Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: Casein

14 Nutritional Potential and Functionality of Whey Powder Influenced by Different Processing Temperature and Storage

Authors: Zarmina Gillani, Nuzhat Huma, Aysha Sameen, Mulazim Hussain Bukhari

Abstract:

Whey is an excellent food ingredient owing to its high nutritive value and its functional properties. However, composition of whey varies depending on composition of milk, processing conditions, processing method, and its whey protein content. The aim of this study was to prepare a whey powder from raw whey and to determine the influence of different processing temperatures (160 and 180 °C) on the physicochemical, functional properties during storage of 180 days and on whey protein denaturation. Results have shown that temperature significantly (P < 0.05) affects the pH, acidity, non-protein nitrogen (NPN), protein total soluble solids, fat and lactose contents. Significantly (p < 0.05) higher foaming capacity (FC), foam stability (FS), whey protein nitrogen index (WPNI), and a lower turbidity and solubility index (SI) were observed in whey powder processed at 160 °C compared to whey powder processed at 180 °C. During storage of 180 days, slow but progressive changes were noticed on the physicochemical and functional properties of whey powder. Reverse phase-HPLC analysis revealed a significant (P < 0.05) effect of temperature on whey protein contents. Denaturation of β-Lactoglobulin is followed by α-lacalbumin, casein glycomacropeptide (CMP/GMP), and bovine serum albumin (BSA).

Keywords: temperature, denaturation, whey powder, reverse phase – HPLC

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13 Influence of κ-Casein Genotype on Milk Productivity of Latvia Local Dairy Breeds

Authors: S. Petrovska, D. Jonkus, D. Smiltiņa

Abstract:

κ-casein is one of milk proteins which are very important for milk processing. Genotypes of κ-casein affect milk yield, fat, and protein content. The main factors which affect local Latvian dairy breed milk yield and composition are analyzed in research. Data were collected from 88 Latvian brown and 82 Latvian blue cows in 2015. AA genotype was 0.557 in Latvian brown and 0.232 in Latvian blue breed. BB genotype was 0.034 in Latvian brown and 0.207 in Latvian blue breed. Highest milk yield was observed in Latvian brown (5131.2 ± 172.01 kg), significantly high fat content and fat yield also was in Latvian brown (p < 0.05). Significant differences between κ-casein genotypes were not found in Latvian brown, but highest milk yield (5057 ± 130.23 kg), protein content (3.42 ± 0.03%), and protein yield (171.9 ± 4.34 kg) were with AB genotype. Significantly high fat content was observed in Latvian blue breed with BB genotype (4.29 ± 0.17%) compared with AA genotypes (3.42 ± 0.19). Similar tendency was found in protein content – 3.27 ± 0.16% with BB genotype and 2.59 ± 0.16% with AA genotype (p < 0.05). Milk yield increases by increasing parity. We did not obtain major tendency of changes of milk fat and protein content according parity.

Keywords: Polymorphism, dairy cows, κ-casein, milk productivity

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12 Extraction of Bran Protein Using Enzymes and Polysaccharide Precipitation

Authors: Sudarat Jiamyangyuen, Tipawan Thongsook, Riantong Singanusong, Chanida Saengtubtim

Abstract:

Rice bran is normally used as a raw material for rice bran oil production or sold as feed with a low price. Conventionally, the protein in defatted rice bran was extracted using alkaline extraction and acid precipitation, which involves in chemical usage and lowering some nutritious component. This study was conducted in order to extract of rice bran protein concentrate (RBPC) from defatted rice bran using enzymes and employing polysaccharides in a precipitating step. The properties of RBPC obtained will be compared to those of a control sample extracted using a conventional method. The results showed that extraction of protein from rice bran using enzymes exhibited the higher protein recovery compared to that extraction with alkaline. The extraction conditions using alcalase 2% (v/w) at 50 C, pH 9.5 gave the highest protein (2.44%) and yield (32.09%) in extracted solution compared to other enzymes. Rice bran protein concentrate powder prepared by a precipitation step using alginate (protein in solution: alginate 1:0.016) exhibited the highest protein (27.55%) and yield (6.84%). Precipitation using alginate was better than that of acid. RBPC extracted with alkaline (ALK) or enzyme alcalase (ALC), then precipitated with alginate (AL) (samples RBP-ALK-AL and RBP-ALC-AL) yielded the precipitation rate of 75% and 91.30%, respectively. Therefore, protein precipitation using alginate was then selected. Amino acid profile of control sample, and sample precipitated with alginate, as compared to casein and soy protein isolated, showed that control sample showed the highest content among all sample. Functional property study of RBP showed that the highest nitrogen solubility occurred in pH 8-10. There was no statically significant between emulsion capacity and emulsion stability of control and sample precipitated by alginate. However, control sample showed a higher of foaming capacity and foaming stability compared to those of sample precipitated with alginate. The finding was successful in terms of minimizing chemicals used in extraction and precipitation steps in preparation of rice bran protein concentrate. This research involves in a production of value-added product in which the double amount of protein (28%) compared to original amount (14%) contained in rice bran could be beneficial in terms of adding to food products e.g. healthy drink with high protein and fiber. In addition, the basic knowledge of functional property of rice bran protein concentrate was obtained, which can be used to appropriately select the application of this value-added product from rice bran.

Keywords: alginate, rice bran, rice bran protein, carrageenan

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11 The Antibacterial and Anticancer Activity of Marine Actinomycete Strain HP411 Isolated in the Northern Coast of Vietnam

Authors: Huyen T. Pham, Nhue P. Nguyen, Tien Q. Phi, Phuong T. Dang, Hy G. Le

Abstract:

Since the marine environmental conditions are extremely different from the other ones, marine actinomycetes might produce novel bioactive compounds. Therefore, actinomycete strains were screened from marine water and sediment samples collected from the coastal areas of Northern Vietnam. Ninety-nine actinomycete strains were obtained on starch-casein agar media by dilution technique, only seven strains, named HP112, HP12, HP411, HPN11, HP 11, HPT13 and HPX12, showed significant antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Staphylococcus epidemidis ATCC 12228, Escherichia coli ATCC 11105). Further studies were carried out with the most active HP411 strain against Candida albicans ATCC 10231. This strain could grow rapidly on starch casein agar and other media with high salt containing 7-10% NaCl at 28-30oC. Spore-chain of HP411 showed an elongated and circular shape with 10 to 30 spores/chain. Identification of the strain was carried out by employing the taxonomical studies including the 16S rRNA sequence. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence it is proposed that HP411 to be belongs to species Streptomyces variabilis. The potent of the crude extract of fermentation broth of HP411 that are effective against wide range of pathogens: both grampositive, gram-negative and fungi. Further studies revealed that the crude extract HP411 could obtain the anticancer activity for cancer cell lines: Hep-G2 (liver cancer cell line); RD (cardiac and skeletal muscle letters cell line); FL (membrane of the uterus cancer cell line). However, the actinomycetes from marine ecosystem will be useful for the discovery of new drugs in the future.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Marine Actinomycetes, anticancer, Streptomyces variabilis

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10 The Effect of Goat Milk Fractions Supplementation on Serum IgE Response and Leukocytes Count in Dinitrochlorobenzene Sensitized Rat

Authors: Nurliyani, E. Harmayani, MHNE. Soesatyo

Abstract:

In Indonesia, goat milk is often consumed and believed as anti-allergy. The objective of this research was to study the effect of goat milk and their fractions (casein and whey) supplementation on total serum IgE concentrations and leukocytes count in rat sensitized with contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). Female Wistar rats 6-8 weeks old were divided into four groups: 1) whey, 2) casein, 3) whole milk supplementation and 4) phosphate-buffered saline/PBS (control). The results showed that supplementation of goat milk on rats did not affects on total serum IgE concentrations and number of leukocytes. After sensitized with DNCB, the monocyte percentage in rats was higher (P<0.01) than before. In conclusion, goat milk or their fractions supplementation unable to decrease the total serum IgE concentrations and also had no effect on leukocytes count. However, 1% DNCB could increase the number of monocytes, but could not induce the IgE response.

Keywords: IgE, leukocytes, Dinitrochlorobenzene, Goat Milk Fractions

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9 Interaction Effect of DGAT1 and Composite Genotype of Beta-Kappa Casein on Economic Milk Production Traits in Crossbred Holstein

Authors: A. Molee, N. Duanghaklang, P. Mernkrathoke

Abstract:

The objective was to determine the single gene and interaction effect of composite genotype of beta-kappa casein and DGAT1 gene on milk yield (MY) and milk composition, content of milk fat (%FAT), milk protein (%PRO), solid not fat (%SNF), and total solid (%TS) in crossbred Holstein cows. Two hundred and thirty- one cows were genotyped with PCR-RFLP for DGAT1 and composite genotype data of beta-kappa casein from previous work were used. Two model, (1), and (2), was used to estimate single gene effect, and interaction effect on the traits, respectively. The significance of interaction effects on all traits were detected. Most traits have consistent pattern of significant when model (1), and (2) were compared, except the effect of composite genotype of betakappa casein on %FAT, and the effect of DGAT1 on MY, which the significant difference was detected in only model (1).The results suggested that when the optimum of all traits was necessary, interaction effect should be concerned.

Keywords: Milk Composition, milk yield, DGAT1gene, composite genotype of beta-kappa casein

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8 Chemical and Biological Properties of Local Cowpea Seed Protein Grown in Gizan Region

Authors: Abdelatief S. H. El-Jasser

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical and biological properties of local cowpea seed protein cultivated in Gizan region. The results showed that the cowpea and its products contain high level of protein (22.9-77.6%), high carbohydrates (9.4-64.3%) and low fats (0.1-0.3%). The trypsin and chymotrypsin activities were found to be 32.2 and 15.2 units, respectively. These activities were not affected in both defatted and protein concentrate whereas they were significantly reduced in isolated protein and cooked samples. The phytate content of cooked and concentrated cowpea samples varied from 0.25% -0.32%, respectively. Tannin content was found to be 0.4% and 0.23% for cooked and raw samples, respectively. The in vitro protein digestibility was very high in cowpea seeds (75.04-78.76%). The biological evaluation using rats showed that the group fed with animal feed containing casein gain more weight than those fed with that containing cowpea. However, the group fed with cooked cowpea gain more weight than those fed with uncooked cowpea. On the other hand, in vivo digestion showed high value (98.33%) among the group consumed casein compared to other groups those consumed cowpea contains feed. This could be attributed to low antinutritional factors in casein contains feed compared to those of cowpea contains feed because cooking significantly increased the digestion rate (80.8% to 83.5%) of cowpea contains feed. Furthermore, the biological evaluation was high (91.67%) of casein containing feed compared to that of cowpea containing feed (80.83%-87.5%). The net protein utilization (NPU) was higher (89.67%) in the group fed with casein containing feed than that of cowpea containing feed (56.33%-69.67%).

Keywords: Biological properties, Cowpea seed protein, Antinutritional factors, In vitro digestibility

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7 Enhanced Mycophenolic Acid Production by Penicillium brevicompactum with Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Casein

Authors: F. Ardestani, S. S. A. Fatemi, B. Yakhchali

Abstract:

Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is a secondary metabolite produced by Penicillium brevicompactum, which has antibiotic and immunosuppressive properties. In this study, the first, mycophenolic acid was produced in a fermentation process by Penicillium brevicompactum MUCL 19011 in shake flask using a base medium. The maximum MPA production, product yield and productivity of process were 1.379 g/L, 18.6 mg/g glucose and 4.9 mg/L. h, respectively. Also the glucose consumption, biomass and MPA production profiles were investigated during batch cultivation. Obtained results showed that MPA production starts approximately after 180 hours and reaches to a maximum at 280 h. In the next step, the effects of some various concentrations of enzymatically hydrolyzed casein on MPA production were evaluated. Maximum MPA production, product yield and productivity as 3.63 g/L, 49 mg/g glucose and 12.96 mg/L.h, respectively were obtained with using 30 g/L enzymatically hydrolyzed casein in culture medium. These values show an enhanced MPA production, product yield and process productivity pr as 116.8%, 132.8% and 163.2%, respectively.

Keywords: submerged culture, mycophenolic acid, Penicillium brevicompactum, Enzymatically hydrolyzed casein

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6 Revea Ling Casein Micelle Dispersion under Various Ranges of Nacl: Evolution of Particles Size and Structure

Authors: Raza Hussain, Claire Gaiani, Joël Scher

Abstract:

Dispersions of casein micelles (CM) were studied at a constant protein concentration of 5 wt % in high NaCl environment ranging from 0% to 12% by Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). The rehydration profiles obtained were interpreted in term of wetting, swelling and dispersion stages by using a turbidity method. Two behaviours were observed depending on the salt concentration. The first behaviour (low salt concentration) presents a typical rehydration profile with a significant change between 3 and 6% NaCl indicating quick wetting, swelling and long dispersion stage. On the opposite, the dispersion stage of the second behaviour (high salt concentration) was significantly shortened indicating a strong modification of the protein backbone. A salt increase result to a destabilization of the micelle and the formation of mini-micelles more or less aggregated indicating an average micelles size ranging from 100 to 200 nm. For the first time, the estimations of secondary structural elements (irregular, ß-sheet, α-helix and turn) by the Amide III assignments were correlated with results from Amide I.

Keywords: FTIR, casein, DLS, Ionic environment

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5 Chitosan/Casein Microparticles: Preparation, Characterization and Drug Release Studies

Authors: Selvakumar Dhanasingh, Shunmuga Kumar Nallaperumal

Abstract:

Microparticles carrier systems made from naturally occurring polymers based on chitosan/casein system appears to be a promising carrier for the sustained release of orally and parenteral administered drugs. In the current study we followed a microencapsulation technique based aqueous coacervation method to prepare chitosan/casein microparticles of compositions 1:1, 1:2 and 1:5 incorporated with chloramphenicol. Glutaraldehyde was used as a chemical cross-linking agent. The microparticles were prepared by aerosol method and studied by optical microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermo gravimetric analysis, swelling studies and drug release studies at various pH. The percentage swelling of the polymers are found to be in the order pH 4 > pH 10 > pH 7 and the increase in casein composition decrease the swelling percentage. The drug release studies also follow the above order.

Keywords: Drug Release, microencapsulation, chloramphenicol, Chitosan/casein micro particles

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4 Genetic Polymorphism of Main Lactoproteins of Romanian Grey Steppe Breed in Preservation

Authors: Şt. Creangâ, V. Maciuc, A.V. Bâlteanu, S.S. Chelmu

Abstract:

The paper presents a part of the results obtained in a complex research project on Romanian Grey Steppe breed, owner of some remarkable qualities such as hardiness, longevity, adaptability, special resistance to ban weather and diseases and included in the genetic fund (G.D. no. 822/2008.) from Romania. Following the researches effectuated, we identified alleles of six loci, codifying the six types of major milk proteins: alpha-casein S1 (α S1-cz); beta-casein (β-cz); kappa-casein (K-cz); beta-lactoglobulin (β-lg); alpha-lactalbumin (α-la) and alpha-casein S2 (α S2-cz). In system αS1-cz allele αs1-Cn B has the highest frequency (0.700), in system β-cz allele β-Cn A2 ( 0.550 ), in system K-cz allele k-CnA2 ( 0.583 ) and heterozygote genotype AB ( 0.416 ) and BB (0.375), in system β-lg allele β-lgA1 has the highest frequency (0.542 ) and heterozygote genotype AB ( 0.500 ), in system α-la there is monomorphism for allele α-la B and similarly in system αS2-cz for allele αs2-Cn A. The milk analysis by the isoelectric focalization technique (I.E.F.) allowed the identification of a new allele for locus αS1-casein, for two of the individuals under analysis, namely allele called αS1-casein IRV. When experiments were repeated, we noticed that this is not a proteolysis band and it really was a new allele that has not been registered in the specialized literature so far. We identified two heterozygote individuals, carriers of this allele, namely: BIRV and CIRV. This discovery is extremely important if focus is laid on the national genetic patrimony.

Keywords: breed, genetic preservation, lactoproteins, Romanian Grey Steppe, allele

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3 Quantitative Genetics Researches on Milk Protein Systems of Romanian Grey Steppe Breed

Authors: V. Maciuc, Şt. Creangă, I. Gîlcă, V. Ujică

Abstract:

The paper makes part from a complex research project on Romanian Grey Steppe, a unique breed in terms of biological and cultural-historical importance, on the verge of extinction and which has been included in a preservation programme of genetic resources from Romania. The study of genetic polymorphism of protean fractions, especially kappa-casein, and the genotype relations of these lactoproteins with some quantitative and qualitative features of milk yield represents a current theme and a novelty for this breed. In the estimation of the genetic parameters we used R.E.M.L. (Restricted Maximum Likelihood) method. The main lactoprotein from milk, kappa - casein (K-cz), characterized in the specialized literature as a feature having a high degree of hereditary transmission, behaves as such in the nucleus under study, a value also confirmed by the heritability coefficient (h2 = 0.57 %). We must mention the medium values for milk and fat quantity (h2=0.26, 0.29 %) and the fat and protein percentage from milk having a high hereditary influence h2 = 0.71 - 0.63 %. Correlations between kappa-casein and the milk quantity are negative and strong. Between kappa-casein and other qualitative features of milk (fat content 0.58-0.67 % and protein content 0.77- 0.87%), there are positive and very strong correlations. At the same time, between kappa-casein and β casein (β-cz), β lactoglobulin (β- lg) respectively, correlations are positive having high values (0.37 – 0.45 %), indicating the same causes and determining factors for the two groups of features.

Keywords: breed, genetic preservation, lactoproteins, Romanian Grey Steppe

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2 QCM-D Study of E-casein Adsorption on Bimodal PEG Brushes

Authors: N. Ngadi, J. Abrahamson, C. Fee, K. Morison

Abstract:

Adsorption of proteins onto a solid surface is believed to be the initial and controlling step in biofouling. A better knowledge of the fouling process can be obtained by controlling the formation of the first protein layer at a solid surface. A number of methods have been investigated to inhibit adsorption of proteins. In this study, the adsorption kinetics of

Keywords: stainless steel, PEG, QCM-D, E-casein, bimodal brush

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1 QCM-D Study on Relationship of PEG Coated Stainless Steel Surfaces to Protein Resistance

Authors: Norzita Ngadi, John Abrahamson, Conan Fee, Ken Morison

Abstract:

Nonspecific protein adsorption generally occurs on any solid surfaces and usually has adverse consequences. Adsorption of proteins onto a solid surface is believed to be the initial and controlling step in biofouling. Surfaces modified with end-tethered poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) have been shown to be protein-resistant to some degree. In this study, the adsorption of β-casein and lysozyme was performed on 6 different types of surfaces where PEG was tethered onto stainless steel by polyethylene imine (PEI) through either OH or NHS end groups. Protein adsorption was also performed on the bare stainless steel surface as a control. The adsorption was conducted at 23 °C and pH 7.2. In situ QCM-D was used to determine PEG adsorption kinetics, plateau PEG chain densities, protein adsorption kinetics and plateau protein adsorbed quantities. PEG grafting density was the highest for a NHS coupled chain, around 0.5 chains / nm2. Interestingly, lysozyme which has smaller size than β-casein, appeared to adsorb much less mass than that of β- casein. Overall, the surface with high PEG grafting density exhibited a good protein rejection.

Keywords: stainless steel, lysozyme, PEG, QCM-D, β-casein

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