed model, gamma inter-arrival and general service time distributions have been considered. Prevention of some of the attempted calls from reaching to the switching center due to electromagnetic propagation failure or whimsical user behaviour (missed call, prepaid balance etc.), make the inter-arrival time of the input traffic to follow gamma distribution. The performance is evaluated and compared with that of guard channel scheme.

Keywords: Cellular wireless networks, non-classical traffic, mathematicalmodel, guard channel, queuing, handoff.

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392 Peak Data Rate Enhancement Using Switched Micro-Macro Diversity in Cellular Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output Systems

Authors: Jihad S. Daba, J. P. Dubois, Yvette Antar

Abstract:

With the exponential growth of cellular users, a new generation of cellular networks is needed to enhance the required peak data rates. The co-channel interference between neighboring base stations inhibits peak data rate increase. To overcome this interference, multi-cell cooperation known as coordinated multipoint transmission is proposed. Such a solution makes use of multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems under two different structures: Micro- and macro-diversity. In this paper, we study the capacity and bit error rate in cellular networks using MIMO technology. We analyse both micro- and macro-diversity schemes and develop a hybrid model that switches between macro- and micro-diversity in the case of hard handoff based on a cut-off range of signal-to-noise ratio values. We conclude that our hybrid switched micro-macro MIMO system outperforms classical MIMO systems at the cost of increased hardware and software complexity.

Keywords: Cooperative multipoint transmission, ergodic capacity, hard handoff, macro-diversity, micro-diversity, multiple-input-multiple-output systems, MIMO, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, OFDM.

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391 Straight Line Defect Detection with Feed Forward Neural Network

Authors: S. Liangwongsan, A. Oonsivilai

Abstract:

Nowadays, hard disk is one of the most popular storage components. In hard disk industry, the hard disk drive must pass various complex processes and tested systems. In each step, there are some failures. To reduce waste from these failures, we must find the root cause of those failures. Conventionall data analysis method is not effective enough to analyze the large capacity of data. In this paper, we proposed the Hough method for straight line detection that helps to detect straight line defect patterns that occurs in hard disk drive. The proposed method will help to increase more speed and accuracy in failure analysis.

Keywords: Hough Transform, Failure Analysis, Media, Hard Disk Drive

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390 Mobility Management Architecture for Transport System

Authors: DaeWon Lee, HeonChang Yu

Abstract:

Next generation wireless/mobile networks will be IP based cellular networks integrating the internet with cellular networks. In this paper, we propose a new architecture for a high speed transport system and a mobile management protocol for mobile internet users in a transport system. Existing mobility management protocols (MIPv6, HMIPv6) do not consider real world fast moving wireless hosts (e.g. passengers in a train). For this reason, we define a virtual organization (VO) and proposed the VO architecture for the transport system. We also classify mobility as VO mobility (intra VO) and macro mobility (inter VO). Handoffs in VO are locally managed and transparent to the CH while macro mobility is managed with Mobile IPv6. And, from the features of the transport system, such as fixed route and steady speed, we deduce the movement route and the handoff disruption time of each handoff. To reduce packet loss during handoff disruption time, we propose pre-registration scheme using pre-registration. Moreover, the proposed protocol can eliminate unnecessary binding updates resulting from sequence movement at high speed. The performance evaluations demonstrate our proposed protocol has a good performance at transport system environment. Our proposed protocol can be applied to the usage of wireless internet on the train, subway, and high speed train.

Keywords: Binding update, HMIPv6, packet loss, transport system, virtual organization.

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389 PetriNets Manipulation to Reduce Roaming Duration: Criterion to Improve Handoff Management

Authors: Hossam el-ddin Mostafa, Pavel Čičak

Abstract:

IETF RFC 2002 originally introduced the wireless Mobile-IP protocol to support portable IP addresses for mobile devices that often change their network access points to the Internet. The inefficiency of this protocol mainly within the handoff management produces large end-to-end packet delays, during registration process, and further degrades the system efficiency due to packet losses between subnets. The criterion to initiate a simple and fast full-duplex connection between the home agent and foreign agent, to reduce the roaming duration, is a very important issue to be considered by a work in this paper. State-transition Petri-Nets of the modeling scenario-based CIA: communication inter-agents procedure as an extension to the basic Mobile-IP registration process was designed and manipulated. The heuristic of configuration file during practical Setup session for registration parameters, on Cisco platform Router-1760 using IOS 12.3 (15)T is created. Finally, stand-alone performance simulations results from Simulink Matlab, within each subnet and also between subnets, are illustrated for reporting better end-to-end packet delays. Results verified the effectiveness of our Mathcad analytical manipulation and experimental implementation. It showed lower values of end-to-end packet delay for Mobile-IP using CIA procedure. Furthermore, it reported packets flow between subnets to improve packet losses between subnets.

Keywords: Cisco configuration, handoff, packet delay, Petri-Nets, registration process, Simulink.

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388 Classification of Germinatable Mung Bean by Near Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging

Authors: Kaewkarn Phuangsombat, Arthit Phuangsombat, Anupun Terdwongworakul

Abstract:

Hard seeds will not grow and can cause mold in sprouting process. Thus, the hard seeds need to be separated from the normal seeds. Near infrared hyperspectral imaging in a range of 900 to 1700 nm was implemented to develop a model by partial least squares discriminant analysis to discriminate the hard seeds from the normal seeds. The orientation of the seeds was also studied to compare the performance of the models. The model based on hilum-up orientation achieved the best result giving the coefficient of determination of 0.98, and root mean square error of prediction of 0.07 with classification accuracy was equal to 100%.

Keywords: Mung bean, near infrared, germinatability, hard seed.

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387 Pioneer Synthesis and Characterization of Boron Containing Hard Materials

Authors: G. Çelik Gül, F. Kurtuluş

Abstract:

The first laboratory synthesis of hard materials such as diamond proceeded to attack of developing materials with high hardness to compete diamond. Boron rich solids are good candidates owing to their short interatomic bond lengths and strong covalent character. Boron containing hard material was synthesized by modifiedmicrowave method under nitrogen atmosphere by using a fuel (glycine or urea), amorphous boron and/or boric acid in appropriate molar ratio. Characterizations were done by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive analyze (SEM/EDS), thermo gravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA).

Keywords: Boron containing materials, hard materials, microwave synthesis, powder X-ray diffraction.

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386 PID Controller Design for Following Control of Hard Disk Drive by Characteristic Ratio Assignment Method

Authors: Chaoraingern J., Trisuwannawat T., Numsomran A.

Abstract:

The author present PID controller design for following control of hard disk drive by characteristic ratio assignment method. The study in this paper concerns design of a PID controller which sufficiently robust to the disturbances and plant perturbations on following control of hard disk drive. Characteristic Ratio Assignment (CRA) is shown to be an efficient control technique to serve this requirement. The controller design by CRA is based on the choice of the coefficients of the characteristic polynomial of the closed loop system according to the convenient performance criteria such as equivalent time constant and ration of characteristic coefficient. Hence, in this study, CRA method is applied in PID controller design for following control of hard disk drive. Matlab simulation results shown that CRA design is fairly stable and robust whilst giving the convenience in controller-s parameters adjustment.

Keywords: Following Control, Hard Disk Drive, PID, CRA

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385 Mobile Velocity Based Bidirectional Call Overflow Scheme in Hierarchical Cellular System

Authors: G. M. Mir, Moinuddin, N. A. Shah

Abstract:

In the age of global communications, heterogeneous networks are seen to be the best choice of strategy to ensure continuous and uninterruptible services. This will allow mobile terminal to stay in connection even they are migrating into different segment coverage through the handoff process. With the increase of teletraffic demands in mobile cellular system, hierarchical cellular systems have been adopted extensively for more efficient channel utilization and better QoS (Quality of Service). This paper presents a bidirectional call overflow scheme between two layers of microcells and macrocells, where handoffs are decided by the velocity of mobile making the call. To ensure that handoff calls are given higher priorities, it is assumed that guard channels are assigned in both macrocells and microcells. A hysteresis value introduced in mobile velocity is used to allow mobile roam in the same cell if its velocity changes back within the set threshold values. By doing this the number of handoffs is reduced thereby reducing the processing overhead and enhancing the quality of service to the end user.

Keywords: Hierarchical cellular systems, hysteresis, overflow, threshold.

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384 Mobile Multicast Support using Old Foreign Agent (MMOFA)

Authors: Hamed Rajabi, Naser Nematbakhsh, Naser Movahediniya

Abstract:

IP multicasting is a key technology for many existing and emerging applications on the Internet. Furthermore, with increasing popularity of wireless devices and mobile equipment, it is necessary to determine the best way to provide this service in a wireless environment. IETF Mobile IP, that provides mobility for hosts in IP networks, proposes two approaches for mobile multicasting, namely, remote subscription (MIP-RS) and bi-directional tunneling (MIP-BT). In MIP-RS, a mobile host re-subscribes to the multicast groups each time it moves to a new foreign network. MIP-RS suffers from serious packet losses while mobile host handoff occurs. In MIP-BT, mobile hosts send and receive multicast packets by way of their home agents (HAs), using Mobile IP tunnels. Therefore, it suffers from inefficient routing and wastage of system resources. In this paper, we propose a protocol called Mobile Multicast support using Old Foreign Agent (MMOFA) for Mobile Hosts. MMOFA is derived from MIP-RS and with the assistance of Mobile host's Old foreign agent, routes the missing datagrams due to handoff in adjacent network via tunneling. Also, we studied the performance of the proposed protocol by simulation under ns-2.27. The results demonstrate that MMOFA has optimal routing efficiency and low delivery cost, as compared to other approaches.

Keywords: Mobile Multicast, Mobile IP, MMOFA, NS-2. 27.

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383 The Impact of Cutting Tool Materials on Cutting Force

Authors: M.A. Kamely, M.Y. Noordin

Abstract:

A judicious choice of insert material, tool geometry and cutting conditions can make hard turning produce better surfaces than grinding. In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of cutting tool materials on cutting forces (feed force, thrust force and cutting force) in finish hard turning of AISI D2 cold work tool steel. In conclusion of the results obtained with a constant depth of cut and feed rate, it is important to note that cutting force is directly affected by cutting tool material.

Keywords: hard turning, cutting force, cutting tool materials, mixed ceramic, cbn

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382 Line Balancing in the Hard Disk Drive Process Using Simulation Techniques

Authors: Teerapun Saeheaw, Nivit Charoenchai, Wichai Chattinnawat

Abstract:

Simulation model is an easy way to build up models to represent real life scenarios, to identify bottlenecks and to enhance system performance. Using a valid simulation model may give several advantages in creating better manufacturing design in order to improve the system performances. This paper presents result of implementing a simulation model to design hard disk drive manufacturing process by applying line balancing to improve both productivity and quality of hard disk drive process. The line balance efficiency showed 86% decrease in work in process, output was increased by an average of 80%, average time in the system was decreased 86% and waiting time was decreased 90%.

Keywords: line balancing, arena, hard disk drive process, simulation, work in process (WIP)

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381 Prediction of Tool and Nozzle Flow Behavior in Ultrasonic Machining Process

Authors: Vinod Kumar, Jatinder Kumar

Abstract:

The use of hard and brittle material has become increasingly more extensive in recent years. Therefore processing of these materials for the parts fabrication has become a challenging problem. However, it is time-consuming to machine the hard brittle materials with the traditional metal-cutting technique that uses abrasive wheels. In addition, the tool would suffer excessive wear as well. However, if ultrasonic energy is applied to the machining process and coupled with the use of hard abrasive grits, hard and brittle materials can be effectively machined. Ultrasonic machining process is mostly used for the brittle materials. The present research work has developed models using finite element approach to predict the mechanical stresses sand strains produced in the tool during ultrasonic machining process. Also the flow behavior of abrasive slurry coming out of the nozzle has been studied for simulation using ANSYS CFX module. The different abrasives of different grit sizes have been used for the experimentation work.

Keywords: Stress, MRR, Flow, Ultrasonic Machining

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380 Analysis and Research of Two-Level Scheduling Profile for Open Real-Time System

Authors: Yongxian Jin, Jingzhou Huang

Abstract:

In an open real-time system environment, the coexistence of different kinds of real-time and non real-time applications makes the system scheduling mechanism face new requirements and challenges. One two-level scheduling scheme of the open real-time systems is introduced, and points out that hard and soft real-time applications are scheduled non-distinctively as the same type real-time applications, the Quality of Service (QoS) cannot be guaranteed. It has two flaws: The first, it can not differentiate scheduling priorities of hard and soft real-time applications, that is to say, it neglects characteristic differences between hard real-time applications and soft ones, so it does not suit a more complex real-time environment. The second, the worst case execution time of soft real-time applications cannot be predicted exactly, so it is not worth while to cost much spending in order to assure all soft real-time applications not to miss their deadlines, and doing that may cause resource wasting. In order to solve this problem, a novel two-level real-time scheduling mechanism (including scheduling profile and scheduling algorithm) which adds the process of dealing with soft real-time applications is proposed. Finally, we verify real-time scheduling mechanism from two aspects of theory and experiment. The results indicate that our scheduling mechanism can achieve the following objectives. (1) It can reflect the difference of priority when scheduling hard and soft real-time applications. (2) It can ensure schedulability of hard real-time applications, that is, their rate of missing deadline is 0. (3) The overall rate of missing deadline of soft real-time applications can be less than 1. (4) The deadline of a non-real-time application is not set, whereas the scheduling algorithm that server 0 S uses can avoid the “starvation" of jobs and increase QOS. By doing that, our scheduling mechanism is more compatible with different types of applications and it will be applied more widely.

Keywords: Hard real-time, two-level scheduling profile, open real-time system, non-distinctive schedule, soft real-time

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379 Analysis of Hard Turning Process of AISI D3-Thermal Aspects

Authors: B. Varaprasad, C. Srinivasa Rao

Abstract:

In the manufacturing sector, hard turning has emerged as vital machining process for cutting hardened steels. Besides many advantages of hard turning operation, one has to implement to achieve close tolerances in terms of surface finish, high product quality, reduced machining time, low operating cost and environmentally friendly characteristics. In the present study, three-dimensional CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) based simulation of  hard turning by using commercial software DEFORM 3D has been compared to experimental results of  stresses, temperatures and tool forces in machining of AISI D3 steel using mixed Ceramic inserts (CC6050). In the present analysis, orthogonal cutting models are proposed, considering several processing parameters such as cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut. An exhaustive friction modeling at the tool-work interfaces is carried out. Work material flow around the cutting edge is carefully modeled with adaptive re-meshing simulation capability. In process simulations, feed rate and cutting speed are constant (i.e.,. 0.075 mm/rev and 155 m/min), and analysis is focused on stresses, forces, and temperatures during machining. Close agreement is observed between CAE simulation and experimental values.

Keywords: Hard-turning, computer-aided engineering, computational machining, finite element method.

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378 A New Design Partially Blind Signature Scheme Based on Two Hard Mathematical Problems

Authors: Nedal Tahat

Abstract:

Recently, many existing partially blind signature scheme based on a single hard problem such as factoring, discrete logarithm, residuosity or elliptic curve discrete logarithm problems. However sooner or later these systems will become broken and vulnerable, if the factoring or discrete logarithms problems are cracked. This paper proposes a secured partially blind signature scheme based on factoring (FAC) problem and elliptic curve discrete logarithms (ECDL) problem. As the proposed scheme is focused on factoring and ECDLP hard problems, it has a solid structure and will totally leave the intruder bemused because it is very unlikely to solve the two hard problems simultaneously. In order to assess the security level of the proposed scheme a performance analysis has been conducted. Results have proved that the proposed scheme effectively deals with the partial blindness, randomization, unlinkability and unforgeability properties. Apart from this we have also investigated the computation cost of the proposed scheme. The new proposed scheme is robust and it is difficult for the malevolent attacks to break our scheme.

Keywords: Cryptography, Partially Blind Signature, Factoring, Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithms.

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377 Simulation of the Airflow Characteristic inside a Hard Disk Drive by Applying a Computational Fluid Dynamics Software

Authors: Chanchal Saha, Huynh Trung Luong, M. H. Aziz, Tharinan Rattanalert

Abstract:

Now-a-days, numbers of simulation software are being used all over the world to solve Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) related problems. In this present study, a commercial CFD simulation software namely STAR-CCM+ is applied to analyze the airflow characteristics inside a 2.5" hard disk drive. Each step of the software is described adequately to obtain the output and the data are verified with the theories to justify the robustness of the simulation outcome. This study gives an insight about the accuracy level of the CFD simulation software to compute CFD related problems although it largely depends upon the computer speed. Also this study will open avenues for further research.

Keywords: Computational fluid dynamics, Hard disk drive, Meshing, Recirculation filter, and Filter physics parameter.

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376 Research on Weakly Hard Real-Time Constraints and Their Boolean Combination to Support Adaptive QoS

Authors: Xiangbin Zhu

Abstract:

Advances in computing applications in recent years have prompted the demand for more flexible scheduling models for QoS demand. Moreover, in practical applications, partly violated temporal constraints can be tolerated if the violation meets certain distribution. So we need extend the traditional Liu and Lanland model to adapt to these circumstances. There are two extensions, which are the (m, k)-firm model and Window-Constrained model. This paper researches on weakly hard real-time constraints and their combination to support QoS. The fact that a practical application can tolerate some violations of temporal constraint under certain distribution is employed to support adaptive QoS on the open real-time system. The experiment results show these approaches are effective compared to traditional scheduling algorithms.

Keywords: Weakly Hard Real-Time, Real-Time, Scheduling, Quality of Service.

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375 Investigation of Tool Temperature and Surface Quality in Hot Machining of Hard-to-Cut Materials

Authors: M.Davami, M.Zadshakoyan

Abstract:

Production of hard-to-cut materials with uncoated carbide cutting tools in turning, not only cause tool life reduction but also, impairs the product surface roughness. In this paper, influence of hot machining method were studied and presented in two cases. Case1-Workpiece surface roughness quality with constant cutting parameter and 300 ºC initial workpiece surface temperature. Case 2- Tool temperature variation when cutting with two speeds 78.5 (m/min) and 51 (m/min). The workpiece material and tool used in this study were AISI 1060 steel (45HRC) and uncoated carbide TNNM 120408-SP10(SANDVIK Coromant) respectively. A gas flam heating source was used to preheating of the workpiece surface up to 300 ºC, causing reduction of yield stress about 15%. Results obtained experimentally, show that the method used can considerably improved surface quality of the workpiece.

Keywords: Hard-to-cut material, Hot machining, Surfaceroughness, Tool Temperature

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374 Delay Analysis of Sampled-Data Systems in Hard RTOS

Authors: A. M. Azad, M. Alam, C. M. Hussain

Abstract:

In this paper, we have presented the effect of varying time-delays on performance and stability in the single-channel multirate sampled-data system in hard real-time (RT-Linux) environment. The sampling task require response time that might exceed the capacity of RT-Linux. So a straight implementation with RT-Linux is not feasible, because of the latency of the systems and hence, sampling period should be less to handle this task. The best sampling rate is chosen for the sampled-data system, which is the slowest rate meets all performance requirements. RT-Linux is consistent with its specifications and the resolution of the real-time is considered 0.01 seconds to achieve an efficient result. The test results of our laboratory experiment shows that the multi-rate control technique in hard real-time operating system (RTOS) can improve the stability problem caused by the random access delays and asynchronization.

Keywords: Multi-rate, PID, RT-Linux, Sampled-data, Servo.

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373 Impact of Hard Limited Clipping Crest Factor Reduction Technique on Bit Error Rate in OFDM Based Systems

Authors: Theodore Grosch, Felipe Koji Godinho Hoshino

Abstract:

In wireless communications, 3GPP LTE is one of the solutions to meet the greater transmission data rate demand. One issue inherent to this technology is the PAPR (Peak-to-Average Power Ratio) of OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) modulation. This high PAPR affects the efficiency of power amplifiers. One approach to mitigate this effect is the Crest Factor Reduction (CFR) technique. In this work, we simulate the impact of Hard Limited Clipping Crest Factor Reduction technique on BER (Bit Error Rate) in OFDM based Systems. In general, the results showed that CFR has more effects on higher digital modulation schemes, as expected. More importantly, we show the worst-case degradation due to CFR on QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM signals in a linear system. For example, hard clipping of 9 dB results in a 2 dB increase in signal to noise energy at a 1% BER for 64-QAM modulation.

Keywords: Bit error rate, crest factor reduction, OFDM, physical layer simulation.

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372 A Kernel Classifier using Linearised Bregman Iteration

Authors: K. A. D. N. K Wimalawarne

Abstract:

In this paper we introduce a novel kernel classifier based on a iterative shrinkage algorithm developed for compressive sensing. We have adopted Bregman iteration with soft and hard shrinkage functions and generalized hinge loss for solving l1 norm minimization problem for classification. Our experimental results with face recognition and digit classification using SVM as the benchmark have shown that our method has a close error rate compared to SVM but do not perform better than SVM. We have found that the soft shrinkage method give more accuracy and in some situations more sparseness than hard shrinkage methods.

Keywords: Compressive sensing, Bregman iteration, Generalisedhinge loss, sparse, kernels, shrinkage functions

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371 A Model-Reference Sliding Mode for Dual-Stage Actuator Servo Control in HDD

Authors: S. Sonkham, U. Pinsopon, W. Chatlatanagulchai

Abstract:

This paper presents a method of sliding mode control (SMC) designing and developing for the servo system in a dual-stage actuator (DSA) hard disk drive. Mathematical modeling of hard disk drive actuators is obtained, extracted from measuring frequency response of the voice-coil motor (VCM) and PZT micro-actuator separately. Matlab software tools are used for mathematical model estimation and also for controller design and simulation. A model-reference approach for tracking requirement is selected as a proposed technique. The simulation results show that performance of a model-reference SMC controller design in DSA servo control can be satisfied in the tracking error, as well as keeping the positioning of the head within the boundary of +/-5% of track width under the presence of internal and external disturbance. The overall results of model-reference SMC design in DSA are met per requirement specifications and significant reduction in %off track is found when compared to the single-state actuator (SSA).

Keywords: Hard Disk Drive, Dual-Stage Actuator, Track Following, HDD Servo Control, Sliding Mode Control, Model-Reference, Tracking Control.

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